Briefing SessionEnglish Language Education SectionCurriculum Development InstituteEducation BureauCollaborative Research and Development “Seed” Project: EE0322 Exploring Strategies for Creative and Academic Writing in the Secondary English Language Curric

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Briefing Session

English Language Education Section Curriculum Development Institute

Collaborative Research and Development “Seed” Project: EE0322 Exploring Strategies for Creative and Academic Writing

in the Secondary English Language Curriculum

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Aim of the “Seed” Project

To develop teachers’ knowledge and capacity in:

incorporating creative and academic writing elements and strategies into the English Language Curriculum to deepen the learning and teaching of writing and enhance students’ writing skills;

adopting effective teaching strategies to guide students to analyse and produce a range of creative and academic texts; and

developing students’ generic skills, including creative thinking, self-learning and communication skills, through engaging them in a variety of writing and assessment activities.

To explore strategies to enhance secondary students’ creative and academic writing skills

Objectives of the “Seed” Project

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Measures to Optimise Senior Secondary English Language Curriculum – In a nutshell

Curriculum

• Adjust the lesson time according to the suggestions in the English Language Curriculum and Assessment Guide (S4 - 6) (2021)

• Integrate the Elective Part into the Compulsory Part

• Offer English-related Applied Learning courses

• Promote academic and creative uses of English

Assessment

• Refine the writing paper by reducing the number of questions and delinking Part B from the elective modules

• Streamline the SBA by allowing flexibility in the number of texts to be read and

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Characteristics of Academic Texts

Formal Objective

Precise

Technical

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Nominalisation Academic vocabulary

Hedging words The passive voice Complex sentences

Cohesive devices

Language Features that Help Achieve an Academic Style

Reference:

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Text Analysis - Awareness-raising and Noticing Activities

HKDSE Practice Paper Reading (Part A) Title: An Ocean Apart

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• To persuade people to support / oppose keeping animals in zoos and aquariums

• To provide reasons and supporting details to justify the arguments/points made

What are the writing purposes of the text? What language features and writing techniques are used to

achieve these rhetorical functions?

Section of the text that supports having zoos & aquariums

Nominalisation:

The noun phrases present the values of zoos and aquariums in a condensed manner to support the argument.

Complex sentences:

The embedded phrase “for…”

provides reasons to support having zoos and aquariums.

Parallelism:

The repeated pattern (magic 3) makes the sentence more catchyand the points and tone more forceful.

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Complex sentences:

(1) The embedded phrase “for…”

provides reasons why large animals should not be kept in aquariums.

(2) The relative clause “who…” gives details about the freedom and social life of animals living in the ocean.

supports the argument against keeping animals in aquariums Complex sentences:

“No matter how large” is an emphatic structure to make the tone more forceful.

Quoting an authority:

It makes the argument more authoritative and persuasive.

Analogy:

The comparison between a whale in a tank and a human in a bathtub vividly shows the plight of confined animals to arouse readers’

empathy and sympathy.

makes the argument more persuasive

Section of the text that opposes having zoos & aquariums

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Explicit Teaching of Academic Writing Strategies – An Example

Which academic language features can students apply when writing on the following topic?

(2021 HKDSE Writing Paper: Part B Q2)

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Analysing and Approaching the Question with Academic Text Types and Writing Purposes in Mind

Discuss why sales of electric vehicles are so low

To provide reasons for the unpopularity of electric cars To discussthe disadvantages of electric cars

To compare and contrast electric cars and petrol cars

Suggest what can be done to attract more people to drive electric vehicles

To provide solutions to the problem (i.e. low sales of electric cars)

To persuade people to drive electric cars

What organising structurecan be used in this text?

Block? Chain?

What language items can be used to achieve these rhetorical functions?

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Discuss why sales of electric vehicles are so low

When drivers are asked why they prefer petrol cars to electric cars, most of them will express without a second thought that the need to charge is the ultimate reason.

While drivers of petrol cars can simply fuel their vehicles in any petrol filling station when necessary, accurate estimation and advance planning on the time and locations of charging is required for drivers of electric cars to avoid interruptions to their journeys. To ensure sufficient power of the battery, it may be necessary for drivers of electric cars to plug their vehicles in whenever they are parked.

The passive voice

• to focus on the drivers’ views

Academic vocabulary

• to give one’s views on something

Complex sentences

• adverbial phrase to modify the manner of “express”

Nominalisation

• to condense information

Complex sentences

• subordinating conjunction to indicate time

Hedging words (modal verbs)

• a softer tone

• less forceful

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Suggest what can be done to attract more people to drive electric vehicles

Incentives may come in many forms and tax concessions are probably the most common one. A case in point is the entitlement to the first registration tax concessions for owners of electric vehicles in Hong Kong. To encourage the purchase of electric cars, more tax benefits can be provided by increasing tax remission. In addition, toll rates of tunnels can be reduced or even waived for drivers of electric vehicles.

Academic vocabulary

• specific terms

Hedging words (adverbs)

• to be cautious

Nominalisation

• to condense information

• to discuss an abstract concept

The passive voice

• to focus on the actions

Cohesive devices

• signposting words to

present another idea

Hedging words (modal verbs)

• a softer tone

• less forceful Cohesive devices

• signposting words to give examples

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What is Creativity?

Transformation – refreshing change (new perspective/presentation) Re-create old things to add a breath of freshness and break conventions

Invention – imaginative ideas + practical know-how Come up with new ideas and present them in original ways

Discovery – new knowledge and understanding (awareness & sensitivity) Realise or find out something unnoticed before

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Learning Activities for Students to Explore Creative Use of Language

Example of Activities

Discovery

Close reading and textual analysis (comprehension to appreciation)

Read texts (e.g. a poem, an advertisement, a flyer) to discuss the themes and give personal responses (e.g. choose the most powerful line / impressive part)

Analyse how words (e.g. sensory language, rhyming words, pun) and literary devices (e.g. symbolism) are used to convey meaning and create effects

Transformation

Adaptation into another form Rewriting of existing texts

(re-creation and re-presentation)

Turn an extract from a novel / short story into a script / conversation

Draw a picture on a poem

Rewrite the lyrics to present another theme

Change a part of the story (add a new character, give a new ending)

Re-write a story using another point of view / narrative voice / plot sequence

Invention

Generation of ideas and presentation in engaging ways

(production of written and multi- modal texts)

Brainstorm ideas and select quality ones to develop

Learn and practise using different writing techniques in focused ways

Edit writing to polish language, add variety and achieve effects

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Common Techniques in Creative Writing

Narrative Techniques (Fictional narratives) Literary Devices

• Characterisation (e.g. round or flat characters, portrayal of their look, thoughts, speech and actions)

• Use of setting

• Dialogue

• Narrative perspectives and point of view (e.g. 1st or 3rd person)

• Plot development (e.g. conflict, climax)

• Narrative sequence (e.g. foreshadowing, flashback and flashforward)

• Strategies for opening (e.g. into the middle or from the end of the event) and closing (e.g.

resolution, twist, enigma, cliff-hanger)

Imagery (vivid & sensory descriptions)

Similes and metaphors

Personification

Symbolism

Contrast

Repetition of words / sentence structures (e.g. parallel structure)

Pun

Repetition of sounds (e.g. alliteration, assonance, rhyming words)

Rhythm (patterns of intonation and stress)

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Explicit Teaching of Creative Writing Strategies – An Example

(2012 HKDSE Writing Paper: Part B Q7)

What writing techniques and creative language can students apply when writing

on the following topic?

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Vivid Descriptions –

Powerful Adjectives & Sensory Language to Appeal to Our Senses

Senses Example

Sight There I saw my brother step out of a fiery red convertible and walked into the classy hotel with white pillars and glowing chandeliers.

He wore a stylish slim-fit suit in smoky grey, looking sleek and smart.

Sound Vroom! His car sped past me and vanished around the corner of the street.

Taste Seeing how well my brother seemed to be doing, I couldn’t help feeling sour and bitter with envy.

Smell As he passed by, a zesty scent surged and waned – I caught a whiff of his exotic cologne.

Touch My brother was clean-shaven and his hair was slicked back with gel,

looking as smooth as an egg tart.

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S.T.E.A.L Characterisation

Showing feelings through actions

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Exploring Creative Writing Techniques – Crossing over a Range of Text Types

e.g. Using quotes and sayings

To buy or not to buy – that’s the dilemma (To fly or not to fly, to leave or not to leave)

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Writing Techniques:

Engaging opening and closing

Closing echoing the opening

Creative Use of Language:

Parallel structures

Rhetorical questions

Personification

Metaphors

(2020 HKDSE Writing Paper: Part B Q6)

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Planning & Implementation of the “Seed” Project

2022/23 School Year 2023/24 School Year School Participation: Up to 2 School Years

Class Level S3 - 5

• Conducting the

tryout with at least one class/group of students

• Conducting the tryout with the same/different

class(es)/group(s) of

students

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Implementation (1-2 weeks)

• To try out the unit, i.e. the strategies and materials, in at least one class/group of students

Development • To design and develop materials for one unit of work (about 6 – 8 lessons) with the CDI officers

Development

• To design and develop materials for one unit of work (about 8 – 12 lessons) with support from the CDI officers as appropriate

Implementation

(1-2 weeks) • To try out the unit, i.e. the strategies and materials, in at least one class /group of students

Evaluation • To participate in the end-of-the-year evaluation

Planning & Implementation of the “Seed” Project

Phase I (Small Scale)

Phase II

2022/23 s.y.

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Implementation (1-2 weeks)

• To try out the unit, i.e. the strategies and materials, in at least one class/group of students

Development • To design and develop materials for one unit of work (about 8 – 12 lessons) with the CDI officers

Development

• To design and develop materials for one unit of work (about 8 – 12 lessons) with support from the CDI officers as appropriate

Implementation

(1-2 weeks) • To try out the unit, i.e. the strategies and materials, in at least one class/group of students

Evaluation • To participate in the end-of-the-year evaluation

Planning & Implementation of the “Seed” Project

Phase I

Phase II

2023/24 s.y.

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nominate one experienced and committed English teacher to be the school project coordinator, and where possible, identify more teachers to be the members of the project team;

build on the school’s existing reading / writing programmes and incorporate the tryout into the school-based English

Language curriculum; and

School Project

Team

School project coordinator

Project teachers

The “Seed” School is Expected to:

assist in the collection of evidence (by supporting classroom observations,

including video-recording the tryout lessons and interviewing students / teacher(s)) on the impact on student learning.

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Role of the School Project Team

Identifying entry point(s) for the “Seed” Project

Working in collaboration with the CDI officers to identify suitable texts and resources for the units of tasks/learning activities

Developing and trying out teaching strategies, tasks and materials

Producing deliverables including four units of tasks to enhance students’

creative and academic writing skills in the secondary English classroom

Collecting evidence (by supporting classroom observations, including video- recording tryout lessons and interviewing students / teacher(s)) on the impact on student learning

Disseminating good practices for teachers’ professional development

School Project Team

OfficersCDI

“Seed”

Project

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Benefits for the “Seed” School

The “Seed” school will

build up the capacity of the English Panel in enhancing students’ creative and academic writing skills in the secondary English classroom; and

gain an insight into how to enhance the learning and teaching of writing and develop a holistic plan for curriculum development.

Teachers from the “Seed” school will

develop the competence in developing effective strategies and resources to enhance students’ creative and academic writing skills.

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Application

School Application Form

Education Bureau Circular Memorandum No.1/2022 Staff Interflow Schemes 2022 (Appendix C in duplicate)

Submit a Project Proposal including the following:

- title of “Seed” project with project code - school particulars

- proposal details

(provide details on A4 sheets)

Appendix C (pp.68 & 69 of CM 1/2022)

https://applications.edb.gov.hk/circular/upload/EDBCM/EDBCM22001E.pdf

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Deadline for Application 10 March 2022 (Thursday)

EDB Human Resource Management Unit, 4/F, East Wing, Central Government Offices,

2 Tim Mei Avenue, Tamar, Hong Kong (Application for Staff Interflow Schemes 2022)

Return the application form (Appendix C) with

a project proposal

to:

Drop-in Box

(Box No.: EDB03 - Staff Interflow Schemes 2022) Located at 2/F Entrance,

East Wing, Central Government Offices, 2 Tim Mei Avenue, Tamar,

Hong Kong

By post By hand

or

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Enquiries

Project Specific

Ms Elizabeth WONG

English Language Education Section 2892 5873

General

Mr Edward LAI Life-wide Learning Section

2892 5824

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References

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