Transforming Schools into Dynamic and
Accountable Professional Learning Communities
School-based Management Consultation Document
Advisory Committee on School-based Management February 2000
O O O u u u r r r v v v i i i s s s i i i o o o n n n f f f o o o r r r q q q u u u a a a l l l i i i t t t y y y e e e d d d u u u c c c a a a t t t i i i o o o n n n w w w i i i l l l l l l b b b e e e r r r e e e a a a l l l i i i s s s e e e d d d … … …
Page i PREAMBLE
The Advisory Committee on School-based Management (ACSBM) was appointed by the Director of Education in December 1998 with the terms of reference and membership as set out in Appendix A. Three sub-committees were subsequently established to examine three major aspects of school-based management — the governance structure and accountability framework, flexible funding models, and school management practices.
The present consultation deals with the recommendations of the Sub- committee on Responsibility and Accountability Framework, the terms of reference and membership of which are set out in Appendix B. In presenting these recommendations, we have taken into consideration both local and overseas experience. Members of the Sub-committee also held discussions with a number of school sponsoring bodies to understand better the existing operation of their school management committees, and their concerns about possible changes to the existing arrangements.
The ACSBM and the other two sub-committees will continue to work on school funding and management models, and will put forward recommendations for the consideration of the Director of Education at a later stage. As these recommendations mainly concern internal school operations, consultation will be with schools and school sponsoring bodies.
The present recommendations on the governance and accountability of aided schools involve extensive public interests, and address the key issues lying at the heart of school-based management: participatory decision-making, the transparency of school management and public accountability. Achieving broad consensus over these core issues is an essential first step towards the further development of school-based management in Hong Kong.
School-based management should not be seen as “yet another change”.
It is the best way to integrate a host of changes which are already in train and which are intended to raise the quality of education for every student. A uniform approach cannot adequately deal with the unique educational needs of different students.
Each school needs the capacity to manage its own affairs. Local governance gives a school direct access to the expertise of its key stakeholders — the sponsoring body,
the principal, teachers, parents, alumni and members of the community. Above all, it empowers the stakeholders themselves to work effectively for the educational welfare of the students under their care. This is why every nation with similar aspirations has adopted or is planning to adopt a form of school-based management that is compatible with its cultural heritage and local circumstances.
We expect that the recommendations of this consultation document will contribute towards enhanced school effectiveness and ultimately improve student learning outcomes in Hong Kong. We are confident that, with community participation and, in particular, with the concerted efforts of the key stakeholders, our vision for quality education will be realised.
PANG Yiu-kai Chairman Advisory Committee on School-based Management
Into the New Millennium – Changing Expectations of Schools 1 School-based Management – Building Capacity from Within 2 The Impact on Learning Outcomes – Evidence from Overseas 5 School-based Management – Stating the End Vision 5 Part 2
Current Position of School Management Committees in
Aided Schools 8
School-based Management So Far 9
A Proposed Framework for School Management Committees
under School-based Management 10
School Management Committee Structure and Operation 10 Specific Requirements for School Managers 13
Roles and Responsibilities of Key Stakeholder Organisations 14 Roles and Responsibilities of Individual Managers 16
Implementation Schedule 19
Conclusion 19 Part 4
Advice Sought on the Recommendations of the Advisory
Committee on School-based Management 21
Opinion Form 22
A Terms of Reference and Membership of the Advisory
Committee on School-based Management 24 B Terms of Reference and Membership of the Sub-
committee on Responsibility and Accountability
C Responsibilities of the Education Department, the School Sponsoring Body and the School Management
D Terms of Reference and Membership of the Sub-
committee on School Funding 31
E Terms of Reference and Membership of the Sub-
committee on School Management 32
Into the New Millennium – Changing Expectations of Schools
1.1 At the dawn of a new era, the education system in Hong Kong is poised for change to keep up with the demands of rapidly changing circumstances brought on by technological advances in a global and knowledge-based economy. The emphasis of school education will shift from transmission of knowledge to the development of attitudes and skills for lifelong learning; and from a narrow focus on academic achievements to the nurturing of multiple intelligences.
1.2 To support this development, both the curriculum and pedagogy have to be modified to encourage critical thinking and self-learning. More than ever before, education has to cater for diverse student needs so that every student is suitably challenged to develop his/her talents and potential to the full. Learning must no longer be confined to the classroom, but also take place in the community, providing students with learning opportunities in an authentic and meaningful context.
1.3 In order to respond proactively to these challenges, schools must have freedom to make decisions on the delivery of educational services, and the flexibility to deploy resources in ways which will best meet the particular needs of the students. They also have to work in partnership with parents and the wider community in order to harness their support and tap their resources in providing every student with learning experiences suited to individual aptitude and needs.
1.4 A world-class school of the new millennium will have the following characteristics:
z a clear vision, underpinned by a set of values which will guide its policies, procedures and practices;
z a strong focus on the student outcomes to improve both curriculum and teaching practices;
z a professional learning community which adopts knowledge-based practices based on continuous self-evaluation in the pursuit of excellence;
z a strong alliance of stakeholders, including parents, teachers and community members, working in partnership to develop the potential of each and every student to the fullest extent; and
z school management which is open, transparent and publicly accountable for its educational achievements and proper use of public funds.
School-based Management – Building Capacity from Within
1.5 School-based management provides an enabling environment for achieving this vision. It builds the capacity of each school to manage its own affairs within a framework of policies, standards and accountability — through a powerful alliance of professional educators and key stakeholders. It gives schools the autonomy to develop their own characteristics and style. The ultimate objective is to enhance the effectiveness of learning and teaching and to improve student outcomes.
1.6 However, effective learning and teaching depend on a host of factors, some of which are external to the school. This is illustrated in Figure 1. School- based management is only one element of a wider strategy to improve the quality of education in Hong Kong. The strategy includes the comprehensive review of the education system currently being undertaken by the Education Commission and a coherent set of measures being developed by the Education Department (ED) to support school improvement. These include professional development for principals and teachers, training for school managers, measures to cope with diverse student needs, ways of reducing the non-teaching workload of teachers, upgrading of school facilities, school-based curriculum adaptation services and additional student support initiatives.
1.7 School-based management involves decentralisation of decision-making from the ED to schools regarding personnel procedures, financial matters and the design and delivery of curriculum. A self-managing school is not independent; it is part of an education system. It operates within a centrally determined framework of authorities and responsibilities, must satisfy government regulatory requirements in the Codes of Aid, be subject to external audit, and be publicly accountable for its performance.
Figure 1: Factors Affecting Teaching and Learning
for School management committee Principal
• Instructional leadership
• Personal/interpersonal leadership
• Ethical/values/cultural leadership
• Strategic/management leadership PRINCIPAL
• Educational commitment
• Leadership knowledge TEACHERS
• Subject knowledge
• Teaching style
• Attitude and commitment
• Professional development
• Technology infrastructure
ASSESSMENT for students for the school
• Publication CURRICULUM
Formal curriculum Informal curriculum
• Peer influence
• Family support
• Homework support
• Parent-teacher association
• Participation in school governance
• Voluntary services COMMUNITY
• School sponsoring body
• Media and social culture
• Business and non- government organisat- ions’ support for schools y Community resources to
support informal education GOVERNMENT
• Policy formation
• System design and setting of standards
• Quality assurance
• Partnership and professional support to schools
• Induction/Professional development
• Performance management
• Reward and compensation
• Deployment and work allocation
• Exit policy
• Establishment of block grant
• IT strategy
• Library resource facilities
• Building maintenance and management
• Community resources
• Parental contribution
• Revenue generation
• Student outcomes
• Organisational effectiveness
• Student achievement
• Organisational growth
• Non-formal education
• Time allocation
• Homework policy
• Student support
SCHOOL SPONSORING BODY – VISION
SCHOOL MANAGEMENT COMMITTEE
• School sponsoring body nominees
• Parent representatives
• Teacher representatives
• Community members
• Alumni representatives
MISSION AND GOALS
Figure 2: How School-based Management Influences Learning Outcomes
STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES
1.8 School-based management promotes bottom-up initiatives. It encourages decision-making by people who work directly with and are most familiar with the needs of the students. Above all, it involves building new relationships among stakeholders. It requires each school to set priorities, select and continuously develop staff, allocate resources, adopt appropriate curriculum and teaching practices, and measure performance in ways which meet the mixed learning needs of the students. These responsibilities demand committed professionalism and strong leadership throughout the school. Figure 2 illustrates the significant way school-based management influences learning outcomes.
The Impact on Learning Outcomes – Evidence from Overseas
1.9 There is evidence of powerful links between the capacities that schools acquire with school-based management and learning outcomes for students though this was less the case in the 1980s and early 1990s when school-based management tended to be a “stand-alone” initiative, often unconnected to curriculum and learning at either the school or system level.
1.10 By the late 1990s, more detailed studies on a school-by-school basis showed how the links had been made to improve learning outcomes. These include new curriculum and standards frameworks, a range of professional development programmes, autonomy for schools to select and manage staff, flexibility in the use of funds, greater involvement with the community, introduction of student assessment programmes at key learning stages, and collection of data on student performance to enable teacher intervention to improve learning. Notable examples are found in Victoria, Australia and Chicago in the United States. The research findings from the reform programmes there are particularly noteworthy.
School-based Management – Stating the End Vision
1.11 The development of school-based management in Hong Kong holds similar promise for improved learning outcomes for our students through the concerted efforts of the key stakeholders, the leadership and commitment of frontline educators and the support of the government.
1.12 We envisage that a self-managing school will have a clear vision and a set of values commonly shared among the key stakeholders, who are represented on the school management committee (SMC) and are strongly bonded in trust and team spirit. The annual school plan is a collaborative effort of management and staff, which represents their collective aspirations and commitment to a set of performance targets specific to the circumstances of the school.
1.13 Guided by general principles of prudence and propriety, the school will have flexibility over the deployment of its funds. The school will be resourced with a block grant which will provide for both salary and non-salary expenses. With the approval of the SMC, and subject to parental consent, the school will be able to supplement the block grant and collect fees for educational purposes. It will also have discretion over the use of school premises to generate additional revenue.
1.14 Subject to approval by the SMC, where appropriate, the school will decide its own personnel policies, including the establishment, mix of staff, recruitment, deployment, professional development, rewards and compensation, performance management, and dismissal. The SMC will handle all complaints relating to staff management and the day-to-day operations of the school. If a complaint implicates the school sponsoring body (SSB), the SMC, or any of the school managers, it will be dealt with by the ED or the General Teaching Council (to be established) as appropriate.
1.15 Within a centrally determined framework of curriculum standards, the school will have flexibility to design its own curricular and teaching practices, including format, time allocation, teaching resources, grouping of students and assessment. The school will be able to prescribe its own performance measures to ensure a balanced education, covering the intellectual, moral, social, aesthetic and physical aspects of learning. The school will undertake periodic self-evaluation based on informed practices and research data to ensure that its educational practices are adding value to the learning of each student.
1.16 School-based management is not a superficial change. It requires a new professionalism from teachers, enhanced leadership from principals and deeper commitment from parents and the community. An incremental approach is necessary to realise any vision that is a major departure from tradition. It takes time
to build new relationships, to establish genuine teamwork, to acquire new skills, to develop the confidence to change time-honoured practices and to put in place the various components of school-based management. To reap the full benefits of school-based management, stakeholders have to own and embrace the change, adopting a holistic approach to implementation and maintaining a clear focus on the ultimate objective — improved learning outcomes for every student.
1.17 The proposals outlined in this document will be a significant first step towards this end state vision. Much will depend on the changes to be introduced into the areas of school funding and school management at a later stage.
Current Position of School Management Committees in Aided Schools
2.1 Hong Kong has been moving towards school-based management since 1991. Important amongst these changes are those that deal with school governance and management. This document deals with the proposed introduction of participatory decision-making into school management committees (SMCs).
2.2 The majority of schools in Hong Kong are aided schools. Aided schools operate under the aegis of school sponsoring bodies (SSBs) which, in turn, manage their schools through an SMC. By law each SMC ensures
z that the school is managed satisfactorily;
z that the education of the pupils is properly undertaken; and
z that the school complies with the Education Ordinance.
There is no requirement in the Education Ordinance covering either the membership or the operation of SMCs. Some SSBs have in place a central SMC (i.e. the same SMC governs all the sponsored schools), with local school advisory councils or school executive committees which answer to the central SMC. The advisory council and school executive committee are advisory bodies with no substantive decision-making powers.
2.3 With regard to SMC operation, one member of the SMC is appointed to the position of supervisor. On behalf of the SMC, the supervisor monitors the operation of the school and is the person legally liable for its compliance with the Education Ordinance.
2.4 With regard to SMC membership, the close relationship between SSBs and SMCs has meant that most appointees represent the SSB. Few SMCs include either parents or teachers. Teacher and parent involvement is generally confined to the advisory council or school executive committee.
2.5 Existing legislation does not require SMCs to disclose the names and particulars of school managers; nor are managers required to declare personal interests that may be in conflict with the best interests of the school. This lack of transparency is a particularly unacceptable practice at a time when the accountability of public institutions is increasingly important.
School-based Management So Far
2.6 The Education Commission is conducting a comprehensive review of the overall education system in Hong Kong. The review has articulated new roles for schools and teachers. These include far-reaching changes that embrace developments in many areas of school education.
2.7 In 1997, the Education Commission in its Report Number 7 recommended school-based management as a practice for all schools. This follows the introduction of the School Management Initiative in 1991. The key components include the setting of goals and performance indicators, quality assurance, funding flexibility, incentives to encourage quality education, and school-based management. In the area of school-based management, the Education Commission recommended, amongst other things, that:
z the roles of SSBs and SMCs should be clearly defined, and “service contracts” should be signed between the SSB and the ED, and between the SSB and the SMC, in order to ensure their roles are complementary to each other;
z the SMC should set school goals and draw up school policies in teaching and learning, administration, finance and personnel matters, whereas executive functions should be carried out by the school executive committee;
z the SMC should have a clear constitution to govern its operation and should comprise representatives of SSB, teachers, parents, alumni and other persons appointed by the Director of Education where necessary;
z relevant, coordinated and comprehensive training programmes should be provided for the various key players in the school system; and
z schools should develop a proper performance appraisal system for the timely counselling, training and development of staff.
A Proposed Framework for School Management Committees under School-based Management
3.1 Changing the governance structure of schools is fundamental to the accountability requirements of school-based management. The changes are directed at SMCs and involve all the key stakeholders in a school community. The proposed changes introduce a better model for participatory decision-making, one which empowers SMCs to govern schools in the interest of their students and to exercise wisdom, innovation and enlightenment in pursuit of school vision and goals. Above all, the proposal ensures the right of all key stakeholders to share in this responsibility.
3.2 This section of the document sets out the details that are proposed for the structure and operation of SMCs. It also includes the associated impact on SSBs. It covers the following:
z proposals for school management committee structure and responsibilities;
z requirements relating to the appointment of school managers;
z the emerging roles and responsibilities of key stakeholders;
z accountability; and
z a proposed implementation schedule.
School Management Committee Structure and Operation
3.3 In view of the additional responsibilities which will be devolved to the SMC and the need to cater for individual differences among schools, it is necessary to have one SMC for each school. The SMC will ensure responsibility for decisions on major school policies, procedures and practices.
Constitution of School Management Committees
3.4 Self-governance through an SMC is an expression of partnership between the school and the SSB. While the SMC in each school will draw up its own constitution, the drafting will have to be done in conjunction with the relevant
SSB and include any specific matters to be agreed between the SMC and the SSB (e.g. rotation of staff amongst the schools of an SSB). Schools which already have constitutions for their SMCs will need to make appropriate amendments. The ED will provide a sample constitution for the assistance of schools drafting or amending constitutions.
3.5 In addition to the requirements of the SMC and the SSB, each constitution will need to address the following:
z the composition of the SMC and its membership;
z the process of nomination or election for the appointment of different categories of managers;
z the tenure to apply to different categories of school managers. The SSB will be able to decide on the tenure of its nominated managers (A two-year term, renewable for once only, is proposed for teacher, parent and alumni managers and managers who are appointed from the community.);
z the arrangements for filling vacancies, including the replacement of parent managers whose children have left the school;
z the eligibility criteria for re-nomination or re-election of managers;
z the duties for the positions of Chairman, Secretary and Treasurer (It is proposed that the principal be ineligible to fill the position of Chairman.);
z the designation of one manager as official contact with the ED and other outside bodies;
z requirements for the frequency of SMC meetings (It is proposed that these shall be not less than three per school year.);
z the processes to be used for the selection of the principal (including the establishment of a committee with representatives of both the SSB and SMC as well as co-opted independent selection panel members);
z the means by which the constitution may be amended, with due regard to the interests of key stakeholders.
Membership of School Management Committees
3.6 SMC members may represent particular stakeholders or may be without representative status. Members of the SMC will be called “managers”. The number of managers should be kept within an operationally efficient limit. The SMC will have the following members:
z managers nominated by the SSB: up to 60% of the total membership of the SMC may be nominated to represent views of the SSB;
z the principal: an ex-officio member;
z teacher managers: numbering two or more, to be elected from the teaching staff (including specialist staff in special schools);
z parent managers: numbering two or more, to be elected by members of the parent-teacher association;
z alumni managers: numbering one or more, to be elected by an alumni association recognised by the SMC; and
z independent managers: numbering one or more, to be nominated by the SMC from amongst committed community members and relevant professionals.
Representatives of the Director of Education at SMC Meetings
3.7 The Director of Education’s delegated representatives will be able to attend SMC meetings, both to learn about the school and to give advice as required.
Representatives of the Director of Education will not be members of the SMC and will not have voting rights.
Registration of School Management Committees as Incorporated Bodies
3.8 It is proposed to discontinue the unsatisfactory situation whereby supervisors or individual SMC managers are personally responsible for any legal liability arising from the decisions of the SMC. The Education Ordinance will be amended to make the SMC of each school a body corporate with limited liability.
By virtue of this act of incorporation, individual school managers will no longer incur personal liability in the performance of their school manager duties, provided that they act with prudence and good faith in the exercise of their functions. In the event of any legal claims, the SMC may discharge its liabilities through insurance
cover, the SSB or the government, depending on the nature and circumstances of the claim.
Oversight of the School Management Committee
3.9 Nothing in this proposal takes away the responsibility of the ED to oversee the school system of the Special Administrative Region (SAR) of Hong Kong. If it comes to the notice of the ED that a school is no longer managed satisfactorily or that the education of students is not promoted in a proper manner, the Director of Education is bound to respond under section 41 of the Education Ordinance and appoint additional managers to the SMC, or under section 31 of the Education Ordinance and cancel the registration of a school manager. The appointed managers will have the same rights and responsibilities as other managers.
Specific Requirements for School Managers
3.10 As members of the SMC, school managers will be expected to discharge their responsibilities with care and diligence. It is important therefore to have regard to the integrity, commitment and physical fitness which managers will need to do the job well.
Code of Practice and Training Opportunities
3.11 The responsibilities of school governance assume that school managers will approach their task with professionalism, vigour, objectivity and fairness. They will also need to bring to the task a proper mix of openness and confidentiality; this is not always straightforward. To assist managers, the ED will write a Code of Practice, prepare a manager’s handbook and provide relevant training.
Maximum Number of Schools to be Served by Each School Manager
3.12 It is proposed that school managers may not register as a manager of more than five schools. This restriction is designed to ensure that managers' available time is effectively invested in the schools under their charge. Managers' responsibilities will be more than attendance at SMC meetings; they will need to be involved in sufficient school activities to maintain close contact with the whole school community.
Disclosure of Personal Data and Declaration of Interests
3.13 Transparency of operation is of cardinal importance for the changes proposed for SMCs. Accordingly, the ED will register school managers (their
names, tenure and the sector they represent) and make the information available to the public. Managers will be required to declare to the SMC any personal interests that may conflict with their managerial responsibilities. These include any interests, whether financial or otherwise, which may give advantage or be seen to give advantage to the manager, his/her relatives, friends and business associates.
Transparency also bears on employment issues, especially in relation to complaints, staff promotions and disciplinary actions related to both students and teachers (including the principal).
Attendance at SMC Meetings
3.14 It is proposed that school managers absent without leave from three consecutive meetings be required by the SMC to resign from office. If resignation is not received, the SMC will be able to seek the cancellation of the manager’s registration from the Director of Education.
Qualifications of School Managers
3.15 It is proposed that school managers be experienced adults, eligible for office between the ages of 21 and 70. Managers wishing to serve after the age of 70 will be requested to satisfy certain criteria, such as producing a medical certificate of fitness. It is not proposed to stipulate a minimum level of academic achievement.
However, secondary education or its equivalent is thought to be a desirable minimum qualification for new managers.
Roles and Responsibilities of Key Stakeholder Organisations
3.16 The provision of quality education depends on cooperation between key stakeholders and the vigour with which they pursue their individual responsibilities.
An outline of the individual roles of the SSBs, the SMCs and the ED is given below:
Role of SSB
3.17 The success of Hong Kong owes much to the contribution of the many SSBs which have helped to produce generations of successful leaders through their sponsorship of schools. Their vision for education has combined with their individual characteristics to add diversity to an otherwise homogeneous aided school sector. With further devolution of responsibilities from the ED, an SSB will have an enhanced role to play in guiding its schools to develop individual characteristics within the overall vision of the SSB, promoting the professional development of staff, facilitating experience-sharing among schools, and ensuring
continuous improvement. The SSB will continue to have full control over its own assets and the allocation of private funds to individual schools.
3.18 It is proposed that SSBs
• maintain control of the use of private funds and assets;
• take part in the selection of the principal;
• nominate the SSB managers; and
• be able to request cancellation of the registration of SSB managers unfit to continue in office.
Although SSBs will not be directly involved in the everyday operation of schools, they will oversee SMCs as they govern schools in the light of the vision of the SSB and the requirements of the ED.
Role of SMC
3.19 The SMC will be entrusted with the responsibility of governing the school and will be accountable to the ED, SSB, and parents for the overall performance of the school. It will:
• ensure that the Education Ordinance is complied with and the vision of the SSB is fulfilled;
• set the mission and the goals of the school;
• determine policies on teaching and learning;
• be responsible for programme planning and budgeting, as well as for human resource management (including staff development and performance management); and
• establish a community network and support system.
Role of the ED
3.20 The ED will continue to carry out its statutory role of regulator. This includes:
• enforcing relevant legislation;
• developing policies and educational guidelines;
• setting system-wide priorities;
• setting and monitoring standards; and
• resourcing schools with public funding.
Importantly, the ED will seek to be a contributing partner to schools, providing professional service and advice.
3.21 The table in Appendix C explains these responsibilities in more detail.
Roles and Responsibilities of Individual Managers
3.22 Individual managers on the SMC also have their roles to play. These are outlined as follows:
Role of Parent Managers
3.23 Parents remain the most important influence on the education of children.
They are encouraged to increase their involvement in school activities by participating in decision-making that affects the education of their children. By serving on an SMC, parent managers
• share in decision-making in the interests of student education;
• form a vital link between school management and other parents; and
• are able to raise concerns on all matters relating to the education and development of students.
3.24 Parents have a pivotal role in influencing the effectiveness of their children’s learning at several levels. Meeting children’s basic needs and maintaining their physical well-being is the minimum responsibility of parents.
Parents can support their children’s learning by getting to know the school and its policies better, by homework supervision and guidance, by undertaking ancillary learning activities at home, and by meeting with other parents to share ways of fostering loving relationship with their children.
3.25 Parents can also support the school through a range of voluntary services (e.g. working as teaching assistants, helping out in the library, assisting during lunch hours or on festive occasions). Parents are potential advocates for the school on matters which affect student interests. Given the diverse backgrounds of parents, they are also a potential source of expertise and teaching resources. Involving parents in the SMC adds a different perspective to the problem-solving and decision-making process. Experiences have shown that active parent involvement in school management brings significant educational benefits, as well as important
resources to the school.
Role of SSB-appointed Managers
3.26 The membership structure of SMCs is designed to enable SSBs to ensure a wide range of expertise on SMCs by the appointment of a significant number of managers. SSB-appointed managers will
• present the vision of the SSB for its sponsored schools;
• provide advice on broad directions for school policy;
• liaise over any private funds owned by the SSB; and
• promote collaboration among the sponsor’s schools.
Role of Teacher Managers
3.27 Teachers are at the heart of learning. Through their direct contact with students, they can provide the professional understanding of students' educational needs. This is vital knowledge and experience in any decision-making forum.
Teacher managers will
• bring to SMCs their experience in curriculum development, classroom instruction, student activities and educational enrichment;
• provide professional expertise for the improvement of student learning and associated school management ; and
• be a solid link between the SMCs and the staff of the schools.
Role of Alumni Managers and Managers from the Community
3.28 Schools will increasingly need to form partnerships with other sectors of the community. Alumni managers and managers from the community and other professions will
• contribute specific areas of expertise and experience to the improvement of learning outcomes and management processes; and
• provide a fresh perspective on school and educational issues from the point of view of the community in general.
Role of the Principal
3.29 These changes propose a more prominent role for the principal as the professional leader and chief administrator of the school. The principal will
• manage the school in accordance with the Education Ordinance and in line with the governance directives of the SMC;
• provide the SMC with adequate information and give advice for school improvement;
• lead and promote teaching and learning;
• lead and manage the staff of the school; and
• oversee and be accountable for the day-to-day operation of the school and make decisions on particular educational, personnel, and administrative matters.
3.30 Participatory decision-making increases the transparency of school governance. At the same time it provides a forum for the views of different key stakeholders.
3.31 The implementation of school-based management will give schools greater autonomy in the delivery of education and deployment of resources. The annual budget for a standard secondary school exceeds $30 million, with a teaching establishment of over 50. The equivalent for a standard primary school is over $20 million, with a teaching establishment of over 40. The stakes are high because the quality of education provided by the school directly impacts on learning outcomes and, therefore, on the future of our young people, the keys to the future of Hong Kong.
3.32 The quid pro quo to additional autonomy is that schools have to be more transparent and accountable to the community for their performance and the proper use of funds. The school-based management system must also provide sufficient checks and balances to guard against any untoward developments.
3.33 The proposed accountability framework is based on a commitment to quality assurance, which combines internal self-evaluation with external assessment and benchmarking by the ED. Self-evaluation takes place through annual planning (with performance targets), budgeting and review by the school itself. Quality assurance inspections by the ED give a school an external perspective on its performance. The ED will also prepare SAR-wide performance indicators for the school's reference in gauging where it stands. The emphasis is on continuous improvement and value-addedness.
3.34 In the event of unresolved conflict between an SSB, SMC and the principal, the ED will intervene as required in the interests of the students and the school. For this purpose, the ED will seek amendment to the Education Ordinance in order to seek last-resort powers to deal with a crisis of governance in either an SMC or its school (e.g. the obligation to take over a school, nominate an interim management committee or appoint an acting principal).
Amendments to and Enactment of Legislation
3.35 It is expected that there will be a need to amend the Education Ordinance once this consultation document has received public comments. These amendments will be tabled in the 2000/2001 legislative session. On the basis of all going well, it is anticipated that the new legislation would take effect from the 2001/2002 school year.
3.36 It is acknowledged that enactment of the new legislation may pose short- term difficulties for schools as they set about restructuring SMCs. For example, schools without teacher or parent managers on their existing SMC will have to establish appropriate teacher or parent representative bodies. Some may not even have a parent-teacher association in place. A transition period of three years after enactment of the provisions is therefore proposed. Schools with short-term difficulties will have an opportunity to develop strategies and make adequate plans to ensure a growing involvement of teachers and parents in school management.
3.37 During the transition period, the SSBs and schools will need to examine their incorporation ordinances or memoranda and articles of association for necessary amendments to bring their provisions into line with the new legislation.
3.38 This proposed model for SMCs is driven by the need to provide participatory decision-making in every school. At the same time, it aims to ensure that the interests of all the key stakeholders and the community at large are
maintained and enhanced. The model also provides for more transparent school management and governance. Readers of this document need to bear in mind that this proposal is not made in isolation. In the overall development of school-based management, other changes are planned, including changes in the key areas of funding and administration.
3.39 Change of this magnitude requires adequate training and professional development. The ED will therefore provide training for both newly appointed and serving school managers. Additionally, a leadership development programme is being prepared to strengthen the professional leadership of principals. Plans are also underway to develop and support an increasingly professional teaching force.
3.40 These proposals increase an SMC's responsibility and effectiveness to guide the development of all those who work in the school. An SMC can play a vital role in encouraging its school to establish networks of communication that reach into the community and build up the quality of school education throughout the SAR.
3.41 Schools do make a difference. The proposals in this document are at the heart of making this difference apply to every student in Hong Kong.
Advice Sought on the Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on School-based Management
4.1 The Advisory Committee on School-based Management recommends to all those interested in school education the framework outlined in Part 3 of the document. Response is particularly sought on the following:
Reference Constitution of school management
committees para. 3.4 & 3.5
Membership of school management
committees para. 3.6
Registration of school management
committees as incorporated bodies para. 3.8 Maximum number of schools to be served by
each school manager para. 3.12
Disclosure of personal data and declaration of
interests by school managers para. 3.13 Attendance of school managers at school
management committee meetings para. 3.14 Qualifications of school managers para. 3.15 Transition period for restructuring school
management committees para. 3.36 & 3.37 4.2 Please let us have your comments by mail, fax, e-mail or on-line through our web-site on or before 30 April 2000 (Sunday).
Address: The Secretary
Advisory Committee on School-based Management School-based Management Division
11/F, Wu Chung House
213 Queen’s Road East
Wanchai, Hong Kong
Telephone: 2892 6658 / 2892 6624 Fax No.: 2574 5509 / 2891 0512
E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org
Click it now …. Ò
Transforming Schools into
Dynamic and Accountable Professional Learning Communities School-based Management Consultation Document
My/Our views on the above consultation document are as follows:
Agree Disagree Comments (if any) 1. The direction underpinning the
recommendations made by the ACSBM. □ □
2. Specific recommendations set out in
the consultation document:
(a) Constitution of school management
committees (para. 3.4 and 3.5) □ □
(b) Membership of school management
committees (para. 3.6) □ □
(c) Registration of school management
committees as incorporated bodies (para. 3.8) □ □
(d) Maximum no. of schools to be served
by each school manager (para. 3.12) □ □
(e) Disclosure of personal data and declaration
of interests by school managers (para. 3.13) □ □
(f) Attendance of school managers at school
management committee meetings (para. 3.14) □ □
(f) Qualifications of school managers
(para. 3.15) □ □
(h) Transition period for restructuring school
management committees (para. 3.36 and 3.37) □ □
Signature : Date :
Name : Method of contact :
Organisation represented (if applicable) :
If necessary, please set out your views on a separate sheet. Thank you!
4.3 A series of forums will also be organised for the general public. Details are as follows:
Date and Time Venue
11 March 2000 (Sat) 10:00 a.m.
Academic Community Hall
The Hong Kong Baptist University Waterloo Road, Kowloon Tong
18 March 2000 (Sat) 10:00 a.m.
True Light Girls’ College 54A Waterloo Road, Yaumatei
22 March 2000 (Wed) 3:00 p.m.
Munsang College (Hong Kong Island) 26 Tai On Street, Sai Wan Ho
Hong Kong 7 April 2000 (Fri)
Shatin Tsung Tsin Secondary School Sun Chui Estate
Shatin, New Territories
11 April 2000 (Tue) 4:00 p.m.
Kwai-ming Wu Memorial School of Precious Blood Luk Yeung Sun Chuen
Tsuen Wan, New Territories
4.4 For further information on school-based management, please visit the Education Department web-site on http://www.ed.gov.hk.
Appendix A Advisory Committee on School-based Management
I Terms of Reference
(a) To advise the Director of Education on the implementation of school-based management, in particular -
y the framework of school-based management;
y the delineation of roles and responsibilities of the stakeholders;
y the strategy for implementing school-based management and its monitoring and evaluation;
y the school administration, funding arrangements under school-based management and the review of the Codes of Aid and the Education Ordinance when necessary;
y the staff appraisal and development system;
y the training and support strategy; and y the publicity strategy.
(b) To keep the Board of Education informed of the progress of the Advisory Committee and to bring up items for discussion when necessary.
Chairman Mr PANG Yiu-kai
Vice-chairman Mr TSUI See-ming (until April 1999)
(Senior Assistant Director of Education, ED) Mr CHONG Kwok-kit (w.e.f. April 1999) (Senior Assistant Director of Education, ED)
Members Mr James AU Chi-ming
Sr Bernadette AU Yee-ting (until August 1999) Mrs Rosalind CHAN (w.e.f. June 1999)
Dr CHEUNG Wing-ming Dr Eddie HO Kang-wai Mr HONG Yit-kiu Mr Lester HUANG
Mr Stephen HUI Chin-yim (w.e.f. June 1999)
Mr LAU Chi-keung (w.e.f. June 1999) Dr LEE Chi-kin
Dr Frederick LEUNG Koon-shing Mr Aubrey LI Kwok-sing
Mrs Laura LING LAU Yuet-fun (w.e.f. June 1999) Ms Connie LUI
Ms POON Koon-fong
Mr TIK Chi-yuen (w.e.f. September 1999) Mr TIN Wing-sin
Mr WONG Hak-lim Mr YEUNG Chi-hung Mr Raymond YOUNG
(Deputy Secretary, Education and Manpower Bureau)
Secretary Mr Johnny LAU Kai-sun (Senior Executive Officer, ED)
Appendix B Sub-committee on Responsibility and Accountability Framework
I Terms of Reference
To make recommendations for the consideration of the Advisory Committee on School-based Management on:
y the roles and responsibilities of key stakeholders in the education system according to the spirit of school-based management; and
y the revision of provisions in the Education Ordinance and Education Regulations in realisation of the defined roles and responsibilities.
Chairman Mr Lester HUANG*
Members Mr CHAN Chun-wah Mr CHAN Hung
Mrs Rosalind CHAN* (w.e.f. June 1999) Mr HO Hon-kuen
Mr HO Koon-shun (w.e.f. June 1999) Mr Patrick LAI Shu-ho (w.e.f. June 1999)
Mr Peter LEE Shung-tak (w.e.f. September 1999) Dr Simon LEUNG (w.e.f. June 1999)
Mrs Dianthus TONG Mr TSANG Churk-ming Mr WONG Hak-lim*
Rev Michael YEUNG Mr YUEN Kwok-leung
Mrs Avia LAI (w.e.f. June 1999)
(Principal Assistant Secretary, Education and Manpower Bureau) Ms Carol YUEN Siu-wai (until June 1999)
(Principal Assistant Secretary, Education and Manpower Bureau) Ms Susanna CHEUNG Sau-man
(Assistant Director of Education, ED) Mrs YU LAW Siu-man
(Senior Education Officer (Administration), ED) Secretary Mrs CHEUNG KAN Suk-che
(Education Officer (Administration), ED)
*in the capacity of a member of ACSBM
Appendix C Responsibilities of the Education Department, the
School Sponsoring Body and the School Management Committee
ED SSB SMC
(a) School Goals and Mission y encourages schools to have
their own characteristics and develop quality education in accordance with the aims of education
y sets out the vision of the SSB
for sponsored schools y ensures fulfilment of the vision set by the SSB y builds up a shared school
mission and school goals;
monitors and evaluates progress towards such goals
(b) SMC Constitution y requires schools to have a
properly formulated SMC constitution
y approves the SMC constitution y mandates the SMC
composition, as well as other statutory
requirements in the Education Ordinance
y drafts the first SMC
constitution for new schools and existing schools with no constitution, subject to the requirements of the Education Ordinance
y stipulates the mechanism for amendment to the SMC constitution in consultation with the SMC
y reviews and proposes amendments to the existing constitution to provide for a participatory decision-making mechanism that involves teachers, parents and other key stakeholders; and seeks SSB’s endorsement and the ED’s approval
(c) School Policies and Performance y gives advice on formulating
and implementing plans for school development and self-evaluation
y scrutinises the school plan, school report and school profile, giving advice as necessary
y disseminates good practices
y provides broad direction for the
formulation of school policies y sets the school’s objectives and policies
y approves the school plan, endorses the school report and school profile
y consults key stakeholders and sets out administrative and operational procedures with an accountability mechanism built in
y reports to the ED and parents on the performance of the school
y delegates to the principal and staff decisions on matters relating to daily operations, teaching and learning, and student discipline
y sets up effective
communication channels with staff, parents and students
ED SSB SMC (d) Quality of Education
y sets standards and assures the quality of school education
y develops performance indicators for school self- evaluation and external monitoring
y sets benchmarks for teachers
y conducts quality assurance inspections
y reports on the SAR-wide standards of education
y oversees the quality of
education in sponsored schools y evaluates and monitors school performance and student achievement against planned objectives and SAR-wide standards
y reports to the ED, SSB and parents on the delivery of all- round education
y accounts to the ED, SSB and parents for the quality of education provided
y registers and cancels the registration of school managers and teachers y approves and withdraws
approval of principal y investigates complaints
against the SMC y appoints additional
managers to SMC
(currently under section 41 of the Education
Ordinance), if necessary
y nominates and requests the Director of Education (DE) to cancel the registration of SSB managers, if necessary
y takes part in the selection of the principal through an
committee comprising SSB and SMC representatives and co- opted members
y nominates and requests DE to cancel the registration of non- SSB managers, if necessary y sets out proper procedures for
and handles the appointment, promotion, leave, dismissal and disciplinary matters of all teaching and non-teaching staff
y recommends for DE’s approval the appointment of the principal
y establishes a formal staff appraisal system (including the principal) and staff development plans
y handles complaints against staff (including the principal)
y allocates grants to schools and monitors the use of grants in accordance with the Codes of Aid
y sets out regulations and procedures for schools in the spending of public funds
y conducts external audit
(to be continued on page 29)
y handles private funds and assets owned by SSB
y sets up an accountable mechanism for managing the spending of funds
y manages and reports to key stakeholders the effective use of public and private funds of schools (including donations, collections from students and parents, as well as funds raised for school purposes) y approves the school budget
and exercises discretion in the spending of funds
ED SSB SMC (f) Finance
y ensures adherence to the Codes of Aid, other
regulations and procedures set out by the ED in the spending of public funds
y approves the collection of fees/fund-raising for school purposes
y approves trading/tuckshop
operation in school and sets up a mechanism to safeguard against malpractice
y prepares annual audited account
(g) Curriculum y provides curriculum
y gives advice on diverse curriculum models
y gives broad direction for the provision of a learner-focused curriculum
y provides learning experiences for whole person development in line with the curriculum framework developed by the Curriculum Development Council, catering to the needs of students and the
(h) School Premises and Equipment y allocates land and/or school
y sets the standard schedule of accommodation y provides a furniture and
equipment list for schools’
y contributes towards the furnishing and fitting out of all necessary furniture and equipment of new school premises
y retains full control over assets and property belonging to SSB
y be responsible for the purchase of furniture and equipment, as well as the maintenance and effective use of school premises
y approves change of room use without structural alteration y recommends major
construction, alteration or extension of school premises subject to the approval of relevant departments and the ED
(i) Education Policies y maps out broad direction of
y sets priorities and targets for improvement in education
y gives broad directions to the sponsored schools on the implementation of major education policies
y promotes collaboration among the sponsored schools on major education issues and gives advice when necessary
y ensures the delivery of quality education in line with the school’s mission and the policies of the ED
ED SSB SMC (j) Education Ordinance
y enforces the Education Ordinance, conducts reviews and makes amendments when necessary
y fulfils the duties of SSB as stipulated in the Education Ordinance
y ensures the school is run in compliance with the Education Ordinance
(k) Community Interface y publicises and promotes
new/major education policies to the wider community
y collaborates with other sectors to promote
community involvement in education
y taps resources and support from the community to promote education in the sponsored schools
y sets up effective
communication channels with the local community and the public
y taps resources and collaborates with the
community to promote the all- round development of
Appendix D Sub-committee on School Funding
I Terms of Reference
To make recommendations to the Advisory Committee on School-based Management on the flexibility of resource deployment in public sector schools in the implementation of school-based management, in particular:
z to examine the adequacy and appropriateness of the existing funding arrangements, both capital and recurrent, vis-a-vis the principles of school-` based management; and
z to recommend possible policy measures that will
¾ maximise flexibility for schools to deploy the resources to meet their own defined needs; and
¾ continue to ensure accountability.
Chairman Dr Eddie HO Kang-wai *
Members Sr Bernadette AU Yee-ting* (until August 1999) Mr CHOW Kam-ming
Mrs Annie CHU
Mr FAN Kam-ping (w.e.f. June 1999) Mr FUNG Man-ching (w.e.f. June 1999) Mr IEONG Iok-lon (w.e.f. September 1999) Miss LEE Lai-ming
Mr LO Kong-kai Mr Michael MOK Ms POON Koon-fong*
Dr WONG Fook-yee
Mrs Diana WONG IP Wai-ying (w.e.f. June 1999) Mr WONG Tang-tat (w.e.f. June 1999)
Mr John WU
Mrs Margaret CHAN
(Principal Assistant Secretary, Education and Manpower Bureau)
Ms Susanna CHEUNG Sau-man (Assistant Director of Education, ED) Miss Nancy THAM
(Senior Treasury Accountant, ED) Secretary Mr MOK Shu-chuen
(Education Officer (Administration), ED)
*in the capacity of a member of ACSBM
Appendix E Sub-committee on School Management
I Terms of Reference
To review the existing rules and practices in school management in line with the spirit of school-based management and to make recommendations for the consideration of the Advisory Committee on School-based Management on the revision of the Codes of Aid for primary, secondary and special schools that facilitate formulation of the revised rules and practices.
Chairman Mr YEUNG Chi-hung*
Members Mr James AU Chi-ming*
Mr CHIU Sin-on
Mr Stephen HUI Chin-yim* (w.e.f. June 1999) Mr John HUNG Cheung-ling
Ms Carol KWONG Sau-chee (w.e.f. September 1999) Mr Alex LAM Kwan-yat
Mrs Laura LING LAU Yuet-fun* (w.e.f. June 1999) Ms POON Koon-fong*
Mr TING Kwing-chan Mr TSE Tak-on
Ms Nancy WONG HO Wai-hing (w.e.f. June 1999) Mr YUNG Ying-cheuk (w.e.f. June 1999)
Mrs Avia LAI (w.e.f. June 1999)
(Principal Assistant Secretary, Education and Manpower Bureau) Ms Carol YUEN Siu-wai (until June 1999)
(Principal Assistant Secretary, Education and Manpower Bureau) Ms Susanna CHEUNG Sau-man
(Assistant Director of Education, ED) Miss Nancy THAM
(Senior Treasury Accountant, ED) Secretary Miss Lesley KONG Kok-ying
(Education Officer (Administration), ED)
*in the capacity of a member of ACSBM