耶穌基督的服務領導及其對教學輔導教師制度的啟示

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˪㔁做埴㓧冯姽揹⬠↲˫ 2013 ⸜ 12 㚰炻䫔⋩ℕ㛇炻枩 1-26

डᑙஅ࿜ޟ݈୛ሴᏲЅڏᄇఀᏰሄᏲఀৱ!

ڙ࡙ޟంҰ!

⻝⽟扛ġ

ᄢġ ौ

㚵⊁柀⮶㸸㕤➢䜋⬿㔁䘬∝䩳侭ȹȹ俞䧴➢䜋ˤ㛔㔯⃰⽆㔯䌣㍊妶ᶲ炻婒㖶㚵⊁柀 ⮶䘬㸸崟␴䘤⯽ˣシ佑冯⮎岒ℏ㵝炻䃞⼴⯙㚵⊁柀⮶䘬⮎岒ℏ㵝炻㔯ẞ↮㜸俞䧴➢ 䜋㚵⊁柀⮶䘬⮎晃ね㱩炻䘤䎦俞䧴➢䜋ᶨ䓇ᷕ䘬ᶨ妨ᶨ埴炻䘮⃭↮⯽䎦Ḯ㚵⊁䁢⃰ˣ 柀⮶䁢⼴䘬㚵⊁柀⮶侭䈡岒ˣ奺刚␴埴䁢䈡⽝炻朆ⷠῤ⼿㭷ᶨỵ䎦ẋ䘬㔁⬠庼⮶㔁 ⷓ㇨㓰㱽᷎≈ẍ䘤㎂⃱⣏ˤ㚨⼴⯙俞䧴➢䜋㚵⊁柀⮶䘬┇䣢炻㍸↢ㆹ⚳ᷕ⮷⬠㔁⬠ 庼⮶㔁ⷓ⇞⹎⛐㚵⊁柀⮶㕡朊炻⭄ヶ怠℟㚱ッ䘬Ṣ㟤䈡岒ᷳ㔁ⷓ 䁢㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ ⃚妻Ṣ怠ˣ⛐㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ➡妻婚䦳ᷕ≈⻟㚵⊁柀⮶䘬奺刚ả⊁ˣ⛐㔁⬠庼⮶⮎⊁ 忳ἄᷕ句⮎㚵⊁柀⮶䘬埴䁢ˣẍ⍲≈⻟㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ㚵⊁柀⮶㓗㊩䲣䴙䫱⚃溆⺢ 嬘炻㛇傥⮵ㆹ⚳ᷕ⮷⬠㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ⇞⹎ẍ⍲㚵⊁柀⮶䘬㍐⺋ᶲ䘮㚱㇨≑䙲ˤġ 斄挝娆烉俞䧴➢䜋ˣ㚵⊁柀⮶ˣ㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓˣ㔁⬠庼⮶ġ ____________________ ⻝⽟扛烉⣑ᷣ㔁庼ṩ⣏⬠ⷓ屯➡做ᷕ⽫㔁㌰ˤ暣⫸悝ẞ烉089261@mail.fju.edu.tw

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Journal of Educational Administration and Evaluation December, 2013, Vol. 16, pp. 1-26

Jesus Christ’s Servant-Leadership and Its

Inspirations to the Mentor Teacher Program

in Taiwan

Derray Chang

Abstract

Servant-leadership originated in Jesus Christ. Servant-leadership begins with the natural feeling that one wants to serve, to put service before all else. The words and deeds of Jesus Christ are excellent examples of servant-leadership, which are worthy of being emulated by all mentor teachers in Taiwan. This paper discusses the origin, development, meaning, and actual contents of servant-leadership. Then by document analysis, this paper analyzes the characteristics, roles, and behaviors of Jesus Christ’s servant-leadership. According to the analysis results, this paper suggests the enhancement of servant-leadership practice for the mentor teacher program in Taiwan.

Keywords: Jesus Christ, servant-leadership, mentor teacher, mentoring

____________________

Derray Chang: Professor / Center for Teacher Education, Fu Jen Catholic University E-mail: 089261@mail.fju.edu.tw

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൦ȃᆱ፣!

Ṣᶵ傥暊佌䳊⯭炻天忶佌橼䘬䓇㳣炻侴佌橼ᷕ⽭䃞㚫㴱⍲柀⮶埴䁢ˤ⎎⢾⛐䳬 ䷼䘬忳ἄ冯䘤⯽ᷕ炻柀⮶ḇ㗗斄挝天䳈ᷳᶨ炻德忶㚱㓰䘬柀⮶炻䳬䷼ㇵ㚱⎗傥枮⇑ 䓇⬀␴㯠临ㆸ攟ˤ

Hunter ⛐˪⁽Ṣ II烉ᾖ䶜冯⮎嶸˫ᶨ㚠ᷕ炻㊯↢俞䧴➢䜋炷Jesus Christ炸㗗⎚ᶲ 㚨῱⣏䘬柀⮶侭炷㛶䳡⺟嬗炻2010炸ˤHunter 娵䁢⤪㝄柀⮶Ὢ⼙枧≃䘬䘤㎖炻⇯ᶾ䓴 ᶲㅱ㰺㚱ᶨᾳṢ䘬⼙枧≃㚫㭼俞䧴➢䜋Ἦ⼿怈⣏——䚖⇵ᶾ䓴ᶲ㚱ᶱ↮ᷳᶨ䘬Ṣ⎋ Ὢ➢䜋⼺炻⣂㔠大㕡⚳⭞䘬⸜㙮Ὢẍ➢䜋娽䓇䘬㖍⫸䁢㸾炻℞⚳⭂`㖍Ṏ㗗ẍ俞䧴 ➢䜋ᶨ䓇䘬䴻㬟侴妪⭂䘬ˤ 俞 䧴 ➢ 䜋 ᷳ ㇨ ẍ 㗗 ῱ ⣏ 䘬 柀 ⮶ 侭 炻 Ὢ ⛐ 㕤 ℞ 攳 ┇ Ḯ ⁽ Ṣ ⺷ 柀 ⮶ 炷 servant- leadership炸䘬⃰㱛ˤ⛐˪㕘䲬俾䴻˫䘬˨䐒䩯䤷枛˩ᷕ炻俞䧴➢䜋㚦⮵㕤䣪䘬攨⼺ 㚱ᶳ↿㖶䡢䘬妻䣢烉ˬἈᾹ䞍忻烉⢾恎Ṣ㚱椾攟ᷣ⭘ṾᾹ炻㚱⣏冋䭉廬ṾᾹˤ⛐ἈᾹ ᷕ攻⌣ᶵ⎗忁㧋炻婘劍栀シ⛐ἈᾹᷕㆸ䁢⣏䘬炻⯙䔞ἄἈᾹ䘬⁽⼡烊婘劍栀シ⛐Ἀ Ᾱᷕ䁢椾炻⯙䔞ἄἈᾹ䘬⤜⁽ˤ⯙⤪Ṣ⫸Ἦᶵ㗗⍿㚵ḳ炻侴㗗㚵ḳṢ炻᷎Ṍ↢冒⶙ 䘬䓇␥炻䁢⣏䛦ἄ岾₡ˤ炷䐒 20烉25-28炸˭忁䧖ẍ㚵⊁䁢⃰炻ẍ柀⮶䁢⼴炻᷎栀シ䁢 ṾṢ䉏䈚⣱䌣䘬⁽Ṣ⺷柀⮶炷⌛㚵⊁柀⮶炸䘬䱦䤆冯⮎晃ἄ䁢炻⛐䔞Ṳ慵夾ṓ⍿ˣ ⲯ⯂≇⇑䘬䎦ẋ䣦㚫炻⯌Ⱄ暋傥⎗屜炻朆ⷠῤ⼿䔞ẋ柀⮶侭㇨㓰㱽ˤ 㛔㔯ἄ侭⛐⚳ℏⷓ屯➡做䓴Έ⮶㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ炷mentor teacher炸⇞⹎⶚⣂⸜炻 ⛐忶䦳ᷕṎ⛐⮳㈦庫怑⎰⚳ℏ㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ䘬柀⮶㧉⺷ˤ役⸜教嬨㚵⊁柀⮶䘬䚠斄 叿ἄ炻㶙デ俞䧴➢䜋㇨䣢䭬䘬㚵⊁柀⮶炻Ὢ⻟婧ẍッ䁢㟠⽫炻ẍᾉả䁢➢䢶炻䥱㊩ 䉏䈚⣱䌣䘬⬿㔁⭞ね㆟炻ẍ㚵⊁ẋ㚧柀⮶䘬℟橼ἄ䁢炻冯䚖⇵ㆹ⚳㔁做䓴∃崟㬍㍐ ≽䘬ⷓ⼺⇞——㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ䃉䥩⛘㚵⊁⣍Ờ㔁ⷓˣ⮯⮎⊁㘢ㄏ啒䀓䚠⁛䴎⣍Ờ㔁 ⷓ䘬䱦䤆⣹⎰炻朆ⷠῤ⼿⛐ㆹ⚳㔁⬠庼⮶⮎⊁䘤⯽ᷳᷕ≈ẍ⺽ṳ␴ㅱ䓐ˤ 㚱揹㕤㬌炻㛔㔯Ὢẍ㔯䌣㍊妶䘬㕡⺷炻㔜䎮㚵⊁柀⮶䘬崟㸸冯䘤⯽ˣシ佑冯⮎ 岒ℏ㵝炻䃞⼴⯙㚵⊁柀⮶䘬⮎岒ℏ㵝ᶲ炻↮㜸俞䧴➢䜋㚵⊁柀⮶䘬妨埴ḳἳ炻㚨⼴ ⯙⤪ỽ⮎嶸⍲㶙⊾㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ⇞⹎⛐㚵⊁柀⮶㕡朊䘬≇傥㍸↢⺢嬘炻㛇傥⮵ㆹ⚳ ᷕ⮷⬠㚵⊁柀⮶ẍ⍲㔁⬠庼⮶⮎⊁ᷳ攳㉻䘮傥㚱㇨≑䙲ˤ 䵄⎰ᶲ徘炻㛔䞼䨞䘬䞼䨞⓷柴ᷣ天㚱ᶱᾳ烉 ᶨˣ俞䧴➢䜋⛐㚵⊁柀⮶侭䈡岒㕡朊炻㇨栗䎦䘬妨埴ḳἳ䁢ỽ烎 Ḵˣ俞䧴➢䜋⛐㚵⊁柀⮶奺刚㕡朊炻㇨⏰䎦䘬妨埴ḳἳ䁢ỽ烎 ᶱˣ俞䧴➢䜋⛐㚵⊁柀⮶埴䁢䈡⽝㕡朊炻㇨堐䎦䘬妨埴ḳἳ䁢ỽ烎ġ

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ຯȃМᝦ௤ଆ!

㚵⊁㛔Ἦ⯙㗗Ṣ栆⣑⿏ẍ⍲Ṣ䓇䘬䚖䘬ˤ⚳䇞⬓ᷕⰙ⃰䓇ὧ㚦婒烉ˬṢ䓇ẍ㚵⊁ 䁢䚖䘬˭炻⎒㗗ṢᾹ⛐䓇㳣⾁䠴ˣ㰚㰚䆇䆇㕤≇⎵⇑䤧ᷳ㗪炻ⷠⷠ⾀⌣㚵⊁䛦䓇ᷳ㛔 ⽫ˤ⚈㬌炻㚵⊁柀⮶⎗ẍ⋼≑ㆹᾹ㈦⚆Ṣ䓇䘬シ佑ẍ⍲柀⮶䘬㛔岒␴䎮゛ˤẍᶳ忚 ᶨ㬍↮⇍婒㖶㚵⊁柀⮶䘬崟㸸␴䘤⯽ẍ⍲シ佑冯⮎岒ℏ㵝ˤġ

Ιȃ݈୛ሴᏲޟଔྛڷี৤!

㚵⊁柀⮶㚨㖑⎗㹗㸸㕤➢䜋⬿㔁䘬∝䩳侭ȹȹ俞䧴➢䜋炷4 B.C. ~ 30 A.D.炸ˤ焏 俞䧴焐ᷳ⎵⎴㗪堐忼Ḯ䣪䘬幓↮␴ἧ␥炻シ⿅㗗焏⣑ᷣ㊗㓹焐炻忁⎵⫿㗗⣑ἧ⛐枸⟙㓹 ᶾᷣ娽䓇㗪㇨䴎Ḱ䘬烊ⶴ冀㔯䘬焏➢䜋焐⇯Ὢ㊯焏⍿‭侭焐炻シ⿅㗗䣪⍿⣑ᷣ㇨䤅俾炻 䁢Ḯ㓹ᶾ䘬ἧ␥侴⍿俾䤆䘬‭㱡炷㛶⫸⾈嬗炻2010炸ˤ䣪焏冒⣑侴旵焐炷劍 3烉13炸炻⛐ 大Ṇ䘬⶜≺㕗✎⛘⋨⭋㎂⸛䫱⌂ッ䘬䎮⾝炻ᾉ⣱⣑ᷣ䁢ⓗᶨ䘬䛇䤆炻᷎㈡姽䔞㗪䋞 ⣒䣦㚫䘬僸㓿炻䣪⭋嫃㔁佑冯埴ḳ桐㟤晾⍿⺋⣏䘬䋞⣒⸛㮹䘦⥻㇨㬉彶炻⌣塓䔞㗪 㚱㪲㚱⊊䘬䋞⣒Ṣ␴㔁⢓㇨ᶵ⭡炻塓㍏⛐伭楔䷥䜋㭼㉱⣂➟㓧㗪呁暋炻塓憀㬣⛐⋩ ⫿㝞⼴䫔ᶱ⣑⽑㳣炻㗗⍿劎⍿暋䘬⁽Ṣ炻焏Ṍ↢冒⶙䘬䓇␥炻䁢⣏䛦ἄ岾₡˭炷䐒 20烉 28炸炻ḇ䁢Ṣ栆㇨䉗䘬伒 岾伒ˤ 俞䧴➢䜋⛐˨劍㛃䤷枛˩13 䪈ᷕ姀抬叿俞䧴䁢攨⼺㲿儛忁ᾳ䚠䔞⋹ᶳ䘬埴䁢炻 䣢䭬᷎℟橼⮎嶸ḮṨ湤㗗ˬ㚵⊁柀⮶˭烊⎎⢾⛐˨䐒䇦察䤷枛˩䫔 10 䪈ᷕ姀庱俞䧴 ⛐崜暋⇵㈲攨⼺⎔普崟Ἦ炻⮵ṾᾹ婒烉ˬἈᾹ䔞ᷕ婘゛ㆸ䁢㚨῱⣏䘬柀⮶Ṣ炻⽭枰⃰  ἈᾹ䘬⁽Ṣ˭炷㜿⿅Ở炻2004炻枩 43炸ˤ Ḵ⋫⣂⸜Ἦ炻➢䜋⬿㔁Ὢẍˬッ˭冯ˬ㚵⊁˭䁢䩳㔁➢䞛ˤⓗッ冯㚵⊁䘬㘖ᶾ ₡ῤ炻ᶵ⯽䎦⛐➢䜋⬿㔁ᶲ炻⛐℞Ṿ⬿㔁ᶲṎ㚱䚠⎴䘬₡ῤᾉ⾝ˤἳ⤪炻ἃ䴻ḹ烉 ˬ㫚䁢ἃ攨漵尉炻⃰ἄ䛦䓇楔䈃炷㗇暚⣏ⷓ炻2009炻枩 13~14炸˭ˤ⎎⢾炻⚆㔁䴻℠ᷕ Ṏ㚱ˬ傥Ḯ妋⇍Ṣ䘬劎暋炻Ỡ↢⋼≑ᷳㇳ炻⸓≑㷃䶑℞劎暋炻ὧ㗗⚆㔁⼺˭ᷳ㔁佑 炷Keith, 2008, p. 2炸ˤ 㚵⊁柀⮶晾㸸㕤俞䧴➢䜋炻Ữ䔞ẋ㚵⊁柀⮶䘬㤪⾝Ὢ䓙 Robert K. Greenleaf 炷1904~1990炸⛐ 70 ⸜ẋ㇨㍸↢ˤGreenleaf ⛐ AT&T ⶍἄ 40 ⸜炻⛐℞㑼ả➟埴攟 㛇攻⮯㚵⊁柀⮶≈ẍ䎮婾⊾炻᷎⮎晃⮶ℍ䳬䷼柀⮶ᷕ炷㜿⿅Ở炻2004炸ˤ⛐ Greenleaf Έ⮶ᶳ炻ᶵ⮹䔞ẋ⣏ẩ㤕Ṏ攳⥳㍉䓐㚵⊁柀⮶䘬ἄ䁢炻ἳ⤪伶⚳ TD Industries ℔⎠ 䳸⎰㚵⊁柀⮶炻⼊⟹℔⎠㔯⊾烊Southwest Airline ⇯㕤 1980 ⸜ẋ㍉䓐㚵⊁柀⮶䘬ἄ

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㱽炻夾㭷ᶨ⒉ⶍ䁢㚱ᾳ橼₡ῤ䘬㚵⊁侭ˣ柀⮶侭炷⏛㶭Ⱉ炻2008炸ˤ 㚵⊁柀⮶⛐⚳ℏ㔁做䓴䘬㍉䓐ᶲ炻䎦⣂䓐㕤⬠䓇䘬㚵⊁⬠佺㳣≽ㆾ⬠埻柀⮶㳣 ≽ᶲ炻ἳ⤪炻庼ṩ⣏⬠㔁做柀⮶冯䘤⯽䞼䨞㇨㜿⿅Ở㔁㌰ẍ㚵⊁柀⮶ 䁢娚㇨䘬∝ ㇨䎮⾝冯㟠⽫₡ῤ炷㜿⿅Ởˣ厗㗍慸炻2006炸ˤ⎎庼ṩ⣏⬠㚵⊁⬠佺ᷕ⽫ᷣả♜ả⎱ 炷2009炸⻟婧㚵⊁⬠佺冯柀⮶䘬斄Ὢ烉德忶㚵⊁⬠佺䘬⚃㬍樇烉㸾⁁ˣ㚵⊁ˣ⍵⿅ˣ ㄞ屨炻⛐⇍Ṣ暨天ᶲ炻䚳⇘冒⶙䘬屔ả冯ㆸ⯙ˤ

Πȃ݈୛ሴᏲޟཎဎڷᄂ፴ϱొ!

炷ᶨ炸㚵⊁柀⮶䘬シ佑 ˬServant-leadership˭⛐ᷕ㔯ᶲ㚱⎬䧖ᶵ⎴䘬侣嬗炻㚱䘬嬗䁢ˬ⁽⿏柀⮶˭炷␐ ⬰㮹炻1999炸炻㚱䘬嬗䁢ˬ⁽Ṣ⺷柀⮶˭炷哉忚晬炻2003炸ㆾˬ⁽Ṣ柀⮶˭炷⏛㶭Ⱉˣ 㜿⣑䣸炻2004炸炻Ữ㛔㔯ἄ侭怬㗗娵䁢ẍˬ㚵⊁柀⮶˭ᷳシ嬗炻庫傥⼘栗ˬㆹ䁢ṢṢ炻 ṢṢ䁢ㆹ˭ˣˬṢ䓇ẍ㚵⊁䁢䚖䘬˭ᷳ㘖ᶾ₡ῤˤ 俞䧴➢䜋㚦⮵柀⮶侭ᶳḮᶨᾳ㖶䡢䘬⭂佑烉ˬἈᾹᷕ恋㚨⣏䘬炻娚 ἈᾹ䘬⁽ ⼡ˤ↉檀冱冒⶙䘬炻⽭塓属㈹烊↉属㈹冒⶙䘬炻⽭塓檀冱˭炷䐒 23烉11-12炸ˤ Greenleaf炷1977炸娵䁢㚵⊁柀⮶Ὢ↢冒゛天㚵⊁ṾṢ䘬冒䃞ねデ炻㈲ṾṢ䘬暨 㯪␴⇑䙲㓦⛐冒⶙ᷳᶲ炻ẍ㚵⊁军ᶲ䘬䎮⾝炻㊯⺽ᾳṢ䘬柀⮶ἄ䁢炻侴⮵塓柀⮶侭 䓊䓇⼙枧≃䘬㬟䦳ˤ Laub炷1999炸㊯↢㚵⊁柀⮶Ὢ㌴㎉柀⮶ᷳ⮎嶸ㅱ㈲徥晐侭䘬⇑䙲伖㕤柀⮶侭ᷳ ᶲ炻⚈侴㚵⊁᷎䍵夾徥晐侭䘬䘤⯽炻⼘㪲徥晐侭炻冯徥晐侭↮ṓ㪲≃⍲⇑䙲ˤ 㜿⿅Ở炷2003炸㊯↢㚵⊁柀⮶㗗㚱シ嬀⛘怠㑯䁢ṾṢ㚵⊁炻⻟婧⃰㚵⊁侴朆⃰ 柀⮶ˤ柀⮶䘬㛔岒⯙⛐㚵⊁烉㚵⊁柀⮶侭ẍ⚈䁢ˬㆹ㗗柀⮶Ṣ炻㇨ẍㆹ㚵⊁˭炻侴ᶵ 㗗⚈䁢ˬㆹ㗗柀⮶Ṣ炻㇨ẍㆹἮ柀⮶˭ˤ 哉忚晬炷2003炸⭂佑㚵⊁柀⮶Ὢ㊯柀⮶侭䄏栏ˣḮ妋ˣ斄㆟ˣ㚵⊁悐Ⱄ炻᷎ᶼ ⋼≑悐Ⱄㆸ攟ˣㆸ≇炻ẍ忼ㆸ䳬䷼䚖㧁䘬ᶨ䧖Ṣ⿏⊾柀⮶桐㟤ˤ 喯伶渿炷2006炸㊯↢㚵⊁柀⮶シ媪柀⮶侭ẍ㚵⊁䁢⃒⃰炻嬻䳬䷼ㆸ⒉㚜‍⹟ˣ 㚜㚱㘢ㄏˣ㚜冒䓙ˣ㚜冒ᷣ⛘ㆸ攟炻⎴㗪ḇ傥ㆸ䁢ᶨỵ㚵⊁柀⮶侭ˤ 㛔㔯ἄ侭䷥䳸ᶲ徘⭂佑炻⮯㚵⊁柀⮶⭂佑䁢ˬ柀⮶侭ẍ㚵⊁䫔ᶨ䘬䎮⾝炻℟嫁 ⋹␴⣱䌣䘬䱦䤆炻Ḯ妋ˣ斄㆟ˣ㚵⊁ㆸ⒉炻᷎ᶼ⋼≑ㆸ⒉ㆸ攟ˣㆸ≇炻忚侴忼ㆸ䳬 ䷼䚖㧁␴➡㢵㚜⣂柀⮶侭䘬ᶨ䧖Ṣ⿏⊾柀⮶㬟䦳ˤ˭

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炷Ḵ炸㚵⊁柀⮶䘬⮎岒ℏ㵝 㚵⊁柀⮶䘬⮎岒ℏ㵝⎗ẍ⽆柀⮶侭䘬䈡岒ˣ柀⮶奺刚ˣ柀⮶埴䁢䫱ᶱᾳ奺⹎Ἦ ≈ẍ婒㖶⤪ᶳ烉 1. 㚵⊁柀⮶侭䘬䈡岒 㚵⊁柀⮶䘬Ḵ⣏➢䢶䁢ッ冯ᾉảˤṨ湤㗗ッ烎ッ㗗㍐⶙⍲Ṣ炻㈦⮳↢⇍Ṣ䘬暨 㯪炻ḇ栀シ䁢㺧嵛⇍Ṣ䘬暨㯪侴≒≃炻忁ὧ㗗㚵⊁柀⮶䘬䛇佑炷㛶䳡⺟嬗炻2010炸ˤ Hunter ὧ㊯↢㚵⊁柀⮶㗗⺢䩳⛐㺧嵛塓柀⮶侭䘬暨㯪ᶲ炻⃰ ⇘䓙ッ䁢↢䘤溆䘬䉏 䈚⣱䌣炻ㇵ傥䌚⼿塓柀⮶侭䘬ᾉả炻忚侴ㆸ䁢ᶨỵㆸ≇䘬柀⮶侭炷⻝㱃㔯嬗炻2001炸ˤ ˨㟤㜿⣂⇵㚠˩炷13:4-7炸㊯㖶ッ㗗媠⽟䘬曰櫪烉ˬッ㗗⏓⽵䘬炻ッ㗗ヰ䤍䘬炻ッ ᶵ⩱⤺炻ᶵ娯⻝炻ᶵ冒⣏炻ᶵ 䃉䥖䘬ḳ炻ᶵ㯪⶙䙲炻ᶵ≽⾺炻ᶵ⚾媨らḳ炻ᶵẍ ᶵ佑䁢㦪炻⌣冯䛇䎮⎴㦪烉↉ḳ⊭⭡炻↉ḳ䚠ᾉ炻↉ḳ䚤㛃炻↉ḳ⽵侸ˤ˭㟡㒂㬌 ᶨッ䘬⭂佑炻Hunter ṵ㊯↢ẍッ䁢㟠⽫䘬㚵⊁柀⮶侭℟㚱ℓᾳ䈡岒ㆾ伶⽟炻Ṏ⌛⽵ 侸ˣ】ヰˣ嫁⋹ˣ⮲慵ˣ䃉䥩ˣ⮔⿽ˣ婈⮎ˣ⬰ᾉ炻ⓗ忁ṃ䈡岒ᶵᶨ⭂㗗冯䓇ᾙἮ 䘬炻怬㗗⎗ẍ⼴⣑䘤⯽␴➡梲䘬炷㛶䳡⺟嬗炻2010炸ˤ 2. 㚵⊁柀⮶䘬奺刚 Covey炷2002炸⛐℞婾㔯ᷕ㊯↢㚵⊁柀⮶侭⛐䳬䷼ᷕㅱ㈖㺼⚃䧖奺刚炻Ṏ⌛烉℠ 䭬炷example炸ˣ⃰⮶炷path finding炸ˣ婧㬋炷alignment炸ˣ⼘㪲䙲傥炷empowerment炸炻 ℞ᷕẍ℠䭬䘬奺刚㚨䁢㟠⽫ᶼ慵天炻Ṏ⌛柀⮶侭天ẍ幓ἄ⇯炻≃埴㚵⊁ṾṢ䘬Ṣ䓇 奨炻ㇵ傥䓊䓇桐埴勱Ύᷳ㓰ˤ℞㫉炻⛐⃰⮶奺刚㕡朊炻柀⮶Ṣ天ⷞ柀ㆸ⒉ㆾ⇑⭛斄 ὪṢ炻ℙ⎴䁢䳬䷼妪↢℟㶙Ⰼ₡ῤ䘬⚾⁷␴栀㘗烊⛐婧㬋奺刚㕡朊炻柀⮶Ṣ⛐䡢⭂ ₡ῤˣἧ␥ˣ栀㘗⼴炻怬枰䡢ᾅ䳬䷼ᷕ䘬㇨㚱䳸㥳冯䲣䴙傥⚆ㅱ忁ṃ₡ῤ␴栀㘗烊 㚨⼴炻⛐⼘㪲䙲傥奺刚㕡朊炻柀⮶Ṣ天傥岎Ḱㆸ⒉⮰㤕冒ᷣ㪲ᷳ⎴㗪炻㽨⊝ˣ⡆⻟ ㆸ⒉䘬ⶍἄ傥≃炷㜿㠭䏜炻2008炸ˤ 炷ᶱ炸㚵⊁柀⮶䘬埴䁢䈡⽝ 㚵⊁柀⮶䘬埴䁢䈡⽝ᷳ婾徘炻䚠䔞䷩⣂炻Ữ㗗怬㗗ẍ Spears炷1998, 2002炸⛐䵄 ⎰㬠䲵㚵⊁柀⮶䎮⾝⍲䚠斄㔯䌣⼴炻㇨㍸↢䘬⋩ᾳ䈡⽝㚨䁢ⷠ夳炻ḇ㚨䁢⚳ℏ⢾⬠ 侭炷⤪㜿⿅Ở炻2004烊Laub, 1999炸㇨⺽䓐ˤ⻝⽟扛炷2013炸⛐橼㚫㚵⊁柀⮶䘬䎮⾝ Ὢ⛐ッ冯ᾉả䘬➢䢶ᶳ炻忳䓐ˬ⃰斄㆟⼴Έ⮶˭䘬ἄ䁢ẍ⍲ˬ檀斄㆟ˣ檀Έ⮶˭䘬 桐㟤炻ὧ⮯忁⋩ᾳ䈡⽝㬠䲵⛐ˬ斄㆟˭冯ˬΈ⮶˭Ḵᾳℑᾳ朊⎹ᷳᶳ炻ẍ㓞ẍ䯉楕

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䷩ᷳ㓰ˤ ⛐ 斄 ㆟ 朊 ⎹ 炷 ㆾ 斄 ⽫ ㆸ ⒉ 朊 ⎹ 炸 ᶳ 炻 㚵 ⊁ 柀 ⮶ 㚱 ᶳ ↿ Ḽ ᾳ 埴 䁢 烉 1. 奢 ⮇ 炷awareness炸烉䴻䓙冒ㆹ奢⮇炻⸓≑柀⮶Ṣ冒ㆹ㩊夾ˣ⍵⿅ˣ㩊妶㓡忚ˤ2. ⁦倥 炷listening炸烉德忶⁦倥炻Ḯ妋塓柀⮶侭䘬暨㯪ˣℏ⛐⿅䵕␴シ⽿ˤ3. ⎴䎮炷sympathy炸烉 䪁⛐塓柀⮶侭䘬䩳⟜炻ẍ⎴䎮⽫デ⎴幓⍿ˤ4. 㱣䗺炷healing炸烉柀⮶侭ᶵỮ㚱冒䗺䘬 ≃慷炻ḇ傥㱣䗺塓柀⮶侭⛐ね䵺ᶲ冯⽫曰䘬 䖃ˤ5. 婒㚵炷persuasion炸烉柀⮶侭㑭 㕤≽ᷳẍねˣ婒ᷳẍ䎮炻䘤㎖⮰㤕䘬⼙枧≃炷⻝⽟扛炻2013烊Spears, 2002炸ˤ ⛐ Έ ⮶ 朊 ⎹ 炷 ㆾ 斄 ⽫ ⶍ ἄ 朊 ⎹ 炸炻 㚵 ⊁ 柀 ⮶ Ṏ 㚱 ⤪ ᶳ Ḽ ᾳ 埴 䁢 烉 1. 㚵 ἵ 炷stewardship炸烉㚵⊁⎴ḳˣ⭊㇞ˣ䣦⋨⍲㔜橼䑘⠫炻 ⤥䭉⭞䘬屔ảˤ2. ⮵Ṣ䘬ㆸ 攟䘬㈧媦炷commitment to the growth of people炸烉农≃㕤㍸⋯䳬䷼ㆸ⒉ᾳṢˣ⮰㤕␴ 曰⿏ᶲ䘬ㆸ攟ˤ3. 㤪⾝⊾炷conceptualization炸烉傥⽆攟㛇䛤⃱␴⮔⺋夾慶炻Ḯ妋⓷柴炻 ᷎ 䲣䴙⿏䘬⿅侫炻㌴㎉⓷柴䘬ℐ䚌䉨㱩ˤ4. 怈夳炷foresight炸烉傥䳸⎰忶⍣䘬䞍嬀 ㆾ䴻槿炻⍲⮵䔞ᶳね⠫ㆾḳẞ䘬Ḯ妋炻枸夳ḳẞㆾね⠫䘬䘤⯽炻⍲㗪 ↢⎰䎮䘬㰢 䫾ˤ5. ⺢䩳䣦佌炷building community炸烉傥䴻䓙ㆸ⒉⼤㬌䚠Ḻ⮲慵炻ℙṓ₡ῤ炻⺢ 㥳↢℟⬠佺✳䳬䷼䘬⎰ἄ⛀昲炷⻝⽟扛炻2013烊Spears, 2002炸ˤ

୤ȃंـПݲ!

⛐䞼䨞㕡㱽ᶲ炻㛔㔯⃰ẍ㔯䌣㍊妶吸普⚳ℏ⢾䵚嶗ˣ㛇↲⍲䚠斄㚠䯵䫱炻⯙㚵 ⊁柀⮶䘬䎮婾⿏䞼䨞炻㬠䲵㔜䎮Ḯ㚵⊁柀⮶䘬㸸崟ˣシ佑䫱炻⎎⛐㚵⊁柀⮶⮎岒ℏ 㵝ᶲ⇯㍉䓐ᶱ䭯㚨䁢⚳ℏ⢾⬠侭㇨⺽䓐䘬㔯䌣炻ὅ㫉 䁢㚵⊁柀⮶侭⛐䈡岒ˣ奺刚ˣ 埴䁢䈡⽝ᶲ䘬↮栆㝞㥳炻Ṏ⌛ Hunter ㇨ᷣ⻝㚵⊁柀⮶䘬⺢䩳Ὢ⛐ッ䘬ℓᾳṢ㟤䈡岒 ᶲ炷㛶䳡⺟嬗炻2010炸炻ẍ⍲ Covey炷2002炸㇨娵䁢㚵⊁柀⮶侭⽭枰℟⁁℠䭬ˣ⃰⮶ˣ 婧㬋ˣ⼘㪲䙲傥䫱⚃ᾳ奺刚炻᷎ᶼ Spears炷1998炸⽆橼㚫㚵⊁柀⮶䘬䎮⾝⍲䚠斄㔯 䌣ᷕ炻䵄㔜⿏⛘㍸↢㚵⊁柀⮶䘬⋩ᾳ柀⮶埴䁢䈡⽝炻侴忁⋩ᾳ䈡⽝ᶵỮ⛐䞼䨞ᶲ㚨 ⺋䁢⚳ℏ⬠侭炷⏛㶭Ⱉ炻2008烊㜿⿅Ở炻2004烊喯伶渿炻2006炸㇨⺽䓐␴妶婾炻ḇ 㚨傥栗䎦↢ᶨỵ㚵⊁柀⮶侭㇨暨℟⁁䘬埴䁢堐䎦ˤ ⛐㔯ẞℏ⭡↮㜸ᶲ炻㛔㔯ἄ侭ẍ㚨傥ẋ堐俞䧴➢䜋妨埴䘬˪㕘䲬俾䴻˫ᷕ䘬˨䐒 䩯䤷枛˩ˣ˨䐒䇦察䤷枛˩ˣ˨嶗≈䤷枛˩ˣ˨劍㛃䤷枛˩䫱⚃悐䤷枛 䁢㔯ẞ↮㜸⮵尉炻 椾⃰怲教嬨怲䡢娵㔯䌣㍊妶㇨⺢䩳䘬ℏ⭡↮㜸㝞㥳㗗⏎怑䓐㕤俞䧴➢䜋㚵⊁柀⮶䘬 妨埴ḳ帇炻䘤䎦ᶲ徘↮栆㝞㥳䡢㚱℞怑䓐⿏ˤġ ġ

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㕤㗗㱧䓐ᶲ徘↮栆㝞㥳炻ẍ⚃悐䤷枛ᷕ俞䧴➢䜋妨埴ḳ帇䘬䲨抬≈ẍ䶐䡤炻↮ 攨⇍栆㔜䎮↢俞䧴➢䜋㇨栗䎦ᷳ㚵⊁柀⮶侭䘬䈡岒ˣ奺刚冯埴䁢䈡⽝ˤ䃞⼴炻䞼䨞 侭ℵ⍵央教嬨␴慵㕘㩊夾㇨㚱䘬㔯㛔屯㕁炻ẍ䡢ᾉ㰺㚱怢㺷ᶨṃ㜙大ㆾ㚱ᶵ怑䔞䘬 ẋ䡤↢䎦炷悕䓇䌱炻2012炸ˤ ⎎⢾⛐䞼䨞䳸㝄㔜䎮冯⏰䎦忶䦳ᷕ炻⇯ὅ㒂 Burg炷1989炸䘬⺢嬘炻䘤䎦⤪㝄㚱 嵛⣈䘬ḳἳ㓗㊩䞼䨞奨溆炻⇯晐㨇怠㑯嵛ẍ婒㖶䞼䨞奨溆ᶼ℟㚱ẋ堐⿏ᷳḳἳ炻᷎ ⎴㗪㲐シ㗗⏎㚱冯䞼䨞䘤䎦䚠䞃䚦䘬ḳἳ炻ẍ䡢ᾅ䞼䨞䘤䎦䘬ᶨ农⿏ˤ 㚨⼴炻⇯⮯㛔䞼䨞䳸㝄ẍ䞼䨞㚫嬘䘬✳⺷炻⏰䎦䴎Ḵỵ⣑ᷣ㔁䤆借Ṣ⒉᷎⛐⣑ ᷣ㔁⣏⬠ᷕ㑼ả㚵⊁柀⮶婚䦳䘬ả婚㔁㌰炻昌婳℞䡢娵㛔䞼䨞↮栆㝞㥳⍲㔯ẞ↮㜸 䳸㝄䘬㬋䡢⿏ᷳ⢾炻Ṏ婳℞㍸ὃᾖ㬋⺢嬘ˤ娚Ḵỵ⮵俾䴻⍲㚵⊁柀⮶䅇䦼䘬⬠侭炻 昌䡢娵䞼䨞䳸㝄᷎㍸ὃ劍⸚墄⃭夳妋⢾炻Ṏᷣ天㍸ὃḴ溆ᾖ㬋⺢嬘烉℞ᶨ炻㛔㔯枰 ⡆≈⮵俞䧴➢䜋䓇⸛䘬ṳ䳡烊℞Ḵ炻㛔㔯ἄ侭⍇⃰娵䁢⮵㕤ˬ奢⮇˭冯ˬ⁦倥˭忁 Ḵᾳ㚵⊁柀⮶埴䁢⛐⚃悐䤷枛ᷕ庫⮹䚜㍍㍷徘䘬奨溆᷎ᶵ⋩↮㬋䡢炻ṵ⎗⽆˨嶗≈ 䤷枛˩䫱ᷳᷕ炻栗䣢俞䧴➢䜋䡢㚱㖶栗堐䎦忁Ḵᾳ㚵⊁柀⮶䘬埴䁢ˤ㒂㬌炻㛔㔯ἄ 侭ᷫ⮵㛔㔯忚ᶨ㬍≈ẍᾖ㬋炻ἧᷳ䳸㝄㚜㬋䡢䃉婌ˤ

ဓȃंـ๖ݎᇄଆ፣!

⤪ᶲ㇨徘炻㚵⊁柀⮶䘬⮎岒ℏ㵝⎗⊭㊔㚵⊁柀⮶侭䘬䈡岒ˣ柀⮶奺刚ˣ柀⮶埴 䁢䫱炻侴㛔㔯ἄ侭⛐↮㜸娖慳˪俾䴻˫ᷕ䘬⚃悐䤷枛炻䘤䎦俞䧴➢䜋䡢⮎⯽䎦Ḯ媠 ⣂㚵⊁柀⮶䘬℠䭬炻⎗ὃ㚱⽫䁢㚵⊁柀⮶侭㇨㓰㱽␴⬠佺ˤ

ΙȃሴᏲޱޟ੫፴!

ẍッ䁢㟠⽫䘬㚵⊁柀⮶侭℟㚱ℓᾳ䈡岒ㆾ伶⽟烉⽵侸ˣ】ヰˣ嫁⋹ˣ⮲慵ˣ䃉 䥩ˣ⮔⿽ˣ婈⮎ˣ⬰ᾉ炷㛶䳡⺟嬗炻2010炸ˤ⽆⚃悐䤷枛ᷕ炻奨⮇俞䧴➢䜋䘬ᶨ䓇炻 ⃭↮⯽䎦Ḯ忁ℓᾳ䈡岒ㆾ伶⽟烉 炷ᶨ炸⽵侸 ⛐⽵侸䘬⽟⿏ᶲ炻ẍˬ俞䧴䤩梇ᶱ徨櫼婀˭㚨䁢℠✳炻⃭↮栗䎦Ḯ俞䧴➢䜋䴻 ⼿崟⎬䧖䢐拲␴侫槿炻⮎嶸Ḯˬ⭴屜ᶵ傥㶓ˣ屏岌ᶵ傥䦣ˣ⦩㬎ᶵ傥⯰˭䘬➭⽵伶 ⽟炻侴忁䧖伶⽟ḇ⎒㚱⎌Ἦ俾⒚ㇵ傥 ⼿⇘烉

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ٗਔǴओᑋ೏ဃઓሦ۳ᚻഁǴࣁڙ៥ଲޑ၂௖ǶᴺѤΜϺѤΜڹ࿣ १Ǵࡕٰ൩ᎧΑǶ၂௖ޣ൩߻ٰჹᴺᇥǺȨգऩࢂϺЬηǴ൩ڮ೭٤ҡ ᓐᡂԋሪփǼȩᴺӣเᇥǺȨ࿶΢૶ၩǺȬΓғࢲόѝ᎞ሪǴԶΨ᎞ϺЬ αύ܌วޑ΋ϪقᇟǶȭȩٗਔǴ៥ଲЇᴺډΑဃࠤǴעᴺҥӧဃ྅ഗ ΢ǴჹᴺᇥǺȨգऩࢂϺЬηǴ൩ၢΠѐǴӢ࿶΢૶ၩǺȬᴺࣁգ֊ڦΑ ԾρޑϺ٬ǴдॺाҔЋԎ๱գǴխளգޑဌ࿘ӧҡᓐ΢Ƕȭȩओᑋჹ дᇥǺȨ࿶΢Ξ૶ၩǺȬգόё၂௖΢ЬǴգޑϺЬǼȭȩ៥ଲΞעᴺ஥ ډ΋০ཱུଯޑξഗ΢ǴஒШ΢ޑ΋Ϫ୯ࡋϷځᄪ๮ࡰ๏ᴺ࣮ǶჹᴺᇥǺ Ȩգऩ९ҷරࡨךǴךѸע೭΋ϪҬ๏գǶȩٗਔǴओᑋ൩ჹдᇥǺȨѐ փǼኜⳅǼӢࣁ࿶΢૶ၩǺȬգाරࡨ΢ЬǴգޑϺЬǴ୤ᐱ٣ںᴺǼȭȩ ܭࢂ៥ଲᚆ໒ΑᴺǴ൩ԖϺ٬߻ٰ՛ংᴺǶȐᅦ 4Ǻ1-11ȑ 炷Ḵ炸】ヰ 俞䧴➢䜋ッᶾᶲ㭷ᶨᾳṢ炻䣪㗗┬䈏炻ᶵ栀シ㚱ảỽ徟⣙䘬似伲ˤ⛐˨嶗≈䤷 枛˩ᷕˬṉ伲䘬㭼╣˭㚱㶭㤂䘬㍷⮓炻侴忁䧖ˬ㚱㔁䃉栆˭ˣˬ㈲㭷ᾳ⬑⫸悥ⷞᶲἮ˭ 䘬⌂ッ䱦䤆炻⼰ῤ⼿㭷ᶨỵ㔁做ⶍἄ侭㇨㓰㱽烉 ౲ิӔϷ࿾Γॺ೿ٰௗ߈ओᑋǴࣁ᠋дᖱၰǶݤճ༞ΓϷ࿶ৣॺᠷ ᠷد᝼ᇥǺȨ೭ঁΓҬௗ࿾ΓǴΞӕдॺӞ໭Ƕȩओᑋၱჹдॺ೛Α೭ ঁКേᇥǺȨգॺύ໔ԖٗঁΓԖ΋ԭଫԲǴᒪѨΑځύޑ΋ଫǴԶό ע೭ΐΜΐଫҧӧ૖ഁǴѐ൨೔ٗᒪѨޑ΋ଫǴޔډפ๱ګǻࡑפ๱ ΑǴ൩഻៿ޑעؤܫӧԾρޑުᆮ΢ǴٰډৎύǴፎдޑ϶ӳϷᎃΓٰǴ ๏дॺᇥǺգॺᆶךӕ኷ጝǼӢࣁךٗଫᒪѨΑޑԲǴΞפډΑǶך֋ ນգॺǺӕኬǴჹܭ΋ঁ࿾Γ৷ׯǴӧϺ΢܌Ԗޑ៿኷ǴࣗܭჹٗΐΜ ΐঁค໪৷ׯޑကΓǶȩȐၡ 15Ǻ1-7ȑ 炷ᶱ炸嫁⋹ 俞䧴➢䜋嘃㆟劍察炻⽆ᶵ⮵Ṣ檀⁚炻㇨ẍ䣪婒烉ˬ↉檀冱冒⶙䘬炻⽭塓属㈹烊↉ 属㈹冒⶙䘬炻⽭塓檀冱ˤ˭炷䐒 23烉11-12炸ˤ⛐俾䴻ᷕẍ俞䧴⍿㲿㕤㕥㲿侭劍侘䘬姀 庱炻⎗ẍ婒㖶俞䧴⎹ᶳỵ侭⬠佺ˣ⎹⬠㚱⮰䱦侭⬠佺䘬伶⽟烉ġ ٗਔǴओᑋҗуٚԻ٥ٰډऊՠݞऩᑣٗ㚊Ǵࣁڙᴺޑࢱǹՠऩᑣ གྷाߔЗᴺᇥǺȨךҁٰሡाڙգޑࢱǴԶգࠅٰ൩ך༏ǻȩओᑋӣเ дᇥǺȨգኩЪ৒೚փǼӢࣁךॺᔈ྽೭ኬǴаֹԋӄကǶȩܭࢂऩᑣ ൩৒೚ΑᴺǶȐᅦ 3Ǻ13-15ȑ

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炷⚃炸⮲慵 俞䧴䚠ᾉ㭷ᶨᾳṢᶵ䭉Ṿ䘬䧖㕷ˣ⿏⇍ˣ䣦䴻⛘ỵ悥㗗⸛䫱䘬炻悥㚱℞ᶵ⭡䢐 㹭䘬Ṣ㟤⮲♜ˤ䣪⮵㕤冒娵檀Ṣᶨ䫱䘬㱽⇑⠆Ṣ␴䋞⣒㔁䴻ⷓᶵ㗪≈ẍ妻㕍⢾炻㗪 㗪ẍ㱣䗺䚚┆㭀䕦Ṣ⢓䁢⊁炻侴ᶼ斄㆟⨎⤛⛀橼炻⮲慵⃺䪍烉ġ ԖΓ๏ओᑋሦٰ΋٤λ࠸ηǴाдኟᄗдॺǹߐ২ࠅѾೢдॺǶओ ᑋـΑǴ൩ғΑ਻ǴჹдॺᇥǺȨᡣλ࠸ηډךၟ߻ٰǴόाߔЗдॺǼ ӢࣁϺЬޑ୯҅ឦܭ೭ኬޑΓǶךჴӧ֋ນգॺǺፔऩόႽλ࠸η΋ኬ ௗڙϺЬޑ୯Ǵ๊όૈ຾ѐǶȩओᑋၱܤଆдॺٰǴ๏дॺᙟЋǴઔᅽ ΑдॺǶȐك 10Ǻ13-16ȑ 炷Ḽ炸䃉䥩 俞䧴➢䜋㍸Έ䘬ッ㗗㘖念䃉䥩䘬烊䣪㊯㖶Ṣ㚫㬣侴⽑㳣炻䁢ᶨ䓇䘬妨埴㍍⍿℔ 㬋䘬⮑⇌烊啱叿ᾉẘ炻崘⛐㬋佑䘬嶗ᶲ炻⮯Ἦ⎗ẍ⼿㓹炻ṓ⍿㯠䓇炷‭ἑ㥖炻2011炸ˤ ⛐˨䐒䇦察䤷枛˩ᷕ炻俞䧴ˬ䧙孂䩖⮉⨎˭䘬㓭ḳ炻⎗ẍ栗䣢➢䜋䘬ッ㗗℔㬋䃉䥩 䘬炻ᶵỮ㗗㰺㚱䣦㚫昶䳂ᷳ↮䘬炻侴ᶼ⮵㕤Ỷ䣦䴻昶Ⰼ㇨ 䘬䃉ㆹ䘬⣱䌣炻㚜㗗孂 嬥㚱≈烉ġ ओᑋय़ჹሌ৤֤๱Ǵ࣮౲Γ࡛ኬӛሌ৤㚊׫ᒲǴԖ೚ӭ൤Γ׫Αࡐ ӭǶٗਔǴٰΑ΋ঁጁჲ஁Ǵ׫ΑٿঁλᒲǴջ΋ЎልᒲޑѤϩϐ΋Ƕ ओᑋߡћдޑߐ২ၸٰǴჹдॺᇥǺȨךჴӧ֋ນգॺǺ೭ঁጁჲ஁К ܌Ԗӛሌ৤㚊׫ᒲޑΓǴ׫ள׳ӭǴӢࣁ౲Γ೿৾дॺ܌Ꭹޑٰ׫ǹՠ ೭ჲ஁ࠅҗԾρޑόىύǴע܌Ԗޑ΋ϪǴӄ೽ޑғࢲ຤Ǵ೿׫΢ΑǶȩ Ȑك 12Ǻ41-44ȑ 炷ℕ炸⮔⿽ ˬṢ朆俾岊炻⬘傥䃉忶ˤ˭㇨ẍ俞䧴➢䜋ᶨℵ妻婐攨⼺天⮔⿽⇍Ṣ䘬忶拗炻⯙ ⤥⁷⣑䇞㚫⮔⿽ㆹᾹ䘬忶拗炷䐒 6烉14-15炸ˤ⮵⇍Ṣ䘬Ὕ䉗天⽵嬻炻ᶵ天ẍ䈁怬䈁炻 䓂军⮵ṯṢ天ẍ⽟⟙⿐炻䁢従⭛ㆹᾹ䘬Ṣ䣰䥙ˤ忁䧖檀屜䘬ね㑵炻⮎朆ᶨ凔Ṣ㇨傥  ⼿⇘䘬烉ġ գॺ΋ӛ᠋ᇥၸǺȬа౳ᗋ౳ǴаУᗋУǶȭךࠅჹգॺᇥǺόा ܢלൾΓǹԶЪǴऩԖΓඓᔐգޑѓᓌǴգעќ΋य़Ψᙯ๏дǶȐᅦ 5Ǻ 38-39ȑ

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炷ᶫ炸婈⮎ 俞䧴➢䜋婒烉ˬἈᾹ䘬娙䔞㗗烉㗗⯙婒㗗炻朆⯙婒朆烊℞Ṿ⣂检䘬ὧ㗗↢㕤恒らˤ 炷䐒 5烉37炸˭俞䧴⛐⍿暋姀ᷕ炻Ḵ㫉䘬⮑⇌⹕㇨堐䎦⮏㬣侴婈⮎ᶵ⯰炻᷎ᶵ䁢冒⶙ ⣂彗楩䘬≯㯋炻ὧ㗗㖶嫱烉ġ Ȝᇂݤ߃ቩओᑋȝ ٗ٤৾ՐओᑋޑΓǴஒओᑋ஥ډεљ౼ᇂݤ߻ǾǾεљ౼൩ઠଆ ٰǴჹᴺᇥǺȨ೭٤Γբ᛾ϸჹգޑ٣ǴգϙሶΨόӣเ༏?ȩओᑋࠅό рᖂǶܭࢂεљ౼ჹᴺᇥǺȨךӢғࢲޑϺЬǴଆᇣڮգ֋ນךॺǺգ ࢂόࢂᓨՋ٥ǴϺЬϐηǻȩओᑋᇥǺȨգᇥޑࢂǶ٠ЪǴך֋ນգॺǺ வԜգॺஒा࣮ـΓη֤ӧεૈޣޑѓᜐǴ४๱Ϻ΢ޑ໦றफ़ٰǶȩε љ౼ၱኚ຋ԾρՊܺᇥǺȨдᇥΑᖨᘡޑ၉ǶՖѸᗋሡाـ᛾ګ? գॺ খω᠋ډΑ೭ᖨᘡޑ၉Ǵգॺаࣁ၀࡛ኬ?ȩдॺӣเᇥǺȨд၀ԝǶȩ ౲Γၱջӛᴺᖍ΢ӗൄݳǴҔৼᓐѺᴺǹќԖ΋٤ΓΨҔЃඓѺᴺǴᇥǺ ȨᓨՋ٥Ǵգ౒౒ࢂፔѺգ?ȩȐᅦ 26Ǻ57-68ȑ ȜओᑋӧК܎ӭ߻ȝ ओᑋઠӧᕴ࿎य़߻Ǵᕴ࿎ߡቩୢᴺᇥǺȨգࢂซϼΓޑ։Ц༏ǻȩ ओᑋӣเᇥǺȨգᇥޑࢂǶȩ྽љ౼ߏکߏԴ௓֋ᴺਔǴᴺϙሶΨόӣ เǶܭࢂК܎ӭჹᴺᇥǺȨգؒԖ᠋ـǴдॺගрӭϿ᛾Ᏽ֋գ༏ǻȩ ओᑋೱ΋ѡ၉ΨؒԖӣเдǴаԿᕴ࿎εࣁᡋ౦ǶȐᅦ 27Ǻ11-14ȑ 炷ℓ炸⬰ᾉ 俞䧴➢䜋㶙䞍䣪ᷳ㇨ẍ旵䓇䁢Ṣ炻㗗啱䓙冒⶙䘬⍿劎⍿暋炻➟埴⣑䇞䘬㖐シ烉 䁢ᶾṢ岾伒䘬ⶍ䦳ㆾ妰䔓ˤ䔞俞䧴枸䞍塓憀⛐⋩⫿㝞ᶲ䘬⣏䖃劎ˣ⣏䀥暋⌛⮯Ἦ冐 㗪炻晾⻟䁰デ⍿⇘䄑ㄪ⿸⾾崟Ἦ炻Ữ怬㗗ᾉ⬰⣑䇞䘬㖐シ炻ẍᶵ徫性䘬⽫ン炻✎䃞 ㍍⍿℞⼴枸⭂䘬ⶍ䦳ˤ忁㧋䘬ね䭨炻⛐˨䐒䩯䤷枛˩䘬ˬⰙ⚺䣰䥙˭㚱ẍᶳ娛䳘䘬 ㍷徘烉ġ ᒿࡕǴओᑋӕдॺٰډ΋ঁӜћॠೢᅦѭޑಷ༜㚊Ǵߡჹߐ২ᇥǺ Ȩգॺ֤ӧ೭㚊Ǵ฻ךډٗᜐѐࣹᛗǶȩၱ஥Αդӭ࿢کၩդቺޑٿঁ ٽηӕѐǴ໒ۈኁ඀৮܀ଆٰǴၱჹдॺᇥǺȨךޑЈᡫኁ඀ளाԝǴ գॺ੮ӧ೭္ӕך΋ଆᒬჷփǼȩᴺั༾߻ՉǴ൩९२ԿӦࣹᛗᇥǺȨך РǴऩࢂёૈǴ൩ᡣ೭݆ᚆ໒ךփǼՠόाྣךǴԶाྣգ܌ᜫཀޑǶȩ Ȑᅦ 26Ǻ36-39ȑ

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ΠȃሴᏲޟُՓ!

⤪⇵㇨徘炻Covey炷2002炸㊯↢㚵⊁柀⮶侭⛐䳬䷼ᷕㅱ㈖㺼䘬奺刚㚱⚃烉℠䭬ˣ ⃰⮶ˣ婧㬋ˣ⼘㪲䙲傥炻勚⯙俾䴻ᷕ䘬姀庱↮㜸⤪ᶳ烉 炷ᶨ炸℠䭬 㜿㠭䏜炷2008炸㊯↢柀⮶侭⽭枰㕤䓇㳣ᷕ幓橼≃埴㚵⊁Ṣ䓇奨炻ᶼ℟⁁㬋䚜ˣ 嫁怄ˣ䉏䈚⣱䌣䘬䱦䤆炻ㇵ嵛ẍ䁢㤟㧉炻ἧ⼿䳬䷼ㆸ⒉䓊䓇䘤冒ℏ⽫⛘ᾉ㚵␴徥晐ˤ ⛐俾䴻ᷕ炻俞䧴➢䜋ˬ䴎攨⼺㲿儛˭ὧ㗗㚵⊁柀⮶䘬㚨Ἓ℠䭬烉ġ ӧၻຫ࿯ቼВ߻ǴओᑋޕၰдᚆԜШᘜРޑਔٍςډǴдࡽฅངΑ Ш΢ឦܭԾρޑΓǴ൩ངдॺډۭǶ҅Ӟఁᓓޑਔংˇˇ៥ଲς٬٩ථ уౣΓՋᅈޑٽηซၲථ،ཀр፤ओᑋˇˇओᑋӢޕၰРע΋ϪςҬ ӧдЋύǴΨޕၰԾρࢂவϺЬٰޑǴΞा۳ϺЬ္ٗѐǴ൩வৢ໔ଆ ٰǴಥΠѦՊǴ৾ଆ΋చЋτ״ӧဈ໔ǴฅࡕעНॹӧ္ࣧǴ໒ۈࢱߐ ২ޑဌǴҔ״๱ޑЋτᔔଳǶϷԿٰډՋᅈդӭ࿢ၟ߻Ǵդӭ࿢ჹдᇥǺ ȨЬǼգ๏ךဌ༏ǻȩ ओᑋӣเᇥǺȨך܌଺ޑǴգ౜ӧᗋόܴқǴа ࡕգ཮ܴқǶȩդӭ࿢ჹдᇥǺȨόǴգ҉ᇻόё๏ךࢱဌǼȩओᑋӣ เᇥǺȨךऩόࢱգǴգ൩ᆶךคϩǶȩՋᅈդӭ࿢ၱᇥǺȨЬǼόՠך ޑဌǴԶЪೱЋ஥ᓐǴ೿๏ךࢱጝǼȩओᑋӛдᇥǺȨ؍੎ၸޑΓǴς ӄيమዅǴѝ໪ࢱဌ൩୼ΑǶգॺচࢂዅృޑǴՠό೿ࢂǶȩচٰǴओ ᑋޕၰፔाр፤дǴࣁԜᇥǺգॺό೿ࢂዅృޑǶϷԿओᑋࢱֹΑдॺ ޑဌǴऀ΢ѦՊǴΞѐ֤ΠǴჹдॺᇥǺȨգॺܴқך๏գॺ܌଺ޑ༏ǻ գॺᆀךȬৣഡȭǵȬЬηȭǴᇥள҅ჹǺךচٰࢂǶऩךࣁЬηǴࣁৣ ഡޑǴ๏գॺࢱဌǴգॺΨ၀۶Ԝࢱဌǹך๏գॺҥΑᄦኬǴћգॺΨ ྣך๏գॺ܌଺ޑѐ଺ǶȐऩ 13Ǻ1-15ȑ 炷Ḵ炸⃰⮶ ⛐⃰⮶㕡朊炻柀⮶侭天㑼ả⃰槭侭䘬奺刚炻⯙天㚱䎮゛␴栀㘗炻᷎ᶼ傥㚱㓰ⷞ 柀䳬䷼ㆸ⒉炻⮎嶸ℙ⎴䘬䎮゛␴栀㘗ˤ⯙俞䧴➢䜋侴妨炻䣪␴ἧ⼺㇨ℙ⎴⺢䩳䘬䎮 ゛␴栀㘗㗗栀⣑䇞䘬⎵塓⮲䁢俾炻栀⣑䇞䘬⚳Ἦ冐炻栀⣑䇞䘬㖐シ⣱埴⛐Ṣ攻⤪⎴ ⛐⣑ᶲ炷嶗 11烉2炸ˤ⛐俾䴻ᷕ炻⽆ˬ⛐≈慴倳Ṇ攳⥳⁛忻˭⇘溻⊝ἧ⼺ˬ側⋩⫿㝞 䘬⽭天˭炻⎗ẍ⃭↮栗䎦俞䧴➢䜋㇨㈧㑼䘬⃰⮶奺刚烉ġ

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ȜӧуٚԻ٥໒ۈ໺ၰȝ ओᑋ᠋ډऩᑣ೏ᅱ࿣аࡕǴ൩ଏᗉډуٚԻ٥ѐΑǹࡕΞᚆ໒યш ԻǴٰՐӧੇᜐޑလݤશǴջՐӧ߾؁ໜکયත༣ٚნϣǶ೭ᔈᡍΑ٩ ኜ٩٥Ӄޕ܌ᇥޑ၉ǺȬ߾؁ໜӦᆶયත༣ٚӦǴ೯ੇεၡǴऊՠݞܿǴ ѦБΓޑуٚԻ٥Ǵ֤ٗӧ໵སύޑԭۉǴ࣮ـΑ੏Ӏǹٗ٤֤ӧԝΫ ഍ቹϐӦޑΓǴࣁдॺр౜ΑӀܴǶȭவٗਔଆǴओᑋ໒ۈ࠹ᖱᇥǺȨգ ॺ৷ׯփǼӢࣁϺ୯ᖏ߈ΑǶȩȐᅦ 4Ǻ12-17ȑ ȜङΜӷࢎޑѸाȝ ܭࢂǴओᑋჹߐ২ᇥǺȨፔऩᜫཀၟᒿךǴ၀క๊ԾρǴङ๱Ծρ ޑΜӷࢎٰၟᒿךǴӢࣁፔऩᜫཀ௱Ծρޑ܄ڮǴѸा഼Ѩ܄ڮǹՠፔ ऩࣁךޑচࡺǴ഼ѨԾρޑ܄ڮǴѸाᕇள܄ڮǶΓᕵฅᖺளΑӄШࣚǴ ࠅ፝΢ΑԾρޑᡫሲǴࣁдԖϙሶ੻ೀǻ܈ޣǴΓᗋૈ৾ϙሶ଺ࣁԾρ ᡫሲޑжሽǻӢࣁஒٰΓηाӧдРޑӀᄪύӕдޑϺ٬फ़ٰǴٗਔǴ дाࡪྣ؂ΓޑՉࣁϒа፞ൔǶךჴӧ֋ນգॺǺઠӧ೭္ޑΓύǴ൩ Ԗ٤Γӧ҂჋ډԝښа߻ǴѸा࣮ـΓηٰډԾρޑ୯ϣǶȩȐᅦ 16Ǻ 24-28ȑ 炷ᶱ炸婧㬋 㜿㠭䏜炷2008炸㊯↢柀⮶侭⛐䡢⭂₡ῤˣἧ␥ˣ栀㘗⼴炻⤪㝄䘤䎦䳬䷼ᷕ䘬ㄋ ἳ劍ᶵ傥惵⎰㕘䘬₡ῤˣἧ␥ˣ栀㘗炻⇯⽭枰≈ẍ婧㬋ˤ俾䴻ᷕˬ槭徸㭧ℏ⓮Ṣ˭ 䘬㓭ḳ炻ὧ㗗ᶨᾳἳ⫸烉ġ ओᑋ຾Αဃ྅Ǵע΋Ϫӧဃ྅ϣޑ୘Γ៝࠼ᇴрѐǴעᒲಷޑਫη ک፤ᗷηޑჃη௢ᙌӛдॺᇥǺȨ࿶΢૶ၩǺȬךޑ྅ӹǴᔈᆀࣁࣹᛗϐ ܌ǶȭգॺഖעѬ଺ԋΑၖᆂǶȩӧဃ྅ϣޑይηکᐻηٰډᴺၟ߻Ǵ ᴺ೿ݯӳΑдॺǶљ౼ߏϷ࿶ৣـΑᴺ܌Չޑڻ٣ǴΞ᠋ـΑ࠸ηॺӧ ဃ྅ϣഷᇥǺȨລΟયܭၲښϐηǼȩ൩εวۻࡗǴჹओᑋᇥǺȨգ᠋ـ дॺ܌ᇥޑ༏ǼȩओᑋჹдॺᇥǺȨࢂޑǴգॺவ҂᠐ၸǺȬգҗᓻٽک ӞѪޣޑαύǴഢڙᢌऍȭ೭ѡ၉༏ǻȩܭࢂߡᚆ໒дॺوрࠤѦǴډ դၲѭѐǴӧ္ٗၸڹǶȐᅦ 21Ǻ12-17ȑ 炷⚃炸⼘㪲䙲傥 㚨⼴炻柀⮶侭⛐岎Ḱˣ⼘栗䳬䷼ㆸ⒉⮰㤕冒ᷣ㪲ᷳ⎴㗪炻㚜天㽨⊝ˣ⡆䙲ㆸ⒉ 䘬ⶍἄ傥≃ˤ⛐忁ᶨ㕡朊炻俞䧴➢䜋㖊傥岎Ḱ攨⼺⁛㔁ἧ␥炻⍰傥⡆䙲攨⼺⁛㔁䘬 傥≃炻⎗ẍ婒㗗朆ⷠㆸ≇䘬⼘㪲䙲傥䘬℠䭬ˤ

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Ȝے২ޑ٬ڮȝ ओᑋє໣ΑٗΜΒΓٰǴ፥๏дॺڋҷ΋Ϫ៥ଲǴ٠ݯᕍ੯ੰޑૈ Κک៾࢓Ǵࢴᇾдॺѐ࠹ᖱϺЬޑ୯Ǵ٠ݯӳੰΓǴӛдॺᇥǺȨգॺ ӧၡ΢ϙሶΨόा஥ǺΨόा஥෋׺ǴΨόा஥α೓ǴΨόा஥१ނǴ Ψόा஥ሌᒲǴΨόा஥ٿҹϣՊǶգॺคፕ຾Αٗ΋ৎǴ൩Րӧ္ٗǴ ޔډவ္ٗᚆѐǶΓऩόௗࡑգॺǴգॺाᚆ໒ٗࠤǴܒѐգॺဌ΢ޑ ლβǴ଺ࣁϸჹдॺޑ᛾ᏵǶȩдॺ൩рวǴڬၯӚໂ׸Ǵ࠹໺഻ૻǴ ډೀݯੰǶȐၡ 9Ǻ1-6ȑ

έȃሴᏲޟ՗࣏੫኉!

炷ᶨ炸斄㆟朊⎹䘬㚵⊁柀⮶埴䁢 ⛐ Spears炷2002炸䘬⋩ᾳ㚵⊁柀⮶埴䁢ᷕ炻斄㆟朊⎹䘬㚵⊁柀⮶埴䁢ᷣ天㚱Ḽ ᾳ烉奢⮇ˣ⁦倥ˣ⎴䎮ˣ㱣䗺ˣ婒㚵ˤẍᶳ婒㖶俞䧴➢䜋⛐忁ᶨ㕡朊䘬妨埴ḳ帇ˤ 1. 奢⮇ ⛐˨嶗≈䤷枛˩ᷕ炻焏⽑㳣䲵⚈❶⮉⨎䘬䌐⫸˭炻⎗ẍ栗䣢俞䧴➢䜋㑭㕤奢⮇Ṿ Ṣ䓇侩䕭㬣ᷳ劎炻㛔㕤ず⣑ㅓṢᷳ⽫炻侴䘤㎖䤆≃炻ἧṢ㬣侴⽑㳣ˤ ȜൺࢲયӢࠤჲ஁ޑᐱηȝ! аࡕǴओᑋ۳΋০ӜћયӢޑࠤѐǴᴺޑߐ২ک೚ӭဂ౲ᆶᴺӕ ՉǶᖏ߈ࠤߐਔǴ࣮Ǵ҅ܩр΋ঁԝΓٰǴдࢂ҆ᒃޑᐱғηǴ҆ᒃΞ ࢂჲ஁ǹЪԖҁࠤޑ΋εუΓഉ๱ӴǶЬ΋࣮ـӴǴ൩ჹӴ୏Αኇኈޑ ЈǴӛӴᇥǺȨόाনΑ"ȩၱ΢߻ࡪ۳඼׷Ǵܩ඼׷ޑΓ൩ઠՐΑǶᴺ ᇥǺȨߙԃΓǴךჹգᇥǺଆٰփǼȩٗԝޣߡ֤ଆٰǴ٠໒αᇥ၉ǹ ओᑋߡעдҬ๏Αдޑ҆ᒃǶȐၡ 7Ǻ11-15ȑ! 2. ⁦倥 ⛐˨嶗≈䤷枛˩ᷕ炻焏吃㱽佩䘬䘦⣓攟˭炻Ṏ⎗ẍ栗䣢俞䧴➢䜋┬攟⁦倥⇍Ṣ䘬 暨㯪␴倚枛炻侴傥≈ẍ焏倆倚㓹劎˭炻㺧嵛ḮṾṢ䘬暨㯪ˤ Ȝလݤશޑԭϻߏȝ ओᑋӛ҇౲ᖱֹΑ೭΋Ϫ၉аࡕǴ൩຾ΑလݤશǶԖ΋ঁԭϻߏǴ д܌഻ངޑႼΓ্ੰाԝǶд᠋ᇥၸओᑋޑ٣Ǵ൩ѺวซϼΓޑ൳ঁߏ Դ۳ᴺٗ㚊ѐǴ؃ᴺٰݯӳԾρޑႼΓǶдॺډΑओᑋٗ㚊ǴᔊϪ؃ᴺ

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ᇥǺȨд൐྽գ๏д଺೭٣ǴӢࣁдངៈךॺޑ҇௼ǴΞ๏ךॺࡌᑐΑ ཮୸Ƕȩओᑋ൩ӕдॺѐΑǶ྽ᴺᚆٗৎςόᇻਔǴԭϻߏѺวܻ϶ӛ ᴺᇥǺȨЬୟ! όѸമᎯΑ! Ӣࣁך྽όଆգډްΠٰǶࣁԜǴךΨᇡࣁ ךό൐྽ᒃԾډգၟ߻ٰǴѝፎգᇥ΋ѡ၉ǴךޑႼΓ൩ѸӳΑǶ…… ओᑋ΋᠋೭٤၉Ǵ൩ٵܺдǴၱᙯيӛၟᒿԾρޑဂ౲ᇥǺȨך֋ນգ ॺǺೱӧаՅӈǴךΨؒԖـၸ೭ኬεޑߞቺǶ೏ࢴѐޑΓӣډৎύǴ ـٗႼΓς౫ᘰΑǶȐၡ 7Ǻ1-10ȑ 3. ⎴䎮 ⛐俾䴻ᷕ炻ˬ䛇䤷ℓ䪗˭䘬Ⱉᷕ俾妻炻⎗ẍ栗夳俞䧴➢䜋⮵屏䩖䘬Ṣˣ⑨ㄇ䘬Ṣˣ ┬列䘬Ṣˣ⍿従⭛䘬Ṣ䫱䘬⎴ね冯溻准烉 ˰੿ᅽΖᆄ˱ ओᑋ΋ـဂ౲Ǵ൩΢ΑξǴ֤Πǹдޑߐ২΢дၟ߻ٰǴдၱ໒α௲૽ дॺᇥǺ Ȩઓ೦ޑΓࢂԖᅽޑǴӢࣁϺ୯ࢂдॺޑǶ ࠉᄎޑΓࢂԖᅽޑǴӢࣁдॺाڙӼኃǶ ྕؼޑΓࢂԖᅽޑǴӢࣁдॺा܍ڙβӦǶ ବ෰ኀကޑΓࢂԖᅽޑǴӢࣁдॺाளႫ⒗Ƕ ኇኈΓޑΓࢂԖᅽޑǴӢࣁдॺाڙኇኈǶ Ј္ዅృޑΓࢂԖᅽޑǴӢࣁдॺा࣮ـϺЬǶ ጌ೷کѳޑΓࢂԖᅽޑǴӢࣁдॺाᆀࣁϺЬޑηζǶ ࣁကԶڙॐ্ޑΓࢂԖᅽޑǴӢࣁϺ୯ࢂдॺޑǶ ൳ਔΓࣁΑךԶଋጜॐ্գॺǴਅ೷΋Ϫᚯ၉྄ᖯգॺǴգॺࢂԖᅽ ޑǶգॺ៿഻ᒛ៌ጝǼӢࣁգॺӧϺ΢ޑ፞ൔࢂᙦ൤ޑǴӢࣁӧգॺа ߻ޑӃޕǴΓΨම೭ኬॐ্ၸдॺǶȩȐᅦ 5Ǻ1-12ȑ 4. 㱣䗺 俞䧴➢䜋⁛㔁䘬Ḵᾳ㚨ᷣ天㕡㱽Ὢ㱣䗺冯婒㚵炻Ṏ⌛俞䧴㖊㗗劎⎋⧮⽫䘬⁛忻 ⢓炻⍰㗗℟㚱崭冒䃞≃慷䘬慓侭炻侴忁Ḵ䧖ⶫ忻㕡㱽⍰傥䚠庼䚠ㆸ炻ㇵ傥忈⯙Ḯᾉ ⼺⾓忇䘬⡆攟ˤḇ䓙㕤⼙枧≃彭忇漸⣏崟Ἦ炻ᷫ⺽崟Ḯ䋞⣒㔁⢓䘬⩱⤺冯星⭛ˤ俞 䧴㱣䕭䘬⣯帇⛐⚃悐䤷枛ᷕ㚱䚠䔞⣂䘬㍷徘炻⛐㬌⺽ℑἳ≈ẍ婒㖶烉ġ ȜӧуٚԻ٥໒ۈᡉڻၞȝ ओᑋوၹΑӄуٚԻ٥Ǵӧдॺޑ཮୸ϣࡼ௲Ǵ࠹ᖱϺ୯ޑᅽॣǴ ݯӳ҇໔Ӛᅿ੯ੰǴӚᅿؠࢢǶᴺޑӜᖂ໺ၹΑ᏾ঁ௶ճ٥ǶΓ൩ע΋ ϪԖੰޑǵڙӚᅿ੯ੰภधྞዖޑǵߕ៥ޑǵᡜ⻯ޑǴᡛᅯޑǴ೿๏ᴺ

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ଌٰǴᴺ೿ݯӳΑдॺǶܭࢂԖ೚ӭဂ౲வуٚԻ٥ǵȨΜࠤ୔ȩǵओၡ ኜհǵซϼکऊՠݞܿ۞ٰၟᒿΑᴺǶȐᅦ 4Ǻ23-25ȑ Ȝ٬ٿঁይηൺܴȝ ओᑋவ္ٗ߻ՉǴԖٿঁይηၟ๱ᴺഷᇥǺȨၲښϐηǼёኇךॺ փǼȩ΋ٰډৎǴይηߡوډᴺၟ߻ǹओᑋჹдॺᇥǺȨգॺߞךૈբ ೭٣༏ǻȩдॺჹᴺᇥǺȨࢂǴЬǶȩܭࢂओᑋᄗдॺޑ౳ᇥǺȨྣգॺ ޑߞቺǴ๏գॺԋ൩փǼȩдॺޑ౳ߡ໒ΑǶओᑋᝄ቉᝾יдॺᇥǺȨգ ॺ྽ЈǴόा٬ҺՖΓޕၰǶȩՠдॺрѐǴ൩ӧٗ᏾ঁӦ୔עᴺ໺ඦ ໒ΑǶȐᅦ 9Ǻ27-31ȑ 5. 婒㚵 俞䧴➢䜋䘬㺼婒傥≃㗗朆ⷠ樂Ṣ䘬炻䣪傥⛐俾㭧ᷕˣᾉ⼺⭞ᷕˣ⛐Ⱉ慶ᷕ炻⛐ 㴟怲炻┬䓐婒ᷳẍ䎮ˣ㙱ᷳẍ佑ˣ≽ᷳẍね䫱Ṣ晃㹅忂㈨ⶏ炻㚱㓰ㇻ≽ᾉ⼺䘬⿅゛ 冯ねデˤ䣪⯌℞┬䓐㭼╣炻Ἦ婒㖶⣑⚳䘬䎮゛ˤ⛐俾䴻ᷕ炻↢䎦姙姙⣂⣂忁㧋䘬㭼 ╣炻㬌嗽⺽ᶨἳ≈ẍ婒㖶烉ġ ȜኜᅿޑКേȝ ओᑋΞӧੇᜐ΢໒ۈࡼ௲ǾǾǶ᭘ҔКേ௲૽дॺ೚ӭ٣Ǵӧࡼ௲ ਔǴ᭘ӛдॺᇥǺȨգॺ᠋ǺԖঁኜᅿޑрѐኜᅿǶдኜᅿޑਔংǴԖ ޑပӧၡ਒Ǵ०ചٰעѬӞΑǹԖޑပӧҡᓐӦ္Ǵ္ٗؒԖӭϿβᝆǴ ջڅวΑ޵ǴӢࣁ܌ԖޑβᝆόుǴϼ໚΋рٰǴ೏ᠴขΑǹΞӢࣁؒ ԖਥǴ൩ଳ࢏ΑǹԖޑပӧ૘඿ύǴ૘඿ߏଆٰǴעѬ౾৲ΑǴ൩ؒԖ ่ჴǹԖޑပӧӳӦ္Ǵ൩ߏεԋዕǴ่Α݀ჴǴԖޑ่ΟΜ७ǴԖޑ ϤΜ७ǴԖޑ΋ԭ७Ƕȩ᭘ΞᇥǺȨԖԸ᠋ޑǴ᠋ጝǼȩ྽ओᑋᐱԾ΋ ΓޑਔংǴٗ٤ၟவдޑΓکΜΒߐ২ߡୢд೭٤КേޑཀကǶǾǾओ ᑋჹдॺᇥǺȨգॺόܴқ೭ঁКേǴΞ࡛ૈܴқځдޑ΋ϪКേګǻ ٗኜᅿޑΓኜޑǴࢂ܌ᖱޑȨ၉ȩǶٗኜӧၡ਒ޑȨ၉ȩǴࢂࡰΓ᠋ΑࡕǴ ኜⳅҥਔٰǴעኜӧдॺЈ္ޑȨ၉ȩღΑѐǶӕኬǴٗኜӧҡᓐӦ္ ޑǴࢂࡰΓ᠋Α೭Ȩ၉ȩࡕǴҥڅݒฅௗڙǹՠдॺЈ္ؒԖਥǴόૈ ࡭ΦǴϷԿࣁΑ೭Ȩ၉ȩวғᖑᜤ܈ॐ্Ǵҥڅ൩ຳॹΑǶᗋԖٗኜӧ ૘඿ύޑǴࢂࡰΓ᠋Α೭Ȩ၉ȩࡕǴШ߫ޑขቾǵ଄൤ޑ଎ൽǵаϷځ дޑ೥ኅ຾ٰǴעȨ၉ȩᆾՐΑǴ่όр݀ჴǶٗኜӧӳӦ္ޑǴࢂࡰ Γ᠋Α೭Ȩ၉ȩǴ൩ௗڙΑǴ٠่Α݀ჴǴԖޑΟΜ७ǴԖϤΜ७ǴԖ ޑ΋ԭ७ǶȩȐك 4Ǻ1-20ȑ 炷Ḵ炸Έ⮶朊⎹䘬㚵⊁柀⮶埴䁢 ⛐ Spears炷2002炸䘬⋩ᾳ㚵⊁柀⮶埴䁢ᷕ炻Έ⮶朊⎹䘬㚵⊁柀⮶埴䁢ᷣ天Ṏ㚱

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Ḽᾳ烉㚵ἵˣ⮵Ṣ䘬ㆸ攟䘬㈧媦ˣ㤪⾝⊾ˣ怈夳ˣ⺢䩳䣦佌ˤẍᶳ婒㖶俞䧴➢䜋⛐ 忁Ḽᾳ柀⮶埴䁢䘬⮎晃堐䎦烉ġ 1. 㚵ἵ ⤪ᶲ㇨徘炻俞䧴䴎攨⼺㲿儛䘬㓭ḳ炻䣢䭬Ḯ柀⮶侭天ẍ⁽Ṣ䘬⽫ン炻㚵ἵ塓柀 ⮶侭炻ẍ岷⼿塓柀⮶䘤冒ℏ⽫䘬䎮妋冯娵⎴ˤ⛐ᶳ⇯ˬ俞䧴㗗┬䈏˭䘬㔁婐炻⎗婒 㖶Ḯ俞䧴䁢㓹ᶾṢ栀シ䉈䈚⇘⸽䘬㚵⊁Ṣ䓇奨烉ġ ךࢂ๓ށǴךᇡ᛽ךޑԲǴךޑԲΨᇡ᛽ךǴ҅ӵРᇡ᛽ךǴךΨ ᇡ᛽Р΋ኬǹך٠ЪࣁԲ௭௞ךޑ܄ڮǶךᗋԖձޑԲǴόឦܭ೭΋ළǴ ךΨ၀עдॺЇٰǴдॺा᠋ךޑᖂॣǴ೭ኬǴஒѝԖ΋ঁԲဂǴ΋ঁ ށΓǶРངךǴӢࣁך௭௞ךޑ܄ڮǴࣁӆڗӣѬٰǺፔΨόૈღѐך ޑ܄ڮǴԶࢂךҒЈ௃ᜫ௭௞ѬǹךԖ៾௭௞ѬǴךΨԖ៾ӆڗӣѬٰǺ ೭ࢂךҗךРௗڙޑڮзǶȐऩ 10Ǻ14-18ȑ 2. ⮵Ṣㆸ攟䘬㈧媦 俞䧴➢䜋䁢⣑⚳侴䓇炻℞旵䓇Ṣᶾ炻㚨ᷣ天䘬ả⊁㗗⁛㑕⣑⚳䘬䤷枛炻⺽柀剠 剠䛦䓇炻䌚⼿Ṣᶨ䓇徥㯪䘬㚨檀シ佑冯₡ῤ烉⛐⣑⚳䘬㯠䓇ˤ⛐˨劍㛃䤷枛˩ᷕˬ俞 䧴㗗䓇␥ᷳ䲏˭㚱⤪ᶳ䘬姀庱烉 ךჴჴӧӧ֋ນգॺǺߞவޑΓѸள҉ғǶךࢂғڮޑ१ᙂǶգॺ ޑ઒ӃӧᚻഁύӞၸȨᅦયȩǴࠅԝΑǹ೭ࢂவϺ΢फ़Πٰޑ१ᙂǴፔ ӞΑǴ൩όԝǶ ךࢂவϺ΢फ़Πޑғࢲޑ१ᙂǹፔऩӞΑ೭१ᙂǴѸ ाғࢲޔډ҉ᇻǶȐऩ 6Ǻ 47-51ȑ 3. 㤪⾝⊾ 俞䧴➢䜋㶙䞍䣪䁢⣑⚳侴䓇炻ḇ⮯䁢⣑⚳㬣炻侴℞㇨ẍ⽆⭡崜㬣炻崜㸗巰䀓凔炻 ≯㔊⛘㍍⍿塓憀㬣⛐⋩⫿㝞䘬⣏劎暋炻㗗䁢Ḯ⬴ㆸ⣑䇞䘬ᶨᾳ怈⣏䘬ⶍ䦳ㆾ妰䔓烉 䁢Ṣ栆岾伒炻ἧṢ䘬䓇␥《⽑⬴㔜炻忚侴冯䤆⎰侴䁢ᶨˤḇ⯙㗗婒炻Ṣ栆䘬⥳䣾Ṇ 䔞⼿伒Ḯ䤆炻䓙⽭枰䓙䤆ᷳ⫸Ἦ 岾₡炻ἧṢ䓙伒䘬㝟挾ᷕ妋㓦↢Ἦ炻侴忁䧖妋㓦 ⃱月Ṣ䘬傮⻙冯䃉≑炻㗗ᶵ⎗傥⬴ㆸ䘬炷‭ἑ㥖炻2011炸ˤ俞䧴➢䜋忁䧖思⽆⣑䇞岾 ᶾ妰䔓侴ㄟㄐ⯙佑䘬娵䞍炻⎗⽆℞⯙佑⇵⮵ˬ⮵㮹䛦㚨⼴䘬嫃娆˭炻⎗夳ᶨ㔹烉

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ओᑋ໒αӛдॺᇥǺȨΓηाڙӀᄪޑਔٍډΑǶךჴჴӧӧ֋ນ գॺǺ΋ಈഝηӵ݀όပӧӦ္ԝΑǴϝѝࢂ΋ಈǹӵ݀ԝΑǴω่р ೚ӭηಈٰǶངெԾρ܄ڮޑǴѸा഼Ѩ܄ڮǹӧ౜Ш኉࡟Ծρ܄ڮޑǴ ѸाߥӸ܄ڮΕܭ҉ғǶፔऩ٣ںךǴ൩྽ၟᒿךǹӵԜǴךӧ္ٗǴ ךޑႼΓΨाӧ္ٗǹፔऩ٣ںךǴךРѸा൧ख़дǶ౜ӧךЈઓྠ໶Ǵ ךёᇥϙሶګǻךᇥǺРୟǼ௱ךಥᚆ೭ਔٍጝǼՠ҅ࢂࣁԜǴךωډ Α೭ਔٍǶРୟǼӀᄪգޑӜጝǼȩ྽ਔԖᖂॣٰԾϺ΢ǺȨךςӀᄪ ΑךޑӜǴךᗋाӀᄪǶȩӧ൑᠋ـޑဂ౲Ǵߡᇥ:Ȩ೭ࢂѺႜǶȩќԖ ΓᇥǺȨࢂϺ٬ӕдᇥ၉ǶȩओᑋӣเᇥǺȨ೭ᖂॣόࢂࣁךԶٰǴԶࢂ ࣁգॺǶ౜ӧ൩ࢂ೭ШࣚᔈڙቩղޑਔংǴ౜ӧ೭Шࣚޑϡ२൩ा೏ᇴ рѐǹԿܭךǴ྽ךவӦ΢೏ᖐଆٰਔǴߡा֎Ї౲ΓٰᘜӛךǶȩȐऩ 12Ǻ23-32ȑ 4. 怈夳 俞䧴➢䜋㖊㗗䁢Ṣ栆岾伒妰䔓䘬䘬ⶍ䦳ⷓ炻ḇ㗗➟埴侭ˤ䣪㶙䞍⛐䔞㗪䘬䑘⠫ 傰䴉ᶳ炻ᶵ夳⭡㕤䋞⣒䴻ⷓ⍲⎠䤕ẍ⍲伭楔ⷅ⚳炻⽭怕忯⣏劎暋ˤ䃞⌙㨇⌛㗗廱㨇炻 俞䧴枸夳䣪⮯㕤劎暋ᷕ㴜䀓慵䓇炻ḇ⮯嘇⎔䃉㔠䘬ᾉ⼺夾㬣⤪㬠炻䁢⁛㑕⣑⚳䘬䤷 枛侴ㆸ⯙῱⣏⽿㤕ˤ⽆ᶱ㫉䘬枸妨⍿暋␴⽑㳣炻⎗夳俞䧴➢䜋䘬怈夳傥≃烉ġ Ȝ२ԛႣقڙᜤکൺࢲȝ வٗਔଆǴओᑋ൩໒ۈӛߐ২ᇥܴǺдѸ໪΢ओၡኜհѐǴाҗߏ Դǵљ౼ߏک࿶ৣॺڙډ೚ӭภधǴ٠ஒ೏ఠǴՠΟϺाൺࢲǶդӭ࿢ ߡ܎ओᑋډ΋ᜐǴᒇೢдᇥǺȨЬǴί࿤όёǼ೭٣๊ό཮ᖏډգي΢Ǽȩ ओᑋᙯيჹդӭ࿢ᇥǺȨኜⳅǴଏډךࡕय़ѐǼգࢂךޑಋဌҡǴӢࣁ գ܌ᡏ཮ޑόࢂϺЬޑ٣ǴԶࢂΓޑ٣ǶȩȐᅦ 16Ǻ21-23ȑ ȜΒԛႣقڙᜤکൺࢲȝ ྽ओᑋӕߐ২ӧуٚԻ٥ڬၯਔǴओᑋჹдॺᇥǺȨΓηஒ೏Ҭܭ ΓॺЋύǶдॺाఠ্дǴಃΟϺдѸाൺࢲǶȩߐ২൩ߚதኁᢠǶȐᅦ 17Ǻ22-23ȑ ȜΟԛႣقڙᜤکൺࢲȝ ओᑋ΢ओၡኜհѐǴསསעΜΒঁߐ২஥ډ΋ᜐǴӧၡ΢ჹдॺ ᇥǺȨ࣮Ǵךॺ΢ओၡኜհѐǴΓηा೏Ҭܭљ౼ک࿶ৣǴдॺाۓд ޑԝ࿾ǹ٠ЪाעдҬ๏ѦٖΓᔍ׋ǵᚎѺǵଝԝǹՠಃΟϺǴдाൺ ࢲǶȩȐᅦ 20Ǻ 17-19ȑ

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5. ⺢䩳䣦佌 俞䧴➢䜋⺢䩳䣦佌䘬傥≃㗗䃉冯ΐ㭼䘬炻⽆䁢Ḯ⁛㔁䣪椾⎔攨⼺炻ℵ㑘怠Ḯ 12 ᾳ⬿⼺炻⎎㳦怋 72 ᾳ攨⼺⁛㔁炻ẍ⍲䩳ỗ⣂䤧䁢㔁㚫䘬䡸䞛炻䘮ᶨℵ⎗夳℞䳬䷼ 冯䘤⯽䣦佌䘬傥≃烉ġ Ȝєԏ२ץߐ২ȝ ओᑋݮуٚԻ٥ੇՉوਔǴ࣮ـΑٿঁл׌Ǻᆀࣁդӭ࿢ޑՋ ᅈǴکдޑл׌ӼቺԻǴӧੇ္ኜᆛǴдॺচࢂᅕϻǶᴺ൩ჹдॺᇥǺ ȨٰǴၟᒿךǼךा٬գॺԋࣁᅕΓޑᅕϻǶȩдॺҥڅ௭ΠᆛǴၟ ᒿΑᴺǶᴺவٗ㚊ӆ۳߻ՉǴ࣮ـΑќѦٿঁл׌Ǻၩդቺޑٽη٥ Ӛդکдޑ׌׌ऩఈǴӧಭ΢ӕԾρޑРᒃၩդቺঅ౛дॺޑᆛǴ൩ єћΑдॺǶдॺΨҥڅ௭ΠΑങಭکԾρޑРᒃǴၟᒿΑᴺǶȐᅦ 4Ǻ 18-22ȑ ȜඕᒧΜΒے২ȝ ᒿࡕǴओᑋ΢ΑξǴעԾρ܌གྷाޑΓєٰǴдॺߡٰډдय़߻Ƕ д൩ᒧۓΑΜΒΓǴࣁӕдதӧ΋ଆǴ٠ࣁࢴᇾдॺѐ࠹ᖱǴЪڀԖ ០៥ޑ៾࢓ǶȐك 3Ǻ13-15ȑ ȜࢴᇾΎΜΒߐ২໺௲ȝ ԜࡕǴЬќѦᒧۓΑΎΜΒΓǴࢴᇾдॺٿঁٿঁӦӧᴺ߻य़Ǵ ډᴺԾρஒाѐޑӚࠤӚӦѐǶᴺჹдॺᇥǺȨಷዻӭԶπΓϿǴ܌ аգॺᔈ྽؃ಷዻޑЬΓǴࢴᇾπΓٰǴԏപᴺޑಷዻǶգॺѐփǼ ࣮Ǵךࢴᇾգॺซӵ઴Բ۳ਫ਼ဂύǶգॺόा஥ᒲ៶Ǵόा஥α೓Ǵ Ψόा஥Ꭰǹၡ΢ΨόाӛΓፎӼǾǾǶȩȐၡ 10Ǻ1-4ȑ Ȝҥդӭ࿢ࣁ௲཮ޑዹҡȝ ओᑋჹдॺȐߐ২ȑᇥǺȨգॺᇥךࢂፔǻȩՋᅈդӭ࿢ӣเᇥǺ ȨգࢂᓨՋ٥Ǵ҉ғϺЬϐЬǶȩओᑋӣเдᇥǺȨऊયޑٽηՋᅈǴ գࢂԖᅽޑǴӢࣁόࢂԺکՈ௴ҢΑգǴԶࢂךӧϺϐРǶךӆ๏գ ᇥǺգࢂդӭ࿢ȐዹҡȑǴӧ೭ዹҡ΢Ǵךाࡌҥךޑ௲཮Ǵ഍໔ޑ ߐ،όૈᏯയӴǶךाஒϺ୯ޑᢄ୒Ҭ๏գǺΥգӧӦ΢܌״ᑛޑǴ ӧϺ΢Ψा೏״ᑛǹΥգӧӦ΢܌ញܫޑǴӧϺ΢Ψा೏ញܫǶȩд ၱջᝄ࿣ߐ২ǴόाჹҺΓᇥдࢂᓨՋ٥ǶȐᅦ 16Ǻ15-20ȑ 䵄⎰ẍᶲ↮㜸炻俞䧴➢䜋⛐⽵侸ˣ】ヰˣ嫁⋹ˣ⮲慵ˣ䃉䥩ˣ⮔⿽ˣ婈⮎ˣ⬰ ᾉ䫱㕡朊㇨堐䎦䘬㛔岒ㆾ伶⽟炻婈䁢普⣑⛘攻㬋㯋ˣ攳⎌Ṳᷕ⢾⬴Ṣ䘬℠䭬炻ᶼ忁 䧖℠䭬⶚䴻䲼䃞崭崲Ḯ冒䃞䓴炻崭崲ḮṢ⿏朊炻侴堐䎦䤆⿏ᷕ䲼㻼䃉䏽䘬⌂ッ䱦䤆ˤ 㚱Ḯ忁䧖䤆⿏㛔岒炻ᶵỮ℞㇨ἄ㇨䁢㰺㚱ᶵ⎗傥忼ㆸ䘬炻侴ᶼデ⎔Ḯㆸ⋫ᶲ叔䘬ᾉ

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⼺䉏䈚⣱䌣炻ℙ⎴徥㯪⣑⚳䘬䎮゛ˤ 婈⤪⣑ᷣ㔁䘬㔁佑炻俞䧴㗗䤆⍾ḮṢ䘬幓橼炷incarnation炸炻Ṏ⌛⎴㗪㗗䤆ḇ㗗 Ṣˤ⯙℞䤆⿏侴妨炻冯ᶲⷅ䁢ᶨ烊⯙℞Ṣ⿏侴妨炻冯Ṣ栆䚠⎴炻Ữ㰺㚱Ṣ栆䘬⍇伒炻 ㇨ẍ⛐Ṣ㟤䈡岒ᶲ㗗⬴伶䃉䏽䘬炻⎗ẍ䁢Ṣ栆䘬℠䭬炷‭ἑ㥖炻2011炸ˤ俞䧴➢䜋㇨ ㍸Έ䘬ッ炻⮵⼴ᶾ㚱℞㤝䁢㶙怈䘬⼙枧ˤṢ㚱Ḯッ䘬ℓᾳ伶⽟ㆾ䈡岒炻ᶵỮ⎗ẍ㖯 厗ḮṢ⿏炻侴ᶼḇ⺽柀叿Ṣ栆䘤㎖ṢッṢˣṢッ叔䈑䘬檀⯂ね㆟炻ˬ㚱Ḯッ炻ᶨ↯⯙ 㚫㳣崟Ἦ炰焐炷婆↢㓭Ḷ㔴㧆㨇ᷣ㔁⎵妨炸ˤ 焏ẍッ䁢⎵焐ˣ焏䁢ッ┇䦳焐婈䁢㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ⋼≑⣍Ờ㔁ⷓ⮰㤕ㆸ攟䘬㚨慵天䈡 岒冯≽㨇ˤḇ⯙㗗婒炻㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ⽭枰℟⁁ッṢ䘬䈡岒炻ḇ栀シ⚈䁢焏ッ⣍Ờ㔁ⷓ 焐ˣ焏ッ⬠㟉焐ˣ焏ッ㔁⬠⮰㤕焐炻侴⽫䓀ね栀⛘⽆ḳ㔁⬠庼⮶忁ᶨᾳ≑Ṣ⮰㤕ⶍἄ炻侴 ἧ⼿冢䀋䘬㔁做䣦佌㚱㚜伶⤥䘬㖶⣑ˤ ⛐㚵⊁柀⮶䘬奺刚㕡朊炻俞䧴➢䜋㇨㈖㺼㚵⊁柀⮶䘬℠䭬奺刚军䁢慵天炻㶙㶙 ⼙枧℞⼴➢䜋㔁㚫䘬㔜ᾳ䳬䷼㔯⊾ˤ⃰⮶䘬奺刚炻┇䣢Ḯ➢䜋㔁⼺䓇␥䘬シ佑冯ἧ ␥デ烊婧㬋䘬奺刚┇䣢➢䜋㔁⼺⭄℟㚱冒ᷣ㓡朑䘬傥慷烊⼘㪲䙲傥䘬奺刚炻⇯嘇⎔ ➢䜋㔁⼺⛐ᶾᶲ䘤㎖㚜⣂䘬⼙枧≃炻᷎ẍᶾ὿䘬ㆸ⯙⃱㥖⣑⭞ˤ⚳ℏ㔁做⬠侭哉➡ 㛹炷2005炸㊯↢㬌⚃䧖奺刚䘬慵天⿏炻᷎⮯㬌⚃䧖奺刚ℵ≈ℍ⣱䌣䘬奺刚炻⺞Ỡ䁢 㥄㧋ˣ⮰㤕ˣ冒ᷣˣ⼙枧≃冯⣱䌣䫱Ḽ䧖㚵⊁柀⮶䘬奺刚ˤ㒂㬌炻ᶨỵ䎮゛䘬㔁⬠ 庼⮶㔁ⷓṎㅱ⛐㔁⬠ⶍἄᶲ炻 䁢⣍Ờ㔁ⷓ䘬㥄㧋炻℟㚱⮰㤕傥≃冯冒ᷣ㪲炻傥⮵ ⬠㟉䘬㔁⬠朑㕘⮎晃Ẁ↢᷎℟㚱⼙枧≃ˤ 俞䧴➢䜋㇨堐䎦䘬㚵⊁柀⮶埴䁢䈡⽝炻ᶵ䭉⽆斄㆟朊ㆾ侭⽆Έ⮶朊侴妨炻䘮㚱 ℞↉Ṣ暋ẍ㛃℞枭側䘬⋻崲堐䎦炻⮵㕤⼴ᶾ⎬埴⎬㤕䘬柀⮶䘮㚱嵛ẍ┇䣢䘬⛘㕡ˤ ἳ⤪炻⛐㟉攟㚵⊁柀⮶ᶲ炻Lubin炷2001炸䘬䞼䨞䘤䎦炻⛐ẍ伶⚳ᶨᾳ⮷✳⬠⋨䘬 18 ỵ㟉攟䁢䞼䨞⮵尉炻䘤䎦忁 18 ỵ㟉攟ⷠἧ䓐奢⮇ˣ⁦倥ˣ⎴䎮⽫ˣ㱣䗺ˣ婒㚵ˣ㚵 ἵˣ㤪⾝⊾ˣ怈夳ˣ⮵Ṣㆸ攟䘬㈧媦ˣ⺢䩳䣦佌䫱㕡⺷斄㆟冯柀⮶悐Ⱄ炻忁冯 Spears 炷2002炸㇨㍸↢䘬㚵⊁柀⮶埴䁢䈡⽝䚠䔞䫎⎰ˤ⎴㧋䘬炻㚵⊁柀⮶ᶵ怑䓐㕤㟉攟 柀⮶炻侴ᶼ怑䓐㕤㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ䘬柀⮶ˤ⻝⽟扛炷2013炸㊯↢炻⚳ℏ㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ ⛐➡妻⼴炻䡢㚱姙⣂㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ⛐満満⛘斄㆟⣍Ờ㔁ⷓ炻᷎⋼≑⣍Ờ㔁ⷓ㍸⋯㔁 ⬠䘬⮰㤕傥≃冯⑩岒ˤ

ӂȃ๖፣ᇄ࡚ដ!

㟡㒂ẍᶲ䞼䨞䳸㝄炻㛔䞼䨞⎗ẍ䌚⼿ᶱᾳ䳸婾烉炷ᶨ炸俞䧴➢䜋⛐㚵⊁柀⮶侭䈡

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岒㕡朊炻栗䎦Ḯ⽵侸ˣ】ヰˣ嫁⋹ˣ⮲慵ˣ䃉䥩ˣ⮔⿽ˣ婈⮎ˣ⬰ᾉ䫱ℓᾳ伶⽟ㆾ 䈡岒烊炷Ḵ炸俞䧴➢䜋䘬妨埴ḳἳ⯽䎦℠䭬ˣ⃰⮶ˣ婧㬋ˣ⼘㪲䙲傥䫱⚃ᾳ㚵⊁柀⮶ 奺刚烊炷ᶱ炸俞䧴➢䜋⛐㚵⊁柀⮶埴䁢䈡⽝㕡朊炻堐䎦Ḯ奢⮇ˣ⁦倥ˣ⎴䎮ˣ㱣䗺ˣ 婒㚵ˣ㚵ἵˣ⮵Ṣ䘬ㆸ攟䘬㈧媦ˣ㤪⾝⊾ˣ怈夳ˣ⺢䩳䣦佌䫱⋩ᾳ埴䁢ˤ䵄侴妨ᷳ炻 俞䧴➢䜋䡢⮎㗗㚵⊁柀⮶䘬攳∝侭冯℠䭬炻℞妨埴ḳ帇嵛ẍ㓗㊩ㆾ槿嫱㚵⊁柀⮶䘬 䎮⾝冯⮎岒ℏ㵝ˤ 䓙㬌⎗夳炻俞䧴➢䜋ᶵỮ㗗῱⣏䘬㚵⊁柀⮶侭炻℞冯攨⼺ᷳ攻㇨⺢䩳䘬ⷓ⼺⇞炻 Ṏ㗗Ṣ栆㬟⎚ᶲⷓ⼺⇞䘬⃰槭ˤ㎃妨ᷳ炻䣪㛔幓ὧ㗗Ṣ栆㚱⎚ẍἮ㚨῱⣏䘬ⷓ‭炻 䣪ⷞ柀攨⼺ᷳㆸ≇炻朆ⷠῤ⼿⼴ᶾ゛天⛐㔁⬠庼⮶䓴ㆸ䁢ㆸ≇䘬ⷓ‭炷㔁⬠庼⮶㔁 ⷓ炸㇨⬠佺冯㓰㱽ˤ ⚳ℏᷕ⮷⬠㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ⇞⹎䘬㍐≽ẍ冢⊿ⶪ䘬䘤⯽庫㖑ˤ冢⊿ⶪ㓧⹄㔁做⯨ 冒 1999 ⸜ὧ叿ㇳ夷∫㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ⇞⹎炻᷎㕤 2001 ⬠⸜⹎攳⥳忚埴彎䎮ⶍἄ炻⎎ 㔁做悐⇯⛐ 2006 ⸜攳⥳⛐℞㇨㍐≽䘬ˬ㔁ⷓ⮰㤕䘤⯽姽揹⮎㕥妰䔓˭ᷕ炻溻⊝⍫冯 妰䔓䘬⬠㟉炻⛐彎䎮䘬䫔Ḵ⸜攳⥳炻⎗㍐啎 10炴䘬㔁ⷓ㍍⍿㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ䘬➡妻炻 㟠⽫⬠㟉⇯䁢 15%炷㔁做悐炻2009炸ˤ㗗㓭ℐ⚳⎬䷋ⶪ㤕⶚⽆ 2007 ⸜崟炻⣏⣂ḇ⶚ 攳⥳㍐≽㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ⇞⹎ˤ ⚳ℏ⎬ᷕ⮷⬠㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ⃚ᷳ怠Ṣ怠㚨⮹天㚱Ḽ⸜ẍᶲ䘬㔁⬠⸜屯炻䴻⃚妻 ᶫ军⋩⣑炻᷎娵嫱⎰㟤⼴䓙⎬䷋ⶪ㓧⹄㔁做⯨枺Ḱ㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ嫱㚠炻ℵ䓙⬠㟉ὅ 夷⭂倀ℤᷳˤ㭷ỵ㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓẍ庼⮶ᶨ军Ḵ⎵⣍Ờ㔁ⷓ䁢⍇⇯ˤ㭷庼⮶ᶨ⎵⣍Ờ 㔁ⷓ炻⼿惴㷃⍇㌰婚㗪㔠 1~2 䭨婚ˤ㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ㇨㚵⊁䘬⮵尉炷⛐⇞⹎ᷕ塓䧙䁢 ⣍Ờ㔁ⷓ炻⍾℞冯㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ⋼⎴ㆸ攟䘬⣍Ờ斄Ὢᷳ佑炸ᷣ天䁢烉炷ᶨ炸⇅ả㔁⬠ ᶱ⸜ℏᷳ㔁ⷓ炷ᶵ⏓⮎佺㔁ⷓ炸烊炷Ḵ炸㕘忚军⬠㟉㚵⊁ᷳ㔁ⷓ烊炷ᶱ炸冒栀ㆸ攟炻㚱 シ栀㍍⍿庼⮶ᷳ㔁ⷓ烊炷⚃炸㔁⬠㚱⚘暋暨天⋼≑ㆸ攟ᷳ㔁ⷓ炷㔁做悐炻2009炸ˤ 㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ䘬ⶍἄ㛔Ὢᶨᾳ≑Ṣ䘬⮰㤕ⶍἄ炻㓭⭄䈡⇍⻟婧㚵⊁柀⮶䎮⾝䘬 ⮎嶸炻ẍ㚵⊁⣍Ờ㔁ⷓ䁢⽿㤕ˤ⛐↮㜸㔜䎮Ḯ㚵⊁柀⮶䘬∝⥳侭ȹȹ俞䧴➢䜋㇨怢 䔁䘬℠䭬ᷳ⼴炻䔞⎗䘤䎦媠⣂嵛䁢㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ⇞⹎䘬┇䣢ˤ勚⽆㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ䘬 怜怠ˣ➡妻ˣ⮎⊁忳ἄˣẍ⍲㓗㊩䲣䴙䫱⚃ᾳ奺⹎炻婒㖶⤪ỽ䘤⯽冯㶙⊾㔁⬠庼⮶ 㔁ⷓ⛐㚵⊁柀⮶ᶲ䘬奺刚冯≇傥烉

ΙȃབᒵڎԤདྷޟΡਿ੫፴Ϟఀৱୈ࣏ఀᏰሄᏲఀৱᓽଋΡᒵ!

ὅ㒂怜怠㧁㸾炻ヶ怠㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ炻㗗㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ⇞⹎䘬ㆸ≇攳⥳炻ḇ㗗⇞ ⹎忳ἄ枮㙊䘬斄挝炷Pak, 2005炸ˤ 䁢⋼≑ˣ㓗㊩⣍Ờ㔁ⷓ䘬㚵⊁柀⮶侭炻㔁⬠庼⮶

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㔁ⷓ昌Ḯ⛐婚䦳姕妰ˣ㔁⬠ˣ䎕䳂䴻䆇㚱ᶨ⭂䘬⮰㤕傥≃⢾炻㚨慵天䘬怬㗗㚵⊁䘬 シ栀冯Ṣ㟤䈡岒炷⻝⽟扛䫱炻2001炸ˤὅ㛔㔯ἄ侭䘬⮎⊁㍐≽䴻槿炻姙⣂⬠㟉䘬㔁⬠ 庼⮶㔁ⷓ⇞⹎ᷳ㇨ẍ忳ἄᶵ䚉䎮゛炻Ὢᷣ天ẍᶨ凔䞼佺䘬奨⾝⛐➡梲㟉ℏ䘬㔁⬠庼 ⮶㔁ⷓ炻Ṏ⌛㟉ℏ⍫冯㔁ⷓ⮰㤕䘤⯽姽揹䘬㔁ⷓ炻⎒天⛐⬴ㆸ姽揹Ṣ⒉⇅昶␴忚昶 ➡妻⼴炻劍℞㚱シ栀忚ᶨ㬍㍍⍿➡妻炻⬠㟉⯙⼨⼨㚫ẍ⸜屯䁢⃒⃰侫ㄖ炻㍐啎℞⍫ 冯㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ➡妻炻侴㺷㌱Ḯ㚨斄挝䘬ˬὅ㒂怜怠㧁㸾炻ヶ怠㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ˭䘬 㬍樇ˤ㛔㔯ἄ侭天䈡⇍⻟婧䘬㗗炻㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ䘬⃚妻ᶵ⭄㗗ᶨ凔䘬䞼佺炻⬫⽭枰 ὅ≑Ṣ⮰㤕䘬暨㯪炻ヶ怠℟㚱⮰㤕傥≃冯≑Ṣ䈡岒䘬㔁ⷓ⍫冯➡妻炻ㇵ傥䁢⬠㟉⍂ 㢵㔁⬠庼⮶䘬傥慷ˤ 㚱揹㕤⇵㇨↮㜸㚵⊁柀⮶侭Ṣ㟤䈡岒䘬慵天⿏炻㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ䘬怜怠昌Ḯ侫ㄖ 䓛婳Ṣ䘬㔁⬠傥≃⢾炻㚨ᷣ天怬㗗天侫慷℞㗗⏎℟㚱烉⽵侸ˣ】ヰˣ嫁⋹ˣ⮲慵ˣ 䃉䥩ˣ⮔⿽ˣ婈⮎ˣ⬰ᾉ䫱ℓᾳッ䘬伶⽟ㆾṢ㟤䈡岒ˤ㎃妨ᷳ炻⬠㟉⛐怜怠㔁⬠庼 ⮶㔁ⷓ㗪炻⊁⽭侫慷㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ⃚妻Ṣ怠⛐㛒Ἦ㔁⬠庼⮶忶䦳ᷕ炻㗗⏎傥⮎嶸忁 ℓᾳッ䘬伶⽟ˤṎ⌛炻㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ天⬱屏㦪忻炻傥ẍ㚵⊁⣍Ờ㔁ⷓ䁢㦪炻侴ᶵ天 ⣒⛐シ㚵⊁㗪㇨䌚⼿䘬䈑岒⚆⟙ˤ天ẍ嫁⋹㚵⊁䘬⽫炻℔⸛䃉䥩⛘┬⼭㭷ᶨỵ㚵⊁ 忶䘬⣍Ờ㔁ⷓ炻᷎ᶼ⮲慵ˣ⚆ㅱ⣍Ờ㔁ⷓ䘬暨㯪ˤ⮵㕤⣍Ờ㔁ⷓ䘬㔁⬠堐䎦天婈⮎ ẍ⼭炻ᶨ㕡朊傥偗⭂⣍Ờ㔁ⷓ䘬ㆸ攟␴ㆸ⯙炻⎎㕡朊⛐溻⊝⣍Ờ㔁ⷓ㊩临徥㯪㔁⬠ ∝㕘忶䦳ᷕ炻⭡姙᷎⮔⿽⣍Ờ㔁ⷓ䘬攫⣙␴忶拗ˤ㚨⼴炻䵲⬰婈ᾉ冯ᾅ⭮⍇⇯炻傥 婒⇘ ⇘炻妨埴ᶨ农炻᷎ᶼ⮵㕤⣍Ờ㔁ⷓ䘬㔁⬠堐䎦炻䡢ᾅ℞晙䥩㪲ˤ

ΠȃӵఀᏰሄᏲఀৱஉଋ፞แϛё஼݈୛ሴᏲޟُՓӈ୛!

⛐㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ⃚妻Ṣ怠䡢⭂ᷳ⼴炻⚳ℏ⢾䘬䞼䨞悥⋩↮⻟婧㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ䞼 佺䘬慵天⿏炻ẍ⻟⊾㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ䘬⮰㤕屔ảẍ⍲⡆䙲℞⛐㔁⬠庼⮶㕡朊䘬傥≃炷⻝ ⽟扛ˣᶩᶨ栏ˣ㣲⭄柀炻2007烊Clay, 2002; Dunbar, 2004; Pak, 2005炸ˤ

⤪⇵㇨↮㜸炻俞䧴➢䜋⛐㚵⊁柀⮶奺刚炻䘤㎖䘬䚠䔞㵳㺻䚉农炻㗗朆ⷠῤ⼿⚳ ℏ㍐≽㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ⇞⹎㇨⬠佺䘬ˤ㚱揹⍲㬌炻㛔㔯ἄ侭⺢嬘⚳ℏ彎䎮㔁⬠庼⮶㔁 ⷓ䘬➡妻冯ㆸ攟婚䦳炻昌Ḯ䎦埴㔁⬠庼⮶䎮婾冯⮎⊁䘬⬠佺⢾炻Ṏ⎗ẍ侫ㄖ≈⻟㚵 ⊁柀⮶奺刚ả⊁䘬娵嬀冯⮎ἄˤṎ⌛炻⛐借⇵⃚妻婚䦳炻昌ṳ䳡㚵⊁柀⮶䘬奺刚≇ 傥⢾炻⎗姕妰⮎⊁㺼䶜䘬ね⠫炻≈⻟㺼䶜冯⍵⿅㚵⊁柀⮶䘬奺刚ả⊁炻ἳ⤪ẍね⠫ 㺼䶜ᷳ㕡⺷炻婳⬠⒉Ᾱ䶜佺冯妶婾㚵⊁柀⮶ᷕ䘬㤟㧉ˣ⃰⮶ˣ婧㬋ˣ⼘㪲䙲傥䫱奺 刚ả⊁ˤ⛐⬠⒉䳸㤕㗪炻⎗⍫侫㍉埴⣑ᷣ㔁埴ᷳ㚱⸜䘬㈧媦㳦怋䥖炻⛐℠䥖ᷕ㓰㱽 俞䧴➢䜋䘬ㆧ埴炻䓙㌰婚㔁ⷓ⮵⬠⒉忚埴ˬ㲿儛˭䘬₨⺷炻᷎䓙⬠⒉⭋嬨㚵⊁㈧媦

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㚠炻ẍデ⎔⬠⒉㚵⊁军ᶲᷳả⊁ˤ⎎⢾炻⛐㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ⚆㳩㔁做ᷕṎ⎗憅⮵㔁⬠ 庼⮶㔁ⷓ⛐㚵⊁柀⮶䘬⮎嶸䴻槿ᷕ≈⻟冯⎴₽䘬⽫⼿↮ṓ冯Ṍ㳩炻ẍ⻟⊾℞㚵⊁军 ᶲ䘬奨⾝ˤ

έȃӵఀᏰሄᏲᄂ୛ၼհϛဣᄂ݈୛ሴᏲޟ՗࣏!

䓙㕤㚵⊁柀⮶冯㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ≑Ṣ⮰㤕䘬⣹⎰⹎炻㛔㔯ἄ侭娵䁢⎗ẍ⺽忚㚵⊁ 柀⮶䘬䎮⾝冯⮎⊁㕤⚳ℏ㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ⇞⹎ᷳᷕˤⓗˬ 侴妨炻ᶵ⤪崟侴埴˭炻⚳ℏ 㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ⇞⹎⭄㗗⻟婧ˬ ᷕ⬠˭ˣˬ埴ᷕ⿅˭䘬㚵⊁柀⮶⮎嶸冯⬠佺㕡㟰ˤ ⛐㚵⊁柀⮶䘬埴䁢䈡⽝㕡朊炻㚱揹㕤俾䴻ᷕ俞䧴➢䜋冯攨⼺䘬Ḻ≽㕡⺷ⷠ䁢攨 ⼺奨㐑⬠佺ẍ⍲ⷓ䓇攻䴻ⷠ⿏䘬⮵娙炻⚈㬌㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓㅱ䴻ⷠ⮵⣍Ờ㔁ⷓ忚埴㔁 ⬠䣢䭬炻᷎ᶼ⛐䣢䭬⼴冯⣍Ờ㔁ⷓ⯙㔁⬠䴻槿忚埴ᶵ攻㕟䘬⮵娙ˤ䔞䃞炻㚜慵天䘬 㗗炻㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓㅱ⁦倥ˣ奢⮇⣍Ờ㔁ⷓ䘬暨㯪炻⎴䎮⣍Ờ㔁ⷓ䘬㔁⬠嗽⠫炻枸夳 ⣍Ờ㔁ⷓ䘬㔁⬠⚘暋炻ᷣ≽ẍ婒㚵ˣ㱣䗺䫱䧵㤝ἄ䁢炻㍸ὃ⽭天䘬㚵ἵ炻ẍ⋼≑⣍ Ờ㔁ⷓ⛐ᾳṢ⍲⮰㤕ᶲᶵ㕟䘬ㆸ攟炷Algozzine, Gretes, Queen, & Cowan-Hathcock, 2007; Schumann, 2005炸ˤ ⤪⇵㇨↮㜸䘬䳸㝄䘤䎦炻俞䧴➢䜋㇨┇䘤䘬㚵⊁柀⮶昌ᾳ⇍⺷㚵ἵ冯柀⮶⢾炻 Ṏ䈡⇍慵夾⺢䩳䣦佌ᷳ柀⮶埴䁢炻⚈㬌炻㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ冯⣍Ờ㔁ⷓ昌Ḯᾳ⇍庼⮶ᷳ ⢾炻Ṏ⎗㍉⛀橼庼⮶␴⎴₽庼⮶䘬㕡⺷炻ἳ⤪Ḵỵ㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ⎗ℙ⎴ⷞ柀⎴ᶨ柀 ➇ㆾ⎴ᶨ⬠⸜䘬ℕ军ℓỵ㔁ⷓ炻ẍ⇑⮰㤕⬠佺䣦佌䘬⺢㥳ˤ䔞䃞炻Ṏ⎗忳䓐䣦⋨䘤 ⯽䘬㕡⺷炻ẍ㔜ᾳ⬠㟉䁢╖ỵ炻䓙㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ崟ⷞ≽ἄ䓐炻⺢䩳崟ℐ㟉✳䘬ˬ⬠ 佺ℙ⎴橼˭ㆾˬ⬠佺✳䳬䷼˭ˤ

Ѳȃё஼ఀᏰሄᏲఀৱ݈୛ሴᏲЛࡻفಛ!

㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ⮎㕥㚵⊁柀⮶⚢䃞㚱℞䎮゛⿏炻Ữ⛐⮎⊁㍐≽ᶲ᷎ᶵ㗗ᶨẞ⭡㖻 䘬ⶍἄˤ䁢ἧ㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ㚵⊁柀⮶ⶍἄ枮⇑忚埴炻⬠㟉㚱⽭天㍸ὃ嵛⣈䘬埴㓧㓗 ㊩ˤ椾⃰炻㟉攟冯埴㓧Ṣ⒉昌Ḯ⭋⮶㚵⊁柀⮶䘬栀㘗⢾炻⽭枰⛐⎬䧖㬋⺷冯朆㬋⺷ ⟜⎰⎹侩ⷓᾹ婒㖶㚵⊁柀⮶⛐㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ⇞⹎ᷕ䘬シ佑ẍ⍲㚵⊁柀⮶侭⮵⬠㟉㇨ 䓊䓇䘬㬋朊⼙枧冯届䌣炻ẍ⺢䩳㚵⊁柀⮶奺刚⛐⬠㟉ᷕ䘬⎰㱽⿏炷Murphy, 2005炸ˤ ℞㫉炻䁢㚱⇑㕤㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ⮵⣍Ờ㔁ⷓ忚埴㚵⊁柀⮶炻⬠㟉埴㓧Ṣ⒉⭄㲐シ 㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ冯⣍Ờ㔁ⷓ䘬惵⮵炻⃀慷ὅ⎴⬠䥹炷柀➇炸ˣ⎴⸜䳂ˣ⎴彎℔⭌ 怑䔞

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攻冯Ḻ≽䨢攻炻ẍὫ忚㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ冯⣍Ờ㔁ⷓᷳḺ≽冯妶婾炷Algozzine et al., 2007炸ˤ ℵ侭炻⬠㟉埴㓧Ṣ⒉⭄溻⊝㔁ⷓ⍫冯嬨㚠㚫ˣ⍫冯⬠佺ℙ⎴橼ˣℙ⎴⁁婚ˣ↮ ṓ㔁⬠屯㸸ˣ⮎㕥⎴₽㔁⬠奨㐑冯⚆棳䫱炻ẍ㚱⇑㕤㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ㚵⊁柀⮶㯃⚵䘬 ⼊ ⟹ ˤ 婈 ⤪ Murphy 炷 2005 炸 ㇨ 妨 炻 㔁 ⷓ ᷳ 攻 慵 晙 䥩 炷 privacy 炸 ␴ Ḻ ᶵ ⸚ 㴱 炷noninterference炸䘬夷䭬䘮㚱⭛㕤↮ṓ⺷柀⮶䘬䓊䓇烊侴⎰ἄ␴↮ṓ䘬㔁ⷓ㔯⊾㗗 㭼庫㚱⇑㕤㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ㚵⊁柀⮶䘬㚱㓰忳ἄˤ 㚨⼴炻㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ⛐㚵⊁柀⮶忶䦳ᷕ炻暋⃵㚫忯⇘媠⣂⚘暋冯晄䣁炻忁㗪㚜 㚱岜⬠㟉埴㓧Ṣ⒉晐㗪㲐シ㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ䘬柀⮶䉨㱩冯⚘⠫炻侴怑㗪⛘㌺昌⚘⠫冯 Ỡ↢㎜ㇳˤ⬠㟉埴㓧Ṣ⒉昌Ḯ⬱㌺嵛⣈䘬㗪攻冯䨢攻嬻㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ␴⣍Ờ㔁ⷓ枮 ⇑Ḻ≽ᷳ⢾炻⮵㕤㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ⛐Ṣ≃ˣ屉≃ˣ䈑≃ᶲ䘬暨㯪冯㓗㎜炻ḇ㗗㔁⬠庼 ⮶㔁ⷓ⇞⹎⮎㕥ㆸ≇䘬斄挝ˤ Ɂ!ҁЎ܍ᆾϺЬ௲ᇶϘεᏢ௲ػሦᏤᆶว৖ࣴز܌؋ЎᡕઓРǵᗛጩ࣓অζ฻ΒՏ ௲௤ගٮঅ҅ཀـǴལ߄ᖴוǶ!

୤ՃМᝦ!

⏛㶭Ⱉ炷2008炸ˤ㔁做埴㓧嬘柴䞼䨞ˤ冢⊿ⶪ烉檀䫱㔁做ˤ ⏛㶭Ⱉˣ㜿⣑䣸炷2004炸ˤ⁽Ṣ柀⮶ˤ㔁做䞼䨞㚰↲炻120炻154ˤ

㛶⫸⾈炷嬗炸炷2010炸ˤ⣑ᷣ㔁㔁䎮䯉䶐炷⍇ἄ侭烉Cardinalium Commissione, Status Civitatis Vaticanae炸ˤ冢⊿ⶪ烉⣑ᷣ㔁冢䀋⛘⋨ᷣ㔁⛀ˤ炷⍇叿↢䇰⸜烉2005炸 㛶䳡⺟炷嬗炸炷2010炸ˤ⁽Ṣ II——ᾖ䶜冯⮎嶸炷⍇ἄ侭烉J. C. Hunter炸ˤ冢⊿ⶪ烉⓮ ␐ˤ炷⍇叿↢䇰⸜烉2004炸 ␐⬰㮹炷1999炸ˤ㕘ᶾ䲨䘬䭉䎮——婯⁽⿏柀⮶ˤ嬟䎮暄娴炻46炷2炸炻72-76ˤ 㜿⿅Ở炷2003炸ˤ⽆ˬ㚵⊁柀⮶˭䘬䎮⾝䚳㔁做䳬䷼柀⮶冯䘤⯽ˤ庱㕤庼ṩ⣏⬠䫔Ḵ ⯮㔁做柀⮶冯䘤⯽⬠埻䞼妶㚫婾㔯普炷枩 21~50炸ˤ冢⊿䷋烉庼ṩ⣏⬠ˤ 㜿⿅Ở炷2004炸ˤ㜸婾⁽Ṣ⺷炾㚵⊁柀⮶炷Servant-Leadership炸䘬㤪⾝䘤⯽冯䞼䨞ˤ 檀晬ⷓ⣏⬠⟙炻16炻39-57ˤ 㜿⿅Ởˣ厗㗍慸炷2006炸ˤ㚵⊁柀⮶䘬⼙枧ȹȹẍ庼ṩ⣏⬠㔁䘤㇨ 93ˣ94 䳂⛐借⮰ 䎕䁢ἳˤ庱㕤庼ṩ⣏⬠䫔Ḽ⯮㔁做柀⮶冯䘤⯽⬠埻䞼妶㚫婾㔯普炷枩 145~167炸ˤ 冢⊿䷋烉庼ṩ⣏⬠ˤ

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㜿㠭䏜炷2008炸ˤ⬠㟉柀⮶Ṣ⮎嶸㚵⊁柀⮶ἄ㱽䘬㍊䨞ˤ㔁ⷓ⣑⛘炻152炻18-25ˤ 㗇暚⣏ⷓ炷2009炸ˤ厑啑冯佑ⶍˤ庱㕤庼ṩ⣏⬠䫔ℓ⯮㔁做柀⮶冯䘤⯽⬠埻䞼妶㚫⣏ 㚫ㇳℲ炷枩 13~18炸ˤ冢⊿䷋烉庼ṩ⣏⬠ˤ ⻝㱃㔯炷嬗炸炷2001炸ˤ⁽Ṣ——ᾖ忻昊䘬柀⮶┇䣢抬炷⍇ἄ侭烉J. C. Hunter炸ˤ冢⊿ ⶪ烉⓮␐炷⍇叿↢䇰⸜烉1998炸 ⻝䳈”ˣ⻝⽟扛炷2008炸ˤ㍸⋯⚳⮷⇅ả㔁ⷓ䎕䳂ⷠ夷䴻䆇ᷳ㔁⬠庼⮶㬟䦳↮㜸ˤ⇅ 䫱㔁做⬠↲炻30炻35-62ˤ ⻝⽟扛炷2013炸ˤ㚵⊁柀⮶⛐㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ⇞⹎ᷕ䘬ㅱ䓐ˤ㔁做屯㕁冯䞼䨞炻109炻 107-138ˤ ⻝⽟扛ˣᶩᶨ栏ˣ㣲⭄柀炷2007炸ˤ冢⊿ⶪ㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ⇞⹎ 95 ⬠⸜⹎⮎㕥ㆸ㓰姽 揹⟙⏲炷1炸ȹȹ冢⊿ⶪ㔁⬠⮶ⷓ奺刚⡻≃⍲℞⚈ㅱ䫾䔍ᷳ䞼䨞ˤ冢⊿ⶪ㔁做⯨ ⥼妿ᷳ⮰柴䞼䨞ㆸ㝄⟙⏲炻㛒↢䇰ˤ ⻝⽟扛ˣ⻝剔剔ˣ惕䌱⌧ˣ叔⭞㗍ˣ岜Ἓ㓷ˣ㣲䙲桐ˣ⻝㶭㤂ˣ檀㯠怈ˣ⼕⣑⺢炷2001炸ˤ 冢⊿ⶪᷕ⮷⬠㔁⬠⮶ⷓ⇞⹎夷∫䞼䨞ˤ⇅䫱㔁做⬠↲炻9炻23-54ˤ 㔁做悐炷2009炸ˤ㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ娵嫱㳩䦳堐ˤ⍾冒 http://tepd.nhcue.edu.tw/upfiles/news/284/newfile01253180248.doc 悕䓇䌱炷2012炸ˤ⽫䎮冯㔁做䞼䨞㱽ˤ冢⊿ⶪ烉䱦厗ˤ ‭ἑ㥖炷2011炸ˤᶨ㛔⯙忂烉大㕡⒚⬠⎚ˤ冢⊿ⶪ烉倗䴻ˤ 哉➡㛹炷2005炸ˤ㚵⊁柀⮶㧉⺷ˤ㛒↢䇰嫃佑ˤ 哉忚晬炷2003炸ˤ崘ℍ⽫曰㶙嗽烉⁽Ṣ⺷柀⮶䘬シ㵝⍲℞⮵ᷕ⮷⬠㟉攟柀⮶䘬┇䣢ˤ 㔁做㓧䫾婾⡯炻6炷2炸炻69-83ˤ ♜ả⎱炷2009炸ˤ㚵⊁冯柀⮶ˣ柀⮶冯㚵⊁ˤ庱㕤庼ṩ⣏⬠䫔ℓ⯮㔁做柀⮶冯䘤⯽⬠ 埻䞼妶㚫⣏㚫ㇳℲ炷枩 21-26炸ˤ冢⊿䷋烉庼ṩ⣏⬠ˤ 喯伶渿炷2006炸ˤ⚳⮷㟉攟㚵⊁柀⮶ᷳᾳ㟰䞼䨞ˤ攟㥖⣏⬠⬠⟙炻10炷2炸炻51-67ˤ Algozzine, B., Gretes, J., Queen, A. J., & Cowan-Hathcock, M. (2007). Beginning

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