the Curriculum the Curriculum

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Case Sharing on Whole

Case Sharing on Whole--school school Approach to Language across Approach to Language across

the Curriculum the Curriculum

Hoi Ping Chamber of Commerce Secondary School Mr. Kong Siu Wing

Ms. Leong Yuk Ping Ms. Tam Kit Ying

24th November, 2012

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Agenda of presentation Agenda of presentation

SWOT of our school

5W1H of our whole school LAC

How whole-school it is?

Subject-specific case sharing – History Department

Future plans

Suggestions for whole-school approaches

Q & A session

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• ‘ no matter what focus they choose, schools must first have a clear understanding of their context. They should look at their strengthsstrengths without

overlooking their weaknessesweaknesses, and see these overlooking their weaknessesweaknesses, and see these as opportunitiesopportunities to make sure that the

threats

threats from the increasingly competitive

external environment do not materialize.’ (Leung,

2011)

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Everyday English is used in the English Curriculum

whereas Academic Decline of English standards

Decline of English standards

among Hong Kong students and teachers –

failing

failing to observe the importance in Academic English

(Braine & McNaught, 2007)

Heavy Examination

centered – teachers focused on a heavy dosage of

examination practice, model answers and examination tips. (Lee,

2004)

whereas Academic English is required in

content subjects. (Lin, 2011)

, 2007) (Braine & McNaught, 2007)

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Decline in Language=Decline in Knowledge?

Decline in Language=Decline in Knowledge?

• Language are the building blocks of cognitive development

• ‘…… children first build on what they know before language, and then use language as well use language as well in

Content teaching

then use language as well use language as well in constructing additional additional

categories

categories’ (Clark, E.V. 2004)

▫ adding in systemic teaching of

academic language skills helps in further developing the

knowledge structure

Language input and consolidation

Knowledge structure

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• English curriculum – focuses on everyday English

▫ Limited catering for academic English

• Content subject curriculum – no systematic coverage on communication skills

▫ Focuses on examination content but not skills

▫ Focuses on examination content but not skills practice

▫ The heavy content-based learning shifts students’

focus of learning

• Limited collaboration among language subjects and content subjects

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Refined English Enhancement Scheme (11-13)

▫ The importance of language in content subjects has been aroused

▫ Collaboration among subjects are introduced

▫▫ A platform for LACA platform for LAC

▫▫ A platform for LACA platform for LAC

Measures in REES Measures in REES

Trial LAC lessons in

various subjects

Summer Bridging Programme

Reading across the curriculum

Professional development

of teachers in LAC

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Trial LAC lessons

• Process writing

▫ Used in Home Economics, PE and Science

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On top of REES, how can we do better?

On top of REES, how can we do better?

• Our LAC trial lessons have worked on various topics, but they are echoing the same theme – academic writing

• E.g. definitions, essay writing, data descriptions, process writing

process writing

• Some are even overlappedoverlapped

▫ E.g. Essay writing in Biology and Essay writing in History

▫ E.g. Process writing in Home Economics and in Science

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Catering for similar knowledge structures Catering for similar knowledge structures

Compare Contrast Comment Discuss

Describe Deduce Define Elaborate

Evaluate Explain Estimate Illustrate Identify Indicate Interpret Justify

E.g. Question Verbs used in public exam questions

Identify Indicate Interpret Justify

Propose Outline Suggest State

Source: HKDSE Sample Papers

解釋 論述 列舉 分析

析論 比較 援引 說明

抒發 論證 評論 舉述

印證 析述

Similar academic language should be used

Similar academic language should be used

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After evaluating and researching After evaluating and researching

NSS set a pretty high standard for the language communication skills, WHICH IS ACTUALLY ACADEMIC LANGUAGE PATTERNS.

NSS needs a good language base to build up knowledge structure

 should start from Junior Secondary

 should start from Junior Secondary

‘Working on Language Across the Curriculum involves seeing language as everyone’s responsibility.as everyone’s responsibility. Everyone uses language to communicate – subject content

teachers also need to communicate.’ (Leung, 2011) Who should be doing?

Who should be doing?

English Teachers? Content Subject Teachers?

English Teachers? Content Subject Teachers?

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5W1H of our whole

5W1H of our whole--school approach school approach

When

Why What

‘To enhance the generic generic academic language skills academic language skills of

students through Language Across the Curriculum (LAC)’

2012-2015

Major Concern

Where

Who How

Across the Curriculum (LAC)’

All subjects in our school including language subjects and content subjects

Stakeholders:

Teachers, Students, Parents

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An extension of ‘who’

An extension of ‘who’

• Setting up of the development team for LAC including members of language and content subjects.

• Members:

Chairperson

• Academic Vice-principal

Chairperson and Promoter

• 3 English Teachers

• 1 Chinese Teacher

Trainers

• Liberal Studies

• Mathematics

• History

• Integrated Science

Coordinators

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Details of our plan

Details of our plan –– How? How?

• To train up various academic language skills to facilitate learning in non-language subjects

• To enhance teachers’ awareness of pedagogy and strategies of subjects to facilitate LAC

and strategies of subjects to facilitate LAC

• To provide opportunities for students to develop/demonstrate academic language skills

• To cultivate an atmosphere that is conducive to students’ learning generic academic language skills

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Strategies Whole-

school

Subject Specific

Implement Content and Language Integrated Learning

V

Implement subject specific theme based LAC V Develop assessment rubrics for subjects V

Conduct professional development programmes for V Conduct professional development programmes for

teachers

V

Share good practices of LAC strategies V

Organize Academic activities (e.g. Project Learning) V Introduce self-learning vocabulary log-book V

Conduct Reading across the Curriculum V

Design and set-up subject corners V

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Highlights 1.

Highlights 1.

Content and Language Integrated Learning Content and Language Integrated Learning

‘CLIL is a dual-focused educational approach in which an additional language is used for the learning and an additional language is used for the learning and teaching

teaching of both content and language.’ (Meshito, March & Frigols, 2009)

Our school’s context

▫ Additional language – academic language and text structure

▫ Highlight and teach explicitly in English lessons

▫ Apply and consolidate in content subject lessons Needs

Needs Analysis Analysis

Curriculum Curriculum

Mapping Mapping

LAC LAC

curriculum curriculum framework framework

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Curriculum mapping and Framework

T1A1 T1A2 T2A1 T2A2

S1 Definition Procedure Description (trends, figures, events)

Explanation

S2 Cause and Effect Compare and Contrast

Making References Exemplification

S3 Problem &

Solution

Argumentation Discussion/

Evaluation

Introduction of

‘essay’

S4 Description (trends, figures,

Structure of essay

Methods of Elaboration I

Methods of Elaboration II (trends, figures,

events,

procedures)

essay Elaboration I Elaboration II

S5 Counter-

argument

Discussion and Evaluation

Useful sentence structures I

Useful sentence structures II

S6 Analysis of model essays of different types/ subjects

年份 年份 年份

年份 主題主題主題主題 推行級別推行級別推行級別推行級別

2012-2013 解說語體 各級

2013-2014 比較語體 2014-2015 論說語體

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Planning Planning

1. Knowing the needs

▫ S1 students

 New to English learning environment

 Have accumulated a multitude of vocabularies of various subjects

▫ Content-subject Teachers

Take S1Module 1 - Definition Writing as

an example

 Would like to focus on content teaching

 Expect English teachers should have taught related language skills

2. Map with S1 syllabus

▫ Teaches the use of dictionaries (English)

▫ No explicit highlight on defining words

▫ Students are meeting a large pile of definitions in various content subjects

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Formula for writing definitions Formula for writing definitions

Item

Item + verb + class class (descriptions (descriptions of

of class) class) + relative pronoun + special

special features features

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• Browse two terms from the following subject areas respectively:

1. Mathematics

2. Integrated Science

3. Humanities (including History, Geography, Life and Society)

and Society)

4. Cultural Subjects (PE, VA, Music, HE, IT)

• Rewrite the definitions of the terms

in your in your own words.

own words.

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Assessment in various subjects Assessment in various subjects

‘ content teachers need to supportsupport the learning of those parts of language knowledge that students are missing and that may be preventing them mastering the content.’ (Meshito, March & Frigols, 2009)

e.g. Life and Society Test paper

e.g. Life and Society Test paper

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Highlights 2.

Highlights 2.

Vocabulary Log

Vocabulary Log--book book

• Building a general

academic vocabulary base on the academic

text they have read

• Goal: No subject boundaries

▫ words learnt in one

subject is also applicable in another subject

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The words can be learnt in this page:

Chop (v.) Slice (v./n.) Shell (v.)

Consistency (n.) Crush (v.)

Recipe

Recipe

–– from Home Economicsfrom Home Economics

Crush (v.) Spread (v.)

Spreading (v/adj) Mixture (n.)

Diagonally (adv.) Serve (v.)

Garnish (v.)

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Students’ sample

Students’ sample -- Mathematics Mathematics

• General vocabulary – vocabularies that can be used in other academic context

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Highlights 3.

Highlights 3.

Reading across the curriculum (RAC) Reading across the curriculum (RAC)

• Promote reading across the curriculum

▫ Promote leisure reading of non-fiction books among various subjects

▫ Incorporate ‘reading’ in teaching – language subject

▫ Incorporate ‘reading’ in teaching – language subject and content subject

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Examples for reading materials

Examples for reading materials

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From leisure to academic

From leisure to academic

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Language Focus

Language Focus

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Highlights 4.

Highlights 4.

Sharing of good practices Sharing of good practices

• Conduct sharing sessions of good LAC practices

▫ Peer learning is encouraged among colleagues

• Invite speakers for workshops and seminars of LAC pedagogy

LAC pedagogy

• Encourage colleagues to attend seminars and workshops from EdB and Universities

‘Achievements of students and teachers need to be highlighted’ (Meshito, March & Frigols, 2009)

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Professional Development Day Professional Development Day

• Ideas and experiences in forming LAC strategies has been shared

• Inspired colleagues and encourage more

collaboration collaboration

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Whole-school and/VS subject specific

• Subject specific approaches are still necessary under a whole school approach

▫ Cater for individual variance in terms of subject requirements

▫ E.g. data description

▫ E.g. data description

 Economics (presentation of general trend) VS.

Liberal Studies (presentation of general trend + pointing out the issue in general

pointing out the issue in general)

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History Department

•This happened …

HPCCSS History Department LYP

•This happened …

because of …

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Why change?

• Each year the poor performance of students in various tests and

examinations reminds us of the

HPCCSS History Department LYP

examinations reminds us of the

importance of Language in all areas of the curriculum.

• Language learning is a process that is

inseparable from the process of thinking

itself.

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Nature of Change

• Significantly improves student learning?

• Can be implemented by individual

teacher and by the whole department?

HPCCSS History Department LYP

teacher and by the whole department?

• Requires little adjustment?

• Comes with helpful resources?

Teachers are to be involved and

consulted to arouse their sense of

ownership.

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How to start?

• Research before taking action

• What are the problems/difficulties students are facing?

HPCCSS History Department LYP

students are facing?

• What are the problems/difficulties teachers are facing?

• Categorize the common problems.

• Stratify the above difficulties and

problems.

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Where to start?

•Understanding of the concepts/questions

HPCCSS History Department LYP

concepts/questions

•Presentation of

ideas/answers

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HKDSE Requirements

• Four Data-based Questions

• Two-Essay-type questions

• SBA-A study report of 1500-

HPCCSS History Department LYP

• SBA-A study report of 1500- 3000 words

Very demanding for students 

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Let’s try!

•Start with a question word?

•Start with a concept?

HPCCSS History Department LYP

•Start with a concept?

•Start with a skill?

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Steps taken

•Cut the syllabus

•Chose a specific topic

HPCCSS History Department LYP

•Chose a specific topic

•Find a partner

•Share with colleagues

•Tailor-made materials

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S1

•Bridging

•Focus on Historical

HPCCSS History Department LYP

•Focus on Historical

Concepts

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Cause & Effect Relationship

Definition

What is the meaning of the word ‘Cause”?

Cause (n)

HPCCSS History Department LYP

Cause (n)

• Synonyms: factor; seed; root; origin; source; reason;

maker; producer

Cause (v)

• Bring about; give rise to; lead to; create; generate;

provoke

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Cause & Effect Relationship

What is the meaning of the word

‘Effects’?

Effect (n)

HPCCSS History Department LYP

Effect (n)

• Synonyms: impact; result; influence;

consequence; outcome; product; fruit;

• Effect (v)

• Bring about; make happen

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From Vocabulary to Concept

HPCCSS History Department LYP

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Concept

HPCCSS History Department LYP

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Concept

HPCCSS History Department LYP

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Clue/signal Words

• There are several words that give clues to the cause and effect

relationship:

HPCCSS History Department LYP

relationship:

Since, because, therefore, so, as a result, consequently

• Help kids identify these words in textbook to help find the two

components of the relationship.

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Drawing Timeline

• Timelines are an easy way to document causal relationships.

HPCCSS History Department LYP

document causal relationships.

• The events that fall first of the

timeline are often the causes of

events that fall further down the

timeline

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S3-S6

•To what extent was

Nationalism a major cause

HPCCSS History Department LYP

Nationalism a major cause

leading to the outbreak of

WWI?

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S3-S6

Understanding

Concept1: Nationalism Concept 2: Cause

HPCCSS History Department LYP

Concept 2: Cause Generic Skill:

To what extent

Presentation: Essay Format

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HPCCSS History Department LYP

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HPCCSS History Department LYP

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HPCCSS History Department LYP

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HPCCSS History Department LYP

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HPCCSS History Department LYP

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Presentation

HPCCSS History Department LYP

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Role

•Discuss the role of

Germany in leading to

HPCCSS History Department LYP

Germany in leading to

the outbreak of WWI?

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Role

HPCCSS History Department LYP

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HPCCSS History Department LYP

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HPCCSS History Department LYP

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Role list

• Protector of human liberty

• Savior of continental Europe

• Settler of international conflicts

• Peacekeeper

HPCCSS History Department LYP

• Peacekeeper

• Leader

• Pacifier

• Planner

• Aggressor

• Honest broker

• Provoker

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Some findings after taking action

• Understanding of vocabulary ≠ translation in Chinese

• Difficult to explain ≠ no need to

HPCCSS History Department LYP

• Difficult to explain ≠ no need to explain

• Concepts without answer ≠ no need to discuss with students

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• Learning experience is very important for students

HPCCSS History Department LYP

important for students

• Concept building is time-

consuming but worth doing

• Thinking path is important

for presentation

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Future Plans

Modifications on teaching & learning strategies Modifications on teaching & learning strategies

Provide samples and assistance for the consolidation of CLIL in various content subjects

Focus subject specific LAC on senior form content subjects so that more exam techniques can be catered

Following up vocabulary log-book – the related

Following up vocabulary log-book – the related assessments

More variations on learning-related activities

Training up of generic skills Training up of generic skills

Start off with language and communication skills

Building blocks and platforms for the development of other skills

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Future Plans

Promotion of collaboration Promotion of collaboration

More collaboration and communication among various departments e.g. LAC common lesson preparation

A platform for knowledge sharing and working together

Sustainable resources can be built up and sustainable

Sustainable resources can be built up and sustainable relationships

‘As teachers become adept at co-operating in the delivery of CLIL programming, they actually find that this co- operation can relieve stress, save time and bring

considerable personal and professional rewards.’

(Meshito, March & Frigols, 2009)

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Suggestions for implementing whole-school LAC

Planning and Management

• Every school will have different needs in LAC

▫ Understand the SWOT of your school

▫ Considerations: School’s MOI, intended learning outcomes of students, scale of project, possible funding and

resources

Support from the school’s leaders

• Support from the school’s leaders

▫ Persuade them the importance and ask for their favor in promoting

• Involvement of staff

▫ participation of subjects & possible staff &

department for collaboration

▫ staff development

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Curriculum Design

• Always PIE

▫ Plan – understand the needs first

▫ Implementation– take more pilot teststake more pilot tests

▫ Evaluation – think whether the actions taken are

Suggestions for implementing whole school LAC

▫ Evaluation – think whether the actions taken are really ‘down to earth’

• Collaboration and discussion among various departments are necessary

▫ easier to figure out a mutual need

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Suggestions on how to promote promote LAC

Teachers Teachers

Introduce the related assessment criteria to them

to gain mutual understanding

Understand the needs of

Parents Parents

Introduce the related assessment criteria to

them to gain mutual understanding

Students Students

Include the related language skills as one of the criteria in assessing their

academic performance Understand the needs of

colleagues in various disciplines

Invite experts for professional development Encourage collaboration and

sharing

understanding

Ask for collaboration in encouraging students’

self-learning

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Conclusion Conclusion

• ‘CLIL (LAC) (LAC) students develop metalinguistic

awareness. This means that they are better able to compare languages and be more precise in to compare languages and be more precise in their word choice and in passing on the content of their message’ (Meshito, March & Frigols,

2009)

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Q & A Session Q & A Session

Special Thanks to:

Special Thanks to:

• HKU LAC Course Team

• Education Bureau

Thank you very much for your kind attention!

For enquiries, please contact tamfion@gmail.com (Ms.Tam Kit Ying)

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References

Braine, G. & McNaught, C. (2007). Adaptation of the ‘Writing Acorss Curriculum’

Model to the Hong Kong Context. In J. Liu (Ed.), English language teaching in China: New Approaches, perspectives and standards. 311-328.

Burns, A. & Richards, J.C. (2012). Introduction – Pedagogy and Practice in

Second Language Teaching: An Overview of the Issues. In Cambridge Guide to Second Language Teaching. New York: Cambridge University Press. 1-12.

Clark, E. V. (2004). How language acquisition builds on cognitive development. In TRENDS in Cognitive Science, 8(10). USA

Lee, I. (2004) Error correction in L2 Secondary writing classrooms: The case of Hong Kong. Journal of Second Language Writing, 13(4), 285-312.

Lee, I. (2004) Error correction in L2 Secondary writing classrooms: The case of Hong Kong. Journal of Second Language Writing, 13(4), 285-312.

Leung, S. (2011). Challenge 4. Maximising the benefits of the medium of instruction (MOI) fine-tuning arrangments. In Task Force on Language Support, Education Bureau, (2011). The Language Teaching Album:A

Collection of School-based Practices. Education Bureau, Hong Kong. 283-301 Lin, A. (2011). Language Across the Curriculum. Unpublished PowerPoint

Presentation. The University of Hong Kong.

Man, E. & Yuen, M. (2006). Developing a language-across-the-curriculum approach in English-medium schools: setting the stage for a School-Based Professional Development Programme. Manuscript. The Education Bureau.

Meshito, P. , Marsh, D. & Frigols, M. J. (2009). Uncovering CLIL – Content and Language Integrated Learning in Bilingual and Multilingual Education.

Macmillan Education. Oxford, United Kingdom.

Vollmer, H. J. (2006). Language Acorss the Curriculum – A way towards Plurilingualism. Manuscript. Universität Osnabrück, Germany.

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