建構應用程式的使用者價值脈絡

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國 立 交 通 大 學

應 用 藝 術 研 究 所

碩 士 論 文

建構健康應用程式的使用者價值脈絡

User-Value-Based Approach for Wellness Application Software Design

研 究 生 王育婕

指導教授 鄧怡莘 博士

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建構健康應用程式的使用者價值脈絡

User-Value-Based Approach for Wellness Application Software Design

研 究 生:王育婕

指導教授:鄧怡莘 博士

Student: Yu-Chieh Wang Advisor: Dr. Yi-Shin Deng Ph.D.

國 立 交 通 大 學

應 用 藝 術 研 究 所

碩 士 論 文

A Thesis

Submitted to Institute of Applied Arts

College of Humanities and Social Science

National Chiao Tung University

In Partial Fulfillment of Requirements

For the Degree of Master of Arts in Design

July 2011

Hsinchu, Taiwan, Republic of China

中 華 民 國 一百 年 七 月

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I

摘要

在現今社會中,漫長的工作時數,過多加工的飲食習慣,緊湊的生活步 調和運動習慣的缺乏,讓人們的生活方式漸趨於不健康。因應這樣的情形,越來 越多的科技發明被應用於健康保健之中。能夠隨身攜帶並做高效能處理運算的智 慧手機,裝載運動健康相關應用程式,便是其一之應用。 然而,在這全新的領域中, 使用者對於健康的態度與價值仍未被完整建立, 同時,現有產品的設計元素該如何轉換至手機平台中也仍是個考驗。因此,本研 究之目的為提供一個探討使用者需求與價值,從而發展對應設計手法的脈絡架構, 並以健康應用程式做為研究主題。 本研究根據方法-目的理論(Means-end theory),進行階梯訪談,從現有健康 服務的屬性項目,往下深入探究使用者所在乎的價值與需求,同時,由現有的應 用程式軟體使用經驗分享,發掘能夠提供給使用者正面情緒的形容詞感受。由訪 談結果,我們將受訪者在陳述感受時有關於情緒的形容詞提出,以此作為關鍵詞, 將現有健康服務產品知覺圖中,有關健康價值的階層,與手機應用程式產品知覺 圖中有關功能感受的階層做合併,並於圖中之關係鍊加上影響程度權重,最終獲 得一個整合後的健康應用程式知覺圖P-HVM。設計師們可以從中看出使用者在 健康保健中所在意的價值觀,與能夠滿足這些需求的情緒感受,因而從此發展相 符的設計元素於手機健康應用程式中。 而本研究所規劃探究使用價值的脈絡結構,不僅僅適用於手機應用程式設計 規畫,同時可應用於創新領域之設計發展,當設計師面對一個全新的設計環境時, 藉由現有產品的使用經驗,結合該場域的需求價值,可進而推衍出符合使用者價 值的設計。 關鍵字: 使用者經驗設計、以價值中心設計、應用程式軟體設計、方法-目的理論、 健康應用程式

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II

Abstract

In contemporary society, the alarmingly growing numbers of people around the world are living a physically inactive life style. To cope with this problem, Wellness application software is designed to support health promotion. However, in this newly developed field, the users’ values haven’t investigated extensively, and the design strategy hasn’t delivered to help transforming the existing product attributes into new design opportunities. Therefore, the aim of this study attempts to provide a process that can help designers better determine users’ needs in the new field, and investigate the design factors match targeted values.

This research is undertaken through interviews by the method of Means-end theory to define users’ values from the existing wellness services, and also the consequences from the usage of other popular applications. Based on the previous result, the study uses the emotional consequences as key nodes to cross the value part of the Hierarchical Value Maps from wellness domain and the consequences part of the HVM from applications field, and adds the influential weights, determined from quantitative survey, on the linkages to carry out the proposed HVM, P-HVM.

The finding is delivered with values that are the basis knowledge of users’ attitude toward wellness, the consequences employed as corresponding design factors for wellness APPs and the approach to conduct crossing process to attain the proposed HVM, which can be applied for valued-based design.

Keywords:

User Experience, Value-Centered Design, Means-end Theory, Laddering, Wellness Promotion, Application Software design

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III

誌謝

三年的研究生涯結束了,回首這些日子,能夠進入交大應藝所是一件幸福又幸運 的事,其中最甚,便是遇到我的指導教授鄧老師。 很謝謝老師您這些日子來的教導,無論是在課業或是生活中,您總是開啟了讓我” 思考”的途徑,在每一次寶貴的學習、比賽與實習機會,都讓我熱愛自己所學, 以及對自我更加肯定。而您對於學生的關心以及獨具個人風格的生活哲學,也讓 我既尊敬又崇拜,就算畢業了,也一定要常常回去”吵”您和師母,繼續向您學習 更多又酷又好玩的知識以及生活方式! 此外,我也要謝謝這三年來遇到的每位老 師,帶領我們進入設計之門的林老師,在論文上給予我很多建議的莊老師以及成 大的簡老師,謝謝您們的指導與意見,讓我鞭策自己更加努力與進步。 在所上遇到的每一位同學,都是我最美好的回憶,我們共度了許多快樂時光,分 享了彼此瘋狂的創意與念頭,最重要的是,從你們身上我學到了太多太多。謝謝 學長姐雨虹和晨豪,在你們帶領的 project 中,我快速的學會許多設計與研究方 法,也體會一個好的團隊該如何運作;謝謝我的好夥伴菁妏和承捷,你們對於事 情全力以赴的精神讓我激勵自己,同時在每一次合作,我們總能激盪出一些火花, 更形成了難能可貴的默契;謝謝一起努力做計劃的大毛和俊全,從你們身上,我 學到了許多設計師的思維,讓我跳脫自己以往的框臼;謝謝論文路上你我他的千 慧和珂莆,你們的鼓勵加油,貼心提醒與打點,讓我有更多精力奮鬥;謝謝我最 可愛的朋友們,歐佩、快哥、泳帽、熊貓人與威廉,支持我度過每個苦悶又頹廢 喪志的日子,幫我找論文受訪者,強迫朋友幫我填問卷,陪我聊天陪我玩耍,內 心只有滿滿的感激與珍惜。還有 IAA 中的每一份子,你們的美好與獨特,讓身為 其中之一的我,也能以此感到光榮與驕傲。 最感謝我的爸媽與姊姊,永遠支持我,相信我,以及以我為榮,無論是喪氣或是 歡笑的時刻,永遠都站在我的身後,給我滿滿的愛,當我的最佳聽眾與支持者, 謝謝您們。 最後,我要謝謝在做使用者研究的這些日子裡,所有參與的受訪者,謝謝你們和 我分享你們的故事與經驗,在每一段聆聽與互動中,我學習,也體會了許多。 王育婕 謹誌 中華民過一百年七月

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IV

Contents

Chapter 1 ...VI 1.1 Background ... 1 1.2 Motivation ... 3 1.3 Objectives ... 5 1.4 Outline of thesis ... 6 Chapter 2 ... 8

2.1 The research scope of Wellness ... 8

2.2 Potential of mobile technologies ... 10

2.3 Design factors of wellness applications ... 11

2.4 Experience and Values ... 13

2.4.1 Value in marketing sciences... 14

2.4.2 Values in psychology ... 14

2.4.3 Users’ values ... 16

2.4.4 Summary ... 16

2.5 Laddering the experience ... 17

2.5.1 Skills for attaining values ... 17

2.5.2 Hierarchical Value Map ... 18

2.5.3 Related works ... 19

2.6 Summary ... 20

Chapter 3 ... 21

3.1 Framework ... 21

3.2 Recruiting the research participants ... 23

3.3 Conducting interviews to ladder users’ values ... 23

3.3.1 Introducing existing wellness services as attributes ... 24

3.3.2 Interviewing with laddering skills ... 27

3.3.3 Sharing the APPs experiences ... 28

3.4 The requirement of proposed HVM ... 28

3.5 Summary ... 29

Chapter 4 ... 30

4.1 Building HVMs from interviews ... 30

4.1.1 Setting attributes ... 30

4.2 Developing P-HVM ... 35

4.2.1 Sorting consequences ... 35

4.2.2 Crossing the HVMs ... 36

4.2.3 Weighting the P-HVM ... 38

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V 4.3 Result... 42 4.3.1 Positive Consequences ... 42 4.3.2 Negative Consequences ... 46 4.3.3 Values ... 48 4.4 Summary ... 49 Chapter 5 ... 50

5.1 Users’ values in the wellness ... 50

5.1.1 The gradual progress in the wellness ... 51

5.1.2 The efficiency in the wellness ... 52

5.1.3 The motivation can lead to better performance in the wellness ... 54

5.1.4 The quality in the wellness ... 55

5.2 Consequences as design opportunities for wellness APPs ... 56

5.2.1 The functional consequences ... 56

5.2.2 The emotional consequences ... 58

5.3 A design method with P-HVM ... 60

5.3.1 The structure of the P-HVM ... 60

5.3.2 The guidelines of conducting the process of HVM crossing ... 62

5.4 How to use the P-HVM for design ... 67

5.4.1 Setting the research subjects ... 67

5.5 Summary ... 69

Chapter 6 ... 71

6.1 Conclusion and Contribution ... 71

6.2 Research Limitations ... 73

6.3 Outlook & Future Direction ... 74

Reference ... 75

Appendix A ... 80

Appendix B ... 81

Appendix C ... 85

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VI

Table Content

Table 2-1 the Maslow’s hierarchy of needs ...15

Table 2-2 the six levels of the means-end chain ...18

Table 3-1 participants profile ...23

Table 3-2 the type of Gyms ...25

Table 3-3 the type of Information Record ...25

Table 3-4 the type of Detection ...26

Table 3-5 the type of Health promotion ...26

Table 4-1 the functional consequences related to “Sharing”……….………...39

Table 4-2 the emotional consequences related to “Progress”……….…….………40

Table 4-3 the positive functional consequences ...44

Table 4-4 the positive emotional consequences ...45

Table 4-5 the negative functional consequences ...47

Table 4-6 the negative emotional consequences ...48

Table 4-7 the values in the wellness ...49

Table 5-1 Values table ...51

Table 5-2 persona of target users ...67

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VII

Figure Content

Figure 1-1 the user interface of Healthy Store and Micoach ...3

Figure 2-1 the wellness model ...9

Figure 2-2 the diagram of users’ values ...16

Figure 3-1 the research structure ...22

Figure 3-2 three stages of the interview ...24

Figure 3-3 the situation of grouping and comparing the case cards... 28

Figure 4-1 three types of attributes ...31

Figure 4-2 the HVM of two wellness APPs from participant 1………..……….32

Figure 4-3 the HVM of six wellness services from participant 1………33

Figure 4-4 the HVM of other APPs from participant 1…………...……….………34

Figure 4-5 the HVMs of three subjects... 36

Figure 4-6 crossing the HVMs to attain P-HVM ...37

Figure 4-7 the structure of P-HVM ...38

Figure 4-8 the HVM of value “Quality” …………..….………..………... 41

Figure 4-9 the HVM of value “Effectiveness”………..……….………. 42

Figure 5-1 three aspects of discussion in this chapter ...50

Figure 5-2 the structure of P-HVM ...60

Figure 5-3 the comparison of the structures ...61

Figure 5-4 steps of conducting a P-HVM for design ...62

Figure 5-5 the process of HVMs crossing ...65

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Chapter 1

Introduction

According to the alarmingly growing number of people around the world living a physically inactive life style, science and technologies have been developed nowadays to encourage wellness involvement, for example, the emergence of mobile applications is taking on the role to help and manage our wellness habits. With the shifting focus in human-computer interaction, designers put more emphasis on bringing good user experience due to targeted users’ values, instead of delivering various functionalities. Thus, how to apply these inherent values into the using context of newly developed industry is an emerging issue that we should place more importance on.

1.1 Background

In the modern society, people‘s life style is characterized by physically inactive with lacking of exercise, nutrition imbalanced caused by unhealthy eating habit, and high stress level due to the prolonged working hours. The kind of living style will cause diseases, such as overweight, obesity, cardiovascular and diabetes, which becoming global problems, since they are increasing observed not only in the

developed world, but also the developing world (Ahtinen, Ramiah, Blom, & Isomursu, 2008).

According to the investigation, there are about 44.1% Taiwanese are overweight or obese; in which male ratio is 50.8% and female ratio is 36.9%. Besides, among the ten major causes of death in Taiwan, there are seven causes of death associated with

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obesity, which include cancer, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, diabetes, chronic lower respiratory diseases, chronic liver disease and chronic kidney disease. In addition, obesity can also lead to degenerative arthritis, metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemia and hypertension (DOH, 2008).

To cope with these problems, Wellness technologies and application software are designed to support wellness promotion. They track, maintain and motivate users’ health lives management, such as heart rate monitors, step counters and sport related web portals. Technological devices and applications can act as persuaders on wellness promotion domain, especially mobile ones, which can be kept along all the time, allowing timely suggestions and reminds (Ahtinenet al., 2009).

In Taiwan, the most popular mobile device is mobile phones. A research of Institute for Information Industry (2009) shows that the penetration rate of mobile users in 2009 was 116.6%, which shows that mobile phones have become an important part of people’s everyday lives. Users consider their mobile phones personal and private that they store various types of information on their phones, such as the contact information of family and friends, messages, photos, and videos (Srivastava, 2005). With the growing advances in telecommunications, mobile phones have evolved into smartphones, a convergence between phone and

handheld computer. Smartphones are predominately communication devices, with additional computing power built in, which usually allows the user to install and run more advanced application software, which also known as an application or an "APP". Thus, smartphones run complete operating system software providing a platform for application developers, including the wellness promotion ones.

Based on varied aspects of mobile technologies, there are different kinds of health care and fitness related mobile applications nowadays. They proposed

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attitudes and attract them to form the habit of taking exercise. For example, Healthy Store is an application on Apple’s App store, it can help users manage three

important health data through wireless internet, including BMI, blood pressure, glucose data, and generate charts and advices based on the changes. Micoach, presented by Adidas, is an application use GPS to record the distance, calories consumption, elapsed time and real-time voice guidance while you are running. In short, the practicality and functionality of wellness applications are definitely a popular topic newly rise in the field of mobile technology.

Fig. 1-1 the user interface of Healthy Store and Micoach

1.2 Motivation

The related studies show that wellness applications can have positive impacts on users to involve in physically activities (Arteaga, Kudeki, Woodworth, & Kurniawan, 2010) (Anderson et al., 2007).

Nevertheless, during another wellness service design project, The Innovative Design of Wellness Services, we wanted to know users’ attitude toward wellness and apply it to design. Thus, we showed three interviewees nine existent wellness

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and wellness APPs, to let them choose according to their preference. Surprisingly, they all indicated that the wellness applications, Nike+ and Micoach, are the last services attract them to use. We couldn’t help but start thinking that since so many researches claim the positive impacts of wellness applications, why users still refuse to use them?

A substantial body of research explains the tendency of the situation.

In the past decade, the focus in Human Computer Interaction has shifted from usability parameters to emotions and experiences (Bødker, 2006). Abeele and Zaman (2009) provided an excellent review that designing for the user experience requires considering the full meaning an artifact holds for a user, which leads to the question “How do products features relate to personal values?”

Cockton (2004) highly recommended that designing user experience is designing for users’ value. Designers should understand what is valued by a system’s

stakeholders and support them by delivering this value, which is suggested to be reached from the Means-End Theory (Gutman & Reynold, 1988). Means-End Theory specifically focuses on the linkages between the attributes that exist in products (the means), the consequences for the consumer provided by the attributes, and attains the personal values (the ends) that the consequences fulfill.

However, in a whole new area that users haven’t built up their value system yet, how do we deliver a good and corresponding experience?

In recent years, according to the growth of the rise of smartphones, it brings up trends of APPs design that many designers across the globe try their skills to combine different topics with this new mobile medium. Correspondingly, new design issues rise. The considerations of “Whether users change their inherent values when facing a new operating environment?” or “How to transfer users’ needs into design factors that APPs deliver?” are struggled with designers.

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While there are some literatures solve the problems to identify users’ values by Means-end theory, they usually utilize the existing attributes of the products to get the related consequences and the linked values in the using context (Leitner, Wolkerstorfer, Sefelin, & Tscheligi, 2008). But in a new field, the existing attributes aren’t very extensive. If the important value that users really cared can’t be related from those attributes, then they still can’t deliver the design expected and accepted by their target users. In addition, although the important values can be linked from the attributes, designers still need to figure out how to transform them into design factors in the new operating environment.

In summary, with the increasing usage of wellness APPs, offering an adaptive design method has become more critical. Ahtinen et al. (2008) pointed out that losing weight or reducing the risk of disease is the main motivation to exercise or manage one’s health life. However, the weight or health improvement does not vary much in short-term period. Thus, if APPs, which is portable and accessible easily, can deliver good user experience to its target users for long-term use, then it may be a turning point for developing a healthy living style.

1.3 Objectives

The purpose of this study is to provide an opportunity in the new developing environment that designers can apply a design strategy, which can help them to better determine target users’ attitudes and needs in this new field. Additionally, investigate the design factors match users’ values. With the point of view, this research applies wellness application as the key subject and the aims are shown as follows:

A. Deliver the values cared by users in the wellness

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from multi-faceted aspects of consideration, not only depend on a single product or service.

B. Carry out the design opportunities for wellness applications based on users’ values

To figure out the feelings associated with the target values in the wellness, and apply them as the design factors in the future.

C. Propose the approach deals with the situation of the new-field design

The study offers the suggested process and guidelines that help designers deliver a value-based design, which can be applied to different subjects, not only in the field of wellness we apply in this research.

1.4 Outline of thesis

There are six chapters in this thesis. This chapter introduced the research background, motivation, and the objectives of the study. The remainder of the thesis is structured as follows:

Chapter 2 illustrates the scope of this research work and develops the theoretical

and technical background. First, the definition of wellness and the field of wellness applications are reviewed independently. Second, the importance of users’ values and the method to get them are described

Chapter 3 describes the methodology of users’ attitude getting in qualitative

research, the data collecting in quantitative research, and analyzes this research in detail.

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7 Chapter 5 summarizes insights in terms of wellness application design and delivers

the implications and suggestions as a design approach for APPs.

Chapter 6 lastly specifies the conclusions and identifies further work to be done in

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Chapter 2

Literature Reviews

For the development in the wellness, there were numerous literatures proposing strategies and definition to promote it from different aspects. In this chapter, the study presents the scope of wellness and wellness applications. In addition, exposing the meaning of value and the method to attain it is also the focal point to carry out.

2.1 The research scope of Wellness

When people are talking about wellness, the very first image jumps into our minds is the opposite of illness. Making effort to define the wellness usually begin with references to World Health Organization (1967)’s definition, being not just the absence of illness but a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being. Besides,National Wellness Institute (1977) defines that wellness is an active process of becoming aware of and making choices toward a more successful existence.

Many conceptualizations of wellness not only indicate the quality of state of being in good health, but explore the various elements, or interrelated areas, that comprise wellness (Roscoe, 2009). Adams, Bezner and Steinhardt (1997)

conceptualized wellness from a systems perspective, and labeled the six dimensions of wellness as social, the perception of having support from and provide support to family and friends; spiritual, a positive sense of meaning and purpose in life; physical, a positive perception and expectation of physical health; intellectual, the perception of being internally energize by an optimal amount of intellectually stimulating

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activity; emotional, a secure self-identity and a positive sense of self-regard; psychological, perception that one will experience positive outcomes to the events and circumstances of life. Figure 2-1 shows the wellness model with these six dimensions that the top of the model is expanded to the fullest extent of wellness, whereas the tightly constricted bottom represents illness.

Fig 2-1 the wellness model

However, Roscoe (2009) pointed out that Adams’s definition of physical wellness is subjective, and added that the physical wellness is the active and continuous effort to maintain the optimum level of physical activity and focus on nutrition, as well as self-care and maintaining health lifestyle choices, which are more comprehensive.

In addition, Hettler(1980) included occupational wellness, defined as the level of satisfaction and enrichment gained by one’s work and the extent to which one’s occupation allows for the expression of one’s values. And contribute one’s unique skills and talents to the community in meaningful ways. Renger et al. (2000) carried on to include environmental wellness as a separate dimension and defined it to include the impact on and balance between home and work life, as well as an individual’s relationship with nature and community resources.

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Thus, we can generalize that the proposed holistic model of wellness will, therefore, comprise eight dimensions, social, spiritual, physical, intellectual, emotional, psychological, occupational and environmental. Basically, people put effort to maintain the physical activities to satisfy their expectation of health life style, and through the stimulating activity, such as occupation, to be energized to contribute one’s skills and express personal values. In the mean time, one will keep friends and families in his relationships, and support each other to maintain the balance between social network and family. From experiencing these positive outcomes, he can attain secure self-identity and learn the meaning and purpose of life.

2.2 Potential of mobile technologies

Mobile computing is a form of human–computer interaction where a computer is expected to be transported during normal usage. Many types of mobile computers have been introduced since the 1990s, such as wearable computer, Personal digital assistant and Smartphone.

Mobile computing has three aspects: mobile communication, mobile hardware, and mobile software. Firstly, the most common data connections in the mobile computing are the General Packet Radio Service (GPRS), which has maximum data rate 115 kbps (Granbohm & Wiklund, 1999), the 3G network, the maximum data rate 2 Mbps (Comer, 2008), and Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN), the maximum data rates from 54 to 600 Mbps (LAN/MAN Standards Committee of the IEEE

Computer Society, 1999), through these, users can access website, send email and instantly message with friends.

Secondly, mobile hardware provides diverse functionalities. Storage and the processing capabilities enable the advanced analysis of data to support personalized

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feedback and decision making locally (Mattila, 2010). Multimedia includes a combination of text, audio, still images, animation, video, and interactivity content forms. The integrated tools can record and store photo and video materials on the device (Leitner et al., 2008), and let users listening to their mp3 collection on the move.

Lastly, the third aspect copes with the characteristics of mobile applications. For instance, a key feature of a smart phone is that additional applications can be installed on the device. These applications can be developed by the manufacturer, the operator or any other third party like the user or any software developer. Thus, users can install, configure or run applications of their interests on the smartphone (Singh, Bhargava, & KAIN, 2008).

2.3 Design factors of wellness applications

A substantial body of research documented that being physically active and taking care of one’s wellbeing requires motivation (Arteaga et al., 2010). Ahtinen et al. (2008) went even further to point out that by identifying cross-cultural factors, users in both Finland and India need to be motivated in using the application that can then support motivation towards wellness activities. They used Malone and Lepper’s intrinsic motivational theory (1987), challenge, curiosity, control, fantasy, competition, cooperation and recognition, as design factors to keep users interested in using wellness applications.

The factor, challenge, was employed as setting goals. Providing goals which attainment is uncertain, can make an activity challenging, but it should also provide performance feedback concerning goal attainment to engage and enhance the

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self-esteem of the individual involved activity (Malone et al., 1987). For example, 5K Coach Plans is a goal-oriented APP on Apple’s APP store. To interpret a lot of

beginning runners’ dream of long run, it can personalize users’ plan to fit their schedule for ability level, and provide run performance as feedback to encourage users.

The curiosity factor can be stimulation to break people’s knowledge structures, which will help maintain the level of motivation in an ongoing task (Malone et al., 1987). Ahtinen et al. (2008) suggested that prompts and alarms are one way this factor is utilized. Dr.eye iWalk provides the real-time reminder to help users adjust paces during walking is a good example for this.

The control factor makes people experience oneself as an “origin” of one’s actions and choices, this cause-and effect relationship will make them believe in the work will bring them powerful impacts (Malone et al., 1987). Ahtinen et al. (2008) pointed out that in wellness applications, this means giving users information about how lifestyle changes will affect them. Take a look at the Calorie Counter from Android market, which can automatically help individuals calculate calories, fat, and carbohydrate of the food they eat, and the records and charts will show the progress of health.

Fantasy is most likely to fulfill emotional needs, but not actually present in the real situation. It can provide imaginary characters, with which the individual can identify (Malone et al., 1987). Wellness games employ this motivational factor; for example, Kinect is a controller-free gaming and entertainment experience by Microsoft for the Xbox 360 video game platform. With the virtual context, it can encourage physical movement in the progress of the game.

Competition and cooperation are the factors leverage peer pressure and support to motivate individuals. Shakra is an application tracks users’ general level of activity,

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on which they can see each other’s activity when they were apart, and care for each other. In the meantime, users can also view to assess their performance in relation to their peers. The authors have observed encouraging results that social networks can have on the actions of an individual. Thus, they suggest that the system should facilitate the sharing and comparison of data between peers (Anderson et al., 2007).

The final type of factors is recognition, which means people enjoy having efforts and accomplishments recognized and appreciated by others. Runkeeper uses GPS to track users’ fitness activities. It can post running records to Facebook, which includes distance, time, pace, calories, heart rate, and path traveled on a map. Knowing that friends are watching individual’s workout is a great peer pressure reinforcement to run faster and more often.

In this study, the wellness applications we employed to conduct the interviews, Nike+ and Fit 4 Rhythm, use a lot of elements of the motivation theory, which will be introduced in Chapter 3.

2.4 Experience and Values

In the past decades, Human Computer Interaction has been largely applied in several areas, researchers put a lot of emphasis on the interaction and interface design between users and devices (Ai, Lu, & Deogun, 2008). The issues of usability, such as the ease and learnability of use, are discussed widely. Since the growing popularity of knowledge from social, emotional and behavioral fields have been adapted to explore the interaction design; people start to center on not simply functions, but the fun and joy of use, which is usually recognized as user experience (Forlizzi & Battarbee, 2004).

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how a person feels about using a system. The focus is on pleasure and value rather than on performance. Thus, designers should address question on not only ”Can users complete a task fast and correctly during the operation”, but “Did they perceive the usage as good experiences?”

Forlizzi and Ford (2000) include users’ values as one influencing factor in user experience, with other user-related factors, such as users’ emotions, cognitive models, and prior experiences. Besides, Jääskö and Mattelmäki (2003) suggest personal motivation, attitudes and values having influence in the user experience. Moreover, Cockton (2004) and others have been advocating that designing user experiences is designing for value.

Therefore, we can conclude that to provide a good experience, values must be considered.

2.4.1 Value in marketing sciences

The definition of value in marketing sciences usually is identified as the product value that can deliver commercial benefits to customers (Kotler, 1999).

Bettman, Luce, and Payne (1998) proposed customer value perceptions. It’s the value that customers perceive they receive or experience by using the offering, and it may differ depending on usage situation, customers’ personal values, needs, preferences and financial resources (Ravald & Grönroos, 1996) (Anckar, & D’Incau 2002).

2.4.2 Values in psychology

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considering what are important to us, what meet our needs, and what are based on our values.

Rokeach (1973) referred to the relationship between values and needs. It is known that people make tradeoffs while making everyday decisions. He said, “Values are the cognitive representations and transformations of needs, and man is the only animal capable of such representations and transformations.”

According to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, people have physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization needs. Trying to meet these needs makes us face the dilemma of choice, but Maslow proposed that physiological is the basic level, if these needs are not met, a person cannot be motivated by the upper levels of needs. The Maslow’s hierarchy of needs shows in Table 2-1.

In addition, Rokeach defined a value as an enduring belief that serves as personal or social preferable criteria for decisions making and priorities setting, and provide explanations we give for our actions. Verplanken and Holland (2002) then pointed out, values are culturally shared, but individuals differ in how they rank the importance of specific values.

7 Self-actualization To achieve one’s full potential

6 Aesthetic needs Harmony, order, beauty

5 Cognitive needs Curiosity, exploration, understanding of world

4 Esteem needs To be competent and recognized

3 Attachment needs To love and to be loved, to have friends

2 Safety needs Security, comfort, freedom from fear

1 Physiological needs Food, water, oxygen, rest Table 2-1 Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

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2.4.3 Users’ values

Kujala and Mattila (2007) first clarify the concept of value from the user’s point of view. They refute the perspective of the value in marketing sciences, and argue that a product or system does not have any absolute value.

They propose the term ‘user values’ to describe that when users interact with the product, they bring psychological values into the context, which affect their views as to what kind of purpose, functions and characteristics they want, and these values don’t automatically arise from product properties.

Fig 2-2 diagram of users’ values

2.4.4 Summary

Psychology and marketing provide a good theoretical starting point for

understanding values. Marketing states that experiences provided by products will create perceived values to customers, and psychology presents that values are the representations of needs. In this study, we take the points from ‘user values’, which means users bring their personal psychological values into the usage, and come out perceived values. It’s based on the definition from psychology, and also meets the subject of the study that we want to figure out users’ personal values in wellness,

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and applied them to the developments of related applications.

2.5 Laddering the experience

To get the users’ values, which are objective and qualitative, Gutman(1982) proposed a qualitative method, Means-End Theory. The theory specifically focuses on the linkages between the attributes, which are equated with characteristics of a product (the "means"), the consequences from consumers provided by the attributes, which are more abstract, and these elements reinforce the personal values (the “ends”) (Leitner et al., 2008). Values represent motivational constructs and desirable goals that are directly tied to human emotions (Reynolds, & Olson, 2001).Thus, through the means-end approach, researchers can understand the meaning that (product) attributes bring to users.

Attributes Consequence Values

2.5.1 Skills for attaining values

The means-end approach begins with the interview, that is personal, individual, in-depth, semistructured, and first developed by Hinkle (1965). Generally speaking, the interview is first prompted to identify salient attributes by asking participants to distinguish alternative choices among several products. By asking “Why is this important to you?”, interviewees can figure out why these characteristics are important to participants, and these questions can be repeated as many times as needed to reveal the abstractive level, when no further level of abstraction is possible, will end up on the level of personal values (Barrena, & Sánchez, 2010).

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personal emotions and refused to reach a certain level of abstraction. At this point, not every chain can end up in a value (Olson, & Reynolds, 1983). But most of the time, each abstractive level can be further broken down into sub-levels. Walker and Olson (1991) suggest there are six levels in the means-end chain, shows in Table 2-2.

1 concrete attributes The desired characteristics of the products.

2 abstract attributes The attributes of the product that cannot be checked prior to consumption

3 functional consequences The benefits that consumers can directly experience with the product.

4 psychological consequences The consequences which are more social and personal.

5 instrumental values The intangible goal that consumer take actions to achieve it.

6 terminal values The desired end states. Table 2-2 six levels of the means-end chain

The three lower levels, concrete attributes, abstract attributes and functional consequences, are direct knowledge from products. On the other hand, the three higher levels, psychological consequences, instrumental values and terminal values, are the knowledge and cognition from consumers themselves.

2.5.2 Hierarchical Value Map

Then after summarizing all the elements and connections from the laddering, researcher can construct the hierarchical value map (HVM), which is graphically present all the relation in a tree diagram. When constructing the relation, researcher should consider that if A —> B and B—> C and C —> D, then a chain A-B-C-D is formed (Reynolds & Gutman, 1988).

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2.5.3 Related works

There exist several studies on identifying users’ values by using means-end theory. Leitner et al. (2008) applied this method to discern direct and indirect links in the field of mobile multimedia. They let participants choose the device

characteristics, which are important to them, as the attributes, and then started with these attributes to find out consequences and values. By building ladders, it helps to show dependencies between these elements and how users experience their device.

However, Abeele and Zaman (2009) wanted to figure out which computer game controller, Steering Wheel or Classic Controlle, can meet participants’ values. Differing from other studies, it is rather likely that a participant starts his ladder by listing functional consequences, rather than mentioning attributes. Thus, they can know which attribute can cause the consequence that is important to user, and related to what kind of personal values. In this case, the interviewer should make sure that a participant first climbs down the ladder (from functional consequence to concrete attribute) before climbing up the ladder. Instead of asking “Why?”,

climbing down the ladder is done by asking “What caused this?” The structure of the laddering shows below:

It’s Easier (FC) ->I’ll be More experienced (FC) -> It has same layout as PlayStation controller (CA) ->I am can Perform better (PSC) -> I want to win (IV) -> I want to be the best (TV).

Although the two studies started the laddering from different status, but both of them attained the values from existing attributes of target products, which can elicit the attributes that are linked by values as design factors in the future.

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2.6 Summary

Based on the literature review and case study in this chapter, we had an initial understanding of the recent studies of wellness and values, as well as the

technologies in mobile computing. In the following chapters, through the interviews, the study will investigate users’ values regarding the Means-end approaches towards wellness design.

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Chapter 3

Methodology

The health consciousness has been rising that people have gradually tended to take the physical activities to maintain healthy living style. With the development of applications, designers have tried to combine the wellness issues with mobile devices. In this newly competitive market, the best way to deliver a good user experience is to determine what users really need and what they really care.

The objective of this thesis is to explore users’ values in the wellness through a systematic user study process.In this chapter, the study presents the way to go through the process that the proposed results will help designers to understand the context and the users they design for in the area of mobile HCI.

3.1 Framework

The research structure focuses on the values cared by users, and the important consequences linked to these values. To conduct the result we expect the research is divided into three stages.

Firstly, ladder users’ values. The study uses Means-End theory to define users’ attitude toward wellness from the existing wellness services, and also user

experiences of other applications that used or welcomed by participants. The result will show the general values in the wellness and the corresponding feelings.

Secondly, develop the HVMs. The result of interview is employed to do the Hierarchical Value Map. The study wants to provide a proposed HVM that can

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forecast users’ values and design specification in the new field by crossing the HVMs in several related subjects.

Lastly, weight the HVMs. The questionnaire is sent out to get the evidence that shows the exact impact of the consequences to specific values in our proposed HVM. Through this stage, designers can select the preferred consequence as design factors to meet users’ values.

Stage1 laddering users’ values

Stage2 developing the HVM

Stage3 weighting the HVM

Figure 3-1 the research structure

Research Process Delivery

Planning the research structure

Producing 8 wellness service cases

Recruiting 6 participants

Conducting 6 in-depth interviews

Interpreting findings 6 participants’ ACV results Sorting Consequences and values stratify consequences

And simplified values

Consolidation One positive and one negative hierarchical value map

Sending out Questionnaire The weight of the linkage Discussion

Wellness service APPs on phones

Extracting Fc->Ec From (wellness) applications Extracting Ec->Value From wellness services (&APPs)

6 participants’ positive & negative hierarchical value

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3.2 Recruiting the research participants

Although smartphones are gaining popularity, but the diverse functions and the higher charges are not accepted by everyone. The group of age 20 to age 40, usually are financially independent, familiar with technology and receptive to new stuffs. Thus, the six participants are in this age interval, including three males and three females. They are all office workers and smartphone users, with regular exercise habits, such as jogging, cycling and ball playing. Three of them joined professional gyms before, and three of them used wellness applications on their phones. All of them are heavy users of APPs, who regularly check new applications at APP markets. Four of them have the experience of purchasing applications on line.

The six participants live in cities in Taiwan, and the educational level is relatively high, that they all have university diplomas or higher. Table 3-1 shows profiles of the participants.

Gender Age frequency Exercise Sport Phone model Participant1 Male 25 3/ week Jogging, Badminton Iphone 4

Participant2 Female 35 6/week Walking,

Mountain climbing

Black Berry 9520 Participant3 Male 25 2/week Tennis, Basketball Acer Liquid Participant4 Female 32 1/week Badminton HTC Desire Participant5 Male 27 5/week Fitness, Biking HTC Desire

Participant6 Female 27 2/week Jogging, Yoga Iphone 4

Table 3-1 participants profile

3.3 Conducting interviews to ladder users’ values

The interviews were held during March to April 2011, each with an average length of 1.5 hours, and the interviews were formed up by three stages (shown in Fig

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3-2).

Figure 3-2 three stages of the interview

3.3.1 Introducing existing wellness services as attributes

First of all, we wanted the participants to express their attitudes toward wellness. But in the general situation, participants don’t really realize what their values are, and also can’t express them well without help.

Reynolds and Gutman (1988) proposed the Eliciting Distinctions, which elicit distinctions made by the individual participants concerning perceived and

meaningful differences between products. Hence, the study adopted the method that interviewer introduced eight existing wellness services to participants, and emphasized their attributes, e.g. price, rules and facilities, to make sure that participants understand the services, and they can make choices between them according to values, even though they may haven’t experienced before.

The eight service cases can be divided into four types, the type of Gyms that provides environment and facilities to take exercise, the type of Information Record that users can manage their wellness information by themselves or by the service automatically, the type of Detection that combine fitness with detecting movement by Balance Board or smartphones, last but not least, the type of Health Promotion that emphasizes on promoting health issues by some strategies to persuade people involve in. The eight services are shown as follows with their key attributes.

Find out the important characteristics from using experiences of APPs. Grouping and

comparing cases to get personal values. Introduce existing services

to establish wide range of wellness attributes.

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Table 3-2 the type of Gyms

Information Record

Nike Plus (Nike+)

 A wellness application on smartphne.  Workout data wirelessly sync to web portal.  Sport stars’ audio encouragements.

 Post t notification on Facebook.  Deliver an avatar as your incarnation.  Compete with friends’ records online.

Smile Diet

 A website helps to manage culinary.  A food calories database established and

updated by users.

 Edit how many calories you eat per day.  Show the nutrient charts based on records.

Table 3-3 the type of Information Record

Gyms

Taipei City Neihu Sports Center

 Held by government.  Charged by hours.

 Equipped with various types of sport facilities.

World Gym

 A chain of gyms with bases all over in Taiwan.  Annual fees.

 Fancy interior design style.

 Provide fitness classes, coaches and exercise equipments, also furnished by SPA, steam rooms and shower rooms.

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Detection

Wii Fit plus

 An exercise game using the Wii Balance Board.

 Register player profile with record.

 Measure weight and detect a person's center of balance.

Fit 4 Rhythm

 A wellness application on smartphone.  Virtual trainers assist 80 fitness exercises that

20 are free.

 Breaking the record and winning the prize as feedback.

Table 3-4 the type of Detection

Health promotion

Newstart

 A health promotion camp held by hospital..  Experiencing a series of health courses and

physical checkup in a short term.  Planned by doctors and dietitians.

Taipei Resident’s Health Card

 Delivered from city government.

 Use the card to collect health points and exchange for prizes.

 Free.

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3.3.2 Interviewing with laddering skills

In the next pace, by using the case cards to elicit distinctions (see Figure 3-3), the interviewer asked participants to group the cases according to their personal views. After grouping, the participants would be asked to provide a preference order in each group and the reason why one particular service is their most preferred. The interviewer tried to find out why these characteristics were important to the

participants by asking “Why is this important to you?”. This would lead to an abstractive level and let the participants articulate certain consequences. When no further level of abstraction is possible, it would end up in a personal value.

For example:

Participant 1: I think “The World Gym” is better than “The Sports Center” Interviewer: Why?

Participant 1: Because it is more expensive. Interviewer: Why is the charge important to you?

Participant 1: Because the expensive one will be more effective. Interviewer: Why it’ll be more effective?

Participant 1: Because while taking exercise, the more fees it charges, the more efforts I make, so it’ll be more effective.

Interviewer: Why effectiveness is important to you?

Participant 1: Because I care about the Cost-Performance Index. If I spend the money, it’d better be effective!

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Figure 3-3 the situation of grouping and comparing the case cards

3.3.3 Sharing the APPs experiences

In the final stage, the study wanted to investigate the design factors of

general APPs that could be adopted in the wellness. Thus, participants were asked to share their experiences about the use of applications. They showed their

smartphones and presented several APPs, which were their favorite ones or commonly used. Again, the interviewer tried to find out important characteristics, laddering to consequences and personal values to gain the positive APPs experiences as a basis for further research in next chapter.

3.4 The requirement of proposed HVM

The purpose of this study is to provide an opportunity in the new developing environment that designers can apply as design strategy, which can help them to better determine target users’ attitudes and needs in the new area.

The usual method employed as implication for value- based design is Means- End theory. The result, hierarchical value map (HVM), can ladder the existing product attributes to users’ values, and help designers improve their previous design.

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designers can’t gain comprehensive values from them. It’s hoped that we can provide a proposed HVM, which can forecast important values that users may concern in the area that is new to them and in which they hasn’t built up their corresponding values. Furthermore, the feelings that related to the values may be the specification that can apply as design implications.

After conducting interviews, we expect the proposed HVM in this study can tell the values that users cared in the wellness, and also the related feelings brought by consequences can be seen as design strategies in the wellness APPs. In addition, the influential weights on the linkages of proposed HVM, which can help designers making decision while design process, should be added too.

3.5 Summary

In this chapter, the study elaborated the conduction of interviews. 6 participants who are familiar with smartphone APPs and taking exercise regularly were invited to share their attitudes in the wellness and the experiences in the APPs. Besides, we advance the requirement of propose HVM that can be used in new field design for further discuss in the next chapter.

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Chapter 4

Results

The study conducted interviews using the method of laddering in the previous process. Hence, this chapter shows the results, which includes three stages.

Firstly, build the HVMs for each participant to collate the data from interviews. Secondly, developing the P-HVM, which was consolidated to show the relations and weights between elements from different subjects and be useful in the new

developed field. Lastly, functional, emotional consequences and values participants mentioned in the interviews are sorted to present their attitudes.

4.1 Building HVMs from interviews

After conducting the interviews, the study employed Means-end theory as method, which can help us analyze attributes, consequences and values from massive data, and suggested by substantial studies in attaining values, introduced in Chapter 2. The reflection of this method is to build up Hierarchical Value Map that shows relations between these elements.

4.1.1 Setting attributes

The interviews use two types of attributes, from wellness services and the existing applications on participants’ smartphones, to obtain their viewpoints of health issues and APPs. However, the wellness services include two wellness applications, Nike+ and Fit 4 Rhythm, that they can depict the attributes in the

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wellness, as well as in the applications. Thus, we extracted two wellness applications to be the third type of attributes (see Figure 4-1).

Figure 4-1 three types of attributes

4.1.2 HVMs from interviews

From the interviews, the study built up three different subjects of HVM for each participant, which includes two wellness APPs, six wellness services and other

applications introduced by them, shown in Fig 4-1, 4-2 and 4-3.

6 wellness services Sports Center, World Gym

Smile Diet, Wii Fit plus, Newstart, Health Card

2 wellness applications Nike+

Fit 4 Rhythm

Other applications The existing applications on

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4.2 Developing P-HVM

After building regular HVMs from the interviews, the study tried several methods by collating and arranging data from interviews to attain a proposed HVM that can help designers better determine target users’ attitudes and needs, and carry out the corresponding design specification in this new area. The final suggested method is presented as follows.

4.2.1 Sorting consequences

As a result of numerous consequences mentioned in the interviews, it’s often to see that participants used different consequences to describe a same feeling due to their personal idioms, and it would gain complexity and confusion in building HVM. Thus, the study sorted these consequences by their representing meanings, and picked a consequence as the representative of the group. Although Walker and Olson suggested the six levels in the means-end chain (see Table 2-2), the consequences attained from the interviews were not distinct enough to classify into six layers. Thus, we took their suggestion to classify all the consequences into two categories, on one hand, the functional consequences, illustrate the participants’ feelings, affected by the attributes of services and applications. On the other hand, the emotional consequences, affected by functional consequences and be in response to participants’ personal life experience.

Meanwhile, there were several negative feelings described during the interviews. We extracted these negative consequences, and did the sort and

categorization too. In the end, the study would get a group of positive consequences and the other group of negative consequences, with both sorted.

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consequences and human values in a hierarchical order to rebuild the HVMs of each participants according to the results of interview (see Figure 4-5).

Figure 4-5 the HVMs of three subjects

4.2.2 Crossing the HVMs

On the previous stage, we got the HVMs in several contexts. According to the main purpose, the study wants to investigate values in the wellness and the feelings related to design factors from APPs. However, on the HVM of wellness services, the attributes are far from the context of applications, but the values linked from them represented the attitudes toward health issues. Hence, the study disregarded its attributes and functional consequences, but kept its emotional consequences and the linkages to values, which showed what participants pursue in the wellness.

On the HVM of other applications, the values are not acquired in the context of wellness, which are not the subject of the study, but the related consequences are derived from the attributes of APPs that we want to apply as design specification. Thus, we abandoned the linkages between emotional consequences and values, but

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reserve the linkages between functional consequences and emotional consequences. It is notable that the two wellness applications, Nike+ and Fit 4 Rhythm, are in the context of wellness and associated with applications. Thence, the study kept the functional consequences, emotional consequences, values and the linkages between them (see fig 4-6).

Lastly, we got different parts from these HVMs, which show context in the wellness or applications, but in a fragmented structure. The study wants to deliver a proposed HVM that can present not only wellness values, but also feelings associated with APPs in an integral framework that can easily understood and employed by designers. Hence, we assumed the common emotional consequences that showed up in all three HVMs as Key Nodes to consolidate the extracted parts from these HVMs and came out the proposed HVM, P-HVM.

Figure 4-6 crossing the HVMs to attain P-HVM

The structure of P-HVM is shown in Fig 4-7, the linkages route from top to the lower layer (grey arrows), in addition, there are some links point to the elements in the same layer (grey loop arrows) before they point to the lower layer, which

Attributes of wellness services Functional Consequences Emotional Consequences Values in the wellness Attributes of other APPs Functional Consequences Emotional Consequences Values in the APPs Attributes of wellness APPs Functional Consequences Emotional Consequences Values in the wellness APPs Functional Consequences Emotional Consequences Values in the wellness

Wellness HVM APPs HVM Wellness APPs

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describes the users’ mental context in details. It’s notable that we won’t adopt attributes from any HVMs; on the contrary, we kept it for designers to employ corresponding design factors on the basis of lower levels in the P-HVM.

Fig 4-7 the structure of P-HVM

4.2.3 Weighting the P-HVM

After the consolidation of the P-HVM, the study found that several linkages point to the same nodes would confuse designers that which route is the more influential one links to the target value. Thus, we sent out questionnaire to bring out the weight of each linkage to help designers make trade-offs when they are struggled with design. For example:

Recorded (FC) -> Contextual (EC) -> Progress Practical (FC) -> Accompanied (EC) -> Progress

These two ladders pointed to the same value, Progress, and gave rise to the consideration that which is more influential for pursuing progress. The two questions were delivered to get the answer:

 I think the wellness service involves in life context will help me in the pursuit of progress.

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 I think the wellness service accompanied by friends will help me in the pursuit of progress.

There were total 139 questions in the questionnaire, each of them represent a linkage of multi-choices in the P-HVM like this. 83 participants selected the grading from “strongly agree”, weights 5 points, to “strongly disagree”, weights 1 point, according to their personal experiences and feelings toward the questions. The number of people chose the option multiply its weight would get the weight of the linkage.

In order to keep the P-HVM easy to interpret, the study calculated the average of the weights that point to the same node, and stressed the linkages that is above it, which means they are more influential to attain the end values. For example, the emotional consequence “Sharing” is pointed by the functional consequences “Fun” with the weight 307, “Various” with the weight 302, “Additional” with the weight 300, “Cost-effective” with the weight 328 and “Convenience” with the weight 317. The average of these five is 311, thus it’s notable that “Cost-effective” and “Convenient” are above it and more important than others (see Table 4-1).

EC\ FC Fun Various Additional Cost-effective Convenient

Sharing 307 302 300 328 317

Table 4-1 the functional consequences related to “Sharing”

The emotional consequences that point to the value “Progress” are shown in Table 4-2. “Inspired” weights 349, “Fulfilled” weights 365 and “Corresponding” weights 350 are above the average 342. Thus, we can consider them first to attain the value “Progress”.

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V \ EC Accompanied Inspired Fulfilled Corresponding Contextual

Progress 319 349 365 350 326

Table 4-2 the emotional consequences related to “Progress”

4.2.4 The P-HVM in the wellness

After consolidating all the consequences and values, and receive the weights on the linkages, we now can build up the consolidated P-HVM from the interviews. The P-HVM of value “Quality” extracted and shown in Fig 4-8, the darker and thicker arrows are the ones with the weights above average, which are more influential to attain the value. For example, the emotional consequence “Attractive” is more important than “Effective” when facing the value “Quality”. After routing from “Attractive”, we can be told that “Various”, “Fun” and “Contextual” are the suggested design specification for it rather than “Out of the ordinary” and “Occasional”.

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Fig 4-8 the HVM of value “Quality”

The P-HVM of value “Effectiveness” is shown in Fig 4-9. The route “Recorded -> Real -> Fulfilled”, “Practical -> Fulfilled” and “Various -> Fun -> Fulfilled” are more influential to get the target value “Effectiveness”, which can help designers make trade-offs when delivering a related design. There are total 17 P-HVM of the values in the wellness, shown in Appendix C.

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Fig 4-9 the HVM of value “Effectiveness”

4.3 Result

Since there was large number of consequences mentioned during interviewing, the study used affinity diagram to group those similar ones, and chose a

representative among them to name the group. The consequences also can be sorted by the positive and negative emotions that they carry, which are shown as follows.

4.3.1 Positive Consequences

These consequences can be divided into two types, functional and emotional ones. The functional consequences are the feelings provided by products, and the emotional consequences that relate to user’s personal feelings. The results of the

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affinity diagram are listed in table 4-3 and 4-4. The columns in colors are the representative consequences and their matching codes, which represents the sub-consequences in the right column.

There are seven types of functional consequences in table 4-3. The type “The first impression on the service” shows immediate feelings when users know or use the products, and it includes three representatives, F1 Noticeable, F2 Fancy and F3 Fun. For the reason of concluding all the meanings, “Noticeable” is chosen as the representative of “Audio”, “Recognized well”, “Bright”, “Visual” and “Prompt”.

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the service. F1. Noticeable Audio Recognized well Bright Visual Prompt F2. Fancy Cute Delicate F3. Fun Interesting Sportful Special Novel

The personal feelings about choices the

services offer. F4. Various Mutative Diversionary F5. Additional Supplementary Incidental F6. Integrated Multi-purpose Multiplexing

F7. Free to choose Chosen

The personal feelings about functions the

services offer.

F8. Practical Frequently used

Widely used F9. Professional Referable Reliable Learning F10. Recorded F11. Planned F12. Convenient F13. Goal-oriented

The personal feelings about efficiency. F14. Immediate Automatic Intuitive F15. Fast Time-saving F16. Cost-effective Bonus High efficiency The personal feelings

about occasions.

F17. On the go Anytime and anywhere

Do without computer

F18. Scenic

The relations with

exercises. F19. Out of the ordinary

Others F20. Occasional

F21. General

Table 4-3 the positive functional consequences

The emotional consequences are shown in Table 4-4. Similarly, the left column presents titles of the groups, the columns in colors are the representatives and their consequence codes, and the right column includes all sub-consequences.

The table includes six groups of emotional consequences. The type named “Others” is the one that can’t be classified into any previous groups. “The personal

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feelings about efforts” presents the feelings when participants facing and dealing with efforts that they need to make, includes E11 Diligent, E12 Fulfilled and E13 Purposive.

Table 4-4 the positive emotional consequences

The personal feelings about sociability.

E1. Sharing Want to share

Infectious

E2. Peers social

Common goal Cooperative Competitive Mutual benefit E3. Accompanied Intimate Familiar Family social Be social

E4. Interactive Feedback

E5. Private E6. Personal E7. Topical E8. Inspired

The personal feelings about merit.

E9. Effective Worthy

E10. Experimental

The personal feelings about efforts.

E11. Diligent Persistent

Work harder E12. Fulfilled Achieved Aimed Satisfied E13. Purposive

The personal feelings toward the service.

E14. Attractive cool

Funny

E15. Surprised Surprising

Expected

E16. Relieved

E17. Relax

E18. Curious E19. Be corresponding

The personal feelings about involvement.

E20. Contextual Habitual

Needn’t re-learning

E21. Different from habits

Others

E22. Real

E23. Helpful E24. Mental E25. Non-demanding

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4.3.2 Negative Consequences

In the meanwhile, there are several negative consequences mentioned by participants, they also be classified into functional and emotional consequences, with the same title names of the positive ones.

For example, the positive functional consequence, “Professional”, in the group of “The personal feelings about functions the services offer” refers to participants like professional services that they can rely on. Relatively, there is a consequence, “Unprofessional”, in the group “The personal feelings about functions the services offer” of negative functional consequences, which shows that participants feel the service is unprofessional for the reason that they can’t learn things from it.

However, there is also a “Professional” in the negative group. Sometimes, the product or service is too professional for users that they will feel pressured. For example:

(Participant 6)

“I don’t like the function that we can compete with others. It’s too professional (NF5) for me and makes me feel pressured (NE9).”

數據

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