Manual on Module I Introduction to Tourism

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Manual on Module I Introduction to Tourism

(Fine-tuned version)



Personal, Social and Humanities Education Section

Education Bureau



© The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region

All rights reserved.

The copyright of this manual belongs to the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. Commercial use is strictly prohibited. Offenders will be liable to legal responsibility.

Schools need not apply for permission to copy this manual in whole or in part for non-profit making educational or research purposes. All other uses should gain prior permission in writing from the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. Requests should be directed to the:

Education Bureau

13/F, Room 1319, Wu Chung House 213 Queen’s Road East,

Wan Chai Hong Kong



We would like to express our gratitude to the following organizations for giving us the permission to reprint some of the pictures and /or providing us with information for completing the curriculum support package:

· The Association of National Tourist Office Representatives in Hong Kong, ANTOR (HK);

· Centre for Food Safety, Food and Environmental Hygiene Department;

· International Centre for Integrated assessment and Sustainable development (ICIS), at Maastricht University; and

· - graphical images of the front cover as well as of the content



A set of curriculum support package of tourism and hospitality learning and teaching materials is being developed by the Personal, Social and Humanities Education Section of Curriculum Development Institute, Education Bureau for the implementation of the senior secondary Tourism and Hospitality Studies fine-tuned curriculum in schools. The curriculum support package is comprised of five manuals, and they are developed to broaden students’ knowledge of the five different units of the Tourism and Hospitality Studies curriculum.

The content of this manual – Introduction to Tourism, should enhance students’ understanding of the dynamic nature of the tourism and hospitality industry. In addition, the manual includes activities to deepen students’ understanding and help them to apply theories and concepts. Furthermore, students should be able to develop enquiry, problem-solving and decision-making skills through these activities.

All comments and suggestions related to this curriculum support package may be sent to:

Chief Curriculum Development Officer (PSHE) Personal, Social and Humanities Education Curriculum Development Institute

Education Bureau

13/F, Room 1319, Wu Chung House 213 Queen’s Road East,

Wan Chai Hong Kong

June 2013



1. Introduction to Tourism p.10

1.1. Travel and Tourism as an Integrated Discipline p.11

1.2. Integrated Model of Tourism

1.2.1. Key Elements in the Integrated Model of Tourism

1.2.2. Factors that Encourage / Prohibit the Development of Tourism

p.12 p.13 p.15

1.3. History of Tourism p.16

1.4. Careers in the Tourism Sector 1.4.1. Job Opportunities 1.4.2. Career Development

p.18 p.18 p.19

2. The Meaning of 'Travel', 'Tourism' and 'Tourist' p.27

2.1. Concepts of ‘Travel’ and ‘Tourism’ p.28

2.2. Definitions of ‘Tourist’ p.31

2.3. Classification of Tourists p.34

2.3.1. Cohen’s Classification p.34

2.3.2. Plog’s Classification p.36

2.4.Tourist’s Codes of Behaviour and Other Concerned Issues 2.4.1. Tourist’s Codes of Behaviour

2.4.2. Concerned Issues While Traveling 2.4.3. Tourists with Special Needs

p.41 p.41 p.45 p.46

3. Travel Motivations and Tourist Flows p.48

3.1. Travel Motivations – Reasons of Travel / Purposes of Travel

3.2. The Importance of Travel Motivations and Its Effects on Travel Decisions

3.3. Typologies of Travel Motivations

p.49 p.55



3.4.1. Factors Influencing Patterns of Tourist Flows p.71 4. Tourism Products - Attractions and Destination p.79

4.1. Tourism Products p.80

4.2. Planning of Tourism Products and Destinations

4.2.1. Product Life Cycle and Its Applications in Tourism Product Planning 4.2.2. Role and Importance of Planning in Destination Development

p.83 p.83 p.91

4.3. Carrying Capacity p.93

5. Different Sectors of the Tourism Industry and Their Roles p.95

5.1. Classification of Sectors and Their Linkages p.96

5.2. Private Sectors 5.2.1. Hospitality 5.2.2. Transportation 5.2.3. Intermediates

5.2.4. Other Private Sector Facilitators

p.98 p.98 p.99 p.106 p.117 5.3. Public Sectors

5.3.1. The Major Roles of Government in Tourism Development 5.3.2. Government Departments and Public Tourism Organizations Involved in Tourism

5.3.3. The Case of Hong Kong – The Role and Work of the Hong Kong SAR Government and Key Local Tourism Organizations

5.3.4. Key International Tourism Organizations

p.120 p.120 p.122



6. The Local Tourism Industry p.145

6.1. The Development of Tourism in Hong Kong 6.1.1. Overview of Tourism Performance

6.1.2. Factors that Facilitate the Development of Tourism in Hong Kong

p.146 p.146 p.146


6.2.1. Analyzing Tourism Statistics

6.2.2. The Trends of Inbound Tourism Market in Geographic, Demographic, Psychographic and Socio-economic Aspects

p.148 p.152

6.3. Tourism Resources in Hong Kong p.153

7. The Impacts of Tourism p.173

7.1. The Social and Cultural Impacts of Tourism

7.1.1. Positive Impacts on the Social and Cultural Aspects 7.1.2. Negative Impacts on the Social and Cultural Aspects 7.1.3. Measurement of Social and Cultural Impact 7.1.4. Conclusions

p.174 p.174 p.176 p.179 p.180 7.2. Economic Impacts of Tourism

7.2.1. Positive Impacts on the Economy 7.2.2. Negative Impacts on the Economy 7.2.3. Measurement of Economic Impact 7.2.4. Conclusions

p.181 p.181 p.184 p.186 p.190 7.3. Environmental Impacts

7.3.1. Positive Impacts on the Environment 7.3.2. Negative Impacts on the Environment 7.3.3. Measurement of Environmental Impact 7.3.4.Conclusions

p.191 p.191 p.192 p.194 p.195

List of Tables and Figures p.197


1. Introduction to Tourism


Tourism embraces nearly all aspects of our society. Apart from its importance to economic changes, human socio-cultural activities and environmental development, tourism is related to other academic subjects such as geography, economics, history, languages, psychology, marketing, business and law, etc. Therefore, it is necessary to integrate a number of subjects to study tourism. For example, subjects such as history and geography help us understand more about the development of the historical and geographical resources of a tourist destination. Besides, subjects like marketing and business help us understand the promotion and marketing of tourism products. The study of information technology enhances our understanding of the importance of the global distribution system and its effect on tourism business. The study of religion and culture provides information on the cultural resources of a destination and opportunities to develop it as a cultural destination. Tourism is so vast, so complex, and so multifaceted that there is a wide range of subjects related to tourism. Figure 1.1 shows some academic subjects which are related to tourism studies with corresponding examples.

Figure 1.1 – Integrated Disciplinary Model of Tourism Studies

Source: Integrated Disciplinary Model (adopted from Jafari, Jafar, Ritchie, J.R. Brent, Towards a Framework for Tourism Education: Problems and Prospects, Annals of Tourism Research, 1981, VIII (1).

1.1. Travel and Tourism as an Integrated Discipline


The vast majority of business organizations such as travel agents, meeting planners, and other service providers including accommodation, transportation, attractions and entertainment are classified as travel and tourism related business. In practice, these organizations are closely linked in the provision of services to the travellers.

Tourism is so vast, so complex, and so multifaceted that the practitioners need to obtain a wide range of knowledge related to tourism.

Figure 1.2 – Integrated Model of Tourism

1.2. Integrated Model of Tourism


1.2.1. Key Elements in the Integrated Model of Tourism

Figure 1.2 shows the key elements in the integrated model of tourism. This model summarizes how key tourism stakeholders interact with each other and respond to the changes of the external environment.

Detail descriptions of these elements are provided as follow:

1) Travellers

Travellers are at the centre of the model where all tourism activities are focused. Radiating from the centre are three large bands containing several interdependent groups of tourism participants and organizations.

2) Tourism Promoters

Tourism promoters are in the first layer, in close contact with the travellers. Organizations in this layer include tourism boards, direct marketing companies, meeting planners, travel agents and tour operators.

The tourism boards and direct marketing companies provide information and marketing services to travelers whereas travel agencies, tour operators and meeting planners provide services such as making travel arrangements and giving professional advice on tourism related matters. All these organizations usually deal directly with individual travellers.

3) Tourism Service Suppliers

Tourism service suppliers, such as airline companies, bus operators, railway corporations, cruise ship operators, hotels and car rental companies, etc. usually provide services to travellers independently.

The service suppliers may also collaborate to provide tour packages for travellers by combining the various services such as accommodation, air transportation, theme park entrance ticket, etc.

4) External Environment

All of the participants, either individually or as a group, are constantly responding to a variety of societal/cultural, political, environmental, economic and technological forces. It is the interaction of these forces that determine how closely the individuals and organizations work together.

(i) Societal/Cultural forces

Such as the local skill and know how, the indigenous cultures of the destination and the attitude of local people towards the tourists would have a significant impact on the tourist experience in a destination. One example of encouraging the local community to take part in tourism is the “Be a Good Host” campaign launched by the Hong Kong Tourism Board. It aims at enhancing the tourist experience which helps to promote Hong Kong through “word-of-mouth”.

(ii) Political forces

Such as government support on infrastructure, its policy on tourism planning, the diplomatic relations between tourist generating countries and tourist destination countries, etc.

determines the environment of tourism development. For example, because of political


(iii) Environmental forces

Such as the problems of congestion, pollution, hygienic conditions, loss of green belts caused by excessive urbanization and development of tourism may destroy the pleasant ambiance of the destination which visitors look for. For example, Hong Kong’s air pollution problem as a factor discourages tourists to come to Hong Kong.

(iv) Economic forces

Such as the disposable income of tourist and the affordability of a destination affect the desire to travel. For example, in Hong Kong, due to the economic crisis I 1997, the number of visitor arrivals in particular from Asia recorded a negative growth in 1998. (Statistical Review, Hong Kong Tourism Board, 1999). In the recent 2008 global financial crisis, Hong Kong Tourism Board showed that visitor arrivals in November was 1.1% less than in November 2007.

(v) Technological forces

Such as the popularity of using the Internet for searching information, reservation or purchasing of tourism products affect the tourists’ buying behaviour. The traditional way of distributing tourism products through intermediaries, such as travel agents, tour wholesalers is facing a great challenge. Now that travellers can deal directly with the suppliers, such as airlines, hotels, operators of attractions to purchase tourism products, they can almost by-pass travel agents.


1.2.2. Factors that Encourage / Prohibit the Development of Tourism As seen in the above section, changes of various factors, including social, cultural, political, environmental, economic and technological forces could lead to both positive and negative effects on tourism. The influences of these factors on tourism development are unique and could be different in different countries. Further explanations about their impacts on tourism and travel motivations are provided in Table 1.1 below.

Factors Description

Social Factors Demographic trends and social changes will have important impacts on the future development of the industry. The fact that people are living longer, the fall in the number of young people, the increase in one parent households, more couples choosing not to have children or delay having children. They all point to the fact that the type of travel and tourism products and services will change radically. Example: the aging population will be an opportunity for the cruise travel market where seniors are their key target groups.

Political Factors Political factors can lead to huge impacts on tourism development. The factors are the policies in encouraging tourism activities such as investment in tourism related infrastructures, openness in travel visa applications and favourable foreign tourism investments. Finally, the political stability of the country in particular is the major factor.

One obvious example was the continuing clashes between government and demonstrators in the capital of Thailand – Bangkok in 2010. The political instability had resulted to serious negative effect on its’ national tourism business. Many visitors decided to postpone and cancel their trips to Bangkok which finally led to severe loss of income generated by tourism businesses.

Economic Factors Whether the global economic environment is healthy or not would affect people’s intentions of travelling to other countries. People tend to spend more on travelling if they are under a favourable economic environment. For example, the appreciation of RMB to HKD has encouraged much more Mainland visitors travelling to Hong Kong since they perceived a higher value of their currency when spending their money in Hong Kong.

Cultural and Environmental Factors

A greater environmental awareness and a society that takes its health and fitness more seriously than it was in the past. This awareness has affected travel and tourism developments in the recent years. 'Green issues' such as the development of eco-tourism, green hotels and conservation of heritage sites are becoming more and more important which provide a basis for sustainable tourism development of a tourist destination.


Factors Travel and tourism has always been an industry that has made extensive use of new technological equipment. Computerized reservation system (CRS), the use of computers and sophisticated databases for marketing purposes are very common among travel agencies. Increasing competition within the industry force agencies to use new technology to its fullness. Latest developments in transportation make extensive use of new technology, for example the Mainland’s High-speed Rail and the advances in aircraft design help opening up new long-haul destinations.


The history of tourism can be divided into 6 different stages as follow:

1) Roman Empire Period

During the Roman Empire period (from about 27 BC to AD 476), travel developed for military, trade and political reasons, as well as for communication of messages from the central government to its distant territories. Travel was also necessary for the artisans and architects “imported” to design and construct the great palaces and tombs. In ancient Greece, people traveled to Olympic Games. Both the participants and spectators required accommodations and food services. Wealthy Romans, in ancient times, traveled to seaside resorts in Greece and Egypt for sightseeing purpose.

2) Middle Age Period

During the Middle Age (from about AD 500 to 1400), there was a growth of travel for religious reasons.

It had become an organized phenomenon for pilgrims to visit their “holy land”, such as Muslims to Mecca, and Christians to Jerusalem and Rome.

3) 16th Century

In the 16th century, the growth in England’s trade and commerce led to the rise of a new type of tourists - those traveled to broaden their own experience and knowledge.

4) 17th Century

In the 17th century, the sons and daughters of the British aristocracy traveled throughout Europe (such as Italy, Germany and France) for periods of time, usually 2 or 3 years, to improve their knowledge.

This was known as the Grand Tour, which became a necessary part of the training of future administrators and political leaders.

5) Industrial Revolution Period

The Industrial Revolution (from about AD 1750 to 1850) in Europe created the base for mass tourism.

This period turned most people away from basic agriculture into the town / factory and urban way of life.

As a result, there was a rapid growth of the wealth and education level of the middle class, as well as an increase of leisure time and a demand for holiday tourism activities. At that time, travel for health became important when the rich and fashionable Europeans began to visit the spa towns (such as Bath in England and Baden - Baden in Germany) and seaside resorts in England (such as Scarborough, Margate and Brighton).

1.3. History of Tourism


tourism. Great advances in science and technology made possible the invention of rapid, safe and relatively cheap forms of transport: the railways were invented in the 19th century and the passenger aircraft in the 20th century. World War II (AD 1939-1945) was also the impetus for dramatic improvements in communication and air transportation, which made travel much easier today than in earlier times.

- 1980s

The 1980s were called the boom years. Business and leisure travel expanded very rapidly. The baby-boomers were coming of age and had the money to spend. These travellers were looking for a variety of tourism products from exciting vacation options such as adventure travel, ecotourism and luxurious travel.

There was not only a significant expansion in the travel market but also in tourist destinations. The fall of the Berlin Wall in Germany in 1989 signified the doom of communism in Europe. Countries such as Russia and the Czech Republic became new tourist destinations both for vacation and business travellers.

- 1990s

The Aviation Industry was facing high operational costs, including wage, oil prices, handling fee of Central Reservation System (CRS), landing charge of the air crafts and advertising fee etc. During this decade, CRS also marched towards more sophisticated technology. It became possible for agents to book a huge inventory of tourism products, such as hotels, car rentals, cruises, rail passes, and theatre tickets from the CRS.

The introduction of “ticketless traveling” (electronic ticket) brings benefits to the airlines by cutting the amount of paperwork and cost of tickets. At the same time, passengers do not have to worry about carrying or losing tickets. Although, electronic ticketing does not bypass the travel agents as intermediaries, it makes it easier for the airline to deal directly with consumers.

The advance in technology also allows the airlines and other travel suppliers to sell directly to travellers through the Internet and interactive kiosks at airports. The kiosks at the airport usually sell hotel accommodation, transfer tickets such as bus tickets between airport and downtown areas and coach tickets from one city to another.

Travellers can now log on to the Internet easily reach for travel information, book a simple ticket or hotel room through their personal computer at home. There are thousands of new destinations, tour products and discounted airfares for travellers to choose from.


1.4. Careers in the Tourism Sector

1.4.1. Job Opportunities

Travel and tourism industry and its’ associated sectors provide various employment opportunities to students. Besides working in travel agencies, airlines, tour operators, theme parks, events and hotels, students can also have other options such as working in government tourism departments, customs services, airline catering, tourism promotions and sales, etc.

Source: Careers in Travel & Tourism. Retrieved from

The following is a list of some entry positions in the local tourism sector which are available for youngsters to apply.

Tour and Travel Services

- Tour guide - Tour escort - Travel consultant - Incentive travel agent - Corporate travel

agent - Travel academy


- Meeting planner, etc.

Travel and Transportation

- Airline pilot - Flight attendant - Ground service staff - Air traffic controller - Cruise crews, etc.


- Receptionist - Concierge - Housekeeper - Reservation staff - Recreations instructor - Bell attendant, etc.

Food and Beverage

- Waiter / waitress - Banquet server - Banquet sales

manager - Chef - Bartender - Cashier - Hostess, etc.


- Retailing - Public relations - Advertising - Market research - Human resources,


Table 1.2 – List of Career Opportunities in the Tourism Sector

Source: Colbert, J. (2004). Career opportunities in the travel industry. Travel Industry Association of America (TIA).


1.4.2. Career Development

The tourism industry offers different career pathways according to the different types of positions available in the market. Examples of three different career pathways:

Figure 1.3 – Examples of Career Path in the Tourism Industry

Source: Employees Retraining Board (2012). Industry Overview. Retrieved from

Travel Consultant

Operation supervisor Junior travel consultant

Assistant account manager

Tour Guide Convention and Exhibition Planner

Senior travel consultant Travel consultant

Tour guide trainee

Regional manager Branch manager

Tour guide

Department supervisor

Department manager

Event assistant

Event planning supervisor / Event marketing supervisor

Senior event planning supervisor / Senior event marketing supervisor

Event planning manager / Event marketing manager


Activity 1.1

--- Case Study - Career Opportunities Provided by Travel Industries

Newspaper Clipping: Applying for Flight Attendant Requires Inner Qualities

Excerpt from: Ming Pao Daily. 2nd August, 2007

Since flight attendants can travel to different countries and broaden their horizons, this position is always popular among youngsters. Mr. Wong Wong-Fai (王煌輝), the manager of the Administration Department of the Japanese airline (JAL), states that, in addition to appearances, inner qualities cannot be disregarded when being recruited for the position of flight attendant. As the applicant enters the interview venue, every action will be “recorded,” and every detail is crucial for successful recruitment. The company recruits 30 to 40 flight attendants every year, according to the needs of the market, and only an average of one out of 50 talented applicants can successfully gain a letter of employment.


z F5. or above

z Fluency in English and Cantonese

z Fluency in Mandarin or other language is an advantage

z The ability to reach at least 208cm high with your hands

z Good at communications, kind and friendly

z Adaptable

z Independent, patient

y Inner qualities cannot be disregarded

The Dragonair Assistant General Manager states that since flight attendants belong to the service industry, besides an ability to communicate, qualities like an open and optimistic character, eagerness to help others and patience are also valued in order to cope with the needs of different customers.

Moreover, the flights would change from time to time due to weather and other emergencies. Therefore, it requires high adaptability and the ability to work independently.


y Modest dress and an English-language interview

The flight attendant interview routine for all airlines includes a measurement of the hand’s reachable height, a self-introduction, a group interview, an oral test, a written test and role play.

Interviews are usually conducted in English. Applicants should therefore prepare their answers in English. In terms of dress code, any clothing is fine as long as it is modest and tidy. There is no need to dress like a flight attendant.

y Height requirements

Mr. Wong Wong-Fai (王煌輝) states that due to practical needs and safety reasons, applicants are required to measure their hand-reachable height. “The luggage racks are of a certain height.

Although moving luggage to the rack does not fall into the duties of a flight attendant, they have the responsibility to serve people who are in need. Moreover, flight attendants should check whether the luggage racks are safely locked before takeoff. If they cannot reach the luggage rack easily, it would cause inconvenience to their work.”.

y Understand the company

Even if the applicant fits into all external criteria, sometimes he/she may lose marks in the interview due to a lack of understanding of the corporate culture. Mr. Au Kwok-Chuen (區國全) bluntly states that “Some applicants attend the interview with a ‘talent test’ attitude and do not know about the company history and the air routes at all.

They thought that Japan Airlines only has routes that fly to Japan.”

Mr. Wong Wong-Fai (王煌輝) states that the salary of flight attendants generally includes a basic salary and a flying allowance. The starting salary is about HK$13,000.00. The company can promote the flight attendant to flight purser, senior flight purser and in-flight services manager, according to their seniority and performance.

Questions for Discussion

1. Based on the above article, please explain why appearance and inner qualities are keys to getting successfully employed as a flight attendant?


2. Please explain the general duties/work situation of a flight attendant.

3. Apart from flight attendants, what are other positions in the aviation industry?

4. Imagine that you are a high school graduate this year planning to enter the aviation industry. Other than the position of flight attendant, please list out two other positions that you would like to apply for in this industry and indicate their respective job duties/service nature. You may refer to the Cathay Pacific website:


I am applying for the position of _______________ at _____________ Airlines

Job Duty Category Job duties/Service

nature A.


5. (a) Try to find a sample of a job advertisement related to the tourism industry from newspapers or recruitment websites. Paste the advertisement onto the box below. Please list out the job requirements.


Job advertisement

(b) Do you think you are qualified for the above position? Why or why not? Please explain your answer.


(c) Please quote two positions in the four core sectors of the tourism industry listed in the table below. You may refer to the websites of the Travel Industry Council of Hong Kong or other related industries.

y y y



Core Sectors in Tourism Position (1) Position (2) y Lodging Industry

y Travel Agents/ Travel Service

Source: Switzerland NTO

y Transport Industry (e.g. Airlines, Railway Corporations, Cruiser liners)

y Tourist attractions (e.g.

theme parks and museums etc.)


5 (c) Job categories in the tourist industry﹕

Core sectors related to tourism services

Position Categories

y Lodging Industry (e.g. Hotels, Motels, cruise liners)

y Room service, accounting, room service, operator, luggage, catering, marketing, human resources y Travel Agents/ Travel Services y Leader/tour guide, travel consultant,

ticketing officer, sales and marketing y Transport Industry (Airline,

Railway Corporations,

Cruisers, Coach Services, Car Rental Services)

y Ticketing, booking, flight attendant, ground crew, marketing, tourism service, business

y Tourist Attractions (Theme Parks and Museums etc)

y Marketing and sales, docent



2. The Meaning of 'Travel' 'Tourism' and 'Tourist'




2.1. Concepts of ‘Travel’ and ‘Tourism’

‘Travel’ and ‘tourism’ have similarities and differences in their meanings:

1) Travel

Travel comprises all journeys from one place to another. It includes all journeys made by people who enter a country for leisure, to work, reside, study or who just pass through a country without stopping.

2) Tourism

A brief summary of the definition is as follow:

Tourism means the temporary short-term movement of people to destinations outside the places where they normally live and work, as well as their activities during their stay at these destinations. It should be noted that all tourism should have some travel, but not all travel is tourism.

Tourism comprises the activities of persons travelling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for less than a year and whose main purpose of travel is other than the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited. The term “usual environment” is intended to exclude trips within the area of usual residence and frequent and regular trips between the domicile and the workplace and other community trips of a routine character.

Based on the UNWTO definition on tourism, tourism could be categorized as:

- Domestic Tourism

Domestic tourism involves trips made by local residents within their own countries.

Example: An American, who lives in New York, takes a business trip to Los Angeles.

- International Tourism

International Tourism involves trips between 2 countries. To a certain country, visits by residents of that country to another country is her outbound tourism; visits to that country by residents of another country is her inbound tourism.

Example: Trips between Hong Kong and Japan. Hong Kong as the point of origin/point of destination:

z Visits made by Hong Kong residents to Japan are Hong Kong’s outbound tourism;

z Visits made by Japanese to Hong Kong are Hong Kong’s inbound tourism.


International tourists are those who travel to a country other than the one in which they normally live.

Tourist generating country Tourist receiving country

Country A Î Î Country B

Outbound tourism Inbound tourism

Figure 2.1 – Outbound and Inbound Tourism

According to Figure 2.1, the tourist leaves Country A (which is a tourist generating country) to Country B (which is a tourist receiving country). From the point of view of Country A, this person is an outbound tourist; but from the point of view of Country B, he or she is an inbound tourist.

Top Tourist Destinations of the World

According to the figure compiled by UNWTO, international arrivals grew from 25 million in 1950 to 940 million in 2010. In 1950, destinations of the developed countries account for 98% of all the international arrivals. However, this percentage fell to 53% in 2010. In 2010, Europe accounted for 50.7%, Asia and the Pacific for 21.7%, Americas for 15.9%, the Middle East for 6.4% and Africa for 5.2% of the world’s total international tourist arrivals. Meanwhile, Middle East region has experienced the highest annual tourist arrival growth rate at 9.6%

since 2000. Africa came second at an annual rate of 6.4% and Asia and the Pacific came third at an annual rate of 6.3%.

Rank International Tourist Arrival (million) 2010

1 France 76.8

2 United States 59.7

3 China 55.7

4 Spain 52.7

5 Italy 43.6

6 United Kingdom 28.1

7 Turkey 27.0

8 Germany 26.9

9 Malaysia 24.6

10 Mexico 22.4


Top Tourism Spenders of the World

International Tourism’s Top Spenders 2010 International Tourism

Expenditure (US$ billion)

Market Share


Expenditure per capita (US$)

Germany 77.7 8.5 952

United States 75.5 8.2 244

China 54.9 6.0 41

United Kingdom 48.6 5.3 780

France 39.4 4.3 625

Canada 29.5 3.2 866

Japan 27.9 3.0 219

Italy 27.1 2.9 449

Russian Federation 26.5 2.9 189

Australia 22.5 2.5 1,014

Source: World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) (Data as collected by UNWTO, June 2011)


Besides the term ‘tourists’, other terms such as ‘travellers’, ‘excursionists’ and ‘visitors’ are commonly used to describe people traveling to destinations outside their own residences and working places. In facts, there are some variations in the meanings of these terms and would be explained to you one by one as follow:

1) Travellers

Any person who is taking a trip within or outside his/her own country of residence irrespective of the purpose of travel, means of transport used, even though he/she may be travelling on foot.

2) Tourists (overnight visitor)

A tourist is a person who travels to destinations outside his/her residence and working place, and stays for at least 24 hours, for the purpose of leisure or business.

- International Tourists

A visitor who visits another country and stays at least one night in a collective or private accommodation in the country visited.

- Domestic Tourists

A visitor who stays at least one night in a collective or private accommodation in the place visited within his/her own country.

3) Excursionists (same-day visitor or day tripper)

An excursionist is a person who temporarily visits a destination and stays for less than 24 hours, for the purpose of leisure or business, but not for transit.

- International Excursionist

A visitor who does not spend the night in a collective or private accommodation in the country visited.

- Domestic Excursionist

A visitor who does not spend the night in a collective or private accommodation in the place visited within his/her own country.


1. A Canadian resident takes a short trip to the USA without staying overnight.

2. A Hong Kong resident goes to

• Shenzhen shopping without staying overnight.

• Macau gambling without staying overnight.

2.2. Definitions of “Tourist”


4) Visitors

Any person travelling to a place other than that of his/her usual environment for a period not exceeding twelve months and whose main purpose of visit is other than the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the country visited.

- International Visitor

Any person who travels to a country other than that in which he/she has his/her usual residence but outside his/her usual environment for a period not exceeding twelve months and whose main purpose of visit is other than the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the country visited.

- Domestic Visitor

Any person residing in a country, who travels to a place within the country but outside his/her usual environment for a period of not exceeding twelve months and whose main purpose of visit is other than the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited.

World Tourism Organization’s (UNWTO) Definitions of “Tourist”

The International Conference on Travel and Tourism Statistics convened by the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) in Ottawa, Canada in 1991 reviewed, updated, and expanded on the work of earlier international groups. The Ottawa Conference made some fundamental recommendations on definitions of tourism, travelers, and tourists. The United Nations Statistical Commission adopted UNWTO’s recommendations on tourism statistics on March 1993. Figure 2.2 shows the UNWTO’s definition of tourist.

Figure 2.2 – Defining a Tourist


(a) Tourists: Visitors who spend at least one night in the country visited

(b) Crew members: Foreign air or ship crews docked or in lay over and who used the accommodation establishments of the country visited

(c) Excursionists: Visitors who do not spend at least one night in the country visited although they might visit the country during one day or more and return to their ship or train to sleep.

(d) Cruise passengers: Normally included in excursionists. Separate classification of these visitors is nevertheless preferable.

(e) Day visitors: Visitors who come and leave the same day.

(f) Crews: Crews who are not residents of the country visited and who stay in the country for the day.

(g) Members of armed forces: When they travel from their country of origin to the duty station and vice versa.

(h) Transit passengers: Who do not leave the transit area of the airport or the port in certain countries, transit may involve a stay of one day or more. In this case they should be included in the visitor statistics.

(i) Purpose of visit: Main purposes of visit as defined by the Rome Conference (1963).

According to UNWTO’s definition, tourists are classified in 2 categories:

‘Tourists’, or ‘overnight visitors’ that would stay overnight in their trips, and ‘Same-day visitors’, or

‘excursionists’ that would not stay overnight in their trips.


2.3. Classification of Tourists

2.3.1. Cohen’s Classification

Cohen’s classification of tourist is based on the theory that tourism combines the curiosity to seek out new experiences with the need for the security of familiar reminders of home.

Most tourists prefer to explore the destinations from a familiar base. The degree of familiarity of this base underlies Cohen’s typology in which he identifies four tourist roles:

Role Category Characteristic

Organized mass tourists

Individual mass tourists

Institutionalized tourism

- are dealt with in a routine way by the tourist establishments, such as travel agencies, travel companies, hotel chain and other tourism related institutions which cater to the tourist trade



Non-institutionalized tourism

- are loosely attached to the tourist establishment;

- act as a “spearhead for mass tourism” as well as

- a “demonstration effect” to the lower socio-economic groups of the host community

Table 2.1 – Cohen’s Classification of Tourists

Source: Cohen Erik, Toward a Sociology of International Tourism, Social Research, vol. 39, No. 1, 1972

1) The Organized Mass Tourist

The organized mass tourists are the least adventurous and spend most of their time in their comfortable

“environmental bubble” throughout their trip.

“Environmental bubble” means the tourists surrounded by his/her similar living environment while he/she is abroad.

A guided tour in an air-conditioned bus traveling through the countryside is a typical example of the organized mass tourist. The itinerary is decided in advance, and all the attractions and stopping points are well fixed and guided. Tourists have almost no decisions on their trip.


2) Individual Mass Tourist

This type of tourists is similar to the organized mass tourist, except that the tour is not entirely fixed.

The tourist has a certain amount of control over his/her time and itinerary, and is not bound to a group.

However, all the major arrangements are still made through a tour agency. The tour does not bring them much further afield than the organized mass tourists do. They are still confined by their

“environmental bubble”.

3) Explorer

This type of tourists arranges their trips alone. They try to go somewhere unusual, but still look for comfortable sleeping places and reliable means of transportation. They retain some of the basic routines and comforts of their native way of life. They try to mix with the people they visit and also try to speak their language. The explorers dare to leave their “environmental bubble”

more readily than the organized mass tourists and individual mass tourists, but they are still careful about their ventures.

4) Drifter

This type of tourists goes further away from the “environmental bubble” and from the accustomed ways of life in their home countries. They keep away from any kind of connection with the tourism establishment, such as hotels and tour coaches. The drifters have no fixed itinerary or timetable. They tend to make their trips wholly on their own, live with the local people and often take odd-jobs to keep themselves going. They try to live the way the locals live, and to share their houses, food, and habits.


2.3.2. Plog’s Classification

Stanley Plog proposes a theory that associates the popularity of a destination to the inherent personalities of travelers. Plog suggests that travelers can be classified into the following types based on their different personalities: allocentric, psychocentric and mid-centric.

1) Allocentric Type

An allocentric tourist is a person who seeks new experiences and adventure in a variety of activities.

This person is outgoing and self-confident in behavior. An allocentric person prefers to fly and to explore new and unusual areas before others do so. Allocentrics enjoy meeting people from foreign or different cultures.

They prefer good hotels and food, but not necessarily modern or chain-type hotels. For a tour package, an allocentric would like to have the basics such as transportation and hotels, but not be committed to a structured itinerary. They would rather have the freedom to explore an area, make their own arrangements and choose a variety of activities and tourist attractions.

2) Psychocentric Type

Psychocentrics are more conservatively oriented. They tend to be inhibited and non-adventuresome.

They prefer to return to familiar travel destinations where they can relax and know what types of food and activity to expect.

Psychocentrics prefer to drive to destinations, stay in typical tourist accommodations, and eat at family-type restaurants. When arranging a package tour, psychocentrics would prefer a heavily structured itinerary so that they know what to expect. Safety and security are very important to this group.

3) Mid-centric Type

There is a large number of people falling between the allocentric and the psychocentric types of tourists.

This type of tourists is called mid-centrics. Mid-centric tourists are not particularly adventurous, but they are receptive to new experience.


Examples of destination choices which reflect tourist different personalities are shown in Figure 2.3 below.

Figure 2.3 – Plog’s Classification of Tourist Personalities

Source: Plog Research, Inc., Leisure Travel – Making It a Growth Market Again, John Wiley & Sons, 1974


Detail comparisons between the psychocentric and allocentric personalities of travelers are summarized in Table 2.2 below.

Psychocentrics Allocentrics

• Prefer familiar travel destinations

• Like commonplace activities in destinations

• Prefer relaxing sun-and-fun spots

• Prefer low activity level

• Prefer staying at familiar hotel chain, dining at restaurants offering cuisine of their home country

• Prefer familiar rather than foreign atmospheres

• Prefer purchasing complete tour packages featuring a full schedules of activities

• Prefer “non-tourist” destination and few developed tourist attractions

• Enjoy discovering new destinations before others have visited them

• Prefer unusual destinations

• Prefer high activity level

• Prefer simple services, such as adequate to good accommodations and food

• Enjoy interacting with people from different cultures

• Prefer tour arrangements that include basics (transportation and accommodations and allow for considerable flexibility)

Table 2.2 - Psychocentric – Allocentric Personality Characteristics

Source: Plog, Stanley C. (1974, February). Why destinations rise and fall in popularity. The Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 55-58


Based on Plog’s theory, destinations of the Psychocentric-Allocentric for Hong Kong residents can be grouped as follows:

Figure 2.4 – Classifications of Hong Kong residents’ personalities based on their choices of destinations

Macau Shezhen Guangzhou

Singapore Bangkok Kuala Lumpur

Western Europe Vietnam U.S.A, Canada


India Cambodia

Russia Eastern Europe

South Africa South American countries

Antarctica Underdeveloped

countries Psychocentrics Near


Mid-centrics Near

Allocentrics Allocentrics


In the understanding of the typologies of tourists, this topic is highly complex and depends on a range of factors. We cannot hope to encompass the complex patterns of behaviour we see in the real world with one single typology. Some of the above historical research on tourists’ needs, motivations and expectations may actually come up with fairly similar dimensions but may label them differently (Plog, 1987).

Furthermore, the dynamic nature of the tourism industry may not be able to represent the many changes in consumer behaviours which have taken place over the years (e.g. The introduction of the IVS by the Mainland’s authority in 2003. Since then Hong Kong had experienced an influx of tourists from the Mainland which dramatically changed the visitor profiles of Hong Kong).

Finally, some typology concepts are generally applied in the study of tourists as if they can be universally applicable to all tourists (Plog’s psychocentric position of destination is an example).

However, they seem to ignore the national and cultural differences among the tourists, which surely weaken the validity of the concepts. In view of all these, we may need to study more typologies as there are many different types of tourism products, tourism markets, countries and cultures.


Plog, S. (1987). Understanding psychographics in tourism research. In Travel, Tourism, and Hospitality Research: A Handbook for Managers and Researchers (J.R.B. Ritchie and C.R. Goeldner, eds) John Wiley and Sons.


2.4. Tourist’s Codes of Behaviour and Other Concerned Issues

2.4.1. Tourist’s Codes of Behaviour

1) Tourist’s Codes of Behaviour Based on the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism of the UNWTO Based on the “Global Code of Ethics for Tourism” of the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), tourists should take an active role in behaving themselves in order to achieve mutual tolerance and learn about the legitimate differences between peoples, cultures and their diversity. A few major points in making one’s trip an enriching experience are as follow:

- Open your mind to other cultures and traditions – it will transform your experience, you will earn respect and be more readily welcomed by local people. Be tolerant and respect diversity – observe social and cultural traditions and practices.

- Respect human rights – Exploitation in any form conflicts with the fundamental aims of tourism. The sexual exploitation of children is a crime punishable in the destination or at the offender’s home country.

- Help preserve natural environments – Protect wildlife and habitats and do not purchase products made from endangered plants or animals.

- Respect cultural resources – Activities should be conducted with respect for the artistic, archaeological and cultural heritage.

- Your trip can contribute to economic and social development – Purchase local handicrafts and products to support the local economy using the principles of fair trade. Bargaining for goods should reflect an understanding of a fair wage.

- Inform yourself about the destination’s current health situation and access to emergency and consular services prior to departure and be assured that your health and personal security will not be compromised. Make sure that your specific requirements (diet, accessibility, medical care) can be fulfilled before you decide to travel to this destination.

- Learn as much as possible about your destination and take time to understand the customs, norms and traditions. Avoid behaviour that could offend the local population.

- Familiarize yourself with the laws so that you do not commit any act considered criminal by the law of the country visited. Refrain from all trafficking in illicit drugs, arms, antiques, protected species and products or substances that are dangerous or prohibited by national regulations.

Source: UNWTO (2005). The Responsible Tourist and Traveller. Retrieved from


2) Behavior of a Responsible Tourist Promoted by Other Scholars

Example 1:

1. Travel in a spirit of humility and with a genuine desire to learn more about the people of the host country.

2. Be sensitively aware of the feelings of other people, thus preventing what might be offensive behavior on your part. This applies very much to photography.

3. Cultivate the habit of listening and observing, rather than merely hearing and seeing.

4. Realise that often the people in the country you visit have time concepts and thought patterns different from your own; this does not make them inferior, only different.

5. Instead of looking for that “beach paradise”, discover the enrichment of seeing a different way of life, through other eyes.

6. Acquaint yourself with local customs - people will be happy to help you.

7. Remember that you are only one of the thousands of tourists visiting this country and do not expect special privileges.

Source :O'Grady,R.“Third World Stopover:The Tourism Debate ”

Example 2:

Tourism involves the movement of large numbers of people from their normal places of residence to new locations. Tourism results in certain impacts on the environment, social, cultural and economy of the host destinations. (Detail of tourism impact on host community will be further elaborate in module 3). In order to minimize the negative impact of tourism on the host destination and so as to enable tourists to enjoy the originality of the destination, tourists should be aware of the effect of their behaviour on the host destination.

Understanding Human Differences

Do not impose your thinking on the others. The local community may have a different concept of time, thought pattern, customs, values and the way they behave may be different from your home country.

It is necessary to understand the taboos and protocols of a destination and to avoid any acts that may offend the host community.

Appreciate all aspects of the host destination

By understanding the indifferences, tourists should appreciate all aspects of the destination including their customs, heritage and environment.

Protect the environment, heritage and be concerned with the feelings of the host community

Tourists should assist in protecting the physical environment so that the attractiveness of the destination would not be depreciated.

It is necessary to respect the culture of the host community.

The tourists’ own culture is not superior than the others and they should not expect any


When cultural tourism and ecotourism are the major forms of tourism of a destination, the code of behaviour of the travellers on culture and environment of the community is very important. For example, the Himalayas in Nepal is a popular trekking destination and a culturally distinct area.

The British-based organization, Tourism Concern has set up a voluntary code of conduct for tourists as a guideline when they visit the country. This guideline was launched in 1991 which aims to:

promote greater understanding of the impact of tourism on host communities and environments;

raise awareness of the forms of tourism that respect the rights and interests of people living in tourist receiving areas, promoting tourism that is just, sustainable and participatory;

work for change in current tourism practice such as vast tract of forest depleted in order to fulfil fuel-wood needs and accommodation for tourists. This has resulted in soil erosion and flooding;

to enable tourists and travellers to travel with critical insight and understanding.

The guidelines were distributed to all British tour operators carrying visitors to the Himalayas.

They also encourage tour operators to include the Code in their brochures. Copies were also sent to major ticket outlets, such as Campus, Trail-finders to ensure they reach independent travellers.

The set of tourist code is as follows:

The Ruins of St Paul’s, Macau

Understand Appreciate Protect


y Remove litter, burn or bury paper and taking away out all non-degradable litter. Graffiti are permanent examples of environment pollution.

y Keep local water clean and avoid using pollutants such as detergents in streams or springs. If no toilet facilities are available, make sure you are at least 30 metres away from water sources, and bury or cover wastes.

y Plants should be left to flourish in their natural environment –taking cuttings, seeds and roots is illegal in many parts of the Himalayas.

y Help your guides and porters to follow conservation measures.

y When taking photographs, respect privacy – ask permission and use restraint.

y Respect Holy places –preserve what you have come to see, never touch or remove religious objects. Shoes should be removed when visiting temples.

y Do not give to children as it may encourage begging. A donation to a project, health centre or school is a more constructive way to help.

y You will be accepted and welcomed if you follow local customs. Use only your right hand for eating and greeting. Do not share cutlery or cups, etc. It is polite to use both hands while giving or receiving gifts.

y Respect for local etiquette earns you respect – loose, light-weight clothes are preferable to revealing shorts, skimpy tops and tight fitting action wear. Hand holding or kissing in public are disliked by local people.

y Observe standard food and bed charges but do not condone overcharging. Remember that when you’re shopping the bargains you buy may only be possible because of low income to others.

y Visitors who value local traditions encourage local pride and maintain local cultures, please help local people gain a realistic view of life in Western Countries.

Source: Davidson, Rob, Tourism, 2nd ed., Longman, 1995, p. 170-171

Additional Information:

- Useful website for tourist conduct:

- The Nepal Tourism Board also inform tourists on some do’s and don’ts through their website aiming to enable tourists to be aware of the local cultures and to minimize the conflicts between tourists and host communities. (

- Global Code of Ethics in Tourism (UNWTO):


2.4.2. Concerned Issues While Traveling

Besides behaving oneself, safety is also the primary concern of a tourist. Other concerns include health hazards and the crime rate, especially theft at the destination.

1) Personal Safety

- Avoid places where crime rates are high, wars are taking place or where there is threat from terrorists.

- Find out the location of fire exits in the hotel one is staying in.

2) Money and Valuables

- Buy traveler’s cheques to reduce the possibility of losing the cash.

- Keep the traveler’s cheques, credit cards and cash in separate places.

- Put valuables in the hotel safe.

- Take good care of one’s travel documents.

- Make photocopies of one’s travel documents in case the original is lost.

- Keep a list of emergency telephone number

3) Health

- Find out whether the country one is traveling to is a plague area (whether inoculation is necessary).

- Find out the sanitation condition in that country (whether it is necessary to bring drinking water).

- Bring one’s personal medication.

- Be careful with what to eat and drink. Avoid unclean food and water. Visit the Travel Health Service Website of the Hong Kong Department of Health when planning for a trip away from Hong Kong –

Source: Travel Health Service, Hong Kong Department of Health


2.4.3. Tourists with Special Needs

Some tourists would have special needs while travelling to other places. Sometimes, service providers should cater the special needs of these types of tourists by adjusting the existing services or providing extra ones to them. The followings illustrate some examples of how airlines cater different types of tourists with their special needs.

1) Very Important Persons (VIPs)

- VIPs are usually served by specially trained employees assisting in the departure or arrival procedures.

- On departure and on arrival, VIPs may benefit from having special immigrations and customs check different from that of normal passengers.

2) Senior Travelers

- Airlines may provide special care for them, e.g. special meals.

- Senior travelers may request wheelchair or staff to assist them when boarding and disembarking the aircraft, as well as moving in and out of a hotel.

3) Children

- Airlines may provide special meals and toys for them.

- If children fly without adults, airlines must provide staff to take care of them.

4) Disabled

- Airlines allow the blind to bring along guide dogs on board.

- Airlines provide the therapeutic air for the needy.

- Airlines and hotels would provide wheelchairs for those who need.

5) Religious Travelers

- Airlines prepare special meals for Jews, Muslims, etc.

- During the flight, they may ask the direction of the aircraft so as to pray to a holy center of their belief.


6) Pregnant Travelers

- Airlines will accept passengers with pregnancies up to 28 weeks. A medical certificate may be required at check-in.

7) Infant Travelers

- Most of the aircraft are equipped with special baby bassinets, diapers and baby food. Airlines may also offer meet and assist service for passengers travelling with infant when departing from and arriving at the airport.

8) Physical Challenge/ Travelers/ Travelers with Disabilities

- They are slow walkers, wheelchair travelers, dumb and deaf travelers. These travelers have unique needs and they cannot be fulfilled with traditional hospitality facilities. The tourism and hospitality operators must provide a barrier free travel for these travelers.

- The typical barriers for these travelers are accessibility, mobility and communication. Airlines, cruises, rails and hotels as well as attractions such as shopping malls, museums, airports, etc should consider of providing a barrier-free services to these travelers.


3. Travel Motivations and

Tourist Flow


Before discussing the travel motivations of tourists, one question that should be answered first is - “Why do people travel?” The followings are some common forms of travel based on travelers’ purposes of visiting a destination.

1) Leisure / Holiday Tourism

Leisure/Holiday tourism can be divided into 2 forms:

(i) Relaxation (ii) Sightseeing

The destinations for relaxation tourism can be

attractive scenery or sun, sea and sand.

Examples of these tourist destinations are the coasts, beaches, countryside and mountainous regions.

Sightseeing tourism includes the tourists who may travel around sightseeing and staying in different places. The main reasons for sightseeing tourism are a desire for self-education and for self-esteem. This kind of tourists take a lot of photographs. Urban centers are their common destinations, for example, Bangkok, Taipei, Seoul, etc.

3.1. Travel Motivations

- Reasons of Travel / Purposes of Travel

Attractive scenery

Sun, sea and sand Source: Philippines NTO


2) Business Tourism

The business travelers may travel for various purposes, for example, trade, meeting, convention and exhibition. Business people buy similar products as do other tourists. They would also

spend money on entertainment and recreation while they are at their destinations.

The characteristics of business tourism are:

- Business tourists frequently travel to destinations not usually seen as tourist destinations.

Cities such as London, Frankfurt, New York, Tokyo and Hong Kong are important destinations for the business travelers.

- Business travel is relatively price-inelastic; business people cannot be encouraged to travel more frequently by the offer of lower prices, nor will an increase in price discourage them from traveling.

- Business travel is not greatly affected by seasonal factors such as variation in climate or holidays.

- Business tourists take relatively short but frequent trips to major business destinations.

- Business tourists may require different services, such as communication facilities or secretarial service.

- Business travelers expect, and generally receive, a higher standard of service. For example, many business travelers would choose first-class or business-class for their flight tickets, and thus receives higher levels of service from the suppliers, including the travel agencies.

3) Cultural Tourism

Cultural tourism is related to the transmission of knowledge and ideas of the destination area or host community.

As tourists are curious about different kinds of experiences and cultures in various parts of the world, they travel to learn and experience the culture of a tourist destination. This becomes the prime motivational force for their travel. This kind of tourist likes to visit different types of cultural attractions, ranging from concrete attractions such as museums and monuments, cultural performances to other cultural manifestations, such as the consumption of the way of life of certain cultures.


4) Eco-tourism

Tourists of this kind enjoy traveling to natural areas. They will minimize their impact on the environment as well as protect the natural resources during their travel. Therefore, eco-tourism is characterized as a force for conservation and preservation of nature.

For eco-tourism, the managing authority of wildlife areas (e.g.

national parks) will spend most of the income from tourists (e.g. entrance fees and donations, etc.) on the conservation work in the area. In some areas, the authority may offer tour

guides to educate tourists and modify their behavior so that they will cause less impact on the environment.

5) Study Tourism

Students travel to overseas learning or training centers, such as universities, for short or vacation courses. There is an increasing number of local study tours ranging from half-a-day to a week.

Study tour conducted on a cruise ship

6) Religious Pilgrimage

People are motivated by their religious beliefs. The demand for this kind of tourism is quite stable. The destinations of religious pilgrimages usually have a long tradition, such as Muslims to Mecca and Christians to Jerusalem.




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