OECD Framework in Assessing Tourism and Environment Stress

In document Manual on Module I Introduction to Tourism (Page 194-199)


Top 5 Performance Factors of Hong Kong Retail Services

3) OECD Framework in Assessing Tourism and Environment Stress

The criteria of environment impact assessment are various. Table 7.3 shows a framework for the study of tourism and environment stress by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).

Stressor activities Stress Primary response environment

Secondary response (reaction) human

1. Permanent environmental restructuring (a) Major construction


- urban expansion - transport network - tourist facilities - marinas, ski-lifts,

sea walls

(b) Change in land use - expansion of

recreational lands

Restructuring of local environments - expansion of built

environments - lands being taken

out of primary production

Change in habitat Change in population of biological species Change in health and welfare of man Change in visual quality

Individual – impact on aesthetic values Collective measures

- expenditures on environmental improvements

- expenditures on management of conservation

- designation of wildlife conservation and national parks

- controls on access to recreational lands

2. Generation of waste residuals

- urbanisation - transportation

Pollution loadings - emissions - effluent

discharges - solid waste

disposal - noise (traffic,


Change in quality of environmental media - air

- water - soil

Health of biological organisms Health of humans

Individual defensive measures Locals

- air conditioning

- recycling of waste materials - protests and attitude change Tourists

- change of attitude towards the environment - decline in tourist revenues

Collective defensive measures

- expenditure of pollution abatement by tourist-related industries

- clean-up of rivers, beaches 3. Tourist activities

- skiing - walking - hunting - trial bike riding - collecting

Trampling of vegetation and soils Destruction of species

Change in habitat Change in population of biological species

Collective defensive measures

- expenditure on management of conservation - designation of wildlife conservation and

national parks

- controls on access to recreational lands

1. Effects on

population dynamics - Population growth

Population density (seasonal)

Congestion Demand for natural resources

- land and water - energy

Individual – Attitudes to overcrowding and the environment

Collective – Growth in support services, e.g.

water supply, electricity

Table 7.3 - A Framework for the Study of Tourism and Environment Stress

Source: Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development quoted from Pearce, 1991:230-231

7.3.4. Conclusions

Tourism can have important impacts on both the biotic and the abiotic environment. Abiotic impacts arise from emissions to air, water and soil, while biotic impacts are caused by overuse of fragile natural environment by tourists, and changed land use for tourist facilities.

Additional information:

Case Study:

Ways in which tourism do harm to the environment

There are numerous cases found in Hong Kong and abroad regarding the direct relationship between physical environment and tourism impacts.

Case 1

Owing to the huge profit generated by tourism business at Huang Shan, Anhui Province, China, many tourist facilities such as accommodation and restaurants have been or are being built at the core scenic areas. On 26 February 2002, The Sun reported that at present, there are 21 hotels/hostels built by local tourist companies and government agencies. The construction of such tourist facilities together with the incoming of tourists put much pressure on the environment. Water supply is one of the pollution problems that adversely affect the ecological system. As some of the river streams in the mountain have dried up already, trees and plants are not able to survive with no water supply. Consequently, a famous old pine tree that used to be a landmark in Huang Shan died, and was replaced by a plastic tree.

Case 2

Very often, the building of new tourist facilities may spoil the vantage point of a tourist destination. For instance, the completion of the first cable car system at Hua Shan in Shaanxi Province, China in 1996 already met the existing tourism demand. In order to further attract more tourists, the second cable car system was confirmed to be built and work is already in progress. According to Apple Daily dated 10 March 2002, the local authority is considering to construct the third system recently. As claimed by the general manager of the existing cable car system, the capacity of Hua Shan is 1 million per year and the number of visitors has reached 700,000. So the carrying capacity will soon be exceeded. Besides the environmental problems brought about by the influx of tourists, the construction work of the cable car systems will inevitably damage the natural scenery of the mountain.

List of Tables

Table 1.1 – Factors that Encourage or Prohibit the Development of Tourism p.15 Table 1.2 – List of Career Opportunities in the Tourism Sector p.18 Table 2.1 Cohen’s Classification of Tourists p.34 Table 2.2 – Psychocentric – Allocentric Personality Characteristics p.38 Table 3.1 Common Types of Travel Motivations p.59 Table 3.2 Hudman’s Motivators of Travel p.64 Table 3.3 – Push and Pull Model of Tourism Motivations p.66 Table 3.4 Push and Pull Factors Often Used p.67 Table 4.1 – Factors Affecting the Performance of Disneyland Paris in Its Introduction Stage p.85 Table 4.2 High Seasons of Traveling to Japan p.85 Table 4.3 – Admission Incomes Received by Ocean Park From the Period of 2000 to 2011 p.86 Table 4.4 – Characteristics of Destinations in Different Stages of the Destination Life Cycle p.87 Table 5.1 – List of Private and Public Sectors in the Tourism Industry p.96 Table 5.2 – Different Sectors Involved in a Tourist’s Travel Experience p.96 Table 5.3 Various Types of Transportation Modes p.100 Table 5.4 – Major Characteristics of Various Transportation Modes p.105 Table 5.5 Definitions of Travel Agencies p.112 Table 5.6 – Factors Considered by a Travel Planner When Planning a Tour p.114 Table 5.7 – Product Knowledge Required by Travel Agencies p.115 Table 6.1 – Examples of Statistics Reflecting Visitors’ Characteristics p.148 Table 6.2 Purpose of Visit (in percentage) p.149 Table 6.3 – Overnight Visitor Spending Patterns (in percentage) p.149 Table 6.4 – Same-day in-town Visitor Spending Patterns (in percentage) p.149 Table 6.5 Top Ten Main Items Bought by Visitors p.150 Table 6.6 – Top Ten Places Visited by Visitors in 2011 p.151 Table 6.7 – Characteristics of Tourist Arrivals in Geographic, Demographic, Psychographic and

Socio-economic Aspects p.152

Table 6.8 – Top 5 Performance Factors (Source: Faculty of Business p.167 Table 7.1 Doxey’s Index of Tourist Irritation p.180 Table 7.2 – A Classification of Tourist Expenditure with Some Examples p.186 Table 7.3 – A Framework for the Study of Tourism and Environment Stress p.195

List of Figures

Figure 1.1 – Integrated Disciplinary Model of Tourism Studies p.11

Figure 1.2 Integrated Model of Tourism p.12

Figure 1.3 – Examples of Career Path in the Tourism Industry p.19 Figure 2.1 Outbound and Inbound Tourism p.29

Figure 2.2 Defining a Tourist p.32

Figure 2.3 Plog’s Classification of Tourist Personalities p.37 Figure 2.4 – Classifications of Hong Kong residents’ personalities based on their choices of destinations p.39 Figure 3.1 Formation of Travel Motivations p.55 Figure 3.2 - The Formation of Travel Motivations and Travel Actions p.56

Figure 3.3 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs p.60

Figure 3.4 – The Roles of Push and Pull Factors in One’s Travel Experience p.68

Figure 3.5 Model of Tourist Flows p.70

Figure 4.1 Product Life Cycle p.83

Figure 4.2 5-Stage’ Product Life Cycle p.84 Figure 4.3 Attendance Figure of Disneyland Paris p.84

Figure 4.4 Destination Life Cycle p.87

Figure 5.1 – Linkages of Different Sectors in the Tourism Industry p.97 Figure 5.2 – Linkages of Intermediaries with Customers and Suppliers p.106 Figure 5.3 – Different Forms of Channels in a Travel Distribution System p.108 Figure 5.4 – Diagram Showing the Linkages Among Customers, Intermediaries and

Suppliers of the Tourism Industry p.109

Figure 5.5 – Major Roles of Government in Tourism Development p.120 Figure 6.1 Updated Information of Tourism Products p.156

Figure 7.1 How Leakages Happen? p.185

Figure 7.2 Economic Impacts of Tourism p.188

Figure 7.3 The Tourism Income Multiplier at Work p.189

In document Manual on Module I Introduction to Tourism (Page 194-199)