一元中的多元

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王秀塊 DiversityProgram Diversitywi也in Unifonnity: 百le Dynami臼 ofG。可emmentinTeacherEducation CurriculumControl andinTaiwan 95

Bulletin of Educational Research

December, 2010, Vol. 56No.4 pp. 95-138

Diversity within Uniformity: The Dynamics of

Government Control and Program Diversity in

Teacher Education Curriculum in Taiwan

Hsiou-Huai Wang

Abstract

The intertwining forces of government-controlled uniformity and program-based diversification have influenced teacher education policies internationally. Itis not clear,

however,to what extent teacher education curriculum issu吋 ectto such dynamics. This paper intends to fill the gap by analyzing the curriculum ofseconda可 teachereducation programs in Taiwan,a society that has experienced a swing back and forth between the two forces on teacher education policies over the past six decades. Data on education! pedagogy courses of 41 secondary education programs were collected,compared and analyzed. The results show that the teacher education curriculum in Taiwan enjoys a limited degree of diversity within a uniform structure. Discussions on the contexts of teacher education policies in Taiwan and their effect on the quality of teachers are provided.

Keywords: teacher education policy, curriculum, government control,

program diversity

Hsiou-Huai Wang,Associate Professor,Center for Teacher Education,National Taiwan University

E-mail: wanghs@ntu.edu.tw

Manuscript received: Dec. 18,2009; Modified: Oct.13,2010; Accepted: Dec. 3,2010.

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王秀愧 摘要

教育專業課程分析研究

機制下我國中等教育學程

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政府管制與多元培育

••

第 4 期 2010 年 12 月 第 56 輯 教育研究集刊

一元中的多元

教育研究集刊 第五十六輯第四期 關鍵字:師資培育政策、教育專業課程、政府管制、多元培育機 制 王秀施,臺灣大學師資培育中心副教授 電子郵件為: wanghs@ntu.edu.tw 投稿日期: 2009 年 12 月 18 日;修改日期: 2010 年 10 月 13 日;採用日期: 2010 年 12 月 3 日 各國的師資培育政策大都由兩股勢力,包括政府的一元化管制與市場多元化 機制的牽哥 I; 但是,這兩股勢力如何影響師資培育課程的制定,仍有待探討。本 文藉由分析我國中等師資培育學程的教育專業課程來探討,在這兩股力量的影響 下,教育專業課程的結構與內涵究竟呈現何種樣貌。研究蒐集國內 41 所中等教 育學程的教育專業課程資料,針對課程結構、開課類型與領域內涵,進行分析、 對照與比較。研究結果顯示,我國師資培育課程在一元化的政策架構下,僅享有 有限的多元空間。本文進一步就造成此一現象背後的師資培育政策脈絡與沿革, 進行說明與探討。 96

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王秀施 Diversity withinProgram Diversity inUniformity: 百leTeach位Edt也ationDynamics of GovernmentCurriculwn in TaiwanCon肋land 97

1. Introduction

The intertwining forces of government-controlled uniformity and program-based diversification have impacted teacher education policies internationally. Itis not clear,

however,to what extent teacher education curriculum is subject to suchdynamics. 四lIS paper intends to fill the gap by analyzing the curriculum of secondary teacher education programs in Taiwan,a society that has experienced a swing back and forth between the two forces on teacher education policies over the past six decades. Itis interesting to explore how diversified or uniformed is the course structure and courses content offered by teacher education programs across the country. Such investigation may advance our understanding of how the two forces have an impact on the

process" of teacher education.

This article is organized as follows: An overview of relevant literature is first presented in Section I,followed by a description of thepu中oseand specific questions for the study,before an account of the research methods was presented in Section 3. The research outcomes,including: a detailed account of the coursestructu間, offerings,

and content of the 41 secondary teacher education programs in Taiwan will be provided in Section 4,followed by an in-depth discussion on the historical and socio-cultural roots of such developments and implications of the findings in the final sections.

2. Literature Review

2.1 Dynamics between governmental control vs. program diversity

Internationally,two opposing forces have been underlying the recent development ofteacher education: first,deregulation ofteacher education,which argues for program-based deregulation and diversification; and second,regulation of teacher education, advocating stronger governmental control for uniform standards and criteria (Apple,

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98 教育研究集刊第 56 輯第 4 期

2001; Cochran-Smith

&

Fries,2005; Furlong,Barton,Miles,Whiting,

&

Whi旬, 2000). Both approaches a前emptto pursue teacher quality,yet through contrasting strategies. The former assumes that diversity and competition among various teacher training institutions will inspire innovations and creativity and ensure the strongest and best to emerge; the latter argues that only through establishing uniformed standards by central authorities can teacher quality be achieved (Apple,2001; Furlong et a1.,2000; Hill, 2006,2007).

For instance, in the U.S., while diverse teacher training paradigms and alternative teacher training programs have been multiplied, the government has implemented stricter regulations and higher standards for controlling teacher quality and accountability under the current reform movement (Feiman-Nemser, 1990; Lucas, 1999; Popkewitz,1995; Tsai,1997; Zeichner & Conkl妞, 2005). In the UK,the government has recently intensified its control over the instalment of teacher education programs while loosening regulations to allow some qualified secondary school consortia to take up teacher training (Landman & Ozga,1995; Lee,2008). In Germany, while diverse models for teacher education have been developed across the country, the central government has implemented two levels of national teacher qualification examinations to ensure teacher quality (Yang, 1999,2006). In addition,Japan allows universities to set up diverse teacher education programs with various admission criteria and curriculum standards; however,the government controls the quality in the end through employment screening tests (Liang,2008; Morris & Williamson,2000). Evidence 企omthese countries has demonstrated the ever intertwining tensions between increasing diversification through diverse forms of teacher training and heightened uniformity due to stricter governmental control (Apple,1995,2000,2001; Hill,2006). Such dynamics may have a great impact on the input,process,and output of teacher education.

2.2 Impact on teacher education internationally

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王秀塊 Diversity within Unifonnity:Proj調mDiversityinTheTeacherDynami臼 ofGovemmentEd且開tionCurriculumControl andinTaiwan 99

their students.It is found that in these countries,the government tend to maintain a relatively lenient control on the student selection process and allows individual teacher education programs/institutions to set diverse criteria to admit students according to their own institutional goals and definitions of teacher quality. Rarely a centralized selection process or uniformed set of selection standards were prescribed for individual institutions/programs to comply (Halstead,2003; Wang& Fwu,2007).

Output" refers to the certification of qualified teachers at the end point of teacher education. Itis found that governments usually take stricter control to ensure the quality ofgraduates 企omvarious teacher education programs by setting regional!

national standards and requiring quali日cation examinations or certified standardized tests(Blome妞, 2006; Wang,2004; Yang,Chen,& Chiang,2008). For example,in the U.S.,those who complete teacher education programs have to pass certain qualification exams on aptitu缸, subject area knowledge,and pedagogical knowledge mandated by the state and offered by different testing institutions,teacher professional associations, or state boards in order to become certified teachers (Clark & McNergney,1990; Roth & Pipho, 1990). In the UK,those who complete a teaching internship have to pass the Qualified Teacher Status skills test in numeracy,literacy,and Information and Communications Technology in order to register with the General Teaching Council for England (GTCE) to obtain the Qualified Teacher Status (QTS) (Halstead,2003; QTS standards,n.d.). Germany has an even stricter qualification process of two-stage examinations: graduates from teacher education programs have to pass the First State Examination to obtain the qualification for student teaching internship,and after one to two year internship,pass again the Second State Examination in order to obtain the qualified teacher certificate (BlOmeke,2006; Terhart,2004; Yang,1999,2006).

Nevertheless,it is not clear to what degree the

process,"that is,the curriculum offered by teacher education programs, is subject to government control. Relatively little literature is found on systematic analysis of teacher education curriculum; that is,the structure and content of the education/pedagogy courses provided by teacher education programs in a system,to se

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100 教育研究集刊第 56 輯第 4 期

control or program initiatives. Since curriculum is at the very core ofteacher education, providing the learning experiencesnecessa可 for fu恥re teachers,and usually reflects the nation's political agenda on teacher education and individual institutions/programs' special missions and goals,it is important to explore how this area ofteacher education is shaped by these two opposing forces (Foshay,2000; Parkay,Anctil,&Hass,2006).

2.3 The Taiwanese context

In Taiwan, teacher education had been under strict government control since 1949 since the Nationalist government began its nation building process on this island nation. Teachers have been hailed as

guardians of the nation" and teacher education regarded the essential means to educating loyal citizens and efficient labour force. During this e凹, teacher training was exclusively provided by a small group of government-funded normal universities and teachers' colleges. Little diversity in teacher education institutions was found (Fwu & Wang,2002). However,recent reform in teacher education since the enactment of Teacher Education Act in 1994 has opened up the teacher training market to all the universities and colleges in the country. Under the new system,any universities and institutions may join teacher education endeavour and once approved by the Ministry of Education,could recruit students from various departments within the university and train them into future teachers (Fwu & Wang,

2002).

In the new system,there appears to be a much higher level of diversity among teacher training institutions,including: traditional normal universities and teachers' colleges,academically-oriented public universities and private universities,as well as technological universities and colleges. Depending on their traditions and resources available,these institutions offered teacher education courses through different ways. Normal universities,blessed with their longstanding status and resources in the field of education,tend to offer teacher education coursest尬。ugh comprehensive colleges of education composed of multiple departments of education. Non-normal academic universities,depending on different degrees of resources and reputations,tend to

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王秀施 DiversityProgr班nwi也inUnifonnity:DiversityinTh1出cher Educatio咀 CurriculmneDynamics of Government Control andinTaiwan 101

provide courses via either college of education,department of education (with several sub-fields in education) or small-scale teacher education program (with a minimum of five faculty members). Technological universities tend to provide courses in a lesser scale through either a department of education or a teacher education program. There seems to be much diversity in the organizational forms of teacher education; however, it is not clear yet if these diverse programs in different types of higher education institutions do offer diverse curriculum to train their students into future teachers. More specifically,it is not clear if the structure,type and content of courses vary across programs,and if programs differ in their endeavours to initiate program-specific courses.

3. Research Purpose and Questions

The pu中ose of this study,thus,is to examine the degree of diversification and uniformity in the curriculum of secondary teacher education programs in Taiwan. This issue can be explored in terms ofco叮se structure,co叮seofferings,and content areas provided by these programs. The specific research questions include the following:

1)Do the programs vary in their course structure and course taking regulations? 2) Do the programs vary among the number and types of courses they offer? 3) Do the courses offered by these programs vary in their content areas?

4) Do programs' endeavours to initiate program-specific courses vary with institutional characteristics?

Itshould be noted that,first,this analysis focuses mainly on the curriculum of secondary school teacher education programs without reference to programs for other levels of education,because these programs comprised the majority of teacher education programs in the country and are thus expected to demonstrate greater,if any,

diversity among programs. Second,although the complete curriculum for preparing a well-rounded teacher of a specific teaching subject may include: education/pedagogy courses (such as Educational Psychology,Educational Philosophy etc.),teaching

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102 教育研究集刊第 56 輯第 4 期

subjects courses (such as Chinese,Math,Physics,and Biology),and student teaching internship. Among them,the content of teaching su吋 ect courses are mainly provided by various academic departments/faculties,and internship depends largely on intern schools' arrangement; only the education/pedagogy courses are completely provided and controlled by teacher education programs themselves. Thus,this study focuses only on the analysis of education/pedagogy courses; discussion of the teaching subject courses and internship arrangement is beyond the scope of this article.

4. Research Methods

4

.1

Data source

As of 2008,a total of 47 secondary teacher education programs had been set up by universities and college in Taiwan (Ministry of Education,2008). In this study,data was collected from 41 of these programs.1Data were collected from the following three sources. First,the author downloaded the following documents from the official website of each of the 41 programs during the period of April 2008,including: 1) official program descriptions; 2) course-taking regulations; and 3) course catalogues of each program for the year 2008. A total of 41 catalogues/descriptions of course offering were obtained,and a total of more than 500 pages of data/information were collected as the main source for analysis. As websites are the major channel for teacher education programs to publicize their courses,the information contained on the website is considered official,up-to-date,and accurate. Second,official evaluation reports from the Ministry of Education on the overall performance of teacher education programs were used to corroborate the data obtained企om website documents. Third,literature

1 The researchers were unable to obtain data from the other six programs through internet or

phone inquiries after successive attempts. Therefore,these programs were not included in this study.

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王秀塊 Diversity within Unifonnity:Program Diversity in Teacher Education Curriculum in TaiwanTheDynami臼 ofGovernment Control and 103

on the comparative studies ofteacher education system and curriculum was collected to deepen the researcher's understanding for data analysis.

4.2 Analysis

This study utilized documentary analysis as the primary method of data analysis (Hsieh, 2006). The author used the following steps: first to determine the main focuses for analysis based on the purpose/question of the study,then to categorize and organize the data according to the main focuses/themes,and then distil conspicuous patterns in the data to obtain meaningful results. Based on the research pu中ose of this s阻dy,that is,to determine whether diversity is achieved among teacher education program courses, the data were analyzed from the following four angles. The first angle focused on the course structure of specific programs. The author analyzed the program descriptions and course-taking regulations of the 41 programs and synthesized the number of credits required,types of courses offered,and distribution of required and elective courses stipulated by these programs. These regulations were compared with the Ministry of Education (MOE) standard version listed on the MOE website to determine how much the program regulations for course structure diverged 企om the MOE regulations.

The second analysis centred on the diversity of the required and elective courses offered by the 41 programs. Using the information from the course catalogues, the author first made a complete list of all the courses offered by the 41 programs and then calculated the percentages of programs offering each course in order to see the diversity of course offerings among programs. The author further computed the percentages between MOE standard courses and program-initiated elective courses in each program to see what proportions of such program-initiated courses are in the entire curriculum offered by each program.

The third dimension of analysis focused on the content areas of these courses. In order to delve into the diversity of the substantive knowledge areas contained in the courses offered by the programs,the author classified the courses into six areas

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104 教育研究集刊第 56 輯第 4 期

according to their substantive curriculum fields,and then compared and contrasted the courses offered in each area.

Lastly, considering the historical development of higher education and teacher education in Taiwan,the type of institution and scale of programs tend to have a bearing on teacher education course offering. The demarcation of academic vs. technological, public vs. private,and normal vs. non-normal institution is significant. Thus,the author divided the 41 programs based on their institutional traits into the following six types: 1) five normal universities with a comprehensive college of education (N U-CE); 2) eight non-normal universities with a college of education (NNU-CE); 3) eight normal universities with a department of education (NNU-DE); 4) seven non-normal universities with a teacher education program(NNU-TE); 5) one technological university with a department of education (TU-DE); and 6) twelve technological universities with a teacher education program (TU-TE).

5. Research Outcomes

Thefindings 企omthe above analyses are presented in the following three sections,

including: course structure,course offerings,and content area.

5.1 Course structure

First of all,it is found that according to MOE regulations,the national curriculum for secondary teacher education are designed based on the discipline-based modularized curriculum model (Null,2007; Wu,2006),that is,a curriculum that tends to break up the professional knowledge necessary for a teacher candidate into a series of separate and differentiated courses specialized in various sub-disciplines of education,such as Educational Psychology,Educational Sociology,or Guidance and Counsellingetc. A series ofwell-structured modularized credit courses is designed and it is assumed that after students completed such course sequence,they will acquire the necessa可 professionalknowledge for a teacher.

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王秀塊 DiversityProgramwi也in Unifom討。':Diver百ityinTheTeacherDynamEducation Curriculumics of Government Control andinTaiwan 105

Such curriculum is composed of four categories of courses: I) four Educational Foundations courses,including: Introduction to Education,Educational Psychology,

Philosophy ofEducation,and Sociology ofEducation; 2) six Educational Methodology courses,including: Curriculum Development and Design,Principles of Instruction,

Measurement and Assessment in Education,Instructional Media,Principles and Practice ofGuidance and Counselling,and Classroom Management; 3) two Practicum courses,including: Materials and Methods in Teaching and Teaching Practicum; and 4) a number of Electives courses. A student must take a certain number of courses among these four categories to reach the minimum of 26 credits required,including two (4 credits) out of the four Foundations courses,three (6 credits) out of the six Methodology courses,and the two Practicum courses (four credits),totalling seven required courses (14 credits) and 6 electives (12 credits), and then takes a half-year full-time student teaching internship (equivalent to four credits),in order to fulfil the requirements for obtaining teacher certification (MOE,2003) (see Figure 1).

After a detailed examination of the course list and course-taking regulations of the 41 programs,it is found that they had extremely similar course structures and course-taking regulations in conformity to the above MOE regulations. All the programs ask their students to take at least 26 credits and to choose 5 of the 10 Foundation and Methodology courses. Only in Practicum courses some variation was found,by adding 1 or 2 more courses or adding the number of credits for the courses. After the students completed the 26 credit courses in university,they are placed in intern schools for half-year full-time student teaching.

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106 教育研究集刊第 56 輯第 4 期

|c心恥ture

I

Required Courses (14 credits) Elective Courses (12 credits) Foundation Courses (take 2 of4) 1. Introduction to Education (2crs.) 2. Educational Psychology (2crs.) 3. Philosophy of Education (2crs.) 4. Sociology ofEducation (2crs.) Methodology Courses (take3 of6) 1. Curriculum Development and Design (2crs.) 2. Principles of Instruction(2crs.) 3. Measurement and Assessment in Education (2crs.) 4. Instructional Media (2crs.)

5. Principle and Practice of Guidance and Counseling (2crs.) 6. Classroom management (2crs.) Practicum Courses (all required)

1. Materials and Methods in Teaching (2crs.) 2. Teaching Practicum (2crs.) ny &tEL nLE es 叫 m 動 UρLW QO 吋U V且冒 EA 開 g ym ιN lz h准則由 們盯巴 ]T

Figure 1 Course structure for secondary teacher education

In sum,a uniformed course structure does exist among all the secondary teacher

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王秀施 DiversityProgram Diversitywi也inUniformity:inTh11臼cherEduc副oneDynar凹的 ofGovernmentCurriculumCo曲。landinTaiwan 107

distribution of credits among different categories are basically the same. All the programs follow the subject-based curriculum model prescribed by the Ministry of Education. No alternative curriculum models were found. No programs developed their curriculum based on integrated broad-based courses in which courses are organized in a broader field of knowledge, for example, integrating Educational Psychology,

Educational Philosophy and Educational Sociology together into a course called Educational Foundation so that students may gain a more holistic understanding of complex educational issues (Kim,Andrews, & Carr,2004); nor did programs develop

blended" type of curriculum that rotates university coursework and school-site internship to first place students in school site and then provide university-based classes for theoretical learning and then place them in school again for integrated application (Maxie,2001); nor did programs develop a field寸ntensive curriculum that places students mainly in partnership schools and learn through daily school practice with periodical seminars offered on site by joint faculty and school supervisors (Halstead, 2003; Maand嗯, Deinum, Hofman, & Buitink, 2007). Without such alternative curriculum models

,

it is found that the course structure of all the programs are basically the same,conforming to government regulations.

5.2 Course offerings

Under such a uniformed curriculum paradigm,itis worth further exploring if there is space for programs to offer diverse courses within the set structures and categories and if they did provide courses other than those stipulated by the Ministry of Education to fulfil specific program goals and meet students' needs. While a truly uniformed curriculum across programs should see that all the programs offer the same set of courses without variation and a completely diverse curriculum should be the one in which no programs offer the same courses,a detailed analysis of all the courses offered by the 41 programs reveals a mixed picture between the two.

First of all,a total of 183 different courses were offered by these programs in the years 2007-2008. There were three types of courses: 1) 10 MOE stipulated required

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108 教育研究集刊第 56 輯第 4 期

courses; 2) 30 MOE suggested elective courses; and 3) the remaining 141 elective courses initiated by individual programs. As the first two types represent the core curriculum stipulated by the government,the third type was the indicator of how diverse these programs offer their courses. Table 1 listed the number and percentage of these three types of courses offered by all the 41 programs.It is found that all the programs (except ve叮 few ones) did offer all of the ten MOE stipulated courses; however,these programs varied greatly in offering the second type (MOE suggested) of courses,企omthe least of4 的 themaximum of 29 courses. The variation spanned even greater in the third type (program-initiated) of courses,from zero to the maximum of 38. Lastly,the total number of courses offered by each ofthese programs spanned from the minimum of 17 to the maximum of 67. These programs altogether offered a total of 171 different elective courses beyond MOE stipulation in the third category. To delete redundancy among them,it is found there were a total of 141 different courses initiated by the programs themselves.

Table 1 Number of all the courses 0仟:eredby 41 TE programs MOE

Percentage MOE Percentage Program Percentage Total

Required Suggested Initiated

PU-NU-CE 1 10 19.23% 25 48.08% 17 32.69% 52 PU-NU-CE2 10 24.39% 24 58.54% 7 17.07% 41 PU-NU-CE 3 10 22.22% 29 64.44% 6 13.33% 45 PU-NU-CE4 10 25.64% 24 61.54% 5 12.82% 39 PU-NU-CE 5 10 34.48% 19 65.52% O 。% 29 PU-NNU-TE 1 10 24.39% 20 48.78% 11 26.83% 41 PU-NNU-TE2 10 38.46% 10 38.46% 6 23.08% 26 PU-NNU-TE3 10 47.62% 7 33.33% 4 19.05% 21 PU-NNU-TE4 10 58.82% 4 23.53% 3 17.65% 17 PU-NNU-DE 1 10 20.00% 15 30.00% 25 50% 50 PU-NNU-DE2 10 30.30% 11 33.33% 12 36.36% 33 PU-NNU-DE 3 10 34.48% 12 41.38% 7 24.14% 29

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王秀施 DiversityProgram Diversitywi也in Uniformity: 百leinTeacherDynamiEducationcs ofGovernment Control andCurriculuminTaiwan 109

Table 1 (continued)

MOE

Percentage MOE Percentage Program Percentage Total

Required Suggested Initiated

PU-NNU-CE I 10 14.93% 19 28.36% 38 56.72% 67 PU-NNU-CE2 9 36.00% 4 16.00% 12 48% 25 PU-NNU-CE3 10 45.45% 5 22.73% 7 31.82% 22 PU-NNU-TE 1 9 29.03% II 35.48% 11 35.48% 31 PU-NNU-TE2 10 34.48% 12 41.38% 7 24.14% 29 PU-NNU-TE3 10 30.30% 17 51.52% 6 18.18% 33 PU-NNU-TE4 10 43.48% 11 47.83% 2 8.70% 23 PU-NNU-DE I 10 25.64% 16 41.03% 13 33.33% 39 PU-NNU-DE2 10 27.78% 15 41.67% 11 30.56% 36 PU-NNU-DE3 10 25.64% 23 58.97% 6 15.38% 39 PU-NNU-DE4 10 27.03% 23 62.16% 4 10.81% 37 PU-NNU-DE5 10 34.48% 18 62.07% 3.45% 29 PU-NNU-CE I 10 18.52% 19 35.19% 25 46.30% 54 PU-NNU-CE2 10 41.67% 7 29.17% 7 29.17% 24 PU-NNU-CE3 10 41.67% 9 37.50% 5 20.83% 24 PU-NNU-CE4 10 50.00% 7 35.00% 3 15% 20 TU-TE I 10 28.57% 13 37.14% 12 34.29% 35 TU-TE 2 10 25.64% 19 48.72% 10 25.64% 39 TU-TE 3 10 34.48% 10 34.48% 9 31.03% 29 TU-TE4 10 27.03% 19 51.35% 8 21.62% 37 TU-TE 5 10 30.30% 16 48.48% 7 21.21% 33 TU-TE 6 9 31.03% 13 44.83% 7 24.14% 29 TU-TE 7 10 52.63% 5 26.32% 4 21.05% 19 TU-TE 8 10 62.50% 4 25.00% 2 12.50% 16 TU-TE 9 10 31.25% 20 62.50% 2 6.25% 32 TU-TE 10 10 24.39% 30 73.17% 2.44% 41 TU-TE II 10 40.00% 14 56.00% 4% 25 TU-TE 12 10 27.78% 26 72.22% O 。% 36 TU-DE I 10 20.83% 27 56.25% 11 22.92% 48

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第 4 期 第 56 輯 教育研究集刊 AU --且 ,

EE--To present the result in a more graphical way,Figure 2 clearly showed that on the one hand,almost all the programs offered the ten MOE stipulated required courses (the bottom layer),and all the programs did provide some courses out of the thirty MOE suggested courses (the middle layer),indicating the tendency of these programs to conform to the MOE core curriculum. However,all these programs altogether have created a diverse set of 141 elective courses beyond MOE stipulation in the third category (the top layer),signifying the degree of autonomy the programs enjoy to offer their own courses.

Numbers of courses offered by programs

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• Courses initiated by programs

圖 Electivecourses suggested by MOE • MOE stipulated required course

Figure 2 Numbers of courses offered by programs

In addition to examining the total number of the three types of courses provided across the programs, the author also calculated the ratio of each type of courses within the entire curriculum of each program to see how substantial the proportion of the curriculum was subject to government control or program autonom乎 Figure3 illustrates the percentages of three types of courses within the curriculum of each of

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Diversitywi也mUniformity:TheDynami臼 ofGovernmentControl 位吋 自D館前nDiversityinTeacherEducationCurric叫urninTaiwan III 王秀塊

the 41 programs. As can be seen,the proportions of the first type of courses (MOE stipulated required courses) in the curriculum varied (from 15% to 59%),with an average of 33% across all 41 programs. The ratios of the second type (MOE suggested elective co叮ses) ranged more widely (企om 16% to 73%),with an average of 45% across the programs. And the proportions of the third type (program initiated elective courses) varied even more greatly (from 0% to 57%),with an average of 23% across the programs. Comparing the average proportions of each type of course found that these programs did offer a relatively higher proportion of the first (33%) and second type (45%) of courses,the combination of both types even exceeding 78%,and provided relatively smaller proportions of the third type (23%). While the first two types of courses may represent how programs conform to the MOE control scheme and the third type indicates the degree by which programs are 企ee to develop their own curriculums,such results show that these programs on average were more apt to conform to MOE regulations than to devise a diverse range of courses oftheir own.

Ratios of courses offeredby programs 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% NN- r-也 MN \o("心"司嗯tone、 MMM 、t NM 嗯tM 嗯t ,。嗯?嗯?σ、-Vl O Vl N 凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶叫叫叫凶凶凶叫叫叫凶叫叫叫叫叫凶-叫【叫-y ,? 凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶叫叫叫凶凶凶叫叫叫凶叫叫叫叫叫凶-叫【叫-y凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶叫叫叫凶凶凶叫叫叫凶叫叫叫叫叫凶-叫【叫-y ,?句句句句句行,? 凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶叫叫叫凶凶凶叫叫叫凶叫叫叫叫叫凶-叫【叫-y 叮叮旬行何行中叮叮叮 凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶叫叫叫凶凶凶叫叫叫凶叫叫叫叫叫凶-叫【叫-y 丹丹丹 凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶叫叫叫凶凶凶叫叫叫凶叫叫叫叫叫凶-叫【叫-y ,? 凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶叫叫叫凶凶凶叫叫叫凶叫叫叫叫叫凶-叫【叫-y凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶叫叫叫凶凶凶叫叫叫凶叫叫叫叫叫凶-叫【叫-y凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶凶叫叫叫凶凶凶叫叫叫凶叫叫叫叫叫凶-叫【叫-y 行,?fo;'丹田甸回 VR

~~~~員~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~已 Z

EE

Z 員屋里冒 E ZtE 己 E 己言己

已已::JO<:戶口自 信 E 已 O<: C自::J 已 c串 戶 0<::么也已 ~~~S::S:: ~~ c自 E a..i5:ti:l..~i5:t ~ιιι~~ i:i.~ l:l..恥。-~ι

-HHHMHHHHHHμ

-HHHHHHHUHHM

FEBEEttBEEtEtBEEt--tar

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-HUHHHHHHHUM

-刊州州州州州州川川川…

-TillIlli--品 一刊 HHHHHHHHH 一

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-7iiiiiiiii 卅 一Ill--iiiil 恥

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• Elective courses suggestedby MOE

.

Courses initiatedby programs

Figure 3 Ratio of courses 0仟'eredby programs

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112 教育研究集刊第 56 輯第 4 期

5

.3

Content Area

In addition to examining the number and ratio ofdifferent 句pesof courses offered by the teacher education programs,it is important to investigate the content areas covered by these courses in order to grasp the width and depth of the professional knowledge delivered to students in the process ofteacher education.

The 183 courses provided by all the programs can be classified into six sub-fields. They 訂e: 1) Educational thoughts & philosophy; 2) Human development,psychology & counselling; 3) Curriculum,instruction & assessment; 4) Administration and social policy; 5) teacher professional development; and 6) Education for specialized areas. Within each content area, the author further differentiated the courses into the three types of courses,including 弘10E requiredcourses,扎10E suggested elective courses, and program-initiated elective courses. Fut吋theranalyses were conducted to examine the diversity in focus within each sub-fieldt怕o see how the program-initiated courses strengthen,complement,ordiverge 企om 也eMOE core courses.

5

.3

.1

Educational thoughts/philosophy

In the area of

Educational Thoughts and Foundations," the 弘10E stipulates two required courses and six suggested courses,focusing on the general introduction and fundamental knowledge of educational philosophy and contemporary issues in educational thoughts. In this area,the programs did initiate an additional 19 courses, first adding on some courses on the topics of contemporary thoughts in education,such as contemporary issues of education, educational thoughts in the modern time, post-modernism and feminism, humanistic education, and cultural philosophy; second, adding on courses on some interesting emerging areas,such as open education,

affective education, life and death education; further, providing such courses with distinctly indigenous perspectives as inquiry to Taiwan education and meditation on Buddhist wisdom. In this way,we can see that the programs did offer courses both to strengthen and intensify the topics/dialogues covered by 弘10E core courses,and to develop totally new venues for inquiry to reflect the indigenous Chinese-Buddhist

(19)

王秀塊 DiversityPrwi也inogram DiversityUnifonnity:inThTeachereDynamEducationics ofGocur討c叫uminτ'aiwanvemmentCon缸。land 113

philosophy and thought (see Table 2).

Table

2

Courses in Educational Thoughts and Foundations

EducationalThoughts

CourseName Offering CourseName Offering

and Foundation Number Number

MOE required courses

Philosophy of Education 41 Introduction to 39

Education

MOE suggested Secondary Education 26 History of Education 18

electives Contemporary thoughts Anthropology of

on education 24 Education 9

Moral Education 23 Elementary Education

Program initiated Contemporary Issues of

7 Theory andPracti臼 of

electives Education Affective Education

Inquiry ofEducational Principles and Practice

5 ofLife-and-Death Problems Education Introduction to Open Education Philosophy

Cultural Philosophy Meditation on Buddhist

Wisdom

Theory ofFeminism Lectures on Education

Educational Thoughts in Selected Classics in

the Modern age Education

Ethics of Education Pedagogy

Theory and Practice of Inquiry of Taiwan

Humanistic Education Education

Humanistic Education International

Educational Reform Post-modernism and

Education

5.3.2

Human development

,

psychology

,

and counselling

In the area of

Human development,psychology,& counselling," the MOE

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114 教育研究集刊第 56 輯第 4 期

introduction of educational psychology,human development, student guidance, and

education for diverse students' needs. The teacher programs offered an additional

diverse spectrum of 29 courses in this area on more specialized and refined topics,

including: I) various sub-fields of psychology, such as cognitive psychology, social

psychology,personality psychology,learning and instructional psychology, abnormal psychology, health psychology, creativity and innovation; 2) human development

at various stages, such as adult development, early childhood development, child

psychology, adolescent development; 3) guidance and counselling,such as counselling techniques, G臼taltpsychotherapy,guidance for at-risk adolescents; and 4) education

for students with various types of disabilities, such as mental disabilities, learning

disability diagnosis,medial instructionfor children with mild disabilities. In this way,

the program-initiated courses tend to strengthen and complement the areas/dialogues covered by MOE core courses (see Table 3).

Table 3 Human development,psychology and counselling

Human Development,

Offering Offering

Psychology& Course Name CourseName

Counselling Number Number

MOE required courses Principle and Practice

Educational Psychology 41 in Guidance and 41

Counselling

MOE suggested Introduction for Special

38 Life Education 22

electives Education

Psychology of

34 Developmental 21

Adolescence Psychology

Parent Education and

27 Behavior Modification 21

Guidance Technique

Interpersonal

26 Psychological and 10

Communication Educational Testing

Career Education 25 Child Psychology 4

(21)

王秀施 Diversity withinProgr羽nUnifonnity: 甘IeDiversityin11臼cb叮EducationDynamics ofGovernment Control andCurriculuminTaiwan 115

Table 3 (continued)

Human Development,

Offering Offering

Psychology & CourseName CourseName

Counselling Number Number

Program initiated Guidance of At-risk

9 Abnormal Psychology

electives Adolescents

Counselling Theory and

7 Human Intelligence and

Technique Potential

Educational and Early Childhood

Vocational Guidance 7 Development and Psychology

Health Psychology 6 Youth Development and Psychology

Psychology of Learning 5 Adult Development and Psychology

Adolescent

Theory and Practice of

Development and 5

Guidance Discipline and Guidance

Physicaland 弘1ental Cognitive Psychology 4 Development and

Guidance

Sex Education 3 Instruction for Children Systematic Thinking Learning Disabilities 3 Thinking and Reasoning Psychology and

Creativity and Education of Child with 3

Special Needs Innovation

Group Dynamics 2 Problem-Solving

Strategy

Personality Psychology 2 Learning Diagnosis and Treatment

Psychology of

Mental Disabilities Instruction

Remedial Instruction Social Psychology for Childrenwith 弘1ild

Disabilities Gestalt Psychotherapy

(22)

116 教育研究集刊第 56 輯第 4 期

5

.3.3Curriculum

,

instruction and assessment

Both MOE and the TE programs appeared to place a great emphasis on the area of

curriculum,instruction and assessment." In this area,MOE stipulates seven required

courses and two suggested courses,covering the sub-fields of curriculum,instruction,

assessment and media instruction,while the teacher programs offered additional diverse

spectrum of 32 courses on more specialized and refined topics,covering: 1)

curriculum-related courses,includingschool-based curriculum,curriculum integration,curriculum

evaluation, and curriculum rlφrm; 2) instruction-related courses, such as instruction for critical thinking,competency-based instructional design,constructivist instruction, team teaching and instructional supervision; 3) media-related courses,including

computer-assisted instruction,multimedia instruction,anddistance education. As can

be seen,some of the courses opened new avenues for emerging topics/dialogues not

covered by MOE core courses,while others tend to add on specialized knowledge to

complement the areas/topics in MOE scheme (see Table 4).

Table4 Curriculum,instruction and assessment

Curriculum, Offering

CourseName Offering

Instruction and CourseName

Number Number

Assessment

MOE required courses Educational

Instructional Media and

41

Measurement and 41

Practice Evaluation

41 Teaching Methods and 41

Principles of Instruction

Materials Curriculum

Development and 41 Teaching Practicum 41

Design

Classroom management 41

MOE suggested Computer and

24 Audio-Visual Education 7

electives Education

Program initiated Teaching for Creative

13 Distance Education 2

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王秀塊 Diversity within Unifonnity:肘。停留nDiversityinThTeachereDynamEducationics of Government Control andCurric叫wnin 11位W祖 117

Table 4 (continued)

Curriculum,

Offering Offering

Instruction and CourseName CourseName

Assessment Number Number

Computer-assisted 8 Curriculum Reform Ins仕uction Introduction to Nine-Year Integrated 7 Curriculum Innovation Curriculum for Compulsory Education

Instructional Design 7 Constructivist in

Instruction

Curriculum and Instruction ofHigher

Ins仕uction 5 Order Thinking

School-based

5 Instruction of Outdoor

Curriculum Activities

Curriculum Integration 5 Thematic Instruction Computer Network and

4 Team Teaching Instruction

Curriculum Leadership Introduction to 3 Instructional and Evaluation

Technology Instructional

3 Competence-based

Supervision Instructional Design

Compilation ofTeaching Seminar on Curriculum, 2 Instruction& Sociology Material

ofTechnology

Seminar on Curriculum,

Instruction for Critical Instruction&

Thinking 2 Philosophy of

Technology Multimedia Instruction 2 Evaluation and

Assessment of Science Educational

Communication and 2 Textbook Evaluation Technology

Educational Technology 2 Resource Room Program

(24)

118 教育研究集刊第 56 輯第 4 期

5.3

.4Administration and social policy

In the area of

Administration and social policy," MOE stipulates only one

required course and seven suggested courses covering some of the most important

administration and social policy issues, such as educational legislation, school

administration,multicultural education and comparative education. In addition,the

programs offered an additional diverse spectrum of24 courses on more specialized and

refined topics with the following trends. First,school-based management has become

a focal concern in educational administration,as reflected by courses such asschool

management, schoolleadersh妝, andschool 電ffectiveness.Second,the issue of reform

is emphasized with courses such as educationalr,φrm and international educational

r吃forms. Third,for educating citizens for the contemporary world,courses including

lifelong learning, civic education and environmental protection are provided. And

last,education for diverse groups is stressed and provided through courses such as

aboriginal educationandSoutheast Asian Chinese education(see Table 5).

Table

5

Administration and social policy

Administration and

CourseName Offering CourseName Offering

Social Policy Number Number

MOE required courses Sociology of Education 40

扎.fOEsuggested Educational

31 Comparative Education 19

electives Administration

Educational Legislation 30 Education for Human 16

Rights

School Administration 29 Environmental 15

Education

Multicultural Education 23

Program initiated Education of

electives Environmental 7 School Leadership

Protection

Educational Reform 6 School Change and

Innovation Management

Civic Education 5 School Affairs

(25)

王秀施 DiversityPrwi也in Uniformity: 官leogram DiversityinTeacher EducationDynamics ofGovernment Control andCurriculuminTaiwan 119

Table 5 (continued)

Administration and

CourseName Offering CourseName Offering

Social Policy Number Number

Education for Local

4 School Effectiveness

Cultures

Organizational Behavior Special Subject of Six

3 Main Issues in Taiwan's

in Schools

Education School Education and

3 Culture and Education

Lifelong Learning

Service Learning 3 Aboriginal Education

Educational Policy in Southeastern Asia

Nowadays Education

International Education Education for Southeast

Reforms Asian Chinese

Policyand

Gender and Intimate Administration in

Relationship Vocational Education

Study ofIssues in Gender Awareness and

Teacher Education Campus Culture

Human Resource

Management in Marriage and Family

Education Total Quality Management

5

.3

.5 Teacher professional development

In the relatively new and emerging area of

Teacher Professional Education,"the

MOE did not stipulate any required courses and only suggested two elective courses

focusing solely on research methodology. However,the teacher education programs did

manage to put forward a multitude of 17 courses in the following three aspects. First,

courses aimed to train a variety of competencies and skills for teachers,including: oral

communication, Chinese literacy, blackboard calligraphy, English conversation, and

(26)

120 教育研究集刊第 56 輯第 4 期

methodology courses including case study methods, qualitative research, andaction

research were offered to hone future teachers' research skills for ongoing inquiry and

improvement.Finally,courses such asteacher professional development,teacher career

development, and mental health for teachers were offered to help prospective teachers prepare for a well-adaptive and productive professional career. All the courses in this area touched upon new fields of knowledge not covered by MOE core curriculum (see Table 6).

Table 6Teacher professional development

Art,Sport and

Offering Offering

Occupational CourseName

Number Course Name Number

Education MOE required courses MOE suggested

Information Education 15 Science Education 15

electives

Program initiated Art Education 7 Athletic Education

electives Technology and Modem Physical Education in

3

Life Schools

Music Education 2 Outdoor Life Skills

VisualArtEducation 2 Health Education

Scout Education 2 Home Economics

Education

Keyboard Music Introduction to Tourism

Education

Musical Instrument's Introduction to

Performance Hospitality Education

Vocalism in the Period

ofAdolescent Change Nutrition Education

ofVoice

Theatrical Screenplay Information Science

and Performance Education

Technique ofTheater Consumer Psychology

Research in Visual

Communication and Ocean Education

(27)

王秀塊 DiversityProwi也in Uni晶晶lity:gramDiversityinThTeachereDynami臼 ofEducationGovernmentCurriculumCon缸。landinTaiwan 121

5.3

.6

Education for specialized areas

Finally,there were some courses for certain specialized areas such as art,athletics,

vocational and technological education. As the MOE tends to place more emphasis on

general courses that may apply to all types of teacher education programs,courses in

those specialized areas were relatively neglected.That's why in the area of

'Education

for specialized areas

,"

MOE stipulated no required courses and only suggested two

electives (educational research methodology and educational statistics). However

,

teacher education programs specializing in these areas did manage to provide a wide

spec仕urnof 23 courses to highlight their own special goals and functions. Programs

specializing in art education offered courses such as art education,music education,

theatricalscreenplays and performance,visual communication,and design education;

programs specializing in athletic education provided courses in athletic education,

scout education, andphysical education in schools; programs for vocational!

technological education provided courses in tourism education, consumer psychology,

nutrition education, home economics,and information science education. This variety of courses appears to be intended to hone students' knowledge and skills in teaching

various occupational subjects in the fu仙re(see Table 7).

Table7Specialized fields in art,athletic and vocational education

Teacher Professional

CourseName Offering CourseName Offering

Development Number Number

MOE required courses

MOEsuggest芯d Educational Research

29 Educational Statistics

electives Methodology 26

Program initiated Action Research 9 Crisis Management 2

electives Mental Health for EQ Education for

Teachers 7 Teachers 2

Teacher Professional

6 Qualitative Research

Development 2

Oral Communication 5 Classroom Observation

(28)

122 教育研究集刊第 56 輯第 4 期

Table 7 (continued)

Teacher Professional

Course Name Offering CourseName Offering

Development Number Number

Teacher Career Theory and Practice Development and 5 ofTeacher-Parent

Renewal Cooperation

Teaching Portfolio 4 Research Methods Chinese Literacy for

4 CaseStudy 加lethod

Teachers

Blackboard Calligraphy 2 Teacher's Rights and

Obligation English Conversation 2

In summa句, among the six content areas of the courses provided by the teacher education programs,four areas were emphasized by both MOE and teacher education programs,and two areas were ignored by MOE,yet emphasized by the programs. Further,in each of the content areas,these programs did offer a diverse set of courses to strengthen or supplement courses stipulated by MOE or to open new avenues to knowledge/dialogues not touched upon by the MOE scheme to highlight their own specialpu中osesand resources.

5

.4

Program-initiated courses

Considering the historical development of higher education and teacher education in Taiwan,the demarcation ofinstitutional type (academic vs. technological; normal vs. non-normal) and program type (college,department,program ofteacher education) do bear significance in understanding teacher education curriculum. As program-initiated (Type 3) courses is an indication of program autonomy, it is important to examine the number and ratio of such courses offered by different types of programs to see if autonomy varies with institutional characteristics.Itmay be inferred that academically-oriented universities,in general possessing more resources as the mainstream providers of secondary school teachers, may be more capable of initiating more

(29)

program-王秀塊 Diversity withinPro~調mUnit(個nity:DiversityinThTeach訂EducationeDynamics ofGovemment Control andCurriculuminTaiwan 123

specific courses than technological ones. Furthennore,nonnal universities,with their longstanding status and vast resources in the field of teacher education,may provide more program-specific courses than non-normal ones. And college of education, with its comprehensive scope and large pool of faculty in education,may offer more program-specific courses than department of education and than a single teacher education program.

Table 8 shows that, corresponding to our hypotheses,in general academic universities on average did offer more program-initiated courses (Median=9) than techonological universities (6); and public universities did initiate more courses (10) than private ones (6). However,it is surprising to see that,contrary to our expectation, normal universities did not offer more program-initiated courses,but in fact even provided slightly fewer (7) such courses than their non-nonnalcounte中arts (8). In addition,colleges of education (11) and departments of education (10) did provide more program-specific courses than teacher education programs (6).

TabIe 8 Median number of program-initiated courses by program

Type of institution N Median

Academic 28 9 Technological 13 6 N Public 24 10 Private 17 6 N Normal 5 7 Non-normal 36 8 College ofEducation 12 11 Department of Education 9 10

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124 教育研究集刊第 56 輯第 4 期

When further dividing the 41 programs into 6 categories according to their institutional characteristics,it is worth noting that (see Figure 4) the technological university with a department of education (TU-DE) managed to offer the highest number (Median= 11) of program-initiated courses. Non-normal universities with college of education (NNU-CE) or department of education (1'心~U-DE)on average provided 9 and 7 different program-initiated courses,respectively. In addition, teacher education programs in non-normal universities (NNU-TE) and technological universities (TU-TE) offered 6 courses,similar to those traditionally teacher training normal universities with comprehensive colleges of education(NU-CE).

Median number ofprogram-initiated courses

11

10 8 6

• • • • • •

.

Median 4 2 O

TU-DE NNU-DE NNU-CE NU-CE NNU-TE TU-TE

Figure 4 Median number of program-initiated courses by programs

Furthermore,to examine the ratios of program-initiated courses in relation to the total number of courses provided by the 6 types of programs (see Figure 5),it is found that,for non-normal universities with a college of education (NNU-CE), program-initiated courses consisted of more than one thirds of their total courses (35%),

(31)

王秀挽 Diversity~~Dw~~in Thoc~~u~ooC~c 叫urnwi由in Unifo個lity: 四IeDynamics ofGovernment Control andin Taiwan 125

followed by 25% offered by department of education in non-normal universities (NNU-DE); 23% offered by dep位個lent of education in technological universities (TU-DE); 22% by teacher education program in non-normal universities (NNU-TE); and 17% by teacher education in technological universities (TU-TE). Again,it is surprising to see that for normal universities with comprehensive colleges of education (NU-CE), program-initiated courses only constituted 15 percent of their total courses,the lowest ratio among the 6 types of institutions in the study.

Ratio ofprogram-initiated courses to the total courses 40% 35%

J

35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0%

NNU-CE NNU-DE TU-DE NNU-TE TU-TE NU-CE

.Ratio

Figure 5 Ratio of program-initiated courses by programs

In summary,diversity in program autonomy in offering self-initiated courses did vary with institutional characteristics and could be explained by the following three factors. First of all,resources and status do count. For example,academic and public universities,which in general possess more resources and prestige as mainstream providers of secondary school teachers,did enjoy higher level of autonomy than their technological and private counterparts. Second,program scale also matters. That's why college of education,with its comprehensive scope and large faculty pool,were in general able to provide more program-specific courses than departments of education, and even more so than teacher education programs. In addition,institutional tradition

(32)

126 教育研究集刊第 56 輯第 4 期

may also exert an influence. Con缸訂Y to the commonly-held assumptions that normal universities,with its longstanding status and vast resources in teacher training should be able to provide the most enriched and diversified courses among all types of institutions; however,in fact they demonstrated the lowest level of diversity in offering courses among all the institutions. Such unexpected result may be partially explained by the traditional role normal universities have assumed. As the major teacher training institutions since early years,normal universities had been under strict state control in terms of input,process and output of their training for many decades (Fwu & Wang, 2002). With such a tradition,they may become more accustomed to conforming to the state-mandated curriculum than developing diversified program-specific courses.

6. Conclusions

Based on the above research findings,the four research questions were answered. First of all,to examine if

the programs vary in their course structure and course taking regulations," the answer is negative as the course structure and regulations of TE programs did conform to MOE regulated structure. Secondly,to investigate if

the programs vary among the number and types of courses they offer," the answer is mixed. Although these programs did manage to initiate program-specific courses,

an analysis of the number and ratio of the three types of courses found that they were more apt to conform to MOE regulations than to devise a diverse range of courses of their own. Thirdly, to answer if

the courses offered by these programs vary in their content areas,"these programs did offer a diverse set of courses to strengthen or supplement courses stipulated by MOE and to open some new'avenues to knowledge/ dialogues not touched upon by the MOE scheme to highlight their own special pu中osesand resources. Lastly,to see if

programs' endeavours to initiate courses vary with institutional characteristics," it is found that such endeavour did vary with institutional characteristics. While academically-oriented universities did enjoy higher level of autonomy in offering more program-initiated courses than their technological

(33)

王秀塊 Diversity肘。同amwi也inUnifonnity:DiversityinThTeach前Education Curric叫urneDynamics ofGovemment Control andinTaiwan 127

counterparts,normal universities enjoyed the lowest level of diversity in offering courses among these institutions.

In conclusion,the curriculum model and course structure of secondary school teacher education programs in Taiwan were fairly uniformed and conformedto 卸mE regulations,and the courses offered tended to concentrate onthe 卸fOEcore courses. However,a diverse set of program-initiated courses were provided to supplement areas neglected by the MOE and to strengthen programs' special needs across six content areas. Thus,it may be concluded that the curriculum of Taiwanese secondary teacher education programs enjoys a certain degree of diversity within a uniformed structure.

7. Discussions

Given the above findings of a curriculum pattern with restricted diversity,it would be important to further explore the historical,political and social contexts underlying the process in which such curriculum pattern is developed. In fact,the development of teacher education in Taiwan has witnessed an ever-present tension between state-controlled uniformity and program-based diversification.

7.1 Historical and cultural roots of state

con仕01

First of all,s仕ong centralized control for teacher quality has been on high priority throughout the long history of the Taiwanese society. Traditional Chinese heritage, Japanese colonial influence,and the nation-building process under the Nationalist regime have all shaped a public consensus on the importance of teacher quality and have prompted the government to exert strict control over it (Lee,2001; Liang & McClain, 1991). In this society mainly composed of Chinese immigrants from the mainland since the 16th century, the Chinese/Confucian cultural heritage has been rooted in many veins of the social composition. The Confucian values,highlighting the importance of education and the importance of high respect for teachers,are embedded in the Taiwanese people's mentality. A teacher is regarded a learned scholar(jingshi)

(34)

128 教育研究集刊第 56 輯第 4 期

who 甘ansmitsknowledge and skills essential for living,as well as a moral figure(renshi)

who sets an example for students to follow (Gao,1999). Such a cultural tradition was reinforced during the Japanese colonial period,from 1895 to 1945. During the colonial period,a large number of teachers in Taiwan were expatriates from Japan who were better educated than most of the Taiwanese people at the time (Wu,1980). In addition, the colonial government established a number of normal schools to recruit the best from local talented young people and train them into future teachers(L間,2001). Such combination of political savvy and high quality of teachers further instilled a high level of respect for teachers in the Taiwanese people's minds (Fwu,1999; Guo,1997; Wu, 1980).

7.2 State

con甘01

during the Nationalist era

After 1949,such a view of teachers was continued by the nationalist regime led by the Kuomingtang,or Nationalist,party,who were defeated by the Communist regime and withdrew from continental China to this island. Under continuous threat from the Communist regime,the government resolved to develop Taiwan into a

fortress in the Taiwan Strait." In such a formidable endeavour,teachers played a key role as builders ofthe

mental defense"(jingshen guofang) and the

guardians of national solidarity." Since teachers were so critical to the success of nation building,the government was determined to exert complete control over teacher education in order to install in future teachers a sense of loyalty and conformity (Liang & McClain, 1991; MOE, 1957; Xu, 1993). During this period,the government restricted teacher training to a few normal education institutions and stipulated strict curriculum guidelines for teacher training institutions to comply. The teacher education courses provided by the normal institutions were highly centralized,fairly identical with little diversity across institutions. According to the official course list stipulated by the Ministry of Education, a total of 13 courses with 26 credits were prescribed to students in all teacher training programs,among which 22 of the 26 credits were required courses,leaving little space for either students to choose from electives or for teacher education institutions to

(35)

王秀塊 Diversity within Unifonnity:ProgramDiver百ityinTheTeach位Education Curric叫urnDynami臼 ofGovernment Con肋,landin Taiwan 129

design courses to highlight their own goals or focuses (MOE,1984).

7.3 Diversification ofteacher education

However,after suspension of martial law in 1987,under the ethos of the time with rapid political democratization, economic liberalization and social diversity (Huang,2000; Lee,2001; P缸, 2003),teacher education was pressed to be opened up on the logic of market-based deregulation. Thus,a multitude of teacher education programs were established by many traditionally non-teacher-training universities and a surplus of graduates were produced to compete in the open market so that the best and strongest will emerge to raise teacher quality (Fwu & Wang,2002; MOE, 1994). During this period,the government released its grip on the curriculum of teacher education programs to some extent. The newly-established teacher education programs were able to offer program-initiated education courses with a greater degree of autonomy and to design their own course lists for various teaching subjects such as Chinese,math,science etc.,according to institutional goals and resources (MOE,1996; Wu,2003). Also,there was no teacher certification examination,and graduates from various teacher education programs were qualified to teach once they located a job with a school(Q凹, 2005).

7

.4

Re-regulation of teacher education

However,as the Taiwanese society has progressed into a technology-intensive knowledge society,the demand has intensified for high-quality teachers who are able to prepare future citizens with higher levels of knowledge

,

competency

,

and creativity (Liou, 2005). With the rising public demand for teacher accountability and quality assurance in education,such an open market policy with lenient government control has met with increasing criticism (Liou,2005; Tseng & Chang,2005; Wu,2006). Opponents contended that under such a loose and chaotic

diversification" system, many

unqualified" institutions and programs were set up,a su中Ius of

low quality" teachers were produced and teacher quality has declined (Hsu,2009). Thus,the

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130 教育研究集刊第 56 輯第 4 期

government should tighten its control with stricter standards in order to raise teacher quality (Wu,2006). Such public outcries have once again pushed the government to increase its control over teacher education.

The current democratic government exerts its control by tightening curriculum regulations and implementing teacher certification examination. By doing so,the government has recently revised the official course listings for all the teachingsu吋凹的, stipulating a fixed combination of required and elective courses and leaving little space for individual programs to provide courses according to their ownpu中oses and resources (扎!fOE, 2003, 2007). Further,the 扎!finistry of Education holds the right to approve or reject the education/pedagogy course list of individual programs who have to apply for MOE approval when designing and offering new courses for their students (MOE,2004). In addition, the government has started a national teacher certification examination since 2005 to ensure the quality of graduates from various programs at the end point.(Lin,Wang, & Te嗯, 2007). All these developments have demonstrated a tendency of teacher education policy to swing from market-based diversification back to government-controlled uniformity once again.

In conclusion,due to the historical,political and social contexts,the development of teacher education in Taiwan over the past six decades has seen a suspension between the forces of government-controlled uniformity and program-based diversification. Due to a long period of strict centralized control and an emergence of program-based deregulation, the curriculum of teacher education programs in Taiwan has demonstrated a pattern of restricted diversity within a generally uniformed framework. Such a curriculum pattern reflects a compromised solution to the issue of how teacher quality should be pursued. As mentioned above,both approaches of program-based diversification and government-controlled regulation attempt to pursue teacher quality, yet through contrasting strategies. The former assumes that diversity and competition in the open market will inspire innovations and creativity and ensure the strongest and best to emerge; the latter argues that only through establishing uniformed standards by cen仕al authorities can teacher quality be achieved (Apple,2001; Furlong et aI.,2000).

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王秀施 Diversity withinUnifonnity: 甘leDynamics ofGovemmentControl 缸ld Program Diversity in Teacher EducationCurriculum in Taiwan 131

These two seemingly conflicting ideologies are compromised in the Taiwanese case. On one hand,the government did establish a common structure and core courses to ensure a minimum level of quality in the process of teacher education; on the other hand, the programs did enjoy a certain degree of autonomy to offer a variety of courses to strengthen,refine and add on areas/topics ignored by the government standards and to produce graduates with diverse traits and specializations. In this way,afu阻reteaching force equipped with a common set of core knowledge and some degree of diverse skills and strengths are produced,and in this way teacher quality may be ensured.

8. Recommendations

Based on the findings of the present study, the following five implications/ suggestions could be made.

8.1 Releasing state control over curriculum

First of all,Taiwanese government is advised to release its control over teacher education curriculum. In the current Taiwanese system,the government has tightened the control over all aspects,including “input,"“process" and “output," of teacher education and thus reduced the diversity of teacher education programs. However, international trend has shown that major countries such as the US,UK, Germany and Japan,tend to take a strict control over the "output"(licensure) but grant more diversity over the

input" (recruitment) and

process" (curriculum) of teacher education (Feiman-Nemser,1990; Landman & Ozga,1995; Lee,2008; Liang,2008; Popkewitz, 1995; Zeichner & Conklin,2005). Each program may recruit and train students according to its specific goals and resources and the government takes charge to assure the quality of their graduates at the end point. In this way,diversity may flourish while quality could still be con甘olled(Lucas,1999; Morris & Williamson,2000; Tsai,1997; Yang,1999,2006). Thus,it is recommended that Taiwanese governmental control over teacher education curriculum be lessened.

數據

Figure 1 Course structure for secondary teacher education

Figure 1

Course structure for secondary teacher education p.12
圖 Elective courses suggested by MOE• MOE stipulated required course

圖 Elective

courses suggested by MOE• MOE stipulated required course p.16
Figure 3 Ratio of courses 0仟'ered by programs

Figure 3

Ratio of courses 0仟'ered by programs p.17
Table 2 Courses in Educational Thoughts and Foundations

Table 2

Courses in Educational Thoughts and Foundations p.19
Table 3 Human development , psychology and counselling

Table 3

Human development , psychology and counselling p.20
Table 4 Curriculum , instruction and assessment

Table 4

Curriculum , instruction and assessment p.22
Table 5 Administration and social policy

Table 5

Administration and social policy p.24
Table 6 Teacher professional development

Table 6

Teacher professional development p.26
Table 7 Specialized fields in art , athletic and vocational education

Table 7

Specialized fields in art , athletic and vocational education p.27
Table 7 (continued) Teacher Professional

Table 7

(continued) Teacher Professional p.28
Table 8 shows that , corresponding to our hypotheses , in general academic universities on average did offer more program-initiated courses (Median=9) than techonological universities (6); and public universities did initiate more courses (1 0) than privat

Table 8

shows that , corresponding to our hypotheses , in general academic universities on average did offer more program-initiated courses (Median=9) than techonological universities (6); and public universities did initiate more courses (1 0) than privat p.29
Figure 4 Median number of program-initiated courses by programs

Figure 4

Median number of program-initiated courses by programs p.30
Figure 5 Ratio of program-initiated courses by programs

Figure 5

Ratio of program-initiated courses by programs p.31

參考文獻

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