• 沒有找到結果。

historical and modern researchers which attempt to define what Autism is.


Academic year: 2022

Share "historical and modern researchers which attempt to define what Autism is. "





with Malcolm Reeve



1. To feel more informed about both the

historical and modern researchers which attempt to define what Autism is.

2. To look at the most appropriate ways in which we should communicate with a person who has Autism and make it

applicable into our day to day practice.


What is Autism?


Basic Facts

• Autism is a life long developmental disorder.

• Autism is a neurological disorder.

• Latest estimates from The National Autistic Society suggest that there are as many as

500,000 people who have an Autistic Spectrum Disorder in the UK.

• At Columbus there are 52 pupils who either have an Autistic Spectrum Disorder or who are described as having Autistic tendencies.


Dr Hans Asperger Dr Leo Kanner


Dr Leo Kanner

“He seems to be self-

satisfied. He has no apparent affection when petted. He

does not observe the fact that anyone comes or goes, and never seems glad to see father or mother or any

playmate. He seems almost to draw into his shell and live within himself.”

Kanner, 1943, ‘Autistic Disturbances of Affective Contact”


Dr Hans Asperger

In 1943 he carried out a study of 200

families with children who were similar to the children Kanner was observing except that they appeared

not to have the severe language delays


Autistic Spectrum Disorder

Severely Autistic Moderate Autistic Mild Autism

Dr Leo Kanner Dr Hans Asperger


Related Conditions

• Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

• Dyslexia

• Epilepsy

• Developmental Delay

• Sensory sensitivities

• Dyspraxia

• Pathological Demand Avoidance Syndrome.

• Rett Syndrome


Autistic Spectrum Disorder

Severe Moderate Light

Shore, 2006


The Triad of Impairment

Language and Communication

Imagination or flexibility of

thought Social


Wing & Gould, 1979





Social Interaction:

The unwritten rules of communicating

A neurotypical person should;

• take turns, passing the

conversation back and forth,

• Wait, look and listen in

anticipation for a response,

• stand a distance apart from one another appropriate to the content of the conversation,

• you choose appropriate

content determined by where you are and who you’re with.


Social Interaction:

The unwritten rules of communicating

A person with Autism;

• may not take turns, continually fires

information at you and interrupt,

• may stand too close or too far away talk too loud or too soft,

• may start inappropriate conversations.


Social Interaction

Unwritten social rules are all the things your rarely explicitly taught but often

the ones that will get you in the most trouble if you get them wrong.





People with Autism may have difficulties with;

• understanding and interpreting other people's thoughts, feelings and actions,

• predicting what will happen next, or what could happen next,

• understanding the concept of danger, for

example that running on to a busy road poses a threat to them,

• engaging in imaginative play and activities:

children with autism may enjoy some

imaginative play but prefer to act out the same scenes each time,

• preparing for changes to routines and plans.


Language and



Communication – Things that a person with Autism may find difficult:

Facial Expressions

Facial muscles pull the skin and tissues, temporarily distorting the shape of the eyes, brows, and lips, and the appearance

of folds, furrows and bulges in different patches of skin. The changes in facial muscular activity typically are brief, lasting a few seconds; rarely do they endure more

than five seconds or less than 250 ms

Hager & Ekman, 2008


Communication – Things that a person with Autism may find difficult:


The "how" something is said is referred to as paralanguage, which includes intonation,

emphasis, word and syllable stress, pitch and volume. These are non-verbal (but tied to the voice) characteristics. They strongly affect how something is extracted by the other person, and how we interpret the words. They provide an

additional context, and a very important one.



“Yes, I really want to talk to you about that”


• Desired outcome of the literal delivery is for the other person to come and talk to you about a

particular topic.

• Desired outcome of the sarcastic delivery is to make the person aware that you really don’t

want to talk to them about a particular topic.

• Desired outcome of an aggressive delivery is for the other person to come and talk to you

about a particular topic and to be aware that you aren’t happy with them.


Figures of Speech

Communication – Things that a person with

Autism may find difficult:





Verbal Communication

“Now come on Wizzy you’re being a silly girl.

I’ll turn that computer off for good, you’ve still got to come and finish your work. Look, turn it

off now. Look your being a really silly girl now

Izzy come and finish your work”.


Analysis of Communication

Non Verbal Communication

Hands on hips as an attempt to signify authority and added intent in the delivery.

Poke on the shoulder as an attempt to make her pay attention.


Substantial use of paralanguage to add authority and intent on the demand.



Verbal Communication

Izzy, computer has finished, its time to sit and do your work.

Nonverbal communication

• Signed I for Isobel and finished to provide additional opportunities for Isobel to understand and process the request..

• Used gestures to show Isobel where it was she wanted her to complete her work


• Minimal use of intonation, emphasis, word and syllable stress, pitch and volume.





Smell (Olfactory) System

• Processed through chemical receptors in the nose, this tells us about smells in our immediate



Smell (Olfactory) System


• some individuals have no sense of smell and fail to notice extreme odours

• some people may lick things.

Strategies -

• use strong-smelling products as rewards and to distract them from possibly inappropriate strong-smelling stimuli (faeces).


• smells can be intensified and overpowering

• toileting problems

• dislike of individuals with distinctive perfumes, shampoos, etc.

Strategies –

• use unscented detergents or shampoos, refrain from wearing perfumes, make environment as fragrance free as possible.


Sight (Visual) System

• Situated in the retina of the eye and

activated by light, our sight helps us to

define objects, people, colours, contrast and spatial boundaries.


Sight (Visual) System


• may see things darker, lose features, lines

• for some they may concentrate on peripheral vision because their central vision is blurred; others say that a main object is magnified and things on the periphery become blurred

• poor depth perception - problems with throwing and catching, clumsiness.


• increase the use of visual cues.


• distorted vision occurs and objects and bright lights can jump around

• fragmentation of images, as a consequence of too many sources

• focusing on particular detail (sand grains) more pleasurable than looking at something as a whole.


• reduce fluorescent lighting by using deep-coloured light bulbs instead sunglasses

• create a work station in the classroom: a space or desk with high walls or divides on both sides to block out visual distractions from the front and sides

• use blackout curtains.


Touch (Tactile) System

• Situated on the skin, the largest organ of the body, it relates to touch, type of pressure, level of pain and helps us distinguish temperature (hot and cold).Touch is a

significant component in social development. It helps us to assess the environment we are in and enables us to react accordingly.


Touch (Tactile) System


• has high pain threshold - temperature/pain self-harming

• enjoys heavy objects on top of them.


•weighted blanket/jackets

• sleeping bags.

• massage Hyper

• touch can be painful and uncomfortable and they will often withdraw from aspects of touch.

• dislike of having anything on hands or feet

• difficulties in brushing and washing hair

• only likes certain types of clothing or textures.


• warn the child if you are about to touch him or her; always approach him or her from the front

• gradually introduce different textures - have a box of materials available

• allow the individual to complete the activities themselves, enabling them to regulate their sensitivity (eg, hair brushing and washing).


Hearing (Auditory) System

• Situated in the inner ear, this informs us about sounds in the environment. It is the most commonly

recognised aspect of sensory impairment.


Hearing (Auditory) System


• sounds may only be heard with one ear, the other ear either only having partial hearing or none at all

• the person may not acknowledge particular sounds

• enjoys crowded noisy places, kitchens, bangs doors and objects.


• use visual cues to back up verbal information.


• volume of noise can be magnified and surrounding sounds distorted and muddled

• inability to cut out particular sounds - difficulties concentrating

• they may have a lower hearing threshold, which makes them particularly

sensitive to auditory stimuli, for example hearing conversations in the distance.


• shut doors and windows - to reduce the external sounds they have to deal with prepare them before they go to a noisy place or crowded situations

• ear plugs

• Walkman

• create a work station.


Taste (Gustatory) System

• Processed through chemical receptors in the tongue tells us

about different tastes - sweet, sour, bitter, salty and spicy.


Taste (Gustatory) System


• likes very spicy foods

• eats everything - soil, grass, materials.


• some flavours and foods are too strong and overpowering for them

• certain textures also cause discomfort; some children will only eat smooth foods such as mashed potatoes or ice-cream.


Body Awareness (Proprioception)

• Situated in the

muscles and joints, our body awareness system tells us where our bodies are. It also informs us where our body parts are and how they are moving.


Body Awareness (Proprioception)


• proximity - standing too close to others/not understanding personal body space navigating rooms - avoiding obstructions

• bumping into people.

Strategies -

• position furniture around the edge of the room to make navigation easier

• put coloured tape on the floor to indicate boundaries

• use the arm's-length rule


• difficulties with fine motor skills, manipulating small objects (buttons, tying shoe laces)

• moves whole body to look at something.

Strategies –

• threading activities

• lace boards


Balance (Vestibular) System

• Situated in the inner ear, this provides

information on where our body is in space and its speed,

direction and

movement, all in

relation to the pull of gravity.


Balance (Vestibular) System


• the need for rocking, swinging, spinning.

Strategies –

• encourage activities which help them develop their vestibular system - rocking horse, swing, roundabout and see-saws.


• difficulties in activities which include movement, such as sport

• difficulties in stopping quickly or during an activity

• car sickness

• difficulties with activities where the head is not in an upright position, or where feet are off the ground.

Strategies –

• break down activities into small steps, use visual cues such as a finish line or prompts.



1. To feel more informed about both the historical and modern researchers which attempt to

define what Autism is.

2. To look at the most appropriate ways in which we should communicate with a person who

has Autism and make it applicable into our day to day practice.


Important Issues

• Use of the environment.

• Use of visual forms of communication.

• Classroom Routine and Transitions.



In our learned space, we introduce a novel Projected Compatibil- ity Distance (PCD) function which is differentiable and en- sures diversity by aiming for at least one prototype to

According to the passage, which of the following statements is true about Capoeira.. (A) It was greatly influenced by modern

The third topic is about how to make a modern tiny wind turbine and wind powered mini generator in science education activities. We take the advantage of the

You need to act now plant it in your heart The simple fact of how we can do our part For future generations. Step up and make

Under the pressure of the modern era is often busy with work and financial resources, and sometimes not in fact do not want to clean up the environment, but in a full day of hard

It takes 20 cm of ribbon to make a bowknot which is 0.05 m less than a corsage?. Mary has a ribbon of 8

 Promote project learning, mathematical modeling, and problem-based learning to strengthen the ability to integrate and apply knowledge and skills, and make. calculated

experiences in choral speaking, and to see a short segment of their performance at the School Speech Day... Drama Festival and In-school Drama Shows HPCCSS has a tradition

double-slit experiment is a phenomenon which is impossible, absolutely impossible to explain in any classical way, and.. which has in it the heart of quantum mechanics -

Infusing higher-order thinking and learning to learn into content instruction: A case study of secondary computing studies in Scotland. Critical thinking: What it is and why

To complete the “plumbing” of associating our vertex data with variables in our shader programs, you need to tell WebGL where in our buffer object to find the vertex data, and

• Gauss on Germain: “But when a person of the sex which, according to our customs and prejudices, must encounter infinitely more difficulties than men to.. familiarize herself with

• If we use the authentic biography to show grammar in context, which language features / patterns might we guide students to notice and help them infer rules or hypothesis.. •

• We will look at ways to exploit the text using different e-learning tools and multimodal features to ‘Level Up’ our learners’ literacy skills.. • Level 1 –

Since it is so, what do we cultivate for?People are looking for the ways to improve the mental state, and the courage or wisdom to face the hard moments.. But the ways of improving

 Establish a check and balance mechanism to ensure that fee remission is offered in accordance with the school-based eligibility criteria, which should be no less favourable than

 It is worthwhile to sacrifice one person to save five.  Passser-by A has nothing to do with the incident. In the basic version, the worker on the side tracks also has nothing

Especially, it can represent for Happy Father’s Day to admire that father is a fun, handsome, intelligent, happy, a hero and great man in the world.. And it’s like Chinese

▪ Can we decide whether a problem is “too hard to solve” before investing our time in solving it.. ▪ Idea: decide which complexity classes the problem belongs to

Step 4 If the current bfs is not optimal, then determine which nonbasic variable should become a basic variable and which basic variable should become a nonbasic variable to find a

Our country much about real case that mining industry visit at present, but area these is it perfect planning to make in early days to develop to visit, make the economic

The purpose of the study was to explore the efficacy of using assistive technology to train the non-verbal junior high school student with autism to communicate.. The research

At Saturday, we already to went to the beach but Saturday was rained so we just played the cards at home, and ^ grownups start to plane the trip.. Sunday was a good day, we