Appendix 2 58 33 5 FOREWORD CONTENTS

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Catering for Needs 3 PART I

5 Developing an English Programme for

One or More Classes PART II

Drawing up a Language Plan 12


Resources and Materials 19 PART IV

Reinforcement in the Subject of English Language


PART VI Curriculum Tailoring 33

Developing an English Programme for 37 Individual Students


Some Additional Strategies 44


Appendix Language Skills Required for Studying 49 the Major Subjects as Identified

in the CDC Syllabuses

58 Language Skills and Items Required

for Studying the Major Subjects as Identified in Textbooks

Appendix 2

Language Skills and Items Required by 66 the Major Subjects in HKCEE Appendix 3


Appendix 4 Study Skills Required for the Major 7Q


Appendix 5 Involving All EMI Teachers 82 Simplifying the Language of Textbook

Materials Appendix 6


Appendix 7 Curriculum Adjustment 96 Appendix 8 Examples of Integrated Tasks Appendix 9 Suggested Language for Instruction



Developing an English Programme for One or More Classes


Students can be clearly and positively helped to adjust to EMI through an English programme across subjects for one or more classes aiming to help students

* acquire sufficient language and study skills for EMI

* gain confidence using English for study

* collaborate in group activities in the English medium

* actively use English for acquiring and developing knowledge, communication and problem-solving skills

FUNCTION OF THE S4 ENGLISH PROGRAMME The major function of an 54 English programme is

NOT to provide translation of the learning materials of 51-3 into English,

NOT to require students to develop translation skills for the two languages of Chinese and English,

NOT to repeat the teaching procedure of 51-3 subject matters,

BUT to enable more efficient teaching and learning through a systematic arrangement of the teaching of English and subject matters across the EMI subjects and school activities. By this systematic arrangement, both repetitions and gaps of teaching/learning are avoided, and time and effort are saved for both teachers and students. This arrangement can


also ensure that the language is taught/learnt progressively, without ever forcing an overt amount on students in any time of the school year. It provides constant opportunities of learning, consolidation and revision

in natural circumstances. It helps to maintain students' enthusiasm and confidence in studying the EMI subjects.



It is worth spending time and effort to help students weak with EMI.

Even if the 54-5 curriculum is slowed down at the beginning of 54 because of a special English programme for EMI, there is still time for students to catch up after the programme. This is because once students master EMI, the language barrier is removed and students can learn the subject matter better and faster, and meet the HKCEE requirements more competently.

Subjects and prior knowledge

An English programme across the curriculum helping 54 students to benefit from EMI is a programme enabling further learning in the English medium based on the foundation of the existing knowledge and skills. This programme is a means to bridge the already acquired knowledge and skills with the knowledge and skills to be acquired.

The medium of the subjects in S 1-3 and S4-5 has bearing on the development of such a programme. If, for example, History, Geography or Science is studied in CMI or mixed-code in SI-3, it would be necessary to allow a certain amount of time and effort for transfer to EMI in those particular subjects. It may even be necessary to develop materials for revision in EMI on a subject-basis. Such materials should be learning tasks and activities recapitulating in general only the major learning contents of SI-3, and can be developed from the existing SI-3




EM! subjects and English Language

A common problem for EM! is the incompatibility of the English Language syllabus and the needs of the EMI subjects. It arises when the English Language teacher teaches at a slower pace or lower level than the EMI teachers. This incompatibility causes great difficulties for students who find that they learn some English every lesson, but the English taught to them is not organised and systematic. Many students end up failing to learn the English required for EM! and their study is affected because of their inadequacy in the English language. Teachers should therefore address this problem with a language plan across all the EMI subjects.


When students adjust to EMI, they are usually willing and eager until they are deterred by failures and frustrations. Teachers should grasp this opportunity and give them the best assistance and direction possible until they are adequately prepared to tackle the EMI subjects independently. Once students master the essential language skills, their learning efficiency in the EMI subjects will be greatly improved.

EM! teachers

Some EMI teachers may have difficulty with the strategies required for an S4 English programme: in understanding students' language needs, in identifying language and study skills, and, above all, in the simplification, selection, organisation and use of English for teaching the EM! subjects. This problem can be partly addressed by meaps of the development of an agreed language plan and modification of the teaching strategies and materials across the EMI subjects. Its final

solution rests with the EMI teachers' own improved language skills.


English Language teachers

The role of the English IJanguage teacher is expanded when a special English programme is adopted for EMI. The English Language teacher should adapt the English curriculum so that there is reasonable support for the EMI subjects. This includes the teaching of language and study skills, language items, text-types, etc. The English Language teacher is also the most suitable person to liaise with the EMI teachers about the ways to simplify, select, organise and use English for teaching, and also in the organising and carrying out of extra-curricular activities in the English medium. If preferred, a language co-ordinator can be appointed to work out the details and be responsible for the coordination work.

Mode of operation

Schools may wish to operate the English programme (as one complete course or in a few parts) towards the end of the S3 school year, during the summer vacation, in the early weeks of S4, or for two to three months at the beginning of S4. Consideration should be given to the students who need the programme: whether they are promoting from S3 to S4 in the same school, whether they are allocated from other schools, and how they are streamed into Arts, Science and Commerce classes.

It may be possible to adopt a generalised programme or part of the programme on classroom language, language development skills and study skills at an early stage. But it is not possible to start with subject specific language development until after the class arrangements

(including choice of subjects and student placement) are all in place, which usually happens in late August or early September.


The length of the English programme depends on the school tradition, orientation plans, resources, subject combinations, subject needs and students' abilities. A school with brilliant students and capable EMI teachers may need only a week or two to familiarise students with the



classroom language and the basic language skills to meet daily requirements in lessons and tasks. In any case, teachers sho~ld be allowed some discretion regarding their particular groups of students.


To develop an S4 English programme, a cross-curricular approach is necessary. Such a programme should consist of the following:






measures to identify students' standards and needs concensus among teachers regarding students' language needs

language plan(s) across the EMI subjects

simplification and tailoring of the learning materials at the beginning of 54

measures to enable the EMI teachers to apply the language plan meaningfully

reinforcement in the English curriculum to support the EMI subjects

extra learning opportunities provided through extra- curricular activities, after-school assistance, additional facilities and resources, etc


Principals, English panel chairpersons, teachers of S4 English Language and teachers of the EM! subjects should prepare the teaching plans, language plans and extra-curricular activities together. They can take the following steps:

Find out about the English standards of the students and how big their ability range is, for example, roughly how many students can carry out instructions in English during lessons, how many can ask questions fluently in English, how many can use the dictionary and encyclopedia, etc; and on the other hand, how many need to learn to read the English newspaper, how many need to learn to follow a news report on 'the English (i)



channel, etc. This can be done through a short test, teachers' observation or students' self-evaluation.

(ii) Identify the amount of concepts associated with the terminologies and definitions which have been learnt at 51-3, now to be revisited in 54-5. In most subjects, the curriculum is designed with a spiral development that naturally enables revisiting of the major topics for students' further development at a higher level. The amount of concepts for revisiting can therefore be reduced to the minimum.

Consider the existing provision for promoting English proficiency including the English language environment, the frequency of using English at 51-3, the frequency of English extra-curricular activities, resources and materials, teachers' proficiency, classroom situations, etc. If there is very little

such provision in 51-3, the bridging at 54-5 is more complex and much more has to be covered. If there is already plenty of such provision in 51-3, the bridging at 54-5 is simpler.

Decide how to group the students (streaming, split classes and other grouping arrangements)

how much extra time and effort to give to each group to help them catch up (the weaker groups will obviously need more time and assistance)

how the better groups can advance without being affected by the weaker groups

Decide on the arrangement of areas, topics and objectives to teach at the beginning of S4, with consideration that both quantity and depth must not be overtly demanding for the weaker S4 students. Simplification of language and tailoring of the learning materials are usually necessary to help students adjust to EMI. This can be achieved by the EMI teachers independently or through discussion with the English Language teachers.




Develop a language plan for English Language and the EM!

subjects so that there is a controlled progress in the teaching and use of English. A separate language plan may be necessary for each S4 class because of the different choices and combination of EMI subjects. For example, an Arts class may have EM! in History, Geography and EPA but not Mathematics and Human Biology; then this class needs a language plan for English, History, Geography and EPA, but not the other subjects. A Science class may have EMI for all the science subjects; then a language plan is required for all the science subjects.

Plan a schedule for additional learning opportunities outside the classroom, such as extra assignments and homework, tutorial and interest groups, extra-curricular activities led by senior students, etc. Such additional learning opportunities should be provided frequently, subject to students' needs and the resources availabl~.





A language plan is helpful for teachers to perceive how the students' language framework is developed, how they can draw on the teaching and learning of the other subjects, and to co-ordinate their efforts of language teaching and use across the EMI subjects. To develop a language plan for 54, teachers of English Language and the EMI subjects can follow the procedure below:

Review the S4 textbooks of the EMI subjects and compare the language used in these textbooks (identifying the differences and similarities).

Appendix 1 provides a list of the language skills required by the major CDC Syllabuses as in May 1996.

Appendix 2 provides a list of the most common language skills and items required for the study of the major subjects, as identified in the textbooks of the major subjects as in May 1996.

Review the HKCEE syllabuses of the EM! subjects and compare the language required for answering HKCEE papers.

Appendix 3 provides a list of the language skills and items required in the major HKCEE Subjects, as identified in the HKCEE papers 1993-5 and the respective examiners' reports.

~ Agree on the range, types and levels of reading and writing skills, as well as the study skills to be learnt and 12


Plan Example 1


Plan for language items

TeadlingIEnglish Language Week

Mathematics Religious Knowledge

Geojlt3phy Histo~. Ecooomics

1st ,,=k.


Present and past

~rfect ten&e$

perfect Ipresent perfect lpast perfect perfect

lpast perfect


ca~ and effect:

beca~ (of). since therefore, so

therefore. .., because (of) so

(of) Islnce


, coosequenc..

so Ismoe.

Itherefore so


reason, cause, effect, coosequence



V~bulary Vocabulary': VocabularyI

l2nd ~k


ac~ve and paasive


aCti,:e and.


aCti'. and


aCti~e and

VOICes _slve VOICes passive VOICes IJaSSlve


active and


active and

passive voiceo ~ive voiceo lalthOUgh, though


tI1OUgb, but

~Ithough,though, but

although, though, but

Ithough, but but

IVocabtlJa~' Vocabulal) Vocabulan-: Vocabulaf)' Yocabula')":


:lrd ek and IsimPle



Isuppooiti<xu suppooitions ii, taken that,


Vocabulaf).: [Vocabulary

14th week I~.;.ion of

simple future future cootinuous

ancl future perfect tenses



.future tens..

revisioo of future tense

making oredictions

using the fu~

Icontinuous and future perfect

making making



while when, while





Plan Example 2


Plan for text-types



English I..lnguage Mathetmtics &ooomics Commerce

lst~ 'presenting a theory or linterpreting tabl.. andl explaining and

concept with illustratioo Ich3rts illuotrating a coocept

interp~ting charts, tables, gnpbs, etc

interpreting charts and ,data flie

in!e.,,~g figures &


worlcing out the insbuctiODS for placing 'an order

2nd week idiscussing the pr.. and icons of an issue

pointing out the

~.ibiliti.. of an issue using discouroe

markers such as rlrstly secondly, rmally. in cooclusioo using discourse f~tures

and the essay format

[Indy, secondly. on the

other hand, however firstly, second!)

.3rd week


writing a letter of complaint

calculating l.-ses reporteC in 3 letter

comparing the characteristics of two marlcet strucl11

d~wing up 3D 3C"'"

plan in response to die complaint

writing a summar:" of the recent development of Ithe economy of HongI


prO'"iding a brief report on the accounts of a

company 14th week Iwritmg a report

using the reported speech for writing reports

idescribing a problem to Ibe solved usingI

conditi~1s and supp~lbons 15th week describing possible

situations using conditimlals and suppositions

describing a problem to be solved using supp~iti<X1S



Plan Example 3


Plan for language skills and study skills

TeadtingIEnglish Language IMathematicsI week

BiolOg.\" Physics Chemistry Computer



language5-10 m..t

commoo inslnlctions

5-10 mcxt

commoo instroctioos

5-10 m~t commoo instructions


5-10 m.-t

common instructi0D5

5-10 m..t common instroctioos

l:and giv:mg mstn1ctloos

2nd ~k ~ring requ..tmg

things andI explanations

aoking questions and giving answers with explanation

asking and answering cuestioos

requesting things and explanatims

asking and

~ring questioos during le.sons

uoing dte dicti(Xlary for pronunciatioo and meaning using the dictimary

for prooun"ia!ioo, m=ing and use

luslng the

!dicti<X1af)' for pnxlunciation

and .,..

using the dictiOl1a'Y for pronunciation.

meaning and use using the dicljonary for meaning and use

3rd week !fair work and group work

~r work pair worl< and group worl<

lpair -.wk and group worIc

pair work and group work

pair wor\(

and group work using the


using the encyclope,jia for pictorial illus~ti(XIS


USing the encyclopedia for jinformation

using the encyclopedia for information

4th,.m lreporting oral!)' re~g


reporting orallyiusing films andivid...

for dati 'collection

viewing rUms and ,id- for informabon

IUSing newspaperthe

for infonnatioo

using the newspaper

for data collection Icollecting data in the media

5th ~ l listening for infOm1ation

watching TV or film for information


reporting orally I reporting oraU}" _oching TV for data collectioo

using the newspaper and TV for dab collection using the

fl\m. etc.

for data collectioo



Plan Example 4


Plan for revisiting the concepts associated with the terminologies, definitions, formulas, etc, learnt in 51-3.


Revision of the subject-specific items should be done directly in EMf, avoidinf! translation work.

The best way is just to revisit or briefly go over the major items in English, calling upon students' prior knowledge, and then to proceed on to development of this knowledge in EMf. This leads very naturally to the teaching of the subject matter appropriate to S4 in EMf.

There is no need to repeat the teaching process carried out in Sf-3.




English Language Mathematics Gecgr".tphy Historv EPA

names of places taught in 51.3

names of places, or~isatioos &.

positioos tlughl ;"

51-3 ltasic phonics for

pronunciation and spelling

nam.. of ~bols tough! in 51-3

I13mes of pla.:es taught in 51-3

dermitioos covered in 51-3

defmitioos covered in 51-3


COV~~ in 51-3

" ~ttems tOT ideI1tifying key words and main clauses in


ldefmitions and iformuJas co."credlin


using /h.e dictionary (or


expressing simple


describing simple


desCribing simple


des.cribing simple

proouncmboo and CCX1Cepts phenomena events social systems


connecting people and events COfU1ecting ovents sentence strucwres using

adverbial clauses (becallse, since, when, though, if, etc)


connecting J2t1ems and lfigures


simple problems Isimple problems simpl~ suppoxitions and


simplc problcms


isimple problemsI



Plan Example 5


Plan for revisiting the concepts associated with the terminologies, definitions, formulas, etc, learnt in S 1-3.


Revision of the subject-specific items should be done direcdy in EM/, avoidinJ! translation work.

The best way is just to revisit or briefly go over the major items in English, calling upon students' prior knowledge, and then to proceed on to development of this knowledge in EM/. This leads very naturally to the teaching of the subject matter appropriate to 54 in EM/.

There is no need to repeat the teaching process carried out in 5/-3.



English Language Biol~' Chemistry Physics Mathematics

oasic phooics for and

names of li\ing and Doo-living things

nam.. of chemicals

lnames .of physical Inames of symbols

Quantities spelling

2 tOIle and rh~ patternsdefinitions for identifying key

words and main clauses

defmiti<X1S and formulas

idefmitions and Cannulas

isimple fonnuJas

using the dicti<XJary for ISimPle pronunciatioo and explanatioos


simple explanations

simple explanations


4 sentence patterns connecting things




Iconnecting happenings


lpa~ms and

figureo simple suppositioos andcooditiCXlalssimple problems simple problems ~simple problems Isimple problems




Resources and Materials


Students have a big hurdle to jump when they adjust to EMI, and all support must be there to help them jump across successfully. The most important resource support is of course teacher support. Any member of the staff who is indifferent and unco-operative may cast doubt and uncertainty on students' efforts, and consequently reduce students' confIdence and motivation. To ensure successful implementation of EMI, the school principal, English Language teachers and teachers of the EMI subjects must be involved actively and constructively.

The school principal should collaborate with teachers to ensure that the students benefit from EM!, by

0 drawing up the school policy regarding EM! for all the staff, including the approach and strategies to be adopted for the EM! subjects, the role of the EM!

teachers, and the choice and use of teaching materials including textbooks

0 managing and facilitating the availability of time, space and resources (including manpower and materials) for developing and implementing the programme

0 ensuring that the EM! teachers are adequately proficient in English to conduct lessons in the English medium

0 ensuring the development or adoption of a language plan in a cross-curricular approach for all the teachers




0 supporting EMI teachers in their simplification of language use and curriculum tailoring to help students adjust to the use of EMI

0 maintaining a constant check. support and review of the development, ensuring that there is sufficient collaboration of efforts among the staff concerned Appendix 5 provides some suggestions of helping teachers


To provide the English language education that leads to the necessary bilingualism for Hong Kong, schools should ensure that students have sufficient exposure to the English language. The language environment of a school must be enhanced to provide this constant input of English.

This includes:

{;:t notices, instructions and directions put up in the school premises for various purposes such as those for using the library, queuing up at the canteen, etc

po announcements, talks and assemblies during which the principal or teachers make fairly long addresses p posters, notice boards and displays related to students'

work and achievements, which provide materials and activities for sharing among students

:(> books, magazines and newspapers which provide information and data related to students' studies and interests




conversation, discussion and negotiation which the principal and teachers may carry out among themselves or with students regarding various activities and school issues such as donation for charity, enrolment for a club, apologies for being absent, etc

.0 interesting activities such as speech contests, debates and drama, including the English Day, should be organised frequently to ensure adequate frequency of use of English in the school


To encourage students to participate in extra-curricular activities using English, teachers should deliberately plan activities that are attractive, pleasant, challenging and sustainable so that students leave each activity.

with interest and the intention of coming back. Below are some COJI1.Inon extra-curricular activities:

students in various activities such as reading schemes, book report competitions, etc. The materials should cover as broad a range of topics as possible.

recitals and writing competitions in which students are encouraged to write and present (based on a model or

not) comic strips, stories, diaries, rhymes, playlets, etc video or film shows in which appropriate videos and films on a range of'topics are shown, to be preceded or followed by simple discussions led by the teacher. A popular theme, like pop music, using English songs, sub-titles and reference materials, can initiate curiosity,

exploration and further reading of materials that will help develop students' interest and study skills.



English oral sessions at recess and lunch time to provide extra opportunities of speaking English. These sessions can be led by teachers or senior students who are fluent in English, and can cover all areas such as recitation, reading, discussion, quizzes, etc

English club and related activities in which students take part under the leadership of senior students, such as speech and drama activities, scrabble, reading and writing contests, debates, film reviews, preparation of newsletters and magazines, etc. Some schools set up different clubs for these activities; ~ome schools organise them all under the English club or association.

Where suitable, the clubs of EM! subjects can also conduct activities involving the use of English, such as preparation and report of a field visit or experiment, poster and announcement for a contest, report on the some unusual happenings in the class, a magazine article on some major school event, comparison of news reports on different media, a scrap-book on different professions in Hong Kong or the life of a prominent politician, etc


The library facilities must be easily accessible to all teachers as well as students. The school library should be open when the students are free to use it, that is during recesses, lunch time, after school, and during holidays. Priority must be given to meaningful use rather than mere existence.

There should be a good range of books in English to cater for students' interests. As a regular exercise, students can be asked to consider the book reviews in newspapers and magazines, and recommend books for




The media in Hong Kong provide a good range of English language examples and plenty of opportunities for language learning. The newspaper, in particular, can be read at students' OV/ll pace and serve as a source of information.

However, teachers should remind their students that the language used in the media is not always the most desirable model for learning. A range of exposure is necessary, but there should be some discretion in the use of the more desirable models and the less desirable ones.

Teachers of EMI subjects should ask their students to read the English newspaper for information and in preparation for class discussion. If the TV or radio is preferred, students should be reminded to watch or listen to the same parts repeatedly because they may need to get familiarised with the English language before they can abstract the necessary information from them.

Assignments using the media should be given with some flexibility so that students can complete the tasks according to the media they have access to and 1-he range of materials (and information) they can get from the~e sources. Time must be allowed for the less able students to read or listen to the materials repeatedly. In all events, students should be requested to use a variety of the media and never to depend on only one of them.

Teachers should also remind students that reporters may have different perspectives and views. They may report the same event in a different manner and thereby give a different picture. Using the media wisely involves discernment of fact from opinion, and truth from fiction.

Teachers are reminded that if the students study through EMI, English should be used for conceptual development, data collection, organisation and presentation. English should be used on all occasions of study including the use of textbooks, doing exercises, classroom discussion, using references, tests and examinations, and completing homework.




Mixed-code must be avoided on all occasions, during lessons and school activities, and even in the use of resource materials after school because the use of mixed-code incurs comparison of the two language systems, translating of words and idiomatic expressions, and a mixture of all the other techniques of language use. This unnecessary increase of the learning burden for students is most undesirable.

When students prepare for work or further education, they need to be able to use a language proficiently, because the workplace and tertiary institutions will expect them to use a language competently, and not mixed-code. When students use a language for studying, their knowledge framework will be constructed on that language. They will be able to read and write sufficiently on various topics in that language.

However if students are used to depending on mixed-code, they will not be able to read and write in anyone language with the necessary fluency and proficiency.




. of



The role of the English Language teacher of an 54 class adopting EMI is necessarily expanded. Teachers of English Language can provide support for the students studying the EMI subjects by


the names and terminologies are pronounced in the same way (and correctly) across subjects, and the same range of language patterns is used (e.g. when to start using the complex sentence or the adverbial clause of time)

everybody concerned uses the same source of reference (the same dictionary, the same grammar book, etc)


the development of the students, and keeping all relevant teachers informed as to the pace of students' progress: when certain language items need to be taught, when certain errors need to be corrected, when certain new language patterns can be introduced, when teaching can proceed more slowly or quickly, etc.





so that the urgently required language items can be taught or revised in the English Language lessons before (and not after) they have to be used

in the EMI subjects.


by using materials of the EMI subjects as content for English Language oral work, discussion, composition, listening and reading practice. For example, students can be asked to take notes of a documentary they watch for another subject (History, Geography, Science) for study skills development, to write a report of a science experiment as a composition assignment, to read some materials for a task in Economics and report the findings to the class as oral work, to collect information on the environment of Hong Kong and prepare a scrap book on how to protect the environment as project work.


which help students learn efficiently, and develop greater independence in learning. Study skills are transferable from one area of learning to another. They enable a person to continue education and development throughout life. They are extremely important for a person's intellectual and career development.

Study skills are best developed through practice in natural settings of task completion. Drilling and memorisation do not require the use of study skills and are therefore meaningless. Task-based assignments and projects involve the learning and use of study skills and are therefore meaningful. Assignments that are related to daily life interests and needs are best for acquiring and developing study skills.



can be great fun. However, teachers should remember that the more able students may complete this task quickly in class, but the less able students may find the thesaurus confusing. The less able students also need to be allowed time at home to complete the task at their own pace.

If there is a short time limit for the task, there will be pressure instead of fun for the less able students.


through interesting activities. The library can be boring when there is no purpose for visiting it; but it can be fun and challenging when students go there to find answers and solve problems.

The basic library skills include using

~ the catalogues and writers' name search, possibly on the computer

~ the different parts of a publication to obtain information, e.g. index, book cover, title, table of contents

~ scanning skills when looking for books or articles

~ the magazines and journals on display and search for information by skimming the contents

~ reference books and encyclopedia

To initiate interest, S4 students can be asked to go to find out about the library system as a task. Then they can be asked to help the younger students around the library and to locate books and information.

Shortly after that, students should be assigned tasks and projects that require information from reference books, magazines, encyclopedia, etc.


which are essential for independent learning. The types and complexity



of enquiry skills increase according to students' progress. Enquiry skills improve with practice and improved enquiry skills promotes successful communication, and social and interpersonal relationship.

The basic enquiry skills include:

1 using appropriate tone and approach when asking for information and explanation

, repeating questions and seeking clarification politely and pi easantl y

, using appropriate opening remarks and formulaic expressions (e.g. Excuse me ...)

, requesting explanation when there is misunderstanding or query in a polite and pleasant way

, understanding the use of different tones and degrees of formality

, asking follow-up questions appropriate to the occasion , writing simple notes or letters to ask for information

and materials, both formally and informally


through additional work towards the end of 53 or shortly before 54 English Language teachers can

..ensure that students know sufficient phonic skills for word identification, pronunciation and spelling

..ensure that their students are proficient in classroom language

..teach the common text-types (label, letter, notes, report, form, graphics, expository essay, etc)

..teach students how to plan and develop an argument, using reasons and examples

..use a variety of instructional language (Appendix 9 suggests some simple language to deliver instructions) ..ask students to try to surnmarise what they have learnt

in 51-3 in the form of notes or tables




try to teach as many of the language and study skills listed in Appendix 4 as possible

As an additional assignment for the vacation, students can try to go through the first chapter of an 54 textbook and identify the words that they do not know. Students can be encouraged to find out the pronunciation, meaning and use of some of these words from a dictionary independently. This activity helps students to assume some responsibility for their learning and also anticipate the language use in S4. There is no need for the teacher to teach or explain the new words unless asked to.




Curriculum Tailoring


Curriculum tailoring is cutting-down, extending or adapting the curriculum (syllabus or textbook) according to students' needs. Every group of students may have a different reason for curriculum tailoring and school-based curriculum tailoring is an effective form of curriculum development.

For students using EMI, the English Language curriculum has to be extended to support the curriculum of the EM! subjects. For example, more classroom language, mo(e language skills, more study skills and especially the vocabulary of the EMI subjects have to be taught. This is extending the English Langufge curriculum to support the study of the other subjects.

For students adjusting to E1'.1I, time has to be allowed to acquire sufficient language and skills t? study in EMI. Both the language and contents of the EMI subjects m~y have to be reduced in the early weeks of S4 in order to enable studFnts to start off. This is reducing the curricula of the EM! subjects In order to allow time for students to be preparedfor EM!. This does ~t mean that the standard of the subjects

is lowered, because the curriculum is only temporarily reduced. Once

the students are proficient in Er l, they can catch up on what have been missed quite easily.

The adjustment of English Lan~age has to be matched with the tailored curriculum of the EMI subjects. This is adapting the curriculum according to students' learninglneedS in English Language and the EM!




language use

arrange to recycle the topics so that the omitted details can be taught at a later date


Appendix 7 provides further information on the adjustment of textbook materials.




Developing an English Individual Students


In a school where only a limited number of students need an English programme, the programme can be designed to offer assistance to individual students. It can be adjusted so that it is much more individualised; but the purpose and function of the programme remain unchanged. The principles of such a programme are as follows:


EM! teachers and English Language teachers collaborate to identify the learning needs of these students according to their previous educational experience, their present English standard and language learning difficulties. The contents of Parts II to V above and Appendices 1-4 offer some criteria for judgement.

Then they draw up a study plan for these students and decide on the role of each EMI teacher in this plan.


Teaching of the EMI subjects should be geared to cater for the majority of students. The regular lessons should not be disrupted by the presence of the weaker students.

Emphasis should be placed on language and study skills rather than isolated items of knowledge. Skills are transferable and enable students to improve both in and outside the school with and without teacher guidance.

Knowledge of isolated items is not easily transferable.




Students' motivation, interest and confidence must be sustained and enhanced as far as possible. These qualities are crucial to speedy achievement. Reprimand and overt criticism that may reduce students' motivation, interest and confidence should be avoided.

Encouragement, personal concern and positive advice should to be provided whenever any sign of the need of

such support appears.


The students using the programme must not be regarded as an alternative group of students. In all schools in Hong Kong, there is a range of abilities among the students. The causes, nature and extent, and teaching requirements of such a range of abilities vary from school to school. The students using an English programme just add to the variety of students' abilities.

Segregation or bias will not help them.


The 54 English programme for individual students can include the following:

revisiting concepts associaJed with the terminologies, definitions and formulas taught in Sl-3

To enable individual students to catch up with the class quickly, it is feasible to develop revision materials on the subject matters learnt in S 1- 3 for students to prepare themselves for S4. The nature and purpose of such revision materials should be as follows:

.These materials are essentially quick summaries of what students learn in SI-3 in the related areas.

.These materials bring about revisiting of the concepts, terminologies, definitions and formulas through EMI.

.These materials are developed from the materials (such




as textbooks and worksheets) used in S1-3.

Tasks and activities with plenty of pictorial illustrations and diagrams involving active use of language form t.~e bulk of the materials.

Record cards or checklists are included for individual students to carry out self-monitoring and self-valuation in the course of using the materials.


Revision materillls for individuals or small groups may not be desirable for use in class because the major subject curricula develop from one level to another in breadth and depth. What is covered in

51-3 naturally evolves in 54-5. An English programme on a class basis should refer to the 54 curricula (and not the 51-3 curricula) to cover the necessary language.

immersion and individuaIised learning during lessons

For maximum exposure and learning opportunities, the weaker students can attend the regular EMI lessons together with their classmates.

However they should not be expected to perform like their classmates.

They can watch and be rold briefly what their classmates are doing.

They can also complete other simple tasks during these lessons, such as -listing the major learning points of the lesson and the

activities carried out by the students -guessing what the classmates try to achieve

-guessing what the teacher wants the students to achieve -describing through notes, drawing and referring to the

textbook (and other materials)

-identifying features of the topic which is the focus of the lesson

-identifying the features of certain sound patterns, structural patterns, text-types, etc, that appear frequently during the lessons

-participating in group work as far as possible

-keeping a record of the parts of lesson they can follow (This record may start with zero and should grow to a hundred percent in due course.)



In all these tasks, the teacher shows awareness and gives encouragement; but there is no need for the teacher to spend time on individualised teaching during lessons for the whole class. T hey should not be encouraged to depend on the teacher's attention.

opponunities of withdrawal

To give the weaker EMI students the necessary support, withdrawals are important and can take place in the following ways:

...teacher or tutor meets individuals or small groups before or after school, during recess or lunch break ...teacher or tutor withdraws individuals or small groups

from some lessons of the subjects in which these individuals or small groups do well. These students may be doing well in these subjects because these subjects do not require a lot of English, such as Mathematics; and their achievement is not affected even if they miss some lessons. (This withdrawal arrangement can be monitored by a teacher with a free period or a senior student. It must be stopped as soon as the teachers of these subjects feel there is a need for the weaker EMI students to attend these lessons.)

...small groups withdrawn from lessons of cultural and practical subjects. (This should not occur for more than one lesson per week for each of these subjects.)


#1. Withdrawal should not take place during school or class activities such as sports day, swimming gala, inter-class

debates, class picnics, etc, because all students should be given the opportunity of participating and experiencing major events.

Where possible, small groups are preferable to individuals because small groups enable (a) sharing of interests, (b) support from group members, (c) better relationship and comradeship among group members, (d) reduced demand on the teacher, and (e) more cost-effective use of materials and resources.




trdditional learning materials

Additional materials include

.materials to help students to transfer their subject knowledge from the Chinese medium to the English medium, such as glossaries of terminologies and the English .version of theories, formulaS, etc

.materials that help students to master the basic English sound and structural patterns, such as listening tapes and exercises on text-types, sentence structures, etc .assignments that enable practice and development of

basic study skills, such as phonics and spelling, note- taking, dictionary skills, library skills and enquiry skills .materials that help students pick up classroom language

effectively within a short time

.practice of language skills with various text-types common to the EMI subjects

~~elf-access learning

In order not to overtly increase the teacher's workload and to encourage independent learning, students should be taught and encouraged to apply the skills of independent learning including:

..asking for advice and suggestions on how to complete assignments, and taking note of advice and suggestions ..locating information and ideas in a library, study room,

newspapers and magazines, etc

..looking for materials independently for the completion of a certain assignment, and making notes of the data and information in various forms (including charts, tables, time-lines, etc.)

..planning an assignment and adjusting the plan where and when necessary

..completing worksheets and assignments with the help of textbook materials, dictionaries, reference books, etc ..revising work for improvement and correction of

mistakes, perhaps with the help of a sample or model




finalising and evaluating their own work, perhaps with the help of the teacher, a classmate, model answers, etc

A lot of the self-access learning materials available on the market provide the necessary information and ideas input, worksheets and assignment reports, and model answers for self-marking. These materials can be extended to require students to use the other skills of independent learning.

If there is a self-access centre in the school or its neighbourhood, the students can be told to explore these facilities and learn about topics and themes through the facilities of these centres. This will probably involve the use of information technology and the media, which is interesting, challenging and rewarding.

peer assistance

Students can benefit significantly from peer assistance when the relationship is friendly and cheerful. With their peers, students can be more comfortable, gain greater sympathy and understanding, and behave more naturally than when they are with teachers.

It is often a good policy to ask the better students of a class to stay with the weaker students in the same group and help them in group activities during and after lessons. The better students can benefit from this arrangement because, through lending assistance to others, they further integrate their knowledge in their cognitive framework, apply what they have learnt in real situations, extend their knowledge to the needs of others, and develop other related skills such as reasoning, problem- solving, interpersonal and communication skills.

However teachers should be sensitive to the mood and feelings of the students concerned to ensure that the relationship is beneficial to both sides. Animosity and prejudice must be avoided and eliminated at the first instance. Furthermore the better students should not be (a) overloaded with responsibilities, (b) expected to replace the teacher, or

(c) asked to lose the time they need for their own study.



graduated (and self-monitored) assessment

In the early weeks of 54, the weaker students cannot be expected to achieve and perform in the same way as the other students. They need special arrangements of tests and assessmentS, such as

@ tasks and exercises instead of the test or assessment that is being completed by the class

@ a short and simplified question paper

@ part(s) of a test or assessment instead of the entire paper

@ permission to use books, dictionary and models during assessment

Instead of the teacher marking the papers, the weaker students can be asked to mark their own papers and record the results of their performance in order to better understand their own progress. The results of the tests and assessments of these students are not useful except to help teachers understand their needs and plan their study. The purpose of asking these students to take part in tests and assessments is

not only to find out the level of their ability, but also to let them have the experience of tests and assessments. The process of marking and recording one's own progress against the learning targets and achievements of the other students provides direction, incentive and encouragement for the students.

The weaker students can be expected to take tests and assessment papers like the other students only when they have mastered the EMI mode of learning. Until then their participation in the class tests and assessments should not be considered as genuine assessment of their abilities.





Learning is a process of engaging one's mind actively with the learning conte:nt, so that one's framework of knowledge (knowledge, experience and skills) is expanded in the course of learning. When the student is passi've, such intellectual engagement is weak and the learning effec1tiveness is minimal. When the student is active and motivated, such intellectual engagement is strong and the learning effectiveness is maxumised .

It is very important for students to develop, as soon as possible, a sense of re:sponsibility for their own learning, which will motivate them to enga~~e actively and earnestly in their learning.

In developing a sense of responsibility for learning in students, teachers must understand that one of the important aspects of learning is the abilit:y to track one's behaviour and control it. Students should be encouraged to reflect and develop awareness and control of their learning behaviour.

Such awareness and control should be nurtured through gradually incre.lSed delegation of responsibility to the students. For example, students can be asked to choose major assignments, plan their revision timet.lble, check their own work, help classmates, keep record of their own progress, etc. Then they can be asked to plan their learning objectives for a few weeks, choose their own tasks, plan their own learning method, assess their own performance against criteria, reflect on th,eir approach and compare their strategies with those of other stude:nts, etc.




Students should be encouraged to work in groups, arid learn to negotiate, and appreciate, help and understand each other in activities.

Through the process of group work, the better ones can also further internalise their knowledge and skills, and the weaker students can benefit from the experience of their peers.

Group projects is an effective way of ensuring meaningful group work.

Students are arranged in groups, each given a role to play in the group (leader, researcher, reporter, recorder, etc). Project assignments are given to the groups for completion according to a schedule. Teachers should go through the project requirements with the students at the beginning, give advice during the process of the project and comment on the results towards the end of the project. The final products of the different groups can be compared and each should be evaluated in conference with the students concerned.

If there is any relationship problem in a group, action must be taken at once to resolve any misunderstanding, change the group combination, change the roles of the group members, adjust. the nature of the project

(but not to make it very easy or simple) etc.

In evaluating the products, teachers are reminded that

-the learning process is just as important (if not more) as the product

-the role and performance of individual students in the groups should be given .recognition

-the enquiry, communication, negotiation, coordination and other skills developed by each student should be noted

-the differences between the products do not render them better or worse; each may deserve credit for its own reasons

.In promoting team spirit in group projects, teachers should ensure that )0 students know that everybody has different strengths





and weaknesses, and that these strengths and weaknesses may change

students know that everybody has the potential of improving himself/herself, and that everybody can improve when there is sufficient and well-directed effort and input, and

students' work is checked by the teacher asking questions on how they arrive at the results and commenting on the process in addition to the product.

Students should be led to understand that simply copying the results is of no use. They must improve on their methods and independence.


Since a person's knowledge framework may be systematic and strul:tured but not compartmentalised, it is more efficient for learning proc:esses not to be compartmentalised. Integrated tasks and project work require the integrated use and development of knowledge and skills, drawing upon a student's knowledge framework without distinction and separation of subject areas. They are therefore highly reco,mmended for the S4 English programme.

If plJssible, teachers of different EMI subjects can request students to use'the same information on a common topic, but for slightly different pufJ)oses in the different subjects. For example, collating information and views of news reports on air pollution in Hong Kong from TV, radio and newspapers can provide materials for use in an EP A lesson and a Geography project. The discovery of the cure for a certain disease can provide material for discussion in Biology, Chemistry, EP A and English Language. A recent accident of a child killed at home by some leaking gas can be studied in Human Biology, Chemistry, EP A, English Language, etc.

In another way, common themes and topics of interest, especially those



discussed in the news reports, can be used in the form of integrated tasks across subjects. The English Language teacher teaches the relevant skills and language items (such as text-type, enquiry skills, sl~ntence patterns, essay format, etc). The EMI teachers teach the rl~lated concepts, methods, and skills. They may also provide the basic information to support formation of a view in relation to the topic.

Appendix 8 provides some suggestions of integrated tasks.

REMINDERS FOR TEACHERS OF EMI SUBJECTS T,eachers of EMI subjects are reminded to

0 orientate their students to the required mode of learning slowly and steadily, confining their language use to the level of the students' abilities

0 allow students sufficient time to gain confidence and the skills of studying in English, allow time for students to get through the language barrier, by going through the topics/textbooks more slowly, using the diCtionary when necessary, repeating the difficult parts, using pictures and other teaching aids frequently, using group arrangement whereby more assistance can be given to the weaker groups, helping the very weak students to take- notes, and asking senior students to lend help to the weaker students after lessons

0 ask students to carry out more tasks involving the use of English, such as listening, reading and discussion, and help students learn and practise study skills and language development skills when the opportunities arise

0 explain and demonstrate clearly the ways of completing exercises and give extra assistance where and when






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Outline : P ART VII