臺灣高中英文教科書文化內容之分析研究

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(1)國立臺灣師範大學英語學系 碩. 士. 論. 文. Master Thesis Department of English National Taiwan Normal University. 臺灣高中英文教科書文化內容之分析研究. Analysis of the Cultural Content in Senior High School English Textbooks in Taiwan. 指導教授:葉錫南 博士 Advisor: Dr. Hsi-nan Yeh 研 究 生:陳美如 Graduate: Miranda Mei-Ju Chen 中華民國一百零一年六月. June, 2012.

(2) 摘要 隨著全球化的發展,英語學習不僅僅只是局限於記憶單字與理解文法而已, 特別是當英語的地位已從國際語言成為全球的語言。此外,文化知識的學習在跨 文化溝通中扮演重要的角色,而教科書又是傳遞知識的主要工具。但在臺灣,僅 有少數的研究從文化的觀點來分析教科書內容。 本研究目的在分析臺灣高中英語教科書中文化內容。為了瞭解不同課綱下所 撰寫的教科書文化內容是否有所不同,針對 95 課綱以及 99 課綱所編寫的高中英 語教科書中的課文與會話部分為本研究的分析範圍,包括了 95 及 99 龍騰版、95 及 99 南一版、95 及 99 三民版。會話方面,由於南一版會話的呈現方式不全然 是以對話呈現,因此南一版的會話部分不列入分析。 本研究從兩個層面來分析文化內容,一是宏觀文化,指的是文化所屬的國家, 包括五類: 中華文化、英美文化、非英美之外國文化、跨文化、共通文化;二是 微觀文化,指的是文化主題,包括了七類:自然現象與生活環境、產品、人物與 國家認同、發現與工程成就、語言與文學、價值觀與習俗、其他類。 課文分析的結果顯示英美文化在 95 課綱及 99 課綱的教科書中,平均來看都 佔了最高的比例,但在 99 課綱的教科書中,由於其他國家的文化比例增加,導 致英美文化的比例較 95 課綱下降。而語言與文學類則是在所有的教科書中佔的 比例最高。會話分析結果顯示,共通文化與其他類在 95 課綱及 99 課綱的教科書 中都佔了極高的比例,95 課綱與 99 課綱會話內容分析結果差異不大。 總結分析的結果,課文部分不管是在宏觀文化或是微觀文化中,所包含的文 化類別較多,並隨著課綱不同有所變化;但會話部分並未隨著課綱不同而有較大 差異。最後,作者針對研究結果提出建議給高中教師及教科書編寫者與未來相關 學術研究。. 關鍵字:文化、 英文教科書 i.

(3) ABSTRACT Learning English requires more than merely memorizing vocabulary and comprehending grammar, especially in the era of globalization when the role of English has evolved from an international language to a global English. In addition, the acquisition of cultural knowledge also plays a vital role in the process of cross-cultural communication. Textbooks are regarded as major instructional tools to transmit knowledge. However, in Taiwan, only limited studies have been conducted to evaluate the textbooks from the cultural perspectives. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the cultural content of the EFL textbooks from a historical point of view. In order to observe the evolvement of the cultural content in the EFL textbooks, textbooks based on two curriculums proposed in different periods were analyzed. The reading sections and the conversation sections in the senior high school English textbooks based on “95 Curriculum” and “99 Curriculum” were analyzed. The textbooks under analysis were 95 Nan-I & 99 Nan-I, 95 Lung-Teng & 99 Lung-Teng, and 95 San-Min & 99 San-Min. The conversation sections in 95 Nan-I and 99 Nan-I did not completely take the form of dialogues, so the conversation sections in 95 Nan-I and 99 Nan-I were excluded from the analysis in the present study. The instruments designed to analyze the cultural content in the senior high school textbooks included two coding schemes. One was employed to examine Macro Culture categories, meaning “the target nations of cultures” (Cho, 2002), which consisted of five subcategories: Chinese Cultures, English-speaking Cultures, Non-English-Native Foreign Cultures, Multiple Cultures, and Universal Cultures. The other coding scheme was utilized to evaluate Micro Culture categories, meaning the types or aspects of cultures, which comprised seven subcategories: NPLS (Natural ii.

(4) Phenomena and Living Surroundings), PD (Products), PNE (People, National Identity, and Ethnicity), DEE (Discoveries, Events, and Engineering Accomplishments), LLPS (Language, Literature, Proverbs and Sayings), VBCM (Values, Beliefs, Customs, and Manners) and O (Other miscellaneous topics). Based on the results of the reading sections, on average, English-speaking Cultures comprised the largest proportion in the textbooks based on 95 Curriculum and 99 Curriculum, but the average proportion of the English-speaking Cultures of the 99 series decreased significantly, which indicated that cultures in countries other than English-speaking Cultures began to receive more attention in textbooks based on 99 Curriculum. “LLPS” accounted for the highest percentage in the six series of textbooks. With respect to the conversation sections, Universal Cultures and “O” accounted for a significant percentage in the textbooks under analysis, and there was not much difference between 95 Curriculum and 99 Curriculum. In conclusion, reading sections contained various types of cultural content in both Macro Culture categories and Micro Culture categories, and the variation in the textbooks for different curriculums followed the change of the world. However, there was little difference in the conversation sections between textbooks for 95 Curriculum and 99 Curriculum. Finally, implications for high school teachers and textbook writers are provided, and suggestions for future research are made as well.. Keywords: Culture; English Textbook. iii.

(5) ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The thesis would not have been possible without the help of many people. I would like to express my gratitude to them. First and foremost, I am truly indebted to my advisor, Hsi-nan Yeh. He offered insightful advice when I had difficulty in my research. He was always patient and willing to answer my questions. Secondly, I would like to thank my committee members, Charlotte Chang and Hsueh-ying Yu. They had carefully read my thesis and offered advice on how to improve the thesis. Then, I am obliged to my colleagues and classmates who supported me. Many of them shared their personal experiences to encourage and inspire me when I encountered hindrance. Last but not least, I would like to express my special gratitude and thanks to my family members, my parents, my younger brother and my fiancé. They had been so supportive that I could concentrate on my research. Because of their constant support and encouragement, I could have finished the thesis.. iv.

(6) TABLE OF CONTENTS Page 摘要................................................................................................................................. i ABSTRACT ..................................................................................................................ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ....................................................................................... iv TABLE OF CONTENTS ............................................................................................. v LIST OF TABLES .................................................................................................... viii LIST OF FIGURES ..................................................................................................... x CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION ......................................................................... 1 Background ................................................................................................................ 1 Research Rationale..................................................................................................... 4 Research Questions .................................................................................................... 7 Significance of the Study ........................................................................................... 8 CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW .......................................................... 10 Definitions of Culture .............................................................................................. 10 Cultural Instruction in the Language Classroom ..................................................... 15 The Relationship of Language and Culture ......................................................... 15 Frameworks of Cultural Goals ............................................................................. 16 The Importance of Cultural Instruction ............................................................... 21 Textbook Evaluation ................................................................................................ 22 The Roles of Textbooks ....................................................................................... 22 Criteria for Textbook Evaluation ......................................................................... 24 Review of the Previous Research on Textbook Analysis of Cultural Issues ....... 25 Macro Culture Categories ................................................................................ 26 Micro Culture Categories ................................................................................. 31 CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY ................................................................. 35 Instrument ................................................................................................................ 35 Macro Culture Categories .................................................................................... 36 Chinese Cultures .............................................................................................. 37 v.

(7) English-speaking Cultures ............................................................................... 38 Non-English-Native Foreign Cultures ............................................................. 39 Multiple Cultures ............................................................................................. 40 Universal Cultures ........................................................................................... 41 Micro Culture Categories ..................................................................................... 42 NPLS = Natural Phenomena and Living Surroundings ................................... 43 PD = Products .................................................................................................. 44 PNE = People, National Identity, and Ethnicity .............................................. 45 DEE = Discoveries, Events, and Engineering Accomplishments .................... 46 LLPS = Language, Literature, Proverbs and Sayings ...................................... 47 VBCM = Values, Beliefs, Customs, and Manners ........................................... 48 O = Other miscellaneous topics ....................................................................... 49 Materials .................................................................................................................. 50 Procedures of Data Analysis .................................................................................... 52 Coding Procedures and Reliability Design .......................................................... 53 Procedures for Analyzing the Reading and Conversation Sections in the Textbooks ............................................................................................................. 55 CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ................................................ 56 Results of the Cultural Content in the Reading Sections by Series ......................... 56 The 95 Lung-Teng Series ..................................................................................... 56 The 95 Nan-I Series ............................................................................................. 58 The 95 San-Min Series......................................................................................... 60 The 99 Lung-Teng Series ..................................................................................... 61 The 99 Nan-I Series ............................................................................................. 62 The 99 San-Min Series......................................................................................... 64 Comparison of the Three Textbooks for 95 Curriculum ...................................... 65 Comparison of the Three Textbooks for 99 Curriculum ...................................... 68 Configuration of Macro Culture and Micro Culture Categories in the Reading Sections in the Textbooks for 95 and 99 Curriculums ......................................... 70 Discussion on the Cultural Content of the Reading Sections .................................. 71 Results of the Cultural Content in the Conversation Sections by Series ................. 79 The 95 Lung-Teng Series ..................................................................................... 79 The 95 San-Min Series......................................................................................... 81 The 99 Lung-Teng Series ..................................................................................... 82 The 99 San-Min Series......................................................................................... 84 Configuration of Macro Culture and Micro Culture Categories in the vi.

(8) Conversation Sections in the Textbooks for 95 and 99 Curriculums ................... 85 Discussion on the Cultural Content of the Conversation Sections .......................... 86 Summary .................................................................................................................. 88 CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSIONS ......................................................................... 90 Conclusions .............................................................................................................. 90 Implications for High School Teachers and Textbook Writers ................................ 92 Limitations of the Study and Suggestions for Future Research ............................... 93 REFERENCES ........................................................................................................... 95. vii.

(9) LIST OF TABLES Table 1 Table 2 Table 3 Table 4 Table 5 Table 6. Macro Culture Categories Proposed by Different Scholars ......................... 30 Micro Culture Categories Proposed by Different Scholars.......................... 33 Micro Culture Categories in the Present Study ............................................ 42 Numbers of Volumes and Reading Lessons in the Six Series of Textbooks 52 Numbers of Volumes and Conversations in the Four Series of Textbooks .. 52 Macro Culture Categories of the Reading Sections in the 95 Lung-Teng Series ........................................................................................................... 57. Table 7 Micro Culture Categories of the Reading Sections in the 95 Lung-Teng Series ........................................................................................................... 58 Table 8 Macro Culture Categories of the Reading Sections in the 95 Nan-I Series . 59 Table 9 Micro Culture Categories of the Reading Sections in the 95 Nan-I Series .. 59 Table 10 Macro Culture Categories of the Reading Sections in the 95 San-Min Series ..................................................................................................................... 60 Table 11 Micro Culture Categories of the Reading Sections in the 95 San-Min Series ..................................................................................................................... 61 Table 12 Macro Culture Categories of the Reading Sections in the 99 Lung-Teng Series ........................................................................................................... 62 Table 13 Micro Culture Categories of the Reading Sections in the 99 Lung-Teng Series ........................................................................................................... 62 Table 14 Macro Culture Categories of the Reading Sections in the 99 Nan-I Series ..................................................................................................................... 63 Table 15 Micro Culture Categories of the Reading Sections in the 99 Nan-I Series 64 Table 16 Macro Culture Categories of the Reading Sections in the 99 San-Min Series ........................................................................................................... 65 Table 17 Micro Culture Categories of the Reading Sections in the 99 San-Min Series ........................................................................................................... 65 Table 18 Comparison of Macro Culture Categories of the Reading Sections in the Three Textbook Series for 95 Curriculum ................................................ 67 Table 19 Comparison of Micro Culture Categories of the Reading Sections in the Three Textbook Series for 95 Curriculum ................................................... 68 Table 20 Comparison of Macro Culture Categories of the Reading Sections in the Three Textbook Series for 99 Curriculum ................................................... 69 Table 21 Comparison of Micro Culture Categories of the Reading Sections in the Three Textbook Series for 99 Curriculum ................................................... 70 Table 22 Configuration of Macro Culture and Micro Culture Categories in the Reading Sections for 95 and 99 Curriculums .............................................. 71 viii.

(10) Table 23 Macro Culture Categories of the Conversation Sections in the 95 Lung-Teng Series ...................................................................................... 80 Table 24 Micro Culture Categories of the Conversation Sections in the 95 Lung-Teng Series ...................................................................................... 80 Table 25 Macro Culture Categories of the Conversation Sections in the 95 San-Min Series ......................................................................................................... 81 Table 26 Micro Culture Categories of the Conversation Sections in the 95 San-Min Series ......................................................................................................... 82 Table 27 Macro Culture Categories of the Conversation Sections in the 99 Lung-Teng Series ...................................................................................... 83 Table 28 Micro Culture Categories of the Conversation Sections in the 99 Lung-Teng Series ...................................................................................... 84 Table 29 Macro Culture Categories of the Conversation Sections in the 99 San-Min Series ......................................................................................................... 85 Table 30 Micro Culture Categories of the Conversation Sections in the 99 San-Min Series ......................................................................................................... 85 Table 31 Configuration of Macro Culture and Micro Culture Categories in the Conversation Sections for 95 and 99 Curriculums ................................... 86. ix.

(11) LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 The Components of Culture (The Standards for Foreign Language Learning, 1996, p.47) ................................................................................ 21 Figure 2 Macro Culture Categories in the Present Study ......................................... 36 Figure 3 Comparison of the Average Percentage of the Macro Culture Categories . 73 Figure 4 Comparison of the Average Percentage of the Micro Culture Categories .. 77. x.

(12) CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION In this chapter, an overall introduction of this study is presented. First, the background of this study is introduced with a focus on the importance of developing cultural awareness in language learning. Next, the research rationale for the study is discussed through a review of previous research, and the research questions are then presented. Lastly, the significance of the study is indicated.. Background Learning English requires more than merely memorizing vocabulary and comprehending grammar, especially in the era of globalization when the role of English has evolved from an international language to a global English. Since language stems from the living system of culture, the cultural content such as the ideas, values, and traditions must also be learned. In 2010, Ke made a distinction between EIL (English as an international language) and EGL (English as a global language). According to Ke, “for EIL, English is a language used in international realms; for EGL, not only do the internationalists need to learn English, but every citizen also has to learn it (p.11).” Ke indicated that some people may assume that when one speaks fluent English, one must have an international world view. However, he further argued that “speaking the global language is simply a threshold for becoming a global citizen. More important is the substance, such as global awareness and responsibility, rather than the proficiency level in the global language (p.21).” The global/cultural awareness refers to the ability to be aware of the cultural norms and values of our own and others’ culture and to adapt to the differences. Brock (2009) also recognized that cultural awareness has become increasingly an essential part in 1.

(13) teaching English to speakers of other languages. Therefore, Ke suggested that “when English is seen not as an American or British language but as a global language, naturally the curricular scope expands (ibid, p.22).” One interesting metaphor used to describe the relationship between language and culture was the marriage metaphor. Risager (2007) cited a statement mentioned by Crawford-Lange and Lange (1984), “although culture and language are in reality ‘married’, language curricula respond to them as if they were still only ‘engaged’, and a little further on: this inclusion of cultural content continues to be seen as an issue separate from that of language. The groom is still waiting at the altar (p. 99).” Based on Risager’s interpretation, the man who is waiting at the altar is language, and the woman is culture. Therefore, she also suggested that “the task of the language teacher is to unite these opposites as does the minister in the church. Language and culture are seen as being equally important in language teaching, and not until they are united—by virtue of the holy sacrament—can language teaching be made whole.” The acquisition of cultural knowledge also plays a role in the process of cross-cultural communication. Thomas (1983) observed that nonnative speakers are often perceived to display inappropriate language behaviors and often are not even aware that they do, and she alerted that the violations of cultural norms of appropriateness in interactions between native and nonnative speakers often cause breakdowns in communication and sociopragmatic failure. Battista (1984) furthermore postulated that “culture should assume the status of a fifth skill on par with speaking, listening, reading, and writing in foreign language education (p.2).” The importance of cultural instruction is also exhibited in the theoretical framework for communicative competence. Canale and Swain (1980) drew on the notions from many scholars and formulated the theoretical framework for communicative 2.

(14) competence. Later, in the modified version proposed by Canale (1983), the framework consisted of four major components: (1) grammatical competence, (2) sociolinguistic competence (including both sociocultural rules of use and rules of discourse), (3) discourse competence, and (4) strategic competence. Among the four components, the sociolinguistic competence addresses the ability to use the language appropriately in the context or settings. Brown (2000) argued that the skilled use of appropriate “registers” requires sensitivity to cross-cultural differences, making this type of competence especially difficult to learn. Even though language teachers nowadays have gradually acknowledged the importance of teaching culture since language and culture are inseparable, the fact that language teachers’ preference to teach grammar seems undeniable. Allen (1985) explained that the tendency of teaching grammar over culture resulted from several reasons. For example, most textbooks and materials are organized around grammar; grammar instruction is finite; mastery of it can be easily tested and evaluated. By contrast, culture is a concept difficult to define and grasp, and its content is ever-evolving and thus not easy to test, evaluate and order. Risager (2007) indicated there is a boundary for language teachers to go beyond. Language teachers are fascinated with the cultural content but often hesitated about entering that area. Given the importance of cultural instruction in language teaching, the cultural elements have been incorporated into the goals in foreign language education in various countries. For example, in the USA, the Standards for Foreign Language Learning (1996) states that “language and culture education is part of the core curriculum” (p.7). The standards consist of five Cs: Communication, Cultures, Connections, Comparisons, and Communities. The competence of cultural knowledge is especially emphasized in the components of Cultures, Connections and 3.

(15) Comparisons. To be equipped with the cultural competence, students should be able to gain understanding of other cultures, connect with other disciplines, and develop insight into the nature of language and culture. Similarly, in Taiwan, the cultural competence is one of the goals in Senior High School Curriculum (2004, 2010) for English learning. The goal of developing the cultural competence consists of two phases. For the basic ability: (1) Students can know the festivals, customs and manners of foreign cultures. (2) Students can understand and respect different cultural customs. (3) Students can understand the way to express the festivals of their native culture in English. (4) Students can introduce foreign and native cultures in simple English. (5) Students can foster a basic global view. For the advanced ability: (1) Students can understand and appreciate foreign cultures. (2) Students can understand the basic manners of international societies. (3) Students can compare and contrast foreign and native cultures and further understand their origins. (4) Students can introduce their native culture in English. (5) Student can understand international affairs and foster global views. (6) Students can integrate cultural knowledge and linguistic competence to solve practical problems in their daily life. (7) Student can foster global views and respect life and sustainable development of the globe. Generally speaking, students are expected to demonstrate the knowledge of foreign and their own cultures and further be able to compare the differences among cultures and foster global views. Research Rationale Language teachers have become increasingly aware that a second or foreign language can hardly be learned or taught without addressing the cultural elements. For teachers, textbooks are regarded as major instructional tools to transmit knowledge. Altbach (1987) asserted that the textbook is “the most powerful and pervasive 4.

(16) educational technology” and that “it serves several important functions in schoolings (p.93).” For instance, textbooks circumscribe what should be learned and taught and provide essential facts on a subject. Therefore, textbooks play an important role in communicating cultural knowledge as well. In Taiwan, research on textbook evaluation mostly focuses on the evaluation criteria (e.g., Chen, 2002; Li, 2008), and only limited studies have been conducted to evaluate the textbooks from the cultural perspectives. Several studies have been devoted to the investigation of cultural instruction from language teachers’ perspectives (e.g., Cheng, 2006; Chuang, 2002; Lai, 2006; Tsai, 2002; Yo, 2007) and from students’ perspectives (e.g., Chen, 2011). On the other hand, not many attempts have been made on the analysis of cultural content of textbooks. Among the limited research on the analysis of the cultural content, Chen (2007) attempted to investigate the cultural content in EFL textbooks of junior high schools and examined the types of cultural content in lesson titles, main dialogues and reading passages. As for senior high school textbooks, Liu (2006) explored the cultural content in the reading passages of EFL textbooks. Both Chen (2007) and Liu (2006) analyzed the cultural content in the textbooks based on Macro Culture and Micro Culture categories in their studies. In Liu’s study, she termed the categorization of the cultural content Macro Culture and Micro Culture categories. Macro Culture categories refer to the national scope of the cultural content, and Micro Culture categories refer to the types or topics of the cultural content. However, their definitions and categorization were significantly different, especially in Micro Culture categories. The major differences between Liu’s and Chen’s studies were their respective definitions of Micro Culture categories. Liu (2006) divided Micro Culture categories into 18 miscellaneous categories which failed to provide a succinct and definite 5.

(17) categorization since some of the items were overlapping and could be integrated into the same category. Chen’s (2007) categorization, which consisted of only six categories, was able to display concise results. In the categorization for Macro Culture categories, Liu classified them into (1) Pan-Chinese culture, (2) English-speaking culture, (3) World culture, (4) Cross-cultural comparison, and (5) Universal culture to investigate the national scope of the cultural content, which comprehensively included every facet in Macro Culture categories. Chen’s categorization for Macro Culture categories neglected the role of cross-cultural comparisons and her definition of the non-cultural category was ambiguous. In Chen’s study, Macro Culture categories consisted of four phases: (1) British and American culture, (2) Taiwanese and Chinese culture, (3) Cultures of other world areas, and (4) Non-culture. Since some reading passages may contain cultural content involving the comparison between two or more cultures, it seems indispensable to accommodate the cross-cultural comparison in the evaluation of the cultural content. However, Chen failed to contain the cross-cultural comparison in her study. In addition, Chen classified the content which was not related to specific culture as non-culture and overlooked the fact that culture is an all-encompassing term. Moreover, she did not offer much explanation or any examples to illustrate her exact meanings of non-culture. Based on the brief review of Liu’s and Chen’s categorizations, neither of the studies provided a comprehensive categorization to analyze the cultural content in EFL textbooks. It would seem, therefore, that further investigation should be undertaken to evaluate the cultural content of EFL textbooks. Aside from Chen’s and Liu’s studies, Ke (2011) evaluated the cultural content in the English textbooks and magazines. Ke indicated that the previous studies only analyzed the textbooks which were written based on the same curriculum and that 6.

(18) they failed to present the evolvement of the selection of reading materials for EFL textbooks from the historical point of view. Therefore, Ke investigated the English textbooks and English magazines employed between 1952 and 2007 and attempted to observe the tendency toward the selection of the reading materials for senior high school students in Taiwan over these years. The result suggested that the textbook compilation has developed a tendency of selecting reading materials from diverse cultures instead of mostly focusing on the target culture under the influence of globalization. Ke’s research mainly delved into Macro Culture categories from a historical point of view; however, the descriptions of Micro Culture categories were discussed limitedly in his study. Thereupon, the present study aims to explore the cultural content, including both Macro Culture categories and Micro Culture categories, of the EFL textbooks from a historical point of view.. Research Questions The purpose of the current study was to investigate the cultural content of the EFL textbooks from a historical point of view. In order to observe the evolvement of the cultural content in the EFL textbooks, textbooks based on two curriculums proposed in different periods were analyzed. The latest curriculum for senior high school was officially administered in 2010, which was often called “99 Curriculum” in Taiwan; the previous curriculum right before 99 Curriculum was “95 Curriculum”, which was administered in 2004. There were in total six series of textbooks by three publishers under analysis in the current study. The details of the six series of textbooks were introduced in the Materials section in Chapter Three. The analysis of cultural content was divided into two dimensions: Macro Culture categories, meaning 7.

(19) “the target nations of cultures” (Cho, 2002), and Micro Culture categories, meaning the types or aspects of cultures. In the present study, four research questions were proposed. To answer these questions, the reading sections and the conversation sections in the senior high school English textbooks were analyzed. The reading sections in the six series of senior high school English textbooks were analyzed. For the conversation sections, only four series of the textbooks were analyzed because the conversation sections in the other two series were not presented in the same form as the others. To obtain comparable results of the conversation sections, only four series of the textbooks were evaluated. The following are the four research questions: 1.. What types of Macro Culture and Micro Culture are presented in the reading sections in the senior high school English textbooks?. 2.. What are the differences in the cultural representation, Macro Culture and Micro Culture, between senior high school English textbooks based on 95 Curriculum and 99 Curriculum in the reading sections?. 3.. What types of Macro Culture and Micro Culture are presented in the conversation sections in the senior high school English textbooks?. 4.. What are the differences in the cultural representation, Macro Culture and Micro Culture, between senior high school English textbooks based on 95 Curriculum and 99 Curriculum in the conversation sections?. Significance of the Study The primary aim of this study is to offer teachers information about the cultural content in the six series of senior high school English textbooks. According to Cunningsworth (1995), “coursebook analysis and evaluation is useful in teacher 8.

(20) development and helps teachers to gain good and useful insights into the nature of the material (p.14).” It is hoped that the pedagogical implications of the present study will provide teachers a guide to the selection of textbooks. Moreover, when teachers have a better understanding of the cultural content in the textbooks they use, they are more likely to make good use of it in their class based on the result of the analysis. Teachers should also be aware of the inadequacy of the teaching materials and provide supplementary materials to bridge the cultural gaps in the textbooks. Since language and culture are inseparable, the role of cultural instruction in the language classroom cannot be overemphasized. Textbooks play the major role of transmitting cultural knowledge, and the study will enhance language teachers’ knowledge about the content of cultural instruction. A secondary aim is to provide information for textbook writers and researchers for reference and for further advancement. With the findings of the study, textbook designers can make improvements based on the results, and they can understand the deficiency of their materials and tailor the content to the learners’ needs and teachers’ preferences. In addition, suggestions based on the results can be made to future researchers to enrich this research field. By means of a thorough analysis of the cultural content in the EFL senior high school textbooks, the cultural awareness could be aroused.. 9.

(21) CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter reviews the literature and previous empirical studies related to the cultural content in language learning and instruction. First of all, definitions of culture proposed by scholars in different fields are presented. Next, the content of cultural instruction in the language classroom is discussed with a review of the relationship between language and culture, frameworks of cultural goals and the importance of cultural instruction. Finally, previous studies concerning the evaluation of the cultural content in textbooks are reviewed, including the categorization of Macro Culture and Micro Culture categories.. Definitions of Culture Culture is an elusive term which we mention a lot in our life, but it is difficult for us to have an agreement on its meaning or definition. Williams (1976) informed us that “Culture is one of the two or three most complicated words in the English language” (p.76). Experts in different human disciplines have attempted to provide various definitions of culture, and anthropology is said to be the earliest domain devoted to the study of culture. For example, two anthropologists, Kroeber and Kluckhohn (1952), even compiled 164 definitions of culture in their critical review of culture definitions. According to them, the earliest definition of culture was provided by Tylor (1871), a noted anthropologist, who described culture as “that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, customs, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society” (p.1). This definition endeavored to encompass the human phenomena that are shared and take place within one specific community. Friedl (1976) proposed a similar definition, “when we speak 10.

(22) of culture we mean a way of life common to a group of people, a collection of beliefs and attitudes, shared understandings and patterns of behavior that allow those people to live together in relative harmony, but set them apart from other people” (pp. 40-41). These definitions revealed the broad and comprehensive nature of “culture.” Kroeber and Kluckhohn (1952) also suggested their own definition of culture, “culture is a product; is historical; includes ideas, patterns, and values; is learned; is based upon symbols; and is an abstraction from behavior and the products of behavior” (p.157). Oswalt (1986) also suggested that “a culture is the learned and shared behavior patterns characteristic of a group of people” (p.25). Both of the definitions indicate the learnability of culture. Based on their definitions, cultural knowledge is not an inborn ability but an acquired one, which suggests that language teachers should not regard the acquisition of cultural knowledge as a natural consequence of language learning. Instead, the explicit instruction of cultural content is required. Apart from the above-mentioned definitions, a highly influential American anthropologist, Geertz (1973), offered another well-known definition, in which culture was defined as a “historically transmitted semiotic network constructed by humans and which allows them to develop, communicate and perpetuate their knowledge, beliefs and attitudes about the world” (p.89). The relationship between culture and communication is indicated by the definition. Hall (1959) even stated explicitly, “Culture is communication and communication is culture” (p.169). The principal means of human communication is through language; therefore, language and culture are often regarded as two inseparable sides of the same coin. Goodenough (1981) regarded “a language itself” as “a kind of cultural system” (p.61). The famous Sapir-Whorf hypothesis (Whorf, 1956), also known as linguistic relativity, theorized that thoughts and behavior are determined (or are at least partially) by language. The 11.

(23) two linguists brought attention to the intimate relationship between language, thought, and culture. In the field of language teaching, some scholars have strived to categorize the types of culture. Some researchers categorized culture into the abstract and concrete aspects. For example, Valette (1986) asserted that culture consisted of two key components, an invisible component and a concrete cultural element. The former was anthropological or sociological culture, including “attitudes, customs, and the daily activities of a people, their ways of thinking, their values, their frames of references” (p.179). The latter was “the history of civilization that traditionally represented the culture element in foreign language teaching, which included geography, history, and achievements in the sciences, the social sciences and the arts” which was observable (p. 179). Similarly, Kramsch (1991) classified culture into two types: the ground of meaning and material productions. The former included attitude, beliefs, and ways of thinking, shared by members in a social group. The latter referred to works of art, literature, artifacts of everyday life, and these represented a certain social group. Afterwards, Cortazzi and Jin (1995) divided culture into manifest/open and hidden/implicit aspects. The manifest aspect of culture comprised “artefacts or products, including everyday objects, works of literature, products of civilization; or of overt behaviour (p. 208).” They also cautioned that the other aspect, the hidden one, was often overlooked or taken for granted, which consisted of “norms, values, and expectations about what should happen, and interpretations of behaviour.” This manifest-hidden” division corresponds to the Stapleton’s (2000) distinction of “overt” culture and “covert” culture. The former aspect is visible, which includes art, religion and formal language; the latter aspect refers to the invisible components, such as knowledge and belief. 12.

(24) Apart from the discrimination between the concrete and abstract aspects of culture, another famous dichotomy is the “small c vs. big C” division (Battista, 1984; Flewelling, 1994; Stempleski, 2000). “Small c”, also called deep culture is as opposed to culture with “big C”, or high culture. Culture with “small c” refers to the people’s behavior in society, their personal values, way of living, the day-by-day way of life, the home, school, work, play, traditions, and folklore. In contrast, culture with “big C” which refers to the works of artistic achievements and contributions made by intellectuals and artistic geniuses to their nations and civilizations. The “small c” vs. “big C” division approximates the distinction made by Brooks (1968) as “everything” in human life vs. the “best” in human life. Brooks also asserted that culture should contain five assortments: Culture 1—biological growth Culture 2—personal refinement Culture 3—literature Culture 4—patterns for living Culture 5—the sum total of a way of life Among the five categories, what Brooks identified as the most appropriate for intercultural classes is “patterns for living”, a concept defined as “the individual’s role in unending kaleidoscope of life situations of every kind and the rules and models for attitude and conduct in them (p.210).” Adaskou, Britten and Fashi (1990) expanded the components of cultural elements from the dichotomy of “small c vs. capital C” by stating that culture consists of four senses—aesthetic, sociological, semantic, and pragmatic (or sociolinguistic). The aesthetic sense of culture is culture with a capital C, including the media, the cinema, music, and literature. The sociological sense of culture refers to culture with a 13.

(25) small c, including the organization and nature of family, home life, interpersonal relations, work and leisure, customs, and institutions. The semantic sense represents the conceptual system embodied in the language or the culturally distinctive meanings of words. The pragmatic or sociolinguistic sense involves the background knowledge, social skills and paralinguistic skills which give rise to successful communication. After an exploration of the myriad definitions of culture proposed by scholars in different fields, it is found that the nature of culture is all-encompassing and comprehensive. Fox (1999) also noted that “culture is relative and changeable in space and time” (p.90). In addition, Norton (1997) asserted that “culture is not just a body of knowledge; it comprises implicit assumptions, dynamic processes, and negotiated relationships” (p.415). Therefore, the dynamic feature of culture cannot be disregarded since it enables us to understand that culture is not static and that it would vary in accordance with the surrounding contexts. To sum up, researchers in various disciplines defined culture differently, but the definition of culture in the present study would be mainly described from the perspective of language teaching. Researchers in the field of language teaching, including Valette (1986), Kramsch (1991) and Stapleton (2000), define culture as the way of life by a group of people which consists of abstract and concrete components. The abstract aspects refer to values, beliefs, customs, and manners; on the other hand, the concrete elements are basically the history of human civilization which can be represented in language, geography, history, achievement in sciences, the social sciences and the arts. Both the abstract and concrete components are regarded as cultural content in the present study.. 14.

(26) Cultural Instruction in the Language Classroom After a broad examination of definitions of culture, the relationship of language and culture and the frameworks of cultural goals in the language classroom will be examined in the section. Since language and culture are closely related to each other, the cultural instruction has become integral in language acquisition and the development of communicative competence. Recognition of the role of culture and understanding of the cultural goals will assist language teachers in equipping students with the knowledge of culture. Therefore, the importance of cultural instruction will also be discussed in the following section.. The Relationship of Language and Culture Kramsch (1998) asserted that “language expresses, embodies and symbolizes cultural reality” (p.3). According to Kramsch, people utter words to communicate and create experience. In other words, while people are speaking on the phone, reading the newspapers or interpreting a graph, they are making sense of themselves through verbal and nonverbal ways. The way they express themselves is a symbol of their social identity. In addition, Kramsch (ibid, p.6) stated that “common attitudes, beliefs, and values are reflected in the way members of the group use language—for example, what they choose to say or not to say and how they say it.” The different ways Americans and the French react to compliments help illustrate the statement. When a friend said: “I like your sweater”, Americans have been socialized into responding “Thank you” to any compliment; however, the French tend to downplay the compliment by saying “Oh really? The sweater is already quite old.” Through language, the ways of thinking, behaving and valuing shared by members of the same discourse community are expressed.. 15.

(27) From the perspective of second language acquisition, Brown (2000) postulated the relationship between language and culture: It is apparent that culture, as an ingrained set of behaviors and modes of perception, becomes highly important in the learning of a second language. A language is a part of a culture, and a culture is a part of a language; the two are intricately interwoven so that one cannot separate the two without losing the significance of either language or culture. The acquisition of a second language, except for specialized, instrumental acquisition (as may be the case, say, in acquisition of reading knowledge of a language for examining scientific texts), is also the acquisition of a second culture (pp.177-178).. Brown explicitly indicated the intimate relationship between language and culture in the second language acquisition. While learners are acquiring a second language, they are acquiring a second culture at the same time. Kramsch’s example in the previous paragraph illustrated the importance of the acquisition of a second culture. The different ways of reacting to compliments between Americans and the French might cause misunderstandings between the two cultures. Therefore, the acquisition of the cultural knowledge is necessary in the process of language learning.. Frameworks of Cultural Goals Culture is often regarded as the natural outcome of language learning; however, to make learning meaningful, teachers should be acquainted with the objectives and goals of the cultural instruction in the language classroom (Seelye, 1984). In this section, the goals of cultural instruction proposed by different scholars will be examined. First of all, Seelye (1984) proposed a seven-goal framework concerning how to implement cultural instruction. These seven goals are: (pp. 49-57) 1. The sense or functionality of culturally conditioned behavior. The student should show an understanding that people act the way they do because they are using options the society allows for satisfying basic physical and psychological 16.

(28) needs. 2. Interaction of language and social variables. The student should show an understanding that such social variables as age, sex, social class, and place of residence affect the way people speak and behave. 3. Conventional behaviors in common situations. The students should indicate an understanding of the role convention plays in shaping behavior by demonstrating how people act in common mundane and crisis situations in the target culture. 4. Cultural connotations of words and phrases. The student should indicate awareness that culturally conditioned images are associated with even the most common target words and phrases. 5. Evaluating statements about a society. The student should demonstrate the ability to evaluate the relative strength of a generality concerning the target culture in terms of the amount of evidence substantiating the statements. 6. Researching another culture. The student should show that s/he has developed the skills needed to locate and organize information about the target culture from the library, the mass media, people and personal observation. 7. Attitudes toward other cultures. The student should demonstrate intellectual curiosity about the target culture and empathy toward its people. Valette (1986) stated that for the classroom teacher, cultural goals can be divided into four categories (p.181): 1. developing a greater awareness of and a broader knowledge about the target culture; 2. acquiring a command of the etiquette of the target culture; 3. understanding differences between the target culture and the students’ native 17.

(29) culture; and 4. understanding the values of the target culture. Tomalin & Stempleski (1993: 7-8) modified Seelye’s (1984) “seven goals of cultural instruction”. According to them, the teaching of culture has the following goals: 1. To help students to develop an understanding of the fact that all people exhibit culturally-conditioned behaviors. 2. To help students to develop an understanding that social variables such as age, sex, social class, and place of residence influence the ways in which people speak and behave. 3. To help students to become more aware of conventional behavior in common situations in the target culture. 4. To help students to increase their awareness of the cultural connotations of words and phrases in the target language. 5. To help students to develop the ability to evaluate and refine generalizations about the target culture, in terms of supporting evidence. 6. To help students to develop the necessary skills to locate and organize information about the target culture. 7. To stimulate students’ intellectual curiosity about the target culture, and to encourage empathy towards its people. On the other hand, Lafayette (1997) suggested thirteen student-oriented goals of cultural instruction, and it is hoped that students should be able to: 1. Recognize/explain major geographical monuments. 2. Recognize/explain major historical events 3. Recognize/explain major institutions (such as religious or educational 18.

(30) institutions) 4. Recognize/explain major “artistic” monuments 5. Recognize/explain “active” everyday cultural patterns (such as eating or greeting people) 6. Recognize/explain “passive” everyday cultural patterns (such as marriage or social stratification.) 7. Act appropriately in common gestures. 8. Use appropriate common gestures. 9. Value different peoples and societies. 10. Recognize/explain culture of target-language-related ethnic groups in the United States. 11. Recognize/explain cultures of other peoples speaking the target language. 12. Evaluate validity of statements about culture. 13. Develop skills needed to locate and organize information about culture. Lafayette’s thirteen goals attempted to delineate the specific components that students should recognize and understand in the cultural instruction. The elements mentioned in the goals approximate those in the definitions of culture reviewed in section 2.1. The thirteen goals not only presented the concrete examples of the cultural content but also served as guide to the categorization of the present study. In the same year, Seelye (1997) revised his original seven-goal framework into a six-goal one (p.31): Goal 1—Interest. The student shows curiosity about another culture and empathy toward its members. Goal 2—Who. The student recognizes how social variables such as age, sex, social class, religion, ethnicity, and place of residence affect the way people speak and 19.

(31) behave. Goal 3—What. The student knows what culturally-conditioned images are evoked in the minds of people when they think, act, and react to the world around them. Goal 4—Where and When. The student recognizes that the situational variables and convention shape behavior in important ways. Goal 5—Why. The student realizes that people generally act the way they do due to some underlying reasons (such as to meet basic physical or psychological needs), and cultural behavior and patterns are interrelated. Goal 6—Exploration. The student can evaluate a statement about the target culture reasonably and has the skills to locate and organize information about that culture. Compared with Seelye’s seven-goal framework, the six goals offered a clearer and easier schema for culture learning. Seelye (1997) stated that cultural objectives should be described as skills and abilities, what he calls “performance objectives” rather than facts. The different approaches that Seelye and Lafayette adopted in the delineation of the cultural goals serve different functions for language teachers. Seelye’s framework was the goal of the cultural instruction and Lafayette’s thirteen components were the means to achieving the goal. The Standards for Foreign Language Learning (1996) present a set of integrated goals that emphasize using language for communication with other peoples, gaining understanding of other cultures, and accessing information in a wide variety of disciplines. There are five Cs in the standards: Communication, Cultures, Connections, Comparisons, and Communities. The content standard for Cultures (Standard 2.1 and. 20.

(32) 2.2) delineated two standards for culture goals of gaining knowledge and understanding other cultures: Standard 2.1: Students demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between the practices and perspectives of the culture studied. Standard 2.2: Students demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between the products and perspectives of the culture studied. The first emphasizes the practices (or patterns of behavior accepted by a society), while the second stresses the products (such as books, foods, music, and paintings) related to cultural perspectives (such as attitudes, values, and ideas).. Figure 1 The Components of Culture (The Standards for Foreign Language Learning, 1996, p.47). The Importance of Cultural Instruction Some empirical studies have been conducted to examine the values of cultural instruction in language acquisition. First of all, cultural instruction can bring about language learners’ positive attitude toward the target culture. Robinson-Stuart and Nocon (1996) concluded from the result of a classroom study that learners are likely to foster positive attitudes toward the cultural perspectives of members of different speech communities as a result of an instructional program that brings learners into 21.

(33) meaningful interaction with members of the second culture. In addition, the explicit cultural instruction facilitates language learning as well. Bouton (1994) even argued that explicit cultural instruction significantly accelerates the acquisition of interpreting formulaic implicatures. Based on Bouton’s result of the study, with no more than 6 hours of formal instruction plus moments of informal follow-up over a 6-week period, non-native speakers reached a proficiency that surpassed, to a considerable degree, the level of those who had been immersed in the campus community for from 17 months to 7 years. In Taiwan, Tsou (2001) implemented a detailed lesson plan for cultural instruction to four elementary EFL classrooms and the results indicated that cultural instruction increased students’ knowledge of the target culture as well as the language proficiency. These studies suggested that in the EFL and ESL context, explicit cultural instruction is advantageous to language learning.. Textbook Evaluation In the present study, the focus is on the evaluation of the cultural content in the textbooks. In the section, the role and importance of textbooks are first examined. The importance of textbooks underscores the value of textbook evaluation. Then, the criteria for textbooks evaluation are also examined. Finally, the previous research on textbook analysis of cultural content is reviewed to provide guides to the categorization for the present study.. The Roles of Textbooks According to Cunningsworth (1995), coursebooks have multiple roles and can serve as (p.7): 1. a resource for presentation material (spoken and written) 22.

(34) 2. a source of activities for learner practice and communicative interaction 3. a reference source for learners on grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation, etc 4. a source of stimulation and ideas for classroom language activities 5. a syllabus (where they reflect learning objectives which have already been determined) 6. a resource for self-directed learning or self-access work 7. a support for less experienced teachers who have yet to gain in confidence. More specifically, Cortazzi and Jin (1999, p.199-200) also proposed that textbooks assume various roles including a teacher, a map, a resource, a trainer, an authority, a de-skiller, and an ideology when it comes to evaluating textbooks for cultural elements. They asserted that a textbook can be a teacher, for the reason that “it contains materials that is intended to instruct students directly about English-speaking culture.” A textbook can also be a map that “gives an overview of a structured program of linguistic and cultural elements, showing teachers and learners the ground to be covered and summarizing the route taken in previous lessons.” A textbook is a resource since “for many teachers the textbook remains the major source of cultural content.” A textbook is also a trainer; “for inexperienced or untrained teachers, the explanations and guidance, the step-by-step instructions of a teacher’s guidebook, can be very useful.” A textbook is thus regarded as an authority: “for it is reliable, valid, and written by experts.” Cortazzi and Jin also cautioned that experienced teachers may become overdependent on textbooks, and the textbook may then become a de-skiller. Finally, the textbook can be seen as ideology, “in the sense that it reflects a worldview or cultural system, a social construction that may be imposed on teachers and students and that indirectly constructs their view of a culture.” 23.

(35) In addition to the multiple roles of a textbook mentioned above, the importance of textbooks is reinforced by many other scholars. For instance, Goodlad (1984) stated that textbooks were the dominant forms of a curriculum and they dominated schools’ curricula. Berns (1985) recognized that “materials play a large role in determining what goes on in the classroom and also providing the learners with information about the language, how it is used and how its forms are realized in use” (p.3).. Criteria for Textbook Evaluation Since textbooks play a prominent role in language teaching and learning, an evaluation of textbook is indispensable in offering teachers guidance on textbook selection. Cunningsworth (1995) outlined a quick reference checklist for textbook evaluation and selection based on the following categories (p.3-4): 1. Aims and approaches. (e.g., Whether the aims of the coursebook correspond with the aims of the teaching programme and with the needs of the learners?) 2. Design and organization. (e.g., How is the content organized or sequenced? Is the grading and progression suitable for the learners?) 3. Language content. (e.g., Are the main grammar items, vocabulary teaching, and pronunciation work appropriate or adequate to each level?) 4. Skills. (e.g., Are the four skills adequately covered?) 5. Topic. (e.g., Is their enough variety and range of topic?) 6. Methodology. (e.g., What approaches to language learning are taken by the coursebook? Is this appropriate to the learning situation?) 7. Teachers’ books. (e.g., Is there adequate guidance for the teachers who will be using the coursebook and its supporting materials?) 8. Practical consideration. (e.g., What does the whole package cost? Are the 24.

(36) books strong and long-lasting?) Cunningsworth’s checklist is easy to use and covers a wide range of categories; however, the cultural content is not included for evaluation. Byram (1993) presented criteria for textbook evaluation and included a focus on cultural content: 1. Social identity and social groups: social class, regional identity, ethnic minorities 2. Social interaction: different levels of formality; as outsider and insider 3. Belief and behavior: moral, religious beliefs; daily routines 4. Social and political institution: state institution, health care, law and order, social security 5. Socialization and the life cycle: families, schools, employment, rites of passage 6. National history: historical and contemporary events seen as markers of national identity 7. National geography: geographic factors seen as being significant by members 8. Stereotypes and national identity: what is “typical,” symbols of national stereotypes. Review of the Previous Research on Textbook Analysis of Cultural Issues With the acknowledgement of the importance of the cultural content in language learning, several research studies have been conducted to evaluate the cultural content in textbooks. However, due to the elusive and comprehensive nature of culture, the features and facets of culture are often difficult to define and describe. Therefore, it is necessary to review the empirical studies and examine the categories and frameworks before the present study. In the following section, the review of the culture-related 25.

(37) literature is divided into two classifications; that is, Macro Culture categories and Micro Culture categories. Macro Culture categories refer to the national scope of the cultural content, and Micro Culture categories refer to the types or topics of the cultural content.. Macro Culture Categories Cortazzi and Jin (1999) divided EFL textbooks into three categories according to their focus on culture (pp.204-209): 1. Textbooks based on the source culture. The source culture refers to learners’ own culture. 2. Textbooks based on the target culture. The target culture refers to the culture where the target language is used as a first language. 3. Textbooks aimed at the international target cultures. The international target cultures refer to cultures that are neither a source culture nor a target culture; these are a variety of cultures in English- or non-English-speaking countries around the world, using English as an international language. Kachru (1985) recognized the internationalization of English and postulated the stratification of English use “in terms of three concentric circles representing the types of spread, the patterns of acquisition and the functional domains in which English is used across cultures and languages.” The three concentric circles are the inner circle, the outer circle (or extended circle), and the expanding circle. According to Kachru, the inner circle refers to the traditional bases of English—the regions where it is the primary language such as the USA, the UK, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. There are two major features of the outer (or extended) circle. First, “English is only one of the two or more codes in the linguistic repertoire of such bilinguals or 26.

(38) multilinguals.” Second, “English has acquired an important status in the language policies of most of such multilingual nations” (ibid, pp.12-13). For instance, English is an official or recognized as a state language in Nigeria, Zambia, and Singapore. Kachru also mentioned that the outer circle includes contexts where English is used as colonial languages (e.g. French, Portuguese, Spanish), as religious languages (e.g., Arabic, Sanskrit, Pali), and as language varieties of trade and commerce (e.g., pidgins or bazaar varieties). The third circle, the expanding circle, refers to countries where English is used as a foreign language such as China, Russia, Indonesia, Greece, Israel, Japan, Korea, Nepal, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan and Zimbabwe. Kachru argues that the users of this circle strengthen the claims of English as an international or universal language. However, Kachru also reminds that the outer circle and the expanding circle cannot be viewed as clearly demarcated from each other since they have several shared characteristics. The three concentric circles proposed by Kachru were adopted by several researchers as the representation of Macro Culture categories in textbook evaluation. For example, Francis (1995) examined the EFL textbooks at the high school and university level in Brazil from the perspective of Inner Circles countries, Outer Circles countries, and Expanding Circle countries. The result indicated that the content regarding Inner Circle countries accounted for the greatest proportions of the texts, 91%, and Expanding Circle and Outer Circle’s content represented only 9% of all the texts. Matsuda (2002) explored the representation of English users and uses in Japanese EFL textbooks for seventh graders. She also employed Kachru’s three concentric circles and created another four categories, including Japan, Multiple 27.

(39) contexts, Fictional Contexts, Unknown/No Contexts, to understand the representation of English users and uses in the beginning Japanese EFL textbooks. After the analysis of the main texts, which were mostly dialogues, the results revealed that the textbooks emphasized the cultural topics and characters from the English-speaking countries of the inner circle and that the representation of users and uses in the outer circle was much more limited. Yen (2000) compared the cultural identity between the Taiwanese EFL and American ESL textbooks. In the EFL textbooks, she found that European American culture occupied the most (76%) of the content; content related to Taiwanese or Chinese only represented 8% of all the reading passages. Yen concluded that White or European American culture was identified as the mainstream while local Taiwanese or Chinese culture was marginal. On the other hand, as for the ESL textbooks in America, content concerning U.S. culture totaled 81%, other world cultures occupied 17%, and 2% did not belong to a particular culture. In Taiwan, Cho (2002) investigated the cultural content in two sets of senior high school English textbooks. Cho utilized “target nations of cultures” (p. 39) or “nationality” (p. 42) as one of the categories to analyze the cultural content in the EFL textbooks. In the categorization, the five categories are Chinese, American, Others, Multiple, and N/A (Not Applicable). When a lesson introduced more than two cultures, it was classified into Multiple. The results revealed that both sets of textbooks have emphasized the selection of reading texts regarding local or other cultures. Chen (2007) strived to survey the cultural content in six sets of EFL textbooks in junior high school. Her classification approximately corresponds to Cho’s except for two differences. In Cho’s study, he distinguished American culture from other foreign cultures (e.g., France, India, Russia, U.K.), whereas Chen placed British and 28.

(40) American culture in the same category. In addition, Chen did not include the cross-cultural category but included a non-culture one. In the dialogue section, the results indicated that British and American cultures accounted for the largest proportion (43.22%); in the main reading section, Taiwanese and Chinese cultures occupied the most (45.21%). Liu (2006) also endeavored to survey the cultural categories in three sets of senior high school English textbooks. Her classification comprehensively comprised five categories: Pan-Chinese cultures, English-speaking cultures, World cultures, Cross-cultural comparison, and Universal cultures. The results demonstrated that English-speaking cultures and Universal cultures represented the largest proportion and that different versions of textbooks also exhibit different foci in Macro Culture categories. Ke (2011) examined the cultural content in the senior high school English textbooks and English learning magazines by two publishers over the past fifty years. The classification he adopted was almost identical to Liu’s except for the definition of the Chinese culture. Liu included the Pan-Chinese cultures into the category, while Ke termed Local cultures in replace of Liu’s Pan-Chinese cultures. Ke included only culture from Mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan in the Local cultures category; thus, countries such as Singapore are not included in the category. The summary of Macro Culture categories section is shown in Table 1.. 29.

(41) Table 1 Francis. Macro Culture Categories Proposed by Different Scholars. Yen (2000). Cho (2002). (1995). Matsuda. Liu (2006). Chen (2007). Ke (2011). (2002). Expanding. Taiwanese or. Chinese. Circle (EC). Chinese. Ex: Taiwan,. Japan. Pan-Chinese. Taiwanese. Local Cultures. (Pan-Chinese. Cultures. and Chinese. (Mainland China,. and Taiwan). (Ex. Mainland. cultures. Hong Kong and. China, Hong. (TC). Taiwan). China, Japan,. Expanding. Korea,. Singapore). Circle. Russia,. Kong, Taiwan and. Cultures. eastern Europe and South America Inner Circle. European. American. Inner Circle. English-speaking. British and. English-speaking. (IC). American. (only the. Cultures. Cultures. American. Cultures. Ex: (United. Culture. United States. (Australia,. Cultures. (United Kingdom,. Kingdom,. (EFL)/US. of America). Canada, Ireland,. (BA). United States of. United. culture (ESL). New. America, Canada,. States of. Zealand, United. New Zealand,. America,. Kingdom, and. Australia and. Canada,. United States of. Ireland). New. America). Zealand, Australia and Ireland) Outer. Others. Outer. World Cultures. Cultures of. Other World. Circle (OC). (France, India,. Circle. (countries other. Other World. Cultures. Ex.. Ireland,. Cultures. than. Areas (OW). (countries other. decolonized. Russia, U.K.,. English-speaking. than Local Culture. countries:. and so on). Culture and. and. Singapore,. Pan-Chinese. English-speaking. India. Culture). Culture). N/A. Others. N/A. Multiple. Multiple. Cross-cultural. (more than 2. Contexts. Comparison. Comparison. (culture. (culture. comparison. comparison. countries) 30. N/A. Cross-cultural.

(42) between two or. between two or. more countries). more countries, travels, and immigration experiences). N/A. N/A. N/A (Not. Fictional. Universal. Non-culture. Universal. Applicable). Context. Cultures. (NC). Cultures (science, human’s. Unknown/. common. No Contexts. experience). Micro Culture Categories In addition to Macro Culture categories, several scholars mentioned above investigated the detailed cultural content in terms of micro culture categories. First of all, Francis (1995) examined the EFL textbooks at the high school and university level in Brazil and classified the content into seven subcategories: (1) natural phenomena and living surroundings; (2) products; (3) people; (4) discovery and national identity; (5) engineering accomplishments; (6) events; (7) archaeology/ancient sayings. Following Francis’s research, Yen (2000) modified Francis classification and adapted it into six subcategories: (1) NPLS = natural phenomena and living surroundings; (2) PD = products; (3) PNE = people, national identity, and ethnicity; (4) DEE = discoveries, events, and engineering accomplishment; (5) LLPS = language, literacy, proverbs, and sayings; (6) O = others (e.g., values, beliefs, customs, and manners). Yen employed the six subcategories to compare the cultural identity between the Taiwanese EFL and American ESL textbooks at the senior high school level. There are two major differences between Francis and Yen’s categorization. First, Yen combined “discovery”, “engineering accomplishments”, and “event” into the 31.

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