Learner Independence

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Curriculum Leadership Series:

Ongoing Renewal of the School Curriculum for English Teachers

1 5   D E C   2 0 1 7 E N G L I S H   L A N G UA G E   E D U C AT I O N   S E C T I O N C U R R I C U LU M   D E V E LO P M E N T   I N S T I T U T E E D U C AT I O N   B U R E A U

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Objectives

To enhance English teachers’ capacity as curriculum leaders to incorporate the major updates of the English Language Education Key Learning Area under the ongoing renewal of the school curriculum (ELE KLACG)(2017);

To provide suggestions on how to implement Reading and Writing across the Curriculum (R/WaC) in the school English Language curriculum; and

To share experiences on implementing R/WaC at the secondary level

(by Leung Shek Chee College)

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The role of English Language Teachers

Actively engage in  professional development

English  Language 

Teachers

Design diverse learning  activities with a balanced  coverage of strand targets & 

language knowledge & skills

Identify students’

strengths & weaknesses & 

provide constructive feedback Help parents understand their 

children’s learning progress

Make use of community  resources and expose students 

to meaningful use of English

Try out innovative  teaching strategies with  fellow teachers & external 

supporting agents

Make use of a variety of  authentic language 

learning materials Adopt appropriate 

pedagogical approaches  to facilitate 

English learning

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(CDC, 2002)

(P1 – S3)

(CDC, 2004) (CDC, 1999) (CDC & HKEAA, 2007)

years

(CDC, 2017)

(P1 – S6)

12  years

(CDC, 2004) (TBC) (CDC & HKEAA, 2007) with  updates in 2015 Supplement 

to ELE KLACG (JS)

Ongoing Renewal of the School Curriculum

http://www.edb.gov.hk/en/curriculum‐development/renewal/

Updating of the ELE KLACG

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Catering for Learner Diversity

Promoting Assessment for Learning

Generic Skills

Reading to Learn

IT for Interactive Learning

Moral & Civic Education

Project Learning  Grammar in Context

(P1‐S3) 2002

ELE KLACG (P1‐S3) (2002)

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Catering for Learner DiversityCatering for the Needs of Students with SEN and Gifted  Students in the Mainstream English Classroom

Promoting Assessment for Learning

Generic Skills

Reading to Learn

IT for Interactive Learning

Moral & Civic Education

Project Learning  (P1‐S6) 2017

Grammar in Context

Learning and Teaching of Text Grammar

Extending Formative Assessment from Assessment for  Learning to Assessment as Learning

Integrative Use of Generic Skills

Literacy and Language across the Curriculum 

e‐Learning & Information Literacy

Values Education 

STEM Education (including Entrepreneurial Spirit)

Major Updates of the ELE KLACG (P1‐S6) (2017)

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Grammar in Context or Text Grammar?

Grammar in 

Context

Complementary  Concepts 

Text Grammar

• beyond the sentence level

• grammar items typical of a  particular text type

• how grammar contributes  to the coherence & the  structure of a text

• how to apply grammar  knowledge to create texts  of different text types

the link between form  and function and how  grammar makes 

meaning and varies in  different contexts

• how contexts shape  the choice of 

language used 

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Situation

Your teacher wants you to plan a tour and write an itinerary for the tour. Your class is learning about things to do in Hong Kong. Your teacher has given you some information about places to explore in Hong Kong, e.g. an itinerary.

Reading

Reading an  Itinerary Coherence

Language & 

context

Communi‐

cative purposes Tone, style & 

register

Grammar learning goes  beyond sentence grammar to 

text grammar

Level: Junior secondary Unit: Out and About

Introduction Information about 

the tour

Body Description of 

the scenic  spots

Closing Invitation to readers

Title

Scenic spot

Visiting time

Activities How to get there Organising structure 

across paragraphs

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Text

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Writing

Applying Grammar Knowledge  in Context 

Writing  an  Itinerary

Using  repetitive 

structure  across  paragraphs

Using  subheadings 

to organise the events

Using  connectives  to sequence 

events Using 

imperatives  to make  invitation

Grammar Learning goes Beyond Sentence 

Grammar toText Grammar

Scenic spot Visiting time Activities

Organisation across paragraphs

How to get there

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• Automatising the grammar rule and  using it naturally

Automatising Structuring and 

Restructuring

• Structuring the grammar rule in mind

• Restructuring it and applying it in new  contexts

Reasoning & 

Hypothesising

• Hypothesising the grammar rule

Noticing

• Noticing the specific language  patterns in texts

Hedge, T. (2000) Teaching and learning in the language classroom . Oxford University Press.

Inductive

/ Discovery Approach  

Process of Learning Grammar

What learners can find out for themselves is

better remembered

than what they are simply told. (Ellis, 2003)

The discovery process can

promote greater depth of processing and engagement

on the part of the learners, which in turn results in more significant learning.

(Larsen‐Freeman, 2003)

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Lifelong  learning

Challenges in the  21stcentury

The ability to read and write effectively Literacy Development in the 

English Classroom Promoting Literacy  across the Curriculum 

Processing and creating multimodal texts

Equipping Students with New Literacy Skills

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Using e‐resources to develop writing skills

Using e‐resources to facilitate the development of students’

literacy skills and the creation of multimodal texts

Tellagami

Popplet

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Enhancing  Interactions  in the English 

Classroom

Design of interactive 

learning  activities

Effective use  of learning  and teaching 

materials

Effective use  of learning & 

teaching  strategies Making use 

of e‐

environment

Enhancing Interactions in the English  Classroom

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http://www.edb.gov.hk/attachment/en/edu-system/primary-secondary/applicable-to-primary-secondary/it-in- edu/IL_for_HK_Student_2016(Draft)_Eng_20161116.pdf

Information Literacy Framework for HK Students

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Promoting Assessment

for/as Learning

Strengthening AfL:

- Adopting diversified modes of assessment - Making use of

various assessment tools

- Making effective use of assessment data

Extending from AfL to AaL:

- Enhancing learners’

self-directed learning capabilities through introducing

metacognitive strategies

Learner Independence

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Formative  assessment 

Assessment   as 

Learning

enhances learners’ role and responsibility in reflecting on, monitoring and evaluating their own progress of learning

Assessment  for 

Learning

integrates assessment into learning and teaching process to inform and facilitate learning and teaching

Summative  assessment 

Assessment  of 

Learning

reports on previous learning of learners

Extending from Assessment for Learning (AfL)  to Assessment as Learning (AsL)

Learner Independence

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Catering for Diversity

Differentiated  Curriculum

Differentiated  Materials

Differentiated  Instruction Differentiated 

Assessment

• Graded  worksheets

• Authentic context

• Self‐access 

learning materials

• Scaffolding

• Multisensory input

• Organisation tools

• Tip boxes/ 

Challenges

• Bloom’s taxonomy

• Revising and  recycling

• Multiple 

representations

• Creative tasks

• Rubrics for assessment

• Reducing / increasing  word limit

• Peer assessment

• Core section

• Remedial  programme

• Extended 

section/Enrichment

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Adopt a  multi‐

sensory  approach

Supporting Students with Special Educational Needs (SEN)

Differentiate in  terms of Content, 

Process, Product

Learning Environment

Encourage  personalised learning goals  based on students’ 

own needs

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Unleashing the Potential of Gifted Learners

• Higher‐order thinking skills

• Multiple intelligence

• Thinking skills (e.g. SCAMPER, thinking hats)

• Transformation of ideas, divergent thinking, multiple perspectives       (e.g. sociological, scientific, historical)

• Social issues and real world knowledge

• Enrichment programmes

• External competitions

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National Identity

Integrity Perseverance

Commitment

Respect for Others

Responsibility

Care for Others 

Values education in different domains

Basic Law  education

Life  education

Media  education Sex

education

Human rights  education

Health &

anti‐drug education Environmental

education Road 

safety  education

Moral and Civic  education

Values Education

Seven Priority Values and Attitudes

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Integrative Use of Generic Skills 

Two examples of integrative use of generic skills:

‐Holistic thinking skills: involving the use of critical thinking skills, problem  solving skills and creativity

‐Collaborative problem solving skills: involving the use of collaboration skills, 

communication skills and problem solving skills 

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In the ELE KLA context, STEM education can be best promoted  through RaC / LaC and project learning

Whole‐school  initiative: 

STEM  education

ELE KLA supports the implementation of  STEM education through RaC/LaC activities,  e.g.

‐ introduce STEM‐related reading materials 

‐ design tasks, activities and projects to   create new things or work out innovative  solutions to problems

‐ connect learning experiences through life‐

wide learning 

‐ infuse elements that help nurture an 

entrepreneurial spirit  

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Refer to the handout and discuss with your group members how to integrate 2‐3 new emphases  into the English curriculum of School A: 

Learning  Outcomes?

Development  of Skills?

Recycling of  Knowledge 

and Skills?

Strategic Curriculum Planning and Integration of the New Emphases

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Considerations when implementing the major emphases in the school curriculum

School Development  Plan and Major 

Concerns 

Cross‐KLA or  Cross‐

departmental  Collaboration 

Teachers’ 

Readiness School Mission 

/Background /Culture

Curriculum  Planning and 

Task Design

Students’ 

Ability

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Curriculum  Planning

Learning 

Teaching

Curriculum Leaders and/or

Level Coordinators 

• Aligning what is taught and coordinating the progress of  teaching and assessment at the same level 

• Enhancing students’ language and generic skills that  contribute to the success of their study 

• Promoting a reading culture in the class and  strengthening values education

• Introducing  varied text types including non‐fiction texts  that facilitate cross‐curricular learning

• teaching reading and writing skills explicitly

• enriching students’ English learning experiences through  promoting R/WaC

• integrating e‐learning into the English Language  classroom

For example:

Effective Implementation of school English Language curriculum

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Resources

EDB

• One‐stop Portal

• ETV       

• English Language Education Learning and Teaching  Resources

• Radio Programmes

Others

• Public Libraries

• Internet, e.g. YouTube, TED‐Ed, BBC, British Council

• Application Software (e.g. tools for polling, organisation,  collaboration and production)

• Lexile

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Professional Development Programmes (2017/18) Professional Development Programmes (2017/18)

http://www.edb.gov.hk/en/curriculum‐development/kla/eng‐edu/professional‐development‐programmes.html

Literacy Skills

• Enhancing the Interface: Developing Reading Skills of Secondary Students with  Reference to the Learning Progression Framework 

• Enriching and Extending Students’ Learning Experiences through Reading and  Writing across the Curriculum at the Secondary Level 

• Developing Secondary Students’ Writing Skills with Reference to the Learning  Progression Framework

e‐Learning

e‐Learning  Series: Adopting e‐Learningto Enhance Students’ Grammar Knowledge and Promote Self‐directed Learning

• e‐Learning Series: Effective Use of IT to Explore Literary Texts in the Junior  Secondary English Classroom

• e‐Learning  Series: Effective Use of e‐Resources for Communication – Tapping  into Students’ Creativity, Critical Thinking and Problem‐solving Abilities

• e‐Learning Series: Media Literacy in the Junior Secondary English Classroom – Enhancing Critical Thinking Skills through the Use of Digital Texts

Assessment  Literacy

• Effective AssessmentPractices in the English Language Curriculum

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Professional Development Programmes (2017/18) Professional Development Programmes (2017/18)

Catering for Learner  Diversity

• Catering for Learner Diversity Series: Adopting e‐Learning to Cater for  Students with Special Educational Needs in the Junior Secondary  English Classroom

• Catering for Learner Diversity Series: Stretching the Potentials of  Advanced Learners in the Secondary English Language Classroom

• Catering for Learner Diversity Series: Effective Strategies for 

Accommodating Diverse Needsof Students in the Secondary English  Classroom

Senior Secondary  Studies

• Effective Learning and Application of Grammar Knowledge in the  Senior Secondary English Language Classroom

• Developing Students’ Creativity and New Literacy Skills through  Language Arts Elective Modules

• Developing Students’ Thinking Skills through the Non‐language Arts  Elective Modules

New Teachers

Understanding and Interpreting the English Language Curriculum for  New English Teachers 

http://www.edb.gov.hk/en/curriculum‐development/kla/eng‐edu/professional‐development‐programmes.html

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School‐based Professional Support Section Language Learning Support Section

Native‐speaking English Teacher Section Quality Education Fund Thematic Network English Language Education Section

Information Technology in Education Section Professional 

Support  Services

Professional Support

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Useful Websites

Learning and teaching resources

 Curriculum Documents

http://www.edb.gov.hk/en/curriculum-development/kla/eng-edu/curriculum- documents.html

 Resources developed by the English Language Education Section, CDI http://www.edb.gov.hk/index.aspx?nodeID=2773&langno=1

 Resources developed by the Native-speaking English Teacher Section, CDI http://www.edb.gov.hk/en/curriculum-development/resource-support/net/enet- resources.html

 Resources developed by the Language Learning Support Section, CDI http://cd1.edb.hkedcity.net/cd/languagesupport/resources.html

 One-stop Portal for Learning and Teaching Resources

http://minisite.proj.hkedcity.net/edbosp-eng/eng/home.html

 ETV Programmes

http://etv.edb.gov.hk/home.aspx

 RTHK Teen Time Radio Programme

http://app3.rthk.hk/special/teentime/mainpage.php

 HKedCity English Campus

https://www.hkedcity.net/english/

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Useful Websites

 English Language Education Section, EDB

http://www.edb.gov.hk/en/curriculum-development/kla/eng-edu/index.html

 Central Resources by Curriculum Development Institute, EDB https://crc.edb.gov.hk/crchome/en/index.asp

 Standing Committee on Language Education and Research (SCOLAR) http://www.language-education.com/eng/index.asp

 TVNews

https://www.hkedcity.net/tvnews/zh-hant

 eREAP

https://www.hkedcity.net/ereap/en/home

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Implementing 

R eading and W riting across the Curriculum

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How to implement 

R eading and W riting across the Curriculum

 Identify students’ needs and plan the curriculum

 Select appropriate reading texts

 Develop suitable learning and teaching activities

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Implementing Reading and Writing across the Curriculum‐

Identifying Students’ Needs

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School language policy

 Be familiar with the school language policy to understand students’ 

needs, e.g. :

 English adopted as the medium of instruction in all subjects in all classes / in  some subjects in some classes / not in any subjects

 Teachers required / not required to communicate with students in English at all  times

 Extra‐curricular activities conducted in English / Chinese  

 School announcements made in English / Chinese 

English / Chinese used in display boards

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Outside School

Outside Classroom

Identifying students’ needs

English Classroom Non‐language 

Subject Classroom

 Needs arising from…

 learning in the English classroom

 learning other subjects in English / Extended Learning Activities (ELAs)

 using English outside the classroom

 using English outside school

English  Learning

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Identifying students’ needs

 Curriculum mapping

 the process of indexing or diagramming a curriculum to identify and  address academic gaps, redundancies, and misalignments for purposes  of improving the overall coherence of a course of study and, by 

extension, its effectiveness

https://soyouthinkyoucanteachesl.com/2015/03/20/why‐is‐curriculum‐mapping‐important‐focus‐on‐curriculum‐part‐5/

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Identifying students’ needs:

Curriculum mapping

 Bridging pedagogy in language development across  the curriculum 

 Language is the building blocks of cognitive development

 “… children first build on what they know before language,  and then use language as well in constructing additional  categories.”

 “Adding in systemic teaching of academic language skills  helps in further developing the knowledge structure”

https://soyouthinkyoucanteachesl.com/2015/03/20/why‐is‐curriculum‐mapping‐important‐focus‐on‐curriculum‐part‐5/

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Rhetorical Functions & Language Features

Rhetorical functions Language items (e.g.)

PSHE ME SE TE AE PE

Comparison Connectives: 

However, on the contrary, despite, whereas 

* *

Procedure Imperatives:

Hold the racket vertically. 

* * * * *

Recount Past tense: 

World War II lasted from 1939 to 1945.

* * *

Explanation  Connectives: 

Due to, because, since; therefore, so, as a result

* * *

Description Adjectives: 

Postmodern, romantic, three‐dimensional Passive construction: 

Water is pumped to the water treatment station.

* * *

Conclusion To summarise, to conclude * *

Suggestion Modal verbs: 

Can, may, could, might, should

* *

Instructions Wh‐words:

What is the sum of the numbers from 1 through 1000000? 

Imperatives: 

Discuss the impacts of Meiji Restoration.

* * * * * *

Presentation of facts Present tense: 

The Earth rotates around the Sun.

* * *

Assumption If, let, suppose: 

The value of a gold coin is $3 200. If its value increases by 6% each  year, what will be its value after 4 years?

* *

An example: Curriculum mapping on rhetorical functions

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Common rhetorical function

‐ Using “connectives” to explain 

(Aristo Success 3B, p.60)

From Survivor to The Amazing Race, these types of reality game shows have been successful because they reveal how people react when they are put in difficult situations. Therefore, I decide to take the proven ideas behind these programmes and other popular types of reality shows ...

… Contestants will also have their own video blogs to share their thoughts during taping.As a result, viewers will get a better look at the contestant’s inner thoughts and feelings.

The Age of Exploration refers to the period of  exploration during the 15thand 16thcenturies, a  period of new voyages and _____a new world. 

The Age of Exploration began during the  Renaissance ________the ideas at that time  inspired in the Europeans a keen interest in the  world. It _____provided technical and 

navigational tools with which Europeans could  explore. They could build ships for longer voyages,  make better and more accurate maps, and learn  the use of compasses and astrolabes.

also because

also

(New Horizon History (Introduction), pp. 23-24)

Connectives

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Rhetorical functions

Assume Compare Contrast Discuss

Describe Deduce Define Elaborate

Evaluate Explain  Estimate Illustrate

Identify Instruct Interpret Justify

Present Propose Sequence Suggest

At the senior secondary (SS) level, a higher standard for language, which is usually academic  language patterns, is required.

Implementing Reading and Writing across the Curriculum would help students cope with the 

demand of the English Language curriculum at the SS level.

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Language  Development

Content  Development Reading and Writing across the Curriculum (R&Wc)

R&WaC

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Topic: Earth

Writing an argumentative essay on the use of alternative energy sources for generating electricity Grammar items and

structures, skills development…

Reading Skills

& Strategies

Info.about the Earth and environmental protection

Rhetorical functions:

To explain, To describeRhetorical functions:

To explain, To describe

Language items:

Participle phrases, noun phrases, adjectives

Text structures:

poem and essay

Extended Reading:

The Earth

(An information book)

Discover and Experience

(A government pamphlet – Electrical &

Mechanical Services Department)

Reading  and Writing across  the Curriculum: An example

Textbook:

The Beautiful Planet – poem and essay

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Implementing Reading and Writing across the Curriculum‐

Selecting Reading T exts

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Reading across the Curriculum 

Reading across the curriculum (RaC) is a component within Language across the Curriculum

RaC

– reading as a fundamental mode of learning

– explicit teaching of reading to be integrated with teaching the curriculum

– students learning to read

• the subject matter of pedagogic texts

• the associated language patterns

(Martin & Rose, 2005) Academic

content awareness

+ Academic

language awareness

Speaking Writing

Language across the Curriculum

Listening Reading

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Things to consider when selecting reading texts…

 Variety of text types?

 Level of difficulty?

 Themes/Topics linked to the school English Language curriculum and  curricula of different KLAs?

 Easily adaptable?

 Appropriate tasks and activities can be designed accordingly?

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An example: Reading in History

 “Historical vocabulary” is difficult to students e.g. “Constitutional  Monarchy”, “Feudal System”.

 Reading primary sources may be challenging.

 Background knowledge is important to the understanding of the 

concepts e.g. “Thanksgiving”.

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Facilitating reading in History: An example

English for general purposes

Language Content

English for academic purposes

Book title: A Children’s Introduction to Art  Related KLA: History

Related topics in History: Life in Ancient Greece

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Collaborating with the School Library to  promote RaC

 suggest suitable books for promoting RaC

 organise learning activities collaboratively to 

 motivate students to read

 develop students’ reading skills 

 maintain an organised and encouraging reading environment

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 Books selected  with reference to the school English Language curriculum 

 Books on the same theme graded and put in the same box

 Books in a text set on the same theme written at different levels of difficulty

 facilitating spiral learning

Maintaining a class library to promote RaC

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Extended reading for Reading across the Curriculum

For the Junior Secondary Level

http://www.edb.gov.hk/attachment/en/curriculum‐development/kla/eng‐

edu/references‐resources/BL_for_KS3_2015.pdf

For the Senior Secondary Level

http://www.edb.gov.hk/attachment/en/curriculum‐development/kla/eng‐

edu/references‐resources/BL_for_KS4_2015.pdf

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Implementing Reading and Writing across the Curriculum‐

Designing Learning and T eaching Activities 

(53)

Design of learning and teaching activities

1) Explicit teaching of reading skills 2) Incorporating graphic organisers 3) Implementing e‐learning

4) Making use of storytelling

5) Enhancing students’ application of language knowledge and 

skills for non‐language subjects

(54)

1) Explicit teaching of reading skills: 

Prediction

 Anticipation Guide

A set of statements on the text for students to agree or  disagree with before reading and confirm if they are right  after reading

 KWL Chart

A chart with three columns “Know” (K), “Want to know” 

(W) and “Learnt” (L) that help students organise

information before, while, and after reading a text

(55)

1) Explicit teaching of reading skills: 

Working out the meaning of unfamiliar words

 Formation of words

 e.g. Guiding students to understand prefixes and suffixes

Students learning how words are formed

Students working out how other words are formed

Students guessing the meanings of unfamiliar words

(56)

1) Explicit teaching of reading skills 

Linkage to non‐language subjects

Example: 

After the concept “suffixes” is  covered in the English lessons, the  Integrated Science teachers 

introduce common suffixes that  can be found  in Science texts, such  as  ‘‐logy’ in ‘radiology’ and 

‘zoology’, and ‘‐ium’ in ‘sodium’ 

and ‘calcium’.

teach word formation in  English lessons

Re‐teach the concept and  guide students to understand  subject‐specific vocabulary  items in their lessons

English  Teachers

Non‐language 

Teachers

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1) Explicit teaching of reading skills: 

Think‐aloud

 Set the anchor chart

 Demonstrate the reading process to students  (in class or online access)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PKvaEPbOO9g

Anchor chart Verbalising the 

reading process Video

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 Graphic organisers are tools that help students:

 organise their thinking when reading

 deconstruct the texts to understand the concepts

 Examples: 

 Comparison Matrix

 Mind Map

http://www.sde.ct.gov/sde/lib/sde/pdf/curriculum/section7.pdf

2) Incorporating graphic organisers

(59)

 With proper use of graphic organisers, students can organise the 

concepts and language they have learnt and build associative networks  in their minds effectively .

59

2) Incorporating graphic organisers:

Rationale

(60)

 Comparison matrix 

Graphic organisers that help students make comparison and contrast

 Mind map

Guide students to organise the ideas presented in the text with mind maps

2) Incorporating graphic organisers:

(61)

Activity 1

 Design a graphic organiser for students to complete to help them 

understand the main ideas of the text “Ahead of their time”.

(62)

3) Implementing e‐learning

e‐Learning:

 To arouse students’ learning motivation

 To develop students’ new literacy skills

(63)

Reading

Content

Topic

Choice of vocabulary Organisation

Text type

Text structure within & across  paragraphs

Language features

Choice of grammar items & 

structures

Purposeful communication

Writing

Digital Multi‐

modal texts

audio

visual text

3) Implementing e‐learning

(64)

 Appropriate books about science experiments are selected.

 Students learn how to present steps with “imperatives” and “connectives  of sequence”.

 Students record a science experiment they choose.

3) Implementing e‐learning

Science experiment recording

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4) Making use of storytelling

Storytelling:

 an appealing way to transmit information

 support exploration in other curriculum areas

https://www.storyarts.org/lessonplans/acrosscurriculum/

(66)

 Subject‐specific vocabulary:

Arachne, Athena, Tapestry, Shuttle

Language:

Past tense

Language 

Development Content 

Development

Reading and Writing about

“Arachne”

 Subject‐related content:

Greek Myth

(67)

Suggestions for 

conducting storytelling across the curriculum

Before storytelling:

Predict content from a picture, a diagram, or other visuals

Activate students’ prior knowledge

• Guide students to  make prediction

• Recount a personal  story related to the  text

During storytelling:

• Use presentation  slides, pictures or  relevant props

Invite students to mimic the actions of the characters

Ask stimulating questions

• Connect the story to  students’ life 

experience

• Pause and predict

After storytelling:

• Invite students to act  out part of the story  or discuss the events  of the story

• Teach reading skills  by exploiting the  story

• Provide students  with creative writing  tasks

• Introduce books or 

texts related to the 

theme or content of 

the story

(68)

Activity 2

 Watch the video and discuss the rationale behind the design of  the storytelling activities.

Video watching –

Storytelling: Arachne

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Rationale behind 

the design of the storytelling activities

 Adopt a multi‐sensory approach to cater for learner diversity

 Engage students in the storytelling 

 Connect students’ learning experience in History / PSHE

 ?

(70)

Safety rules School facilities &

rules (OE Unit 2)

Writing safety rules for the lab Writing rules & regulations for other school facilities

English for Academic Purposes English for General Purposes

Integrated Science English Language

Imperatives

To give advice

Rules/ regulations

5) Enhancing students’ application of language knowledge and skills for non-language subjects

• Lab equipment

• Apparatus

School facilities

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English for General Purposes (EGP)

English for Academic Purposes (EAP) (Science)

Context/

Theme

School facilities and rules Lab safety – Dos & don’ts

Text Type Rules

Target

Vocabulary + Vocabulary building skills

• Vocabulary related to school facilities

• Action verbs, e.g. eat, drink, listen, raise

• Names of lab equipment, e.g. beaker, dropper, goggles

• Action verbs, e.g. close (the air hole), handle, wash, wear (goggles)

• The suffix “-er”, as in “burner“,

“dropper”, “holder”

Target grammar items

Imperatives with or without circumstances, e.g.

• Do not run in the corridor.

• Be attentive when the teacher is talking.

• Do not fall asleep during the lessons.

Imperatives (with circumstances), e.g.

• Wear a pair of safety goggles when heating substances.

• When we heat something with a Bunsen burner, always point the test- tube away from ourselves and our classmates.

Task Writing rules and regulations for school function rooms using the imperatives

Writing lab safety rules using the imperatives

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Pedagogical Considerations

Equipping students with learning strategies relevant to the learning of particular topics, e.g. use of graphic organisers

Highlighting the explicit and consistent use of target language forms to explore content with students

Guiding students to read and write the text by encouraging more teacher-student/ student- student interactions for the development of language skills

Lessons structured in a cyclical manner (spiral learning) to provide multiple opportunities for students to explore and revisit content and content-related language

Design of learning and teaching activities

(73)

Books for reference:

Book title: Language Across the Curriculum & 

CLIL in English as an Additional  Language (EAL) Contexts

Author: 

Angel M.Y. Lin

Book title: Cross‐curricular Resources 

for Young Learners

Author: 

Immacolata Calabrese & 

Silvana Rampone

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References

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