臺北市國小專業發展學校遴選指標建構之研究

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˪㔁做埴㓧冯姽揹⬠↲˫ 2013 ⸜ 12 㚰炻䫔⋩ℕ㛇炻枩 27-42

ᇃѕѿ୽ωடཾี৤Ᏸਮᒴᒵࡾ኿!

࡚ᄺϞंـ!

ᶩᶨ栏ˣ匲⾝曺ˣ㜿ᾉ侨ġ

ᄢġ ौ

㛔䞼䨞㖐⛐⺢㥳⍲㍊䨞冢⊿ⶪ⚳㮹⮷⬠⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉怜怠㊯㧁ˤ䞼䨞㕡㱽椾⃰㍉⮰ ⭞⓷⌟⮑㞍ẍ⍲㧉䱲⽟㆟埻婧㞍㕡㱽炻啱ẍ䡢䩳ˬ⚳㮹⮷⬠⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉怜怠㊯ 㧁˭ˤ㛔䞼䨞ᷣ天䞼䨞䳸㝄㚱烉(1)冢⊿ⶪ⚳⮷⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉怜怠㊯㧁⎗⊭㊔⬠佺䣦 佌ˣ䷦㓰屔ả冯⑩岒ᾅ嫱ˣ⣍Ờ⋼ἄˣ⣂㧋冯℔⸛ˣẍ⍲䳸㥳ˣ屯㸸冯奺刚䫱Ḽ⣏ ⎹⹎炻℞ᷕ炻⎬⎹⹎䘬慵天⿏ẍˬ䷦㓰屔ả冯⑩岒ᾅ嫱˭庫檀炻⎬⎹⹎ᷳ慵溆⇯㗗 ˬ斄㲐⬠䓇⬠佺˭冯ˬ㍊䨞˭烊(2)冢⊿ⶪ⚳⮷⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉怜怠㊯㧁ᷳḼ⣏⎹⹎ℏ㵝炻 ℙ妰 41 枭㊯㧁炻ᶼ⎬⎹⹎ᷕ⎬ᾳ㊯㧁ᷳ䚠⮵怑䔞⿏ᶵᶨˤ㚨⼴炻㚨⼴炻䞼䨞侭㟡㒂 䳸婾炻㍸↢䚠斄⺢嬘炻ᾦὃ⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉⮎⊁㍐≽ˣẍ⍲㛒Ἦ䞼䨞ᷳ⍫侫ˤ 斄挝娆烉⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉ˣ怜怠㊯㧁ˣ㔁ⷓ⮰㤕䘤⯽ ____________________ ᶩᶨ栏炷忂妲ἄ侭炸烉冢⊿ⶪ䩳⣏⬠㔁做埴㓧冯姽揹䞼䨞㇨∗㔁㌰ˤ 暣⫸悝ẞ烉tim@utaipei.edu.tw 匲⾝曺烉冢⊿ⶪ䩳⣏⬠㔁做埴㓧冯姽揹䞼䨞㇨⌂⢓䓇ˤ暣⫸悝ẞ烉migotaiwan@gmail.com 㜿ᾉ侨烉⚳䩳冢䀋ⷓ䭬⣏⬠㓧㱣⬠䞼䨞㇨⌂⢓῁怠Ṣˤ暣⫸悝ẞ烉lsy488981@gmail.com

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Journal of Educational Administration and Evaluation December, 2013, Vol. 16, pp. 27-42

The Construction of Indicators for Primary

Professional Development Schools in Taipei City

Yi-Ku Ting, Nien-Ching Chuang, Hsin-Yao Lin

Abstract

In this study, we developed and examined selection indicators for primary professional development schools in Taipei City. We used expert questionnaire reviews and fuzzy Delphi survey methods to establish the “Selection Indicators for Primary Professional Development Schools.” The results obtained are as follows: (1) Selection indicators for primary professional development schools in Taipei City comprised the five dimensions of learning communities; accountability and quality assurance; partnerships; diversity and fairness; structure, resources, and roles. Accountability and quality assurance had the greatest importance. The focal points of each dimension were “concern for student learning” and “inquiry.” (2) The five dimensions of the selection indicators for primary professional development schools in Taipei are comprised of 41 indicators. The relative appropriateness of the indicators in each dimension was inconsistent. Finally, we presented suggestions based on our conclusions for practice and promotion in professional development schools and for reference in future studies.

Keywords: professional development schools, selection indicators, teachers’ professional

development

____________________

Yi-Ku Ting (corresponding author): Associate Professor / Graduate School of Educational Administration and Evaluation, University of Taipei. E-mail: tim@utaipei.edu.tw Nien-Ching Chuang: Doctoral Student / Graduate School of Educational Administration and

Evaluation, University of Taipei. E-mail: migotaiwan@gmail.com

Hsin-Yao Lin: Ph.D. Candidate / Graduate Institute of Political Science, National Taiwan Normal University. E-mail: lsy488981@gmail.com

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൦ȃंـଢ଼ᐠ!

㚱㓰傥䘬㔁ⷓ㗗㚱㓰傥⬠㟉䘬斄挝炻侴天䡢ᾅ㔁ⷓ㓰傥冯䳈岒炻⇯⎗⽆ⷓ屯➡ 做ˬ借⇵➡做ȹ⮶ℍ炷induction炸㔁做ȹ⛐借㔁做˭ᶱ⣏昶㭝≈ẍ侫慷冯⻟⊾炻Ṏ⌛炻 借⇵⮰㤕梲ㆸ㔁做ˣ⮎佺㔁ⷓ⮎佺␴⇅ả㔁ⷓ庼⮶ˣẍ⍲㔁ⷓ䘬⛐借忚ᾖ炻悥㗗䚠 䔞慵天ᶼ仢ᶨᶵ⎗炻ㇵ㚜嵛ẍ➡做↢⮰㤕冯䅙⾙䘬㔁做ⶍἄ侭ˤ ẍ䔞⇵ⷓ屯➡做䘬䉨㱩Ἦ䚳炻㔁ⷓ➡做䘬⟜➇⣏农⊭㊔ⷓ屯➡做⣏⬠冯ᷕ⮷⬠ 㔁⬠䎦⟜炻⥹ᶼᶵ婾ⷓ屯➡做⣏⬠䘬ね㱩炻Abdal-Haqq炷1991炸⯙娵䁢炻ᷕ⮷⬠㔁 ⬠䎦⟜ᶵỮ庫䃉㱽㍸⋯⬠䓇⬠佺ˣṎ䃉㱽➡做ⷓ屯䓇冯⇅ả㔁ⷓ䘬⮰㤕炻℟橼侴妨炻 Ṳ㖍䘬ᷕ⮷⬠⬠㟉⿸⮯庫ᶵ怑⭄䁢㖶㖍䘬㔁ⷓ侴㸾⁁炷Abdal-Haqq, 1998炸炻Ṏ庫䃉 㱽䡢ᾅ㇨㚱⬠䓇⬠佺冯ㆸ≇䘬㨇㚫炷Clark, 1999炸ˤ 㚱揹㕤㬌炻⎴㗪忚埴⬠㟉冯ⷓ屯➡做䘬㚜㕘炷Clark, 1999炸ˣ㍐⯽ᷕ⮷⬠⬠㟉慵 ⺢ 炷 school restructuring 炸炻 ⯙ 栗 ⼿ 㚱 ℞ ⽭ 天 ⿏ 炻 侴 ⮰ 㤕 䘤 ⯽ ⬠ 㟉 炷 professional development school˳PDS˴炸⇯㗗⬠㟉慵⺢䘬ᶨ䧖⼊⺷炻℞⮯⎗傥⮵䳬䷼ˣ䭉䎮䳸㥳ˣ 㔁ⷓⶍἄ姕妰ˣ屯㸸↮惵ˣ㔁⬠㓡┬䫱≈ẍ㓡嬲炻Ṏ⮯⮵埴㓧ˣ奒ⷓ䓇冯䣦佌斄Ὢ 忚埴婧㔜炷Abdal-Haqq, 1998炸炻Ṏ⌛炻⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉䘬⮎㕥炻ᷫ㗗䘤⯽↢㓗㊩⬠䓇 䘤⯽冯㓡┬㔁ⷓ⮎⊁䘬⬠㟉⟜➇炷Abdal-Haqq, 1998; Levine, 1998炸ˤ 冒 1986 ⸜ Holmes Group Έ⮶⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉ᷳ䎮⾝⼴炻伶⚳⎬ⶆᷳ⣏⬠冯ᷕ⮷ ⬠䚠两⺢䩳⣍Ờ斄Ὢ炻ㆸ䩳⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉炻Ṏ㚱ᶵ拗ᷳ㓰䙲ˤ侴冢䀋⛐㬌㤪⾝ᷳ㍐ ⯽ᶲ晾庫ㄊ炻Ữ役⸜Ἦ炻⎬ⷓ屯➡做⣏⬠Ṏ㻠㚱ẍ⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉䁢⎵炻冯⎬ᷕ⮷⬠ ⺢䩳⼤㬌⎰ἄ⣍Ờ斄Ὢᷳ㟰ἳ炻媠⤪烉冢䀋ⷓ䭬⣏⬠ˣ冢ᷕ㔁做⣏⬠ˣ⯷㜙㔁做⣏ ⬠ˣ冢⋿⣏⬠䫱炻侴㛔䞼䨞ᷳ䞼䨞侭䁢⋼≑㇨㚵⊁ᷳ⣏⬠炷䁢➡做⚳⮷㔁做⬠䦳ᷳ ⣏⬠炸㍐≽⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉ᷳ怜怠炻⚈㬌炻ᷫ叿ㇳ忚埴⚳⮷⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉怜怠㊯㧁ᷳ 䞼䨞ˤ 㬌⢾炻䚖⇵⚳ℏ㚱斄⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉怜怠㊯㧁ᷳ䚠斄䞼䨞炻㚱⬓⽿湇炷2005炸ˣ ∱伶ㄏ䫱炷2006炸ˣ⻝䳈屆炷2008炸䘬䞼䨞炻㷈䫱䞼䨞晾䘮⎬㚱℞䈡刚炻⮵⮰㤕䘤⯽ ⬠㟉ᷳ怜怠冯姽Ộ㚱℞届䌣⿏炻䃞Ṏ㚱ṃ姙ᷳ旸⇞炻侴㛔䞼䨞ᷫ㗗㛇䚤⏠⍾㷈䫱䞼 䨞⃒ᷳ溆炻㍉埴ᶵ⎴㕤⇵徘䞼䨞ᷳ䞼䨞㕡㱽炻᷎䳸⎰⮎⊁冯䎮婾⮰⭞䘬シ夳炻啱ẍ ⺢㥳⚳⮷⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉怜怠㊯㧁ˤ 㸾㬌侴婾炻㛔䞼䨞㖐⛐⺢䩳冢⊿ⶪ⚳⮷⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉ᷳ怜怠㊯㧁炻℟橼侴婾炻 㛔䞼䨞ᷳ䞼䨞⓷柴䁢烉ᶨ炻冢⊿ⶪ⚳⮷⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉怜怠㊯㧁⊭㊔⒒ṃ⎹⹎烎Ḵ炻 冢⊿ⶪ⚳⮷⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉怜怠㊯㧁⊭㊔⒒ṃ℟橼怜怠㊯㧁烎

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ຯȃМᝦ௤ଆ!

⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉椾䎦㕤 1980 ⸜ẋᷕ㛇炷Abdal-Haqq, 1998炸炻䔞㗪炻Holmes Group 炷1986炸⛐ˬ㖶㖍䘬㔁ⷓ˭炷Tomorrow’s Teachers炸ᷕṳ䳡ˬ⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉˭ᶨ娆ˤ 侴⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉ᷳ㤪⾝⇯栆Ụ慓⬠㔁做⮎㕥ᷳ㔁⬠慓昊冐⸲⇞⹎炷Holmes Group, 1990炸ˤᷳ⼴炻⎬䧖栆Ụ⎵娆䚠两↢䎦炻媠⤪烉冐⸲⬠㟉炷Carnegie Forum on Education and the Economy, 1986炸ˣ⣍Ờ⬠㟉ˣ⮰㤕䘤⯽ᷕ⽫ˣ㔁⬠ᷕ⽫炷Osguthorpe, Harris, Harris, & Black, 1995炸ˣ⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠昊ˣ⮶ℍ⬠㟉ˣ㔁⬠⬠㟉炷Abdal-Haqq, 1991炸ˣ ⮰㤕䘤⯽冯㈨埻ᷕ⽫炷Warner, 1996炸䫱ˤ

䵄⎰䚠斄䞼䨞䘤䎦炷⏛㶭Ⱉˣ㜿⣑䣸炻2003烊⬓⽿湇炻2009烊Byrd & Mclntyre, 1999; Darling-Hammond, 2005; Williams, 1993炸炻⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉ᷳシ佑⎗⊭㊔烉炷ᶨ炸䳬䷼⿏ シ佑烉ᷣ天⊭⏓ⷓ屯➡做㨇㥳冯ᷕ⮷⬠䳬䷼烊炷Ḵ炸䫾䔍⿏シ佑烉德忶⣍Ờ斄Ὢ⺢䩳炻 忚埴⎰ἄˣ㍊䨞ˣ⮎槿ˣ∝㕘䫱ⶍἄ烊炷ᶱ炸䚖䘬⿏シ佑烉⻟⊾⬠䓇⬠佺ˣ㓡┬ⷓ屯 ➡做ˣ农≃㔁ⷓ⮰㤕䘤⯽ˣ㍸⋯⬠䓇⬠佺ㆸ㓰ˤ⚈㬌㛔䞼䨞娵䁢炻⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉ᷫ 㗗ᷕ⮷⬠冯ⷓ➡⣏⬠⺢䩳⣍Ờ⋼ἄ斄Ὢ炻ẍ㍸ὃᷕ⮷⬠㔁ⷓˣ⬠䓇ˣⷓ➡ⶍἄ侭ˣ ⍲⮎佺⬠䓇⬠佺䘬⟜➇炻㕤㬌⟜➇ᷕ炻德忶䎮婾冯⮎⊁圵⎰ˣ㍊䨞㛔ỵˣ埴≽䞼䨞ˣ 㔁⬠∝㕘䫱ᷳ㍐≽炻Ὣἧᷕ⮷⬠㔁ⷓˣ⬠䓇ˣⷓ➡ⶍἄ侭ˣẍ⍲⮎佺⬠䓇傥ᶵ㕟⬠ 佺冯䘤⯽炻啱ẍ㍸⋯㔜橼ⷓ屯➡做冯ᷕ⮷⬠㔁⬠ㆸ㓰ˤ 军㕤炻⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉ᷳ⮎㕥炻㚱℞慵天䘬≇傥烉炷ᶨ炸㍸⋯⬠䓇⬠佺烊炷Ḵ炸㓡 ┬ⷓ屯➡做烊炷ᶱ炸农≃㕤ᷕ⮷⬠㔁ⷓ㊩临⮰㤕䘤⯽烊炷⚃炸忳䓐埴≽䞼䨞婒㖶⍲㓡 ┬㔁冯⬠炷⬓⽿湇炻2009烊Abdal-Haqq, 1998; Darling-Hammond, 1994; National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education˳NCATE˴, 2001; Thornton, 2005炸ˤ

㚱斄⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉䘬怜怠冯姽Ộ炻⚳ℏ㚱ᶵ⎴ᷳΈ⮶炻媠⤪⬓⽿湇炷2005炸ˣ∱ 伶ㄏ䫱炷2006炸ˣ⻝䳈屆炷2008炸炻ᶵ忶炻㶙ℍ㍊䨞⌣䘤䎦炻㷈䫱⣏农悥ẍℐ伶ⷓ屯 㔁做娵⎗⥼⒉㚫炷NCATE, 2001炸㇨䘤⯽↢ᷳ⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉㧁㸾Ḽᾳ⎹⹎炷ˬ⬠佺䣦 佌˭ˣˬ䷦㓰屔ả冯⑩岒ᾅ嫱˭ˣˬ⣍Ờ⋼ἄ˭ˣˬ⣂㧋冯℔⸛˭ˣˬ䳸㥳ˣ屯㸸冯奺刚˭炸 䁢➢䢶炻侴䳘⿅㬌Ḽ⣏⎹⹎℞⮎⯙㗗忼ㆸ⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉䚖㧁炷⊭㊔烉ⷓ屯➡做ˣ⮰ 㤕䘤⯽ˣ㍊䨞ˣ⬠䓇⬠佺炸䘬慵天㧁㸾炻⚈䁢炻ˬ⬠佺䣦佌˭ᷣ天斄㲐㕤ˬ⮰㤕䘤⯽˭ 冯ˬ㍊䨞˭ˣˬ䷦㓰屔ả冯⑩岒ᾅ嫱˭斄㲐ˬ⬠䓇⬠佺˭ˣˬ⣂㧋冯℔⸛˭斄㲐ˬⷓ屯 ➡做˭炷 㰢⭂炸冯ˬ⬠䓇⬠佺˭ˣ军㕤ˬ䳸㥳ˣ屯㸸冯奺刚˭冯ˬ⣍Ờ⋼ἄ˭炻⇯↮ ⇍冯ⷓ屯➡做炷奺刚ˣ 㰢⭂炸㚱斄炷Thornton, 2005炸炻⯌䁢䓂侭炻忁ṃ㧁㸾悥㗗℟ 㚱ˬ㍊䨞˭炷inquiry炸䘬㤪⾝炷Tunks & Neapolitan, 2007炸炻ᶼ㚜悥㗗ẍ㍸⋯⬠䓇⬠佺

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䁢䳪㤝䚖㧁炷Teitel, 2003炸炻栗䣢 NCATE ㇨䘤⯽䘬Ḽ⣏㧁㸾℞怑䔞⿏冯慵天⿏⎗夳 ᶨ㔹ˤ

军㕤炻䘤⯽⬠㟉䘤⯽冯忳ἄ䘬忶䦳炻NCATE炷2001炸娵䁢⎗⋨↮䁢崟⥳㛇 炷beginning level炸ˣ䘤⯽㛇炷developmental level炸ˣ㧁㸾㛇炷standards level炸ˣ⺽柀㛇 炷leading level炸烊侴 Thornton炷2005炸⇯Έ⮶ˬ䃉⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉㛇˭炷no PDS炸ˣˬ䳬 ䷼㛇˭炷organization炸ˣˬ⮎㕥㛇˭炷implementation炸ˣˬ㨇⇞㛇˭炷institutionalization炸 ẍ⮵ㅱ婒㖶 NCATE 䘬⚃㛇炻㇨ẍ炻℞⮎ℑ侭ᷳ㤪⾝㗗ⶖᶵ⣂䘬炻悥㗗⽆ˬᾳ⇍㔁ⷓ 㓡┬˭ȹˬ䳬䷼㓡┬˭ȹˬ㔁ᷳ㓡┬˭ȹˬ斄㲐⬠䓇⬠佺䘬㍊䨞˭炷Thornton, 2005炸ˤ

䚠斄⮎⽝䞼䨞䘤䎦炻ᷕ⮷⬠㔁ⷓ⍫冯⮰㤕䘤⯽㳣≽⼴烉炷ᶨ炸庫℟㚱⮰㤕デ炷Morris & Nunnery, 1993炸烊炷Ḵ炸㺧シ⹎⍲⢓㯋庫檀炷Jett-Simpson, Pugach, & Whipp, 1992炸烊 炷ᶱ炸㚜栀シ⮵㕘䘬㔁⬠ℏ⭡冯㕡㱽忚埴℺晒冯⮎槿 炷Houston Consortium of Professional Development, 1996炸烊炷⚃炸㓡┬䎕䳂⮎⊁炷Crow, Stokes, Kauchak, Hobbs, & Bullougth, 1996; Houston Consortium of Professional Development, 1996炸烊炷Ḽ炸庫ᶵ ℟⬌䩳⿏炷Ariav & Clinard, 1996; Barba, Seideman, Schneider, & Mera, 1993炸烊炷ℕ炸 庫ᶵ㚫䃉≃デ炷Crow et al., 1996; Neufeld & McGowan, 1993炸ˤ侴㬌䘤䎦Ṏ〘冯⮰㤕 䘤⯽⬠㟉ᷳシ佑䚠␤ㅱ炻娵䁢⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉ᷳ⮎㕥傥Ὣ忚ᷕ⮷⬠㔁ⷓᷳ⮰㤕冯㔁⬠ ㆸ㓰炻䚠⮵⛘㔁ⷓ㚫㚜⮰㤕ˣ栀シ▿娎冯⮎槿ˣ⢓㯋冯䅙⾙㚜檀炻栗夳⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠ 㟉ᷳ㍐⯽㚱℞シ佑⿏冯₡ῤ⿏ˤ 晾䃞⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉䘬➟埴㚱ᶵ⮹䘬⃒溆炻ỮṎ㚱ṃ⚘⠫⼭⃳㚵炻媠⤪烉炷ᶨ炸⮰ 㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉㇨䯴䳬䘬䚠斄䳬䷼⍲⥼⒉㚫奺刚ˣ借屔冯⛘ỵᶵ㖶䡢炷Johnston, 2000炸烊 炷Ḵ炸婚䦳䞼䘤ˣ㔁⬠㍊䨞ˣ⋼⎴⎰ἄ䫱㗪攻䘬⡆≈冯屈匟炷Abdal-Haqq, 1998; Johnston, 2000炸烊炷ᶱ炸⡆≈㔁ⷓ柵⢾䘬㔁⬠㍊䨞冯䞼䨞ⶍἄ炻㷃Ỷ㔁ⷓ⍫冯シ栀冯 䅙⾙炷Johnston, 2000炸烊炷⚃炸天攟㛇㍸ὃ䴻屣ˣ屯㸸䘬㓗㊩␴墄≑㚱⚘暋炷Abdal-Haqq, 1998; Darling-Hammond, 2005炸烊炷Ḽ炸埴㓧ㆾ⍫冯Ṣ⒉㚜≽炻⮶农㹅忂ㆾ䚖㧁➟埴䘬 ⚘⠫炷Johnston, 2000炸䫱ˤ 䚖⇵⚳ℏ㚱斄⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉㊯㧁ᷳ䞼䨞⊭㊔烉⬓⽿湇炷2005炸ˣ∱伶ㄏ䫱炷2006炸ˣ ⻝䳈屆炷2008炸䫱ˤ℞ᷕ炻⬓⽿湇ᷳ䞼䨞ᷫ㗗憅⮵⮎佺㊯⮶㔁㌰ˣ⮎佺庼⮶㔁ⷓˣ ⷓ屯➡做⮰⭞忚埴䃎溆⛀橼姒婯炻ẍ䁢㊯㧁⺢㥳ᷳ⍫䄏炻᷎㍉埴⓷⌟婧㞍炷15 ㇨⮎ 佺⬠㟉ˣ500 ⎵㔁ⷓ炸炻ẍḮ妋⎬㊯㧁䘬慵天⿏炻⎗婒㗗⚳ℏ㍊䨞⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉㊯㧁 庫㖑ᷳ䞼䨞ˤ䃞℞㇨⺢㥳ᷳ㊯㧁檀忼 55 枭炻悐↮㊯㧁ᷳᷣ橼⿏Ụ᷶庫ᶵ㶭炻ᶼẍ ⮎佺⬠㟉ᷳ㔁ⷓ䁢㊯㧁慵天⿏ᷳ婧㞍ˤ∱伶ㄏ䫱Ṣᷳ䞼䨞⇯ᶵ夳 NCATE炷2001炸ᷳ ˬ⣂㧋冯℔⸛˭⎹⹎炻侴⻝䳈屆⇯㗗ẍ∱伶ㄏ䫱Ṣᷳ㝞㥳忚埴㩊㟠婒㖶ᷳ㍊妶ˤ⚈ 㬌炻㛔䞼䨞ᷫ娎⚾䱦䯉㊯㧁䘬㔠慷ˣ㍉埴ᶵ⎴ᷳ䞼䨞㕡㱽炻᷎ẍˬ⬠㟉˭ㆾˬ㔁ⷓ˭

(6)

䁢㭷ᾳ㊯㧁䶐㒔ᷳᷣ橼ˤ㸾㬌炻㛔䞼䨞ᷫ㍉ NCATE ᷳ⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉姽Ộ㊯㧁ᷳḼ⣏ ⎹⹎炻 䁢㛔䞼䨞䞼⭂⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉怜怠㊯㧁ᷳ⍫侫炻᷎㕤㊯㧁䞼㒔ᷳ⼴炻怨婳⬠ 侭冯⮰⭞忚埴㊯㧁慵天⿏ᷳ⮑㟠炻ᶼ㕤℞⼴⮎㕥⽟㆟埻⓷⌟婧㞍炻啱ẍ⺢㥳↢䫎⎰ ⚳㮹⮷⬠⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉怜怠ᷳ㊯㧁ˤ

୤ȃंـ೩ॎᇄᄂࢊ!

Ιȃंـᄇຫ!

㛔䞼䨞椾⃰怨婳 5 ỵⷓ屯➡做ᷳ⬠侭⮰⭞冯 5 ỵ⚳㮹⮷⬠㟉攟炻忚埴⓷⌟⇅䧧 怑↯⿏ᷳ⮑㞍炻᷎㍸ὃ⓷⌟ᾖ㓡冯⇒㷃ᷳシ夳ˤ侴⛐⽟㆟埻婧㞍㧋㛔䘬怠⍾ᶲ炻 Delbecq炷1975炸⺢嬘䔞⽟㆟埻⮷䳬ㆸ⒉⎴岒⿏檀㗪炻⮷䳬ㆸ⒉㔠慷ẍ 15~30 Ṣ䁢⭄烊 劍䁢䔘岒⿏⮷䳬ㆸ⒉⇯㔠慷ẍ 5~10 Ṣ䁢⭄炻㛔䞼䨞䁢傥吸普⇘⎬栆✳㔁做Ṣ⒉ᷳシ 夳炻⚈㬌ᷫ㍉⎴岒⿏ˣ䩳シ⍾㧋忚埴䞼䨞㧋㛔䘬⍾㧋烉ⷓ屯➡做䚠斄⬠侭⮰⭞ 10 Ṣˣ ⚳㮹⮷⬠㟉攟 10 Ṣ䫱炻ℙ妰 20 Ṣ炻ẍ䁢㧉䱲⽟㆟埻⓷⌟㕥㷔⮵尉ˤ

Πȃंـώڎ!

㛔䞼䨞ᷳ㧉䱲⽟㆟埻婧㞍ᷳⶍ℟䁢ˬ⚳⮷⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉怜怠㊯㧁⺢㥳婧㞍⓷ ⌟˭炻℞ℏ⭡ᷣ天↮䁢䞼䨞澽㖶↥ˣ⎵娆㶢妋ˣ⠓䫼澽㖶冯⓷⌟枭䚖ℏ⭡䫱悐↮ˤ⛐ ⓷⌟䘬⠓䫼ᶲ炻ᷫ㗗婳⬠侭⮰⭞㕤 52 ᾳ㊯㧁ᶲ炻徸ᶨ姽Ộ㭷ᾳ柴䚖䘬怑⎰䦳⹎炻侴 怑⎰䦳⹎⇯↮⇍⽆ˬ5˭军ˬ1˭ẋ堐ˬ朆ⷠ怑⎰˭⇘ˬ朆ⷠᶵ怑⎰˭ˤ

έȃंـแו!

㛔䞼䨞㕤 100 ⸜ 5 㚰⇅⬴ㆸ⓷⌟⇅䧧炻晐⌛怨婳 10 ỵ⮰⭞⬠侭忚埴⓷⌟ᷳ⮰⭞ ⮑㞍炻᷎㕤 6 㚰⇅⓷⌟⚆㓞ᾖ㓡冯⡆⇒柴䚖⼴炻⬴ㆸ㧉䱲⽟㆟埻婧㞍ᷳ㬋⺷ˬ⚳⮷ ⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉怜怠㊯㧁⺢㥳婧㞍⓷⌟˭炻㚨⼴⇯㕤 100 ⸜ 7 㚰⮯⓷⌟↮復㧉䱲⽟㆟埻 㕥㷔⮵尉炻㕤 9 㚰⚆㓞᷎忚埴屯㕁ᷳ䴙妰↮㜸ˤ

(7)

Ѳȃၥਟ೎౩!

㛔䞼䨞ᷳ⓷⌟⮰⭞⮑柴炻ᷫ㗗婳⎬⬠侭⮰⭞㛔䞼䨞䴻㔯䌣㍊䨞冯↮㜸⼴炻晐⌛ 䶐墥ㆸ⚳⮷⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉怜怠㊯㧁ᷳ⓷⌟⇅䧧炻ℙ妰 52 ᾳ㊯㧁ˤ᷎怨婳⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠ 㟉䚠斄柀➇ᷳ 10 ỵ⮰⭞⬠侭忚埴㊯㧁ᷳ⮑㞍炻⮑㞍ᷳ㧁㸾ᷫ㗗ẍˬ怑⎰˭ˣˬᾖ㬋⼴ 怑⎰˭ˣˬᶵ怑⎰˭䁢⊦怠ᷳ怠枭ˤˬᾖ㬋⼴怑⎰˭ᷫ㗗婳⮰⭞⬠侭憅⮵怜怠㊯㧁ᷳ䓐 娆ㆾ婆シᶵ㶭嗽≈ẍᾖ㓡炻ˬᶵ怑⎰˭⇯㗗娚㊯㧁⬴ℐᶵ怑⎰ㅱ⇒昌ˤ ℵẍ㧉䱲⽟㆟埻忚埴⓷⌟婧㞍炻啱ẍ吸普⍿娎ᷳ⬠侭冯⮰⭞⮵⚳⮷⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠ 㟉⎬㊯㧁䘬䚳㱽炻᷎⍾⼿℞⮵⎬ᾳ⇅⥳㊯㧁ᷳ姽₡ˤ㭷ỵ⬠侭冯⮰⭞⇑䓐婆シ嬲㔠炻 堐忼℞⮵㕤㭷ᾳ⇅⥳㊯㧁慵天⿏䘬姽Ộῤ炷堐 1炸ˤ 堐 1 㧉䱲婆シ嬲㔠堐 婆シ嬲㔠 ᶱ奺㧉䱲嬲㔠 朆ⷠ慵天 炷0.7炻0.9炻0.9炸 慵天 炷0.5炻0.7炻0.9炸 㘖忂 炷0.3炻0.5炻0.7炸 ᶵ慵天 炷0.1炻0.3炻0.5炸 朆ⷠᶵ慵天 炷0.1炻0.1炻0.3炸 㛔䞼䨞㕤⓷⌟吸普㇨㚱⍿娎ᷳ⬠侭冯⮰⭞⮵娚⇅⥳㊯㧁姽Ộῤ⼴炻⇑䓐㧉䱲⽟ ㆟埻㔜⎰ 20 ỵ⬠侭⮰⭞ᷳシ夳炻妰䬿↢㭷枭⇅⥳㊯㧁慵天⿏ᶱ奺㧉䱲㔠ˤ㬌⢾炻ℵ ὅ Chen ␴ Hwang炷1992炸㇨㍸↢䘬㧉䱲普⎰妋㧉䱲䔓⼿㕡㱽炻妰䬿↢㊯㧁慵天⿏㇨ ẋ堐䘬⎛䓴ῤˣⶎ䓴ῤ⍲䷥ῤ炻℞⼴ℵẍ㭷ᾳ㊯㧁䘬ᶱ奺㧉䱲㔠ᷳ䷥ῤ炻ẋ堐⍿娎 侭⮵⎬枭㊯㧁姽⭂慷⯢䘬ℙ嬀ˤ⎎Ṏ㕤℞ᷕ姕⭂攨㩣ῤ t炻䃞⼴⽆䛦⣂䘬⇅⥳姽Ộ㊯ 㧁ᷕ炻䮑怠↢庫慵天䘬姽揹㊯㧁ˤᶱ奺㧉䱲㔠ᷳ䷥ῤ檀㕤攨㩣ῤ侭炷㛔䞼䨞䁢 0.7炸炻 娚㊯㧁Ḱẍ䲵ℍ烊䷥ῤỶ㕤攨㩣ῤ侭炻⇯娚㊯㧁Ḱẍ⇼昌ˤ

(8)

ဓȃ๖ݎᇄଆ፣!

Ιȃடড়ቷᚠཎَ፡ࢥ!

㛔䞼䨞ᷳ⚳⮷⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉怜怠㊯㧁ᷳ⓷⌟⇅䧧炻ℙ妰 52 ᾳ㊯㧁ˤ⛐怨婳ᷳ 10 ỵ⮰⭞⬠侭⮑㞍⼴炻ᾅ䔁ˬ⬠佺䣦佌˭9 ᾳ㊯㧁ˣˬ䷦㓰屔ả冯⑩岒ᾅ嫱˭9 ᾳ㊯㧁ˣ ˬ⣍Ờ⋼ἄ˭9 ᾳ㊯㧁ˣˬ⣂㧋冯℔⸛˭9 ᾳ㊯㧁ˣˬ䳸㥳ˣ屯㸸冯奺刚˭9 ᾳ㊯㧁炻 ⎰妰ℙᾅ䔁 45 ㊯㧁ˤ㬌⢾炻ḇ⍫惴⎬⮰⭞⬠侭ᷳシ夳炻忚埴⎬㊯㧁䓐娆ㆾ婆シᷳᾖ 㓡炻啱ẍ䶐墥ㆸ㛔䞼䨞ᷳ㧉䱲⽟㆟埻婧㞍⓷⌟ˤ

Πȃ዁ጙኈᛄݲ୰ڢ፡ࢥ!

㛔䞼䨞㍉㧉䱲⽟㆟㱽忚埴ˬ⚳⮷⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉怜怠㊯㧁˭⎬⎹⹎ᷳ䴙妰↮㜸炻 侴ˬ⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉怜怠㊯㧁˭ᷳ⎹⹎⇯⊭㊔烉炷ᶨ炸⬠佺䣦佌烊炷Ḵ炸䷦㓰屔ả冯⑩ 岒ᾅ嫱烊炷ᶱ炸⣍Ờ⋼ἄ烊炷⚃炸⣂㧋冯℔⸛烊炷Ḽ炸䳸㥳ˣ屯㸸冯奺刚ˤ㛔䞼䨞ẍᶱ 奺㧉䱲㔠ᷳ䷥ῤ䁢 0.7  䁢䮑怠攨㩣ῤ炻ẍ⣏㕤 0.7 ᷳῤἄ䁢姽Ộ㊯㧁䮑怠ᷳᾅ䔁 ῤˤ⽆堐 2 ⎗䞍炻㛔䞼䨞婧㞍⓷⌟⎬⎹⹎ᷳ㊯㧁䷥ῤ⮷㕤 0.7 侭炻⊭㊔ˬ⬠佺䣦佌˭ ᷳ㊯㧁 1 冯㊯㧁 9ˣˬ䷦㓰屔ả冯⑩岒ᾅ嫱˭ᷳ㊯㧁 5 冯㊯㧁 6炻℞检⎬㊯㧁⇯䷥ῤ 悥檀㕤 0.7炻⚈㬌炻㛔ˬ⚳⮷⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉怜怠㊯㧁˭⓷⌟ᾅ䔁ᷳ㊯㧁⊭㊔ˬ⬠佺䣦 佌˭7 柴ˣˬ䷦㓰屔ả冯⑩岒ᾅ嫱˭7 柴ˣˬ⣍Ờ⋼ἄ˭9 柴ˣˬ⣂㧋冯℔⸛˭9 柴ˣˬ䳸 㥳ˣ屯㸸冯奺刚˭9 柴炻⎰妰ℙᾅ䔁 41 柴ˤ 忚ᶨ㬍㍊䨞䘤䎦炻⎬⎹⹎ᷕ㚱ṃ㊯㧁ᷳ䷥ῤ⣏㕤 0.8炻媠⤪ˬ⬠佺䣦佌˭ᷳ䫔 4 柴炷⬠㟉㔁ⷓ傥⽆ḳ婚䦳冯㔁⬠⓷柴䘬㍊䨞⍲∝㕘炸ˣ䫔 5 柴ˬ⬠㟉㔁ⷓ傥ㅱ䓐䞼䨞 冯⮎⊁炻㓡┬㔁⬠ẍ⍲⮎佺庼⮶ᷳㆸ㓰˭烊ˬ䷦㓰屔ả冯⑩岒ᾅ嫱˭ᷳ䫔 2 柴炷⬠㟉 傥怑㗪㩊夾⬠䓇⬠佺ㆸ㓰炻᷎ὅ㩊夾䳸㝄婧㔜㔁⬠炸烊ˬ⣍Ờ⋼ἄ˭ᷳ䫔 4 柴ˬ⬠㟉 傥冯ⷓ➡⣏⬠ℙ⎴夷∫冯庼⮶⮎佺⬠䓇䘬⮎佺㳣≽˭烊ˬ⣂㧋冯℔⸛˭ᷳ䫔 6 柴ˬ⬠ 㟉傥怑㗪㩊夾㟉ℏ℔⸛⬠佺㨇㚫冯ㆸ㓰˭烊ˬ䳸㥳ˣ屯㸸冯奺刚˭ᷳ䫔 5炷⬠㟉傥㚱㓰 ↮惵⎬枭屯㸸炷䴻屣ˣ㗪攻ˣ䨢攻䫱炸ẍ㓗㊩㔁ⷓ⮰㤕䘤⯽炸ˣ䫔 7 柴炷⬠㟉埴㓧傥 䘤㎖⛀昲䱦䤆炻农≃㕤⬠㟉⮰㤕䘤⯽䘬㍐≽炸炻栗夳⎬⮰⭞⬠侭⛐忁ṃ柴枭ᶲ䘬ℙ嬀 庫檀炻℞慵天⿏Ṏ⎗傥庫檀炻Ụ⎗䁢㛒Ἦ忚ᶨ㬍䞼䨞㊯㧁≈㪲ᷳ⍫侫ˤ⎎⢾炻忁ṃ 庫慵天ᷳ㊯㧁ᷕᷳˬ㍊䨞冯∝㕘˭ˣˬㅱ䓐䞼䨞冯⮎⊁˭ˣˬ㩊夾ㆸ㓰˭ˣˬℙ⎴夷∫˭ˣ

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ˬ↮惵㓗㸸˭䫱炻悥斄㴱ˬ㍊䨞˭㤪⾝ᷳˬ䘤⯽⓷柴ˣ屯㕁吸普ˣ↮㜸ˣ姽慷ˣ䚩 ⿅ˣ冒姽ˣ姽揹ˣ⎰ἄ⺷㰢⭂˭䫱炷Tunks & Neapolitan, 2007炸炻栗䣢ˬ㍊䨞˭䚠斄 㤪⾝Ṏㅱ㗗㛒Ἦ忚ᶨ㬍㊯㧁㍊䨞ᷳ慵溆ˤ ῤ⼿ᶨ㍸䘬㗗炻⇵徘⎬⎹⹎ᷕ庫慵天䘬㊯㧁炻℞ᶵỮ冯⎬⎹⹎ᷳ㟠⽫䚠䔞䫎⎰炻 ἳ⤪炻⬠佺䣦佌䘬慵溆⛐㕤ˬ㍊䨞冯∝㕘˭ˣˬㅱ䓐䞼䨞冯⮎⊁˭烊ˬ䷦㓰屔ả冯⑩岒 ᾅ嫱˭慵溆䁢ˬ⬠䓇⬠佺ㆸ㓰˭烊ˬ⣍Ờ⋼ἄ˭䘬慵溆㗗ˬᷕ⮷⬠冯ⷓ➡⣏⬠䘬⎰ἄ˭烊 ˬ⣂㧋冯℔⸛˭慵溆䁢ˬ℔⸛ᷳ⬠佺㨇㚫˭烊ˬ䳸㥳ˣ屯㸸冯奺刚˭䘬慵溆⇯䁢ˬ䴻 屣ˣ㗪攻ˣ䨢攻䫱屯㸸ᷳ↮惵冯㓗㊩˭ˤ㬌⢾炻Ṏ〘冯 Thornton炷2005炸䘬奨溆㚱溆 栆Ụ炻⯌℞ Thornton 娵䁢炻ˬ⬠佺䣦佌˭斄㲐ˬ㍊䨞˭ˣˬ䷦㓰屔ả冯⑩岒ᾅ嫱˭斄㲐 ˬ⬠䓇⬠佺˭ˤ ⎎⢾炻⽆⎬⎹⹎⽟㆟埻ᷳ䷥ῤ⣏㕤 0.75 ẍᶲᷳ㊯㧁㔠慷Ἦ䚳炻⬠佺䣦佌⎹⹎ 7 ᾳ㊯㧁ᷕ㚱 3 ᾳ炻䷦㓰屔ả冯⑩岒ᾅ嫱⎹⹎ᷕ 7 ᾳ㊯㧁㚱 5 ᾳ炻⣍Ờ⋼ἄ⎹⹎ᷕ 9 ᾳ㊯㧁㚱 4 ᾳ炻⣂㧋冯℔⸛⎹⹎ᷕ 9 ᾳ㊯㧁㚱 1 ᾳ炻䳸㥳ˣ屯㸸冯奺刚⎹⹎ᷕ 9 ᾳ ㊯㧁㚱 5 ᾳˤ⯙℞攻䘬㭼ἳ侴婾炻⎬⮰⭞⬠侭䘬ℙ嬀娵䁢ẍˬ䷦㓰屔ả冯⑩岒ᾅ嫱˭ ᷳ⎬㊯㧁庫慵天⿏庫檀炻侴㬌䧖䳸㝄冯 NCATE炷2001炸ˣTeitel炷2003炸㇨ᷣ⻝䚠栆 Ụ烉㧁㸾⎗䓐Ἦ婒㖶⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉⤪ỽ㓡忚ˬ⬠䓇⬠佺˭炻侴ˬ䷦㓰屔ả冯⑩岒ᾅ嫱˭ ⇯屓䨧⎬ᾳ㧁㸾炻ẍ䡢ᾅ⎬ᾳ㧁㸾ᷳ忳ἄ℟㚱䷦㓰冯⑩岒炻䔞䃞炻㚨⼴䘬䚖䘬⇯㗗 Ὣ忚⬠䓇⬠佺ᷳ㓡┬炻栗夳斄㲐ˬ⬠䓇⬠佺˭ㅱ㗗⎬⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉怜怠冯姽Ộ㧁㸾 䘬慵天㟠⽫㤪⾝炻Ṏㅱ䁢㛒Ἦ䘤⯽㊯㧁ᷳ慵天斄挝ˤ

ӂȃ๖፣ᇄ࡚ដ!

Ιȃ๖፣!

炷ᶨ炸冢⊿ⶪ⚳⮷⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉怜怠㊯㧁⎗⊭㊔⬠佺䣦佌ˣ䷦㓰屔ả冯⑩岒ᾅ 嫱ˣ⣍Ờ⋼ἄˣ⣂㧋冯℔⸛ˣẍ⍲䳸㥳ˣ屯㸸冯奺刚䫱Ḽ⣏⎹⹎炻℞ᷕ炻 ⎬⎹⹎䘬慵天⿏ẍˬ䷦㓰屔ả冯⑩岒ᾅ嫱˭庫檀炻⎬⎹⹎ᷳ慵溆⇯䁢ˬ斄 㲐⬠䓇⬠佺˭冯ˬ㍊䨞˭ 㛔䞼䨞德忶㔯䌣冯㧉䱲⽟㆟埻⼴䘤䎦炻⚳⮷⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉怜怠㊯㧁ℙ⎗⊭㊔Ḽ ⣏⎹⹎炻侴㬌Ḽ⣏⎹⹎↮⇍䁢烉⬠佺䣦佌ˣ䷦㓰屔ả冯⑩岒ᾅ嫱ˣ⣍Ờ⋼ἄˣ⣂㧋 冯℔⸛ˣẍ⍲䳸㥳ˣ屯㸸冯奺刚䫱炷娛堐 2炸ˤ⎎⢾炻斄㲐ˬ⬠䓇⬠佺˭ㅱ㗗⎬⮰㤕

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䘤⯽⬠㟉怜怠冯姽Ộ㧁㸾䘬慵天㟠⽫㤪⾝炻侴䚠庫℞Ṿ㧁㸾侴婾炻ˬ䷦㓰屔ả冯⑩岒 ᾅ嫱˭ᷳ慵天⿏Ụ᷶㗗庫檀ˤ 炷Ḵ炸冢⊿ⶪ⚳⮷⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉怜怠㊯㧁ᷳḼ⣏⎹⹎ℏ㵝炻㭷ᶨᾳ⎹⹎⊭㊔ 7~9 ᾳ怜怠㊯㧁炻⎰妰 41 枭㊯㧁炻ᶼ⎬⎹⹎ᷕ⎬ᾳ㊯㧁ᷳ䚠⮵慵天⿏ᶵ⎴ ġ ġ 㛔䞼䨞德忶㔯䌣冯㧉䱲⽟㆟埻⼴䘤䎦炻⚳⮷⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉怜怠㊯㧁ᷳḼ⣏⎹⹎ ℏ㵝ᷕ炻㭷ᶨᾳ⎹⹎⊭㊔ 7~9 ᾳ怜怠㊯㧁炻⎰妰Ḽᾳ⎹⹎ℙ妰 41 ᾳ怜怠㊯㧁ˤ㬌⢾炻 ˬ⬠佺䣦佌˭ᷳˬ⬠㟉㔁ⷓ傥⽆ḳ婚䦳冯㔁⬠⓷柴䘬㍊䨞⍲∝㕘˭ˣˬ⬠㟉㔁ⷓ傥ㅱ 䓐䞼䨞冯⮎⊁炻㓡┬㔁⬠ẍ⍲⮎佺庼⮶ᷳㆸ㓰˭烊ˬ䷦㓰屔ả冯⑩岒ᾅ嫱˭ᷳˬ⬠㟉 傥怑㗪㩊夾⬠䓇⬠佺ㆸ㓰炻᷎ὅ㩊夾䳸㝄婧㔜㔁⬠˭烊ˬ⣍Ờ⋼ἄ˭ᷳˬ⬠㟉傥冯ⷓ ➡⣏⬠ℙ⎴夷∫冯庼⮶⮎佺⬠䓇䘬⮎佺㳣≽˭烊ˬ⣂㧋冯℔⸛˭ᷳˬ⬠㟉傥怑㗪㩊夾 㟉ℏ℔⸛⬠佺㨇㚫冯ㆸ㓰˭烊ˬ䳸㥳ˣ屯㸸冯奺刚˭ᷳˬ⬠㟉傥㚱㓰↮惵⎬枭屯㸸炷䴻 屣ˣ㗪攻ˣ䨢攻䫱炸ẍ㓗㊩㔁ⷓ⮰㤕䘤⯽˭ˣˬ⬠㟉埴㓧傥䘤㎖⛀昲䱦䤆炻农≃㕤⬠ 㟉⮰㤕䘤⯽䘬㍐≽˭䫱炻℞慵天⿏䚠⮵⛘㭼℞Ṿ㊯㧁檀ˤ

Πȃ࡚ដ!

炷ᶨ炸㍐⯽⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉㤪⾝冯⮎⊁炻⻟⊾ⷓ屯➡做≇㓰 㛔䞼䨞㔯䌣䘤䎦⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉䘬忳ἄ炻⮵㔁ⷓᷳ借⇵➡做ˣ⮶ℍ庼⮶⍲⛐借ㆸ 攟䫱炻悥㚱䚠䔞䘬㓰䙲炻侴ᶼ炻㔁做䔞⯨䚖⇵㇨夷∫䘬ˬⷓ屯䳈岒㍸⋯㕡㟰˭炻Ṏ⻟ 婧天㍐⯽ˬ⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉˭ᷳ㤪⾝冯⮎⊁炻㚱揹㕤㬌炻⺢嬘㛒Ἦ㔁做䔞⯨ㅱ⃀忇夷 ∫冯䞼㒔ˬ⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉˭⮎㕥㕡㟰炻㚱㓰⻟⊾㔜橼ⷓ屯➡做ᷳ≇㓰ˤ 炷Ḵ炸岉临䘤⯽ˬ斄㲐⬠䓇⬠佺˭冯ˬ㍊䨞˭㤪⾝ᷳ㊯㧁 㛔䞼䨞⽆㔯䌣↮㜸冯⽟㆟埻䘤䎦炻ˬ䷦㓰屔ả冯⑩岒ᾅ嫱˭䚠庫℞Ṿ⎬⎹⹎侴妨炻 ℞慵天⿏Ụ᷶庫檀炻侴ᶵ䭉⎬⎹⹎ㆾ㗗ˬ䷦㓰屔ả冯⑩岒ᾅ嫱˭炻⇯慵溆悥㶙℟ˬ㍊䨞˭ 䚠斄㤪⾝炻ᶼ悥⛐㕤㍸⋯⬠䓇⬠佺ㆸ㓰炻栗夳ˬ㍊䨞˭冯ˬ斄㲐⬠䓇⬠佺˭⮎䁢⮰㤕 䘤⯽⬠㟉⎬㧁㸾ᷳ慵天斄挝ˤ㸾㬌炻㛔䞼䨞⺢嬘炻㛒Ἦ㔁做埴㓧㨇斄天⮎嶸⮰㤕䘤⯽ ⬠㟉炻⮎ㅱ䳸⎰⎬⬠埻冯⮎⊁Ṣ≃屯㸸炻ẍ㛔䞼䨞ᷳ㊯㧁䁢➢䢶炻⻟婧ˬ⬠䓇⬠佺䁢 㛔˭冯ˬ㍊䨞˭ᷳ奨溆炻岉临䞼䘤↢㚜層役⬠䓇⬠佺冯㔁ⷓ⮰㤕㍊䨞䘬⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉 怜怠冯姽Ộ䚠斄㊯㧁炻啱ẍ⺽⮶⬠㟉彎⬠ㆾ⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉㍐≽ᷳὅ㒂ˤ

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堐 2 ⚳⮷⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉怜怠㊯㧁ᷳ㧉䱲⽟㆟埻䳸㝄↮㜸堐 ⎹⹎ ㊯㧁 ㊯ġ 㧁ġ ℏġ ⭡ 炷ak, bk, ck炸 炷μR, μL, μT炸 䳸㝄 ⬠ 佺 䣦 佌 1 ⬠㟉傥㓗㊩㟉ℏ㔁ⷓˣ⬠䓇⍲⮎佺⬠䓇䘬⬠ 佺ˤ 炷0.3, 0.83, 0.9炸 炷0.84, 0.49, 0.69炸 ⇒昌 2 ⬠㟉傥㍐冱⃒䥨㔁ⷓ⋼≑⮎佺⬠䓇ᷳ⮎佺 冯⬠佺ˤ 炷0.5, 0.85, 0.9炸 炷0.86, 0.37, 0.74炸 ᾅ䔁 3 ⬠㟉ㆸ⒉傥ẍ⛀昲㕡⺷㓗㊩⬠䓇⍲⮎佺⬠ 䓇䘬⬠佺ˤ 炷0.5, 0.82, 0.9炸 炷0.83, 0.38, 0.73炸 ᾅ䔁 4 ⬠㟉㔁ⷓ傥⽆ḳ婚䦳冯㔁⬠⓷柴䘬㍊䨞⍲ ∝㕘ˤ 炷0.7, 0.86, 0.9炸 炷0.87, 0.26, 0.80炸 ᾅ䔁 5 ⬠㟉㔁ⷓ傥ㅱ䓐䞼䨞冯⮎⊁炻㓡┬㔁⬠ẍ⍲ ⮎佺庼⮶ᷳㆸ㓰ˤ 炷0.7, 0.85, 0.9炸 炷0.86, 0.26, 0.80炸 ᾅ䔁 6 ⬠㟉傥䳸⎰㟉ℏ⢾屯㸸ẍ㓗㊩冯㍐≽⬠㟉 ⮰㤕䘤⯽㳣≽ˤ 炷0.7, 0.82, 0.9炸 炷0.83, 0.27, 0.78炸 ᾅ䔁 7 ⬠㟉㔁ⷓ傥㊩临⎰ἄ炻忚埴㔁⬠䚩⿅ˣ⮵娙 冯↮ṓˤ 炷0.5, 0.83, 0.9炸 炷0.84, 0.38, 0.73炸 ᾅ䔁 8 ⬠㟉㔁ⷓ傥德忶⮰㤕⬠佺䣦佌㊩临⬠佺炻徥 㯪⮰㤕䘤⯽ˤ 炷0.5, 0.83, 0.9炸 炷0.84, 0.38, 0.73炸 ᾅ䔁 9 ⬠㟉傥冯惘役⬠㟉ㆾ㔁做⮰㤕䳬䷼⺢䩳䣦 佌⣍Ờˤ 炷0.3, 0.71, 0.9炸 炷0.76, 0.51, 0.63炸 ⇒昌 ䷦ 㓰 屔 ả 冯 ⑩ 岒 ᾅ 嫱 1 ⬠㟉傥⮯㔁ⷓˣ⬠䓇ˣ⍲⮎佺⬠䓇䘬⬠佺冯 ⬠㟉⮰㤕䘤⯽栀㘗䵲⭮倗䳸ˤ 炷0.7, 0.84, 0.9炸 炷0.85, 0.26, 0.79炸 ᾅ䔁 2 ⬠㟉傥怑㗪㩊夾⬠䓇⬠佺ㆸ㓰炻᷎ὅ㩊夾䳸 㝄婧㔜㔁⬠ˤ 炷0.7, 0.88, 0.9炸 炷0.88, 0.25, 0.81炸 ᾅ䔁 3 ⬠㟉傥䘤⯽᷎㓡┬⬠䓇䘬⬠佺䫾䔍ˤ 炷0.5, 0.85, 0.9炸 炷0.86, 0.37, 0.74炸 ᾅ䔁 4 ⬠㟉傥⮯⬠䓇䘬⬠佺ㆸ㓰㍸ὃ䴎⭞攟Ḯ妋ˤ 炷0.5, 0.81, 0.9炸 炷0.83, 0.38, 0.72炸 ᾅ䔁 5 ⬠㟉傥⺽⮶䣦⋨冯⭞攟ℙ⎴斄㲐⬠䓇⍲⮎ 佺⬠䓇䘬⬠佺ˤ 炷0.5, 0.73, 0.9炸 炷0.77, 0.41, 0.68炸 ⇒昌 6 ⬠㟉傥䌚⼿㔁ⷓ㔁⬠䚠斄䘬娵嫱ㆾ䋶⊝ˤ 炷0.5, 0.73, 0.9炸 炷0.77, 0.41, 0.68炸 ⇒昌 7 ⬠㟉傥䡢ᾅ⮎佺⬠䓇䘬⮎佺ㆸ㓰ˤ 炷0.7, 0.84, 0.9炸 炷0.85, 0.26, 0.79炸 ᾅ䔁 8 ⬠㟉傥忳䓐⣂⃫㕡㱽㩊㟠㔁ⷓ冯⮎佺⬠䓇 㔁⬠ㆸ㓰ˤ 炷0.7, 0.84, 0.9炸 炷0.85, 0.26, 0.79炸 ᾅ䔁 9 ⬠㟉傥ὅ㒂䚠斄㱽夷䞼妪冯句⮎⮎佺⬠䓇 ⮎佺庼⮶妰䔓ˤ 炷0.7, 0.81, 0.9炸 炷0.83, 0.27, 0.78炸 ᾅ䔁 ⣍ Ờ ⋼ ἄ 1 ⬠㟉傥冯ⷓ➡⣏⬠⺢䩳⸛䫱Ḻよ䘬⣍Ờ⋼ ἄ斄Ὢˤ 炷0.5, 0.84, 0.9炸 炷0.85, 0.37, 0.74炸 ᾅ䔁 2 ⬠㟉傥怨普㟉ℏ⢾⇑⭛斄ὪṢ䳬ㆸ⣍Ờ⋼ ἄ㕡㟰ᷳ㍐≽䳬䷼ˤ 炷0.5, 0.78, 0.9炸 炷0.80, 0.39, 0.71炸 ᾅ䔁 3 ⬠㟉傥冯ⷓ➡⣏⬠⎰ἄ炻↮㜸䎦㱩㒔妪㔁ⷓ ⮰㤕ㆸ攟妰䔓ˤ 炷0.7, 0.83, 0.9炸 炷0.84, 0.27, 0.79炸 ᾅ䔁 4 ⬠㟉傥冯ⷓ➡⣏⬠ℙ⎴夷∫冯庼⮶⮎佺⬠ 䓇䘬⮎佺㳣≽ˤ 炷0.7, 0.85, 0.9炸 炷0.86, 0.26, 0.80炸 ᾅ䔁 5 ⬠㟉㔁ⷓ傥冯ⷓ➡⣏⬠㔁ⷓ⎰ἄ忚埴⮰㤕 䘤⯽㳣≽ˤ 炷0.7, 0.83, 0.9炸 炷0.84, 0.27, 0.79炸 ᾅ䔁 炷临ᶳ枩炸

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堐 2炷临炸 ⎹⹎ ㊯㧁 ㊯ġ 㧁ġ ℏġ ⭡ 炷ak, bk, ck炸 炷μR, μL, μT炸 䳸㝄 ⣍ Ờ ⋼ ἄ 6 ⬠㟉傥冯ⷓ➡⣏⬠ℙ⎴妪⭂暁㕡忚埴⣍Ờ ⋼ἄ䘬㪲⇑冯佑⊁ˤ 炷0.5, 0.79, 0.9炸 炷0.81, 0.39, 0.71炸 ᾅ䔁 7 ⬠㟉傥妪⭂⣍Ờ⋼ἄ㕡㟰ᷳ⍫冯⍲忳ἄ䘬 夷䭬ˤ 炷0.5, 0.82, 0.9炸 炷0.83, 0.38, 0.73炸 ᾅ䔁 8 ⬠㟉傥┬䓐⣍Ờ⋼ἄ屯㸸㓡┬㔁ⷓˣ⬠䓇ˣ ⍲⮎佺⬠䓇䘬⬠佺ˤ 炷0.5, 0.86, 0.9炸 炷0.87, 0.39, 0.75炸 ᾅ䔁 9 ⬠㟉傥䴻ⷠ偗⭂冯堐㎂⍫冯⣍Ờ⋼ἄ䘬㟉 ℏㆸ⒉ˤ 炷0.5, 0.81, 0.9炸 炷0.83, 0.38, 0.73炸 ᾅ䔁 ⣂ 㧋 冯 ℔ ⸛ 1 ⬠㟉傥䡢ᾅ㭷ᶨỵ⬠䓇悥㚱℔⸛䘬⬠佺㨇 㚫ˤ 炷0.5, 0.85, 0.9炸 炷0.86, 0.37, 0.74炸 ᾅ䔁 2 ⬠㟉傥㓗㊩冯⋼≑ᶵ⎴䈡岒⬠䓇䘬⬠佺ˤ 炷0.5, 0.84, 0.9炸 炷0.85, 0.37, 0.74炸 ᾅ䔁 3 ⬠㟉婚䦳冯㔁⬠䘬⮎㕥傥⏰䎦⣂⃫䘬㧋尴ˤ 炷0.5, 0.83, 0.9炸 炷0.84, 0.38, 0.73炸 ᾅ䔁 4 ⬠㟉㔁ⷓᷳ㔁⬠傥㌴㎉⣂⃫㔯⊾䘬奨溆ˤ 炷0.5, 0.82, 0.9炸 炷0.83, 0.38, 0.73炸 ᾅ䔁 5 ⬠㟉㔁ⷓ傥ἧ䓐⣂⃫姽慷ẍ姽Ộ⬠䓇䘬⬠ 佺ˤ 炷0.5, 0.84, 0.9炸 炷0.85, 0.37, 0.74炸 ᾅ䔁 6 ⬠㟉傥怑㗪㩊夾㟉ℏ℔⸛⬠佺㨇㚫冯ㆸ㓰ˤ 炷0.7, 0.85, 0.9炸 炷0.86, 0.26, 0.80炸 ᾅ䔁 7 ⬠㟉傥䲣䴙⛘㩊夾婚䦳ˣ㔁⬠⍲姽慷䘬⣂⃫ 冯℔⸛ˤ 炷0.5, 0.82, 0.9炸 炷0.83, 0.38, 0.73炸 ᾅ䔁 8 ⬠㟉傥⺽忚⭞攟ˣ䣦⋨⍲䣦㚫屯㸸ẍ㓗㊩⬠ 䓇⣂⃫䘬⬠佺ˤ 炷0.5, 0.81, 0.9炸 炷0.83, 0.38, 0.72炸 ᾅ䔁 9 ⬠㟉㔁ⷓ傥⯽䎦⚈㛸㕥㔁䘬㔁⬠㕡㱽ˤ 炷0.5, 0.84, 0.9炸 炷0.85, 0.37, 0.74炸 ᾅ䔁 䳸 㥳 ˣ 屯 㸸 冯 奺 刚 1 ⬠㟉傥ㆸ䩳㔁ⷓ⮰㤕䘤⯽ᷳ䭉䎮冯㓗㊩䲣 䴙ˤ 炷0.5, 0.85, 0.9炸 炷0.86, 0.37, 0.74炸 ᾅ䔁 2 ⬠㟉傥㚱㓰䘤㎖㔁ⷓ⮰㤕䘤⯽䭉䎮冯㓗㊩ 䲣䴙䘬≇傥ˤ 炷0.5, 0.86, 0.9炸 炷0.87, 0.37, 0.75炸 ᾅ䔁 3 ⬠㟉ㆸ⒉傥䧵㤝⍫冯⎬䧖⮰㤕䘤⯽㳣≽炻ẍ ⃚⁁⮰㤕奺刚傥慷ˤ 炷0.5, 0.81, 0.9炸 炷0.83, 0.38, 0.72炸 ᾅ䔁 4 ⬠㟉ㆸ⒉傥橼娵⮰㤕奺刚炻᷎栀シ冒ㆹ崭崲 ẍ徥㯪ㆸ攟ˤ 炷0.5, 0.84, 0.9炸 炷0.85, 0.37, 0.74炸 ᾅ䔁 5 ⬠㟉傥㚱㓰↮惵⎬枭屯㸸炷䴻屣ˣ㗪攻ˣ䨢 攻䫱炸ẍ㓗㊩㔁ⷓ⮰㤕䘤⯽ˤ 炷0.7, 0.86, 0.9炸 炷0.87, 0.26, 0.80炸 ᾅ䔁 6 ⬠㟉埴㓧傥㈽ℍ⽭天䘬㓗㊩冯屯㸸炻⡆忚㓶 ⷓ⣍Ờᷳ⎰ἄ斄Ὢˤ 炷0.7, 0.84, 0.9炸 炷0.85, 0.26, 0.79炸 ᾅ䔁 7 ⬠㟉埴㓧傥䘤㎖⛀昲䱦䤆炻农≃㕤⬠㟉⮰㤕 䘤⯽䘬㍐≽ˤ 炷0.7, 0.86, 0.9炸 炷0.87, 0.26, 0.80炸 ᾅ䔁 8 ⬠㟉傥⺢䩳㟉ℏ䋶愔㨇⇞ẍ溻⊝㔁ⷓ⮰㤕 䘤⯽ˤ 炷0.7, 0.83, 0.9炸 炷0.84, 0.27, 0.79炸 ᾅ䔁 9 ⬠㟉傥冯ⷓ➡⣏⬠Ḻ≽㹅忂炻句⮎⬠㟉⮰㤕 䘤⯽ᷳ忳ἄˤ 炷0.5, 0.83, 0.9炸 炷0.84, 0.38, 0.73炸 ᾅ䔁

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炷ᶱ炸┬䓐怜怠㊯㧁炻忚埴⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉ᷳ怜怠 㛔䞼䨞德忶⮰⭞⬠侭ᷳ妶婾冯㩊㟠䳸㝄炻䘤䎦⚳⮷⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉ᷳ慵天怜怠㊯ 㧁⊭㊔Ḽᾳ⎹⹎ˣ㭷ᶨᾳ⎹⹎⊭㊔ 7~9 ᾳ怜怠㊯㧁ˣℙ妰 41 ᾳ㊯㧁ˤ㸾㬌炻㛔䞼䨞 ⺢嬘炻㛒Ἦ⎬ⷓ屯➡做ᷳ⣏⬠⎗┬䓐㛔䞼䨞㇨䘤䎦ᷳ怜怠㊯㧁炻᷎侫慷⎬⣏⬠㛔幓 ᷳ䘤⯽慵溆炻ẍ⍲⎬⋨⚳⮷ᷳⶖ䔘炻ᾖ㓡䁢庫䫎⎰⎬ⷓ屯➡做⣏⬠ᷳ䈡刚怜怠㊯㧁炻 䃞⼴忚埴㇨Ⱄ⋨➇⚳⮷⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉ᷳ怜怠炻ẍ䘤㍀ⷓ屯➡做䘬慵天⣍Ờ⬠㟉ˤ 炷⚃炸忳䓐怜怠㊯㧁炻㩊㟠㔁ⷓ⮰㤕䘤⯽冯⬠䓇⬠佺ㆸ㓰 㛔䞼䨞德忶⮰⭞⬠侭ᷳ妶婾冯㩊㟠䳸㝄炻䘤䎦⚳⮷⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉ᷳ慵天怜怠㊯ 㧁⊭㊔Ḽᾳ⎹⹎炻ℙ妰 41 ᾳ㊯㧁炻侴Ḽ⣏⎹⹎⊭㊔烉⬠佺䣦佌ˣ䷦㓰屔ả冯⑩岒ᾅ 嫱ˣ⣍Ờ⋼ἄˣ⣂㧋冯℔⸛ˣẍ⍲䳸㥳ˣ屯㸸冯奺刚䫱炻⍰㗗㔁ⷓ⮰㤕䘤⯽冯⬠䓇 ⬠佺䘬慵天㟠⽫㤪⾝ˤ⚈㬌炻㛔䞼䨞⺢嬘炻㛒Ἦ⎬⚳⮷㟉ㅱ⎗┬䓐㛔䞼䨞㇨䘤⯽↢ ᷳḼ⣏⎹⹎冯 41 ᾳ㊯㧁炻⺽⮶⬠㟉㔁ⷓ⮰㤕⬠佺ˣ⬠䓇⬠佺䫱ᷳ䘤⯽㕡⎹⍲ㆸ㓰ᷳ 㩊㟠ˤ 炷Ḽ炸⍫侫㊯㧁慵天⿏炻㍊䨞怜怠㊯㧁ᷳ≈㪲ῤ 㛔䞼䨞䘤䎦⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉怜怠㊯㧁ℙḼᾳ⎹⹎ˣ妰 41 ᾳ怜怠㊯㧁炻℞ᷕ炻⎬⎹ ⹎⣏㤪悥㚱 1~2 ᾳ㊯㧁䘬䷥ῤ㭼℞Ṿ㊯㧁檀炻Ṏ⌛炻忁ṃ怜怠㊯㧁ᷳ慵天⿏䚠⮵⎬ ⎹⹎ᷕ䘬⎬柴枭侴妨炻℞慵天⿏㗗㚱㇨ᶵ⎴䘬ˤ⚈㬌炻㛔䞼䨞⺢嬘炻㛒Ἦ⎗㟡㒂㛔 䞼䨞㇨䘤⯽↢ᷳ怜怠㊯㧁炻忚埴㊯㧁攻䚠⮵≈㪲ῤᷳ婧㞍炻ẍ䁢㛒Ἦ怜怠⮰㤕䘤⯽ ⬠㟉ᷳ⍫侫ˤ 炷ℕ炸㊩临忚埴⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉䚠斄⮎⽝䞼䨞 㛔䞼䨞ᷣ天⛐⺢㥳⚳⮷⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉ᷳ怜怠㊯㧁炻䞼䨞Ṏ䘤䎦炻⚳⮷⮰㤕䘤⯽ ⬠㟉ᷳ慵天怜怠㊯㧁⊭㊔Ḽᾳ⎹⹎炻ℙ妰 41 ᾳ㊯㧁ˤ䃞⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉䚠斄㤪⾝⛐冢 䀋ᶵ䭉㗗⬠䓴ㆾ⮎⊁䓴炻悥⯂Ⱄ攳䘤㛇炻⮎ㅱἄ⼴临ᷳ㍊䨞冯㍐⯽ˤ⚈㬌炻㛔䞼䨞 ⺢嬘炻㛒Ἦ⎗ẍ㬌䞼䨞䘤䎦䁢➢䢶炻忚埴庫㶙ℍᷳ岒⿏姒婯䞼䨞ˣ⓷⌟婧㞍炷㔁⬠ 䎦⟜⮵怜怠㊯㧁ᷳ䚳㱽炸ˣ⮎㕥㓰䙲↮㜸ˣ䚠斄⮎⽝䞼䨞炷⤪⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉冯㔁ⷓ⬠ 佺䣦佌ˣ⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉冯㔁⬠㓰傥䚠斄䞼䨞䫱炸炻ẍ䁢⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉⮎⊁㍐≽冯䎮婾 ⺢㥳ᷳ⍫侫ˤ

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୤ՃМᝦ!

⏛㶭Ⱉˣ㜿⣑䣸炷2003炸ˤ㔁做⮷录㚠ˤ冢⊿ⶪ烉Ḽ⋿ˤ ⬓⽿湇炷2005炸ˤ⮎佺⬠㟉㕘℠䭬烉⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉䘬㧁㸾ˤ䘤堐㕤冢䀋ⷓ䭬⣏⬠㔁做 ⬠昊ᷣ彎ᷳˬ厗Ṣᶾ䓴役⸜㔁做㓡朑䘬㩊妶˭⚳晃⬠埻䞼妶㚫炻冢⊿ⶪˤ ⬓⽿湇炷2009炸ˤ⣏⬠冯ᷕ⮷⬠⣍Ờ斄Ὢ䘤⯽䘬姽㜸ˤ㔁做⮎嶸冯䞼䨞炻22炷2炸炻 151-180ˤ ⻝䳈屆炷2008炸ˤ⺢䩳⮰㤕䘤⯽㟉⍲⮎佺庼⮶Ṣ⒉怜怠㊯㧁ˤ⚳䩳冢䀋ⷓ䭬⣏⬠ 97 ⸜⹎䘤⯽⋻崲屯➡做妰䔓ㆸ㝄⟙⏲ˤ冢⊿ⶪ烉冢䀋ⷓ䭬⣏⬠ˤ ∱伶ㄏˣ㼀ㄏ䍚ˣ㕡㯠㱱ˣ⬓⽿湇ˣ嬂⃱溶ˣ恙や䌬炷2006炸ˤᷕ⮷⬠⮰㤕䘤⯽⬠㟉 ᷳ夷∫ˤ㔁做悐ᷕ䫱㔁做⎠⥼妿⮰㟰⟙⏲ˤ冢⊿ⶪ烉⚳䩳冢䀋ⷓ䭬⣏⬠ˤ Abdal-Haqq, I. (1991). Professional development schools and education reform: Concepts

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