自主事前審查對醫療品質及醫療費用之影響

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自主事前審查對醫療品質及醫療費用之影響

—以全膝關節置換術為例

Impacts of Self-Precertification Review on Medical Care Quality and Expenses—Example of Total Knee Arthroplasty

中文摘要

本研究之目的在於探討中央健康保險局(以下簡稱健保局)實施自主事前審查試辦作業後,對全 膝關節置換術的醫療品質及醫療費用之影響。本研究利用民國91 年至 93 年台北分局的全膝關 節置換術健保申報資料,並採用類實驗設計(Quasi-experimental Design)的研究方法進行探 討。實驗組於上述研究期間,隸屬於健保局台北分局轄區醫院中,參與自主事前審查試辦作業 11 家醫院,共有施行全膝關節置換術之病患 1,220 人,而對照組則為未參與此試辦作業之 醫院,共有施行全膝關節置換術之病患5,411 人。另一方面,本研究並以民國 92 年 1 月 1 日 政策介入為切點,以使用差異中之差異法(Difference in Difference, DID),以分析自主事前 審查作業的實施對住院醫療費用的影響。最後,使用複迴歸分析來檢定影響全膝關節置換術相 關因素。

研究結果顯示,實驗組在自主事前審查試辦作業實施後,其全膝關節置換術病患的平均住院醫

療費用顯著地減少。而DID 分析結果則顯示,自主事前審查制度實施後,實驗組與對照組醫院

的全膝關節置換術病患之住院醫療費用均顯著地減少,但對照組醫院病患的住院醫療費用比實

驗組醫院病患顯著地減少。在醫療品質方面,實驗組醫院在試辦作業實施後的病患出院後30 天

內再住院之機率較實施前為低。本研究發現,疾病嚴重度、醫院評鑑等級、醫院年手術量、醫師手 術量及專科年資等是病患住院醫療費用的預測因素。依據本研究的研究發現,茲對健保局提出 下列建議:1.健保局仍應持續監測試辦醫院之全膝關節置換術病患的醫療品質;2.試辦醫院的 病患住院費用比未參與試辦醫院較高之原因應詳加探討,以做為未來醫療費用監控之參考;3.

健保局應要求試辦醫院訂定自主事前審查試辦作業後手術品質監控指標;及4.建置全國人工關

節登錄系統,以增進病患手術的安全性及置換成功率。

英文摘要

The purpose of the study was to investigate the impacts of self-precertification review of total knee arthroplasty(TKA) on medical care quality and expenses. The quasi-experimental design was used. There are 1220 TKA cases from 11 hospitals participating the self-precertification program were enrolled as the experimental group, and 5,411 TKA cases from other hospitals which did not participate the self-precertification program were enrolled as the control group adopted from claim database of Taipei branch of National Health Bureau(NHIB) in year 2002 to 2003. Difference in Difference(DID) was carried out for analyzing the impact on medical expenses of self-precertification program. Meanwhile, regression analyses were used to investigate the effect of independent variables of TKA.

We found that the average expenses of patients receiving TKA in the participating

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hospitals were significantly lowered after participating the self-precertification program. With DID analyses, we also found that the expenses both in the experimental group and the control group were decreased after the initiation of the self-precertification program. However, we found that the expenses in the experimental group were significantly higher than the control group after the program’s initiation. In addition to the expenses, the experimental group had a lower rate of re-admission within 30 days after the initiation of the program. We further demonstrated that there were no significant differences in mortality, surgical complications, and re-admission within 90 days between both groups. The severity of illness, the level of hospital accreditation, the surgical volume of the hospital, the surgical volume, and the practice seniority of the surgeon were noted to be important explanatory factors for the medical expenses of TKA.

Base on the above findings, we proposed several suggestions for the NHIB. First, though there is no significant difference in the quality of TKA before and after the initiation of the self-precertification program for TKA, continuous monitoring of the surgical quality in the experimental group should be encouraged. Second, further study is needed to determine the reasons why the TKA expenses of the

experimental group are higher than those of the control group, so as to monitor the expenses of the procedure in the future. Third, the indicators of the quality of post operation in the experimental group should be established under the

supervision of NHIB. Finally, the national artificial knee registry system should be established to increase the safety for the patients and successful operation results

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