AND REFERENCING FOR
LITERATURE IN ENGLISH PAPER 3 PORTFOLIO/
English Language Education Section Curriculum Development Institute
(updated in March 2016)
1. Writing for the Literature in English Paper 3 Portfolio/
School-based Assessment (SBA)
2. Preparing for the Writing 1
3. Structure of the Writing 2
4. Presentation of the Writing 2
5. Referencing of Sources of Information 4
6. Plagiarism 4
7. Final Checklist 5
1. Introduction - General Rule of Citation 2. Books
3. Edited Books and Translation 10
4. Articles in a Reference Book 11
5. Essays or Articles in a Collection or Anthology 12
6. Separate Works by the Same Author 12
7. Journals, Magazines and Newspapers 13
8. Editorials 15
9. Reviews 16
10. Materials from Electronic, Online Resources 16
11. Government Documents 21
12. Dissertations 21
13. Abstracts 22
14. Radio and Television Programmes 22
15. Interviews 23
16. Lectures 24
17. Songs, Lyrics, Liner Notes 25
18. Verse and Drama 25
19. Brochures and Pamphlets 26
20. Audio-Visual Materials and Films 26
Further Reference 26
This Guide was jointly prepared by the Hong Kong Examinations Authority and The English Section, Education Department in 2001 and updated by the English Language Education Section, Education Bureau in 2016. The Guide is designed and developed in support of the Literature in English Curriculum and Assessment Guide (Secondary 4-6) (updated in December 2015). It aims to provide guidelines for teachers to:
advise students on the development of a research paper for the Portfolio/School-based Assessment component of the Literature in English public assessment;
heighten students’ awareness of the importance of acknowledging the sources of information to avoid plagiarism; and
introduce proper citation methods for different types of materials.
This Guide comprises two parts. Part One contains some general tips on writing for the Literature in English Paper 3 Portfolio/School-based Assessment (SBA).
Part Two provides detailed explanation and examples on how to cite different types of materials and sources of information using the Modern Language Association (MLA) citation style. Teachers might select and adapt the materials in the Guide and draw students’ attention to relevant parts based on their needs.
It should be noted that the MLA style of documentation is adopted in this Guide
because it is widely used in the field of literary studies. However, teachers may
feel free to introduce to students other citation formats, for example, the
American Psychological Association (APA) style, which is commonly used in the
fields of social sciences and education. Different referencing styles are accepted
in the Portfolio/SBA for Literature in English so long as one style is consistently
adopted throughout the entire paper.
The content in Part Two of this Guide is adapted from information on the following site:
Thanks are due to Capital Community College, Hartford, Connecticut, USA, for permission to reproduce part of their “A Guide for Writing Research Papers Based on Modern Language Association (MLA) Documentation”. The copyright of the materials in Part Two of this Guide belongs to Capital Community College, Hartford, Connecticut, USA.
Duplication of materials in this Guide is restricted to non-profit making
educational purposes only. Otherwise, no material in Part Two of this Guide may
be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any
means without the prior permission of Capital Community College, Hartford,
1. Writing for the Literature in English Paper 3 Portfolio/School-based Assessment (SBA) (All schools will implement SBA starting from S4 in the 2016/17 school year.)
The paper/writing is related to, but not exclusively or extensively based on, the set texts for study.
Students may want to:
investigate a viewpoint/idea and discuss how far they agree with it;
present a point of view with textual support and persuade the reader of its value;
analyse and criticise the chosen text(s);
compare and contrast different texts or different interpretations on the chosen text(s);
identify an issue/topic and discuss how it is dealt with or presented in the chosen text(s);
create an original piece of writing of a particular genre in response to a text/some texts; or
give a critical review of a film/book/drama seen/read.
2. Preparing for the Writing
Teachers may remind students of the following before writing the paper:
Decide on the purpose of the paper. Think it out clearly and then write it down in one sentence: “This paper is intended to analyse/describe/discuss/evaluate (the chosen topic)”.
Pinpoint exactly the objectives and focus of the paper.
Read widely and take notes. Read intelligently – do not waste time reading irrelevant materials. General and specialised books on a subject, journals, newspapers, magazines, government publications and films, reference materials in the forms of electronic or online versions may be consulted.
Note down the title, the author/director/organisation that provides the materials and other necessary details (such as the publisher, and place and year of publication) for inclusion in the bibliography.
3. Structure of the Writing (mainly relevant to analytical essays)
Draw students’ attention to the different parts of writing and the purposes they serve:
State the topic and purpose of writing
State the main idea/central argument
Give a brief outline of the main points to be covered to support the main idea/central argument
Develop the main points
Give information and evidence to support each point made to ensure that each point is relevant to the topic and the argument is developed clearly and logically
Sum up the main points
Avoid introducing any new ideas or claiming to have shown/proved more than the evidence can support
4. Presentation of the Writing
Teachers are encouraged to go through the following with students to prepare them for their writing:
It is important to always keep the audience (i.e. the reader and assessor) in mind when writing an essay or review. Students should be made aware of the reader’s priorities and background knowledge to ensure the points are made clearly, concisely and convincingly.
The use of “I”, “me”, “we”, “you”, “our” etc. should be avoided as it makes the work seem subjective rather than objective. On the whole, students should also be reminded to avoid using terms such as “In my opinion”, “I think that…”, “It is my belief that…”, and should develop the habit of writing in the third person. However, there are circumstances that require students to express personal views or relate the literary texts to their personal experience.
Tone is the combination of two things: namely, the attitude the writer has towards the subject and the attitude the writer has towards the audience.
In general, the tone of writing should be objective and persuasive. Students should be advised not to allow emotional outbursts to detract the audience from the work. In argumentative essays, any fallacies that may weaken the logic and coherence of the
argument should be avoided.
Students should be encouraged to aim for simplicity of language and straightforward expressions. Most readers prefer plain English, which conveys meaning precisely, clearly and in uncluttered fashion. It is not advisable to use words just because they “sound”
Colloquialisms and slang should also be avoided. There is a difference between written and spoken English. The distinction between language suitable in conversation and language suitable in a piece of academic writing should be observed. The use of colloquialisms and contractions such as “don’t”, “doesn’t” and “can’t” should be avoided.
Students should be reminded to avoid overwriting in the essay and keep in mind the task requirements, in particular the word limit, as a guide to the planning and presentation of the paper. They should remember that the total number of words includes both text and footnotes/endnotes.
“Padding out” the essay with unrelated comments, irrelevant materials, or inflated and verbose expression affects the logical flow of the essay and kills readers’ interest of reading.
Students should decide what is relevant and necessary and keep the expression as succinct as possible.
Sweeping statements that cannot be supported should be avoided. Students should learn to exercise restraint in the conclusions and convince the reader with evidence. Unjustified claims should not be made.
Spelling and punctuation
Errors in spelling or punctuation make it difficult for the audience to follow the ideas, however insightful. For correct spelling, students may consult a dictionary or use a spell-checker. Reference books such as a dictionary or a collocation dictionary should be readily accessible in the process of writing. The use of these reference books helps avoid misspelling and misuse of words.
5. Referencing of Sources of Information
Why should sources be referenced?
To validate a point, statement or argument (Opinions carry much more weight if they are supported by the ideas of experts.)
To give credit to the originator of the thought (Ethical considerations, as well as the laws of copyright, require authors to acknowledge their sources.)
To permit readers to check the original work and assess it for further reference
To add value to a paper by demonstrating familiarity with relevant literature What should be referenced?
Direct quotations put in inverted comma
Any information, ideas or data, obtained from another author, be it a direct quotation or paraphrased comment
Definitions of terms, if necessary
Some students think references are included in a paper only when a direct quotation is used.
This is not so. All materials of an informative nature (information one did not know before reading the source) should be duly acknowledged. However, sources of information of a general nature, such as facts and ideas that are common knowledge, do not need to be identified.
When quoting an authority on a particular matter, be careful not to assume all similar authorities hold the same opinion. For example, when one psychologist states a particular point of view about an aspect of child behaviour, do not generalise from this particular instance that all psychologists have the same opinion.
Plagiarism is defined as to “the practice of taking someone else’s work or ideas and passing them off as one’s own” (from www.oxforddictionaries.com). Any of the following acts constitutes plagiarism unless the work is appropriately acknowledged:
copying the work of another student;
directly copying any part of another’s work;
summarising the work of another;
using or developing an idea or thesis derived from another person’s work; or
using experimental results obtained by another.
Plagiarism, therefore, refers not only to the inclusion of an entire article or section in a paper, but also to the paraphrasing or rearrangement of another’s material without proper acknowledgement. Thus, summarising someone else’s ideas and putting them into one’s own words does not free one from the responsibility of referencing the source. Failure to acknowledge sources of material correctly is an offence against academic standards, and will be dealt with severely and penalised.
To help students acknowledge sources of information properly, Part Two provides details on the methods for referencing sources in various media. It comes from “A Guide for Writing Research Papers Based on Modern Language Association (MLA) Documentation” prepared by Capital Community College, Connecticut, USA, in compliance with the most recent edition of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. If this method of referencing is adopted, make sure it is used consistently throughout the paper.
7. Final Checklist
Guide students to check their writing before submission using the following questions:
Have you addressed the topic? Are your purpose and argument clear from the beginning?
Have you developed your ideas in a logical sequence? Do your transitions link ideas well?
Have you acknowledged all references, including videos, photographs, newspaper items, pamphlets? Is the referencing correct and consistent? Is the bibliographical detail correct?
Have you proofread your work to ensure the accuracy of language, spelling and punctuation?
Have you deleted slangy expressions and colloquialisms?
Have you used the form and expression most appropriate to the topic?
Have you kept within the limits of the required number of words?
Do you have margins and a title page?
Have you provided numbers and captions for all tables and figures included in the paper?
Have you referred to all figures, tables and supporting documents provided in the appendix/appendices in the essay itself to establish their relevance to the work?
Have you kept a soft copy of your writing in case of loss of the original?
This part provides detailed explanation and examples on how to cite different types of materials and sources of information using the MLA citation style. Teachers may select and adapt the materials, and introduce them to students.
While the MLA style of documentation, which is a citation convention widely used in literary research, is adopted in this Part, teachers may introduce other citation formats, such as the APA style, to students.
1. Introduction - General Rule of Citation
Elements of a citation are normally arranged in the following order.
a) Name of the author or editor
b) Title of the work (italicised if the work is independent; in roman type and quotation marks if the work is part of a larger work)
c) City of publication d) Name of the publisher e) Year of publication f) Medium of publication
Title (italicised) City of publication
Pepin, Ronald E. Literature of Satire in the Twelfth Century. Lewiston: Edwin Mellen P, 1988. Print.
Publisher Year of publication Medium of publication
*use the initials if the title page does Example
Surname Middle name*
First name Author
2. Books a) One author
A second line, if necessary, is indented approximately half an inch. Leave off any titles or degrees associated with a name (e.g. Dr., Sir). If the year of publication is not indicated in the book, use the most recent copyright date. If the author is responsible for more than one book (or other publication) in the references, use three hyphens instead of repeating that person’s name after the first reference.
Pepin, Ronald E. Literature of Satire in the Twelfth Century. Lewiston: Edwin Mellen P, 1988. Print.
If the exact language is quoted, use the following format:
According to Pepin, “virtually anyone could find himself the object of satirical writing in the twelfth century” (18).
If the idea is paraphrased, use the following format and put the page number in brackets for in-text citations:
According to Pepin, everyone could consider oneself the object of satirical writing in the 20th century (18).
For in-text citations, if the author is not identified in the text, the name must be included in the brackets and placed before the page number, as in the example below:
Anzaldua, Gloria. Bordelands/La Frontera: The New Mestiza. San Francisco: Spinsters/
Aunt Lute, 1987. Print.
“In defiance of the Aztec rulers, the macehvales (the common people) continued to worship fertility and agricultural female deities” (Anzaldua 33).
b) Two or three authors
Except the first author’s name, the other authors’ names are given first-name-first. Arrange the order of the authors in the same way as the title page and use initials if the title page does.
Metheny, N. M., and W. D. Snively. Nurses’ Handbook of Fluid Balance. Philadelphia:
Lippincott, 2003. Print.
Darling, C. W., R. E. Pepin, and L. B. Gates. A History of Used Bookstores in Cambridge, England. Cambridge, Eng.: Cambridge UP, 1987. Print.
The surnames of both authors are included in the in-text citation.
The ph balance is critical in body-fluid crisis control (Metheny and Snively 15).
c) Four or more authors
For a book with four or more authors, use only the name of the first author listed on the title page followed by “et al.” (“et al.” is an abbreviation for the Latin phrase “et alii”, which means “and others”.). Alternatively, it is acceptable to list all the authors in the same order as they appear on the title page of the book.
Shields, J., et al. Byzantine Intrigue: The History of English Alley. Hartford: Merganser P, 2003. Print.
Shields, J., C.W. Darling, V. B. Villa, and E. Farbman. Byzantine Intrigue: The History of English Alley. Hartford: Merganser P, 2004. Print.
During the late 1990s, what was already known as English Alley also became known as a hotbed of byzantine intrigue (Shields et al. 170).
d) An anonymous book or corporate author
Do not use “Anonymous” or “Anon” to alphabetise publications without a listed author.
Ignore the articles “a”, “an” and “the” and list the items in alphabetical order according to the first word of the title (i.e. “Toilet” comes after “National” in the following example.).
National Boosters of Small Appliances. Hair-Dryer Safety and the Three-Pronged Plug.
New York: Booster Press, 2000. Print.
Toilet Training and the Feral Child. Philadelphia: Franklin, 2000. Print.
e) Part of a book
When citing a foreword/introduction/preface/afterword, begin the citation with the name of the person who wrote it, then the word “Foreword” (or whatever it is), without underlining or italicisation, followed by the title of the work, its author and the other publication information (including the page numbers of the piece cited).
Pepin, Ronald E. Foreword. The Saints of Diminished Capacity: Selected Poems, 1972- 2000. By Charles Darling. Hartford: Capital Press, 2003. ii-ix. Print
If Charles Darling had written his own foreword, only his last name would appear after the word “By”. Use this same pattern for an introduction, preface, or afterword. If the introduction or foreword has an actual title, include that title in quotation marks between the author’s name and the word “Foreword” (or whatever it is).
Pepin, Ronald E. “Excellence: A New Chapter in Post-Modern American Verse.”
Foreword. The Saints of Diminished Capacity: Selected Poems, 1972-2000. By Charles Darling. Hartford: Capital Press, 2003. ii-ix. Print.
3. Edited Books and Translation a) Edited books
If the citations primarily refer to the work of the author, use the author’s name to alphabetise the entry.
Shelley, Mary. Frankenstein. 1831. Ed. Johanna M. Smith. Boston: Bedford Books of St.
Martini’s Press. 1992. Print.
If the citations primarily refer to the work of the editor (i.e. Johanna Smith’s notes or introduction in the following example), use the editor’s name to alphabetise the entry.
Smith, Johanna M. ed. Frankenstein. By Mary Shelley. 1831. Boston: Bedford Books of St.
Martin’s Press, 1992. Print.
An in-text citation for these books is done the same way as a similar citation from other books, except that the editor/translator’s name would be used.
If the text itself is referred to primarily, use the author’s name as the primary resource, followed by the name of the translator and the rest of the usual bibliographical information.
Borges, Jorge Luis. Ficciones: Trans. Anthony Kerrigan. New York: Grove Press, 1962.
If, on the other hand, the discussion centres on the translator’s work, his or her choice of words, alterations to the text, etc., use the translator’s name as the primary resource, followed by the name of the original author.
Pepin, Ronald E., trans. The Satires by Lodovico Sergardi. New York: P. Lang, 1994. Print.
c) Edited and translated books
Pepin, Ronald E., ed. and trans. Scorn for the World: Bernard of Cluny’s De contempt mundi. East Lansing: Colleagues Press, 1991. Print.
4. Articles in a Reference Book
If the author’s name of an article cited is known, use that name as at the beginning of the entry to alphabetise the work. If the author of the article is not known, list the title first.
When citing several definitions from a dictionary, it is a good idea to establish within the paper the source used and then refer to that dictionary with an abbreviation (OAD, for instance). Since a dictionary or a similar resource is invariably arranged in alphabetical order, citing a page or volume number is unnecessary.
Feinberg, Joe. “Freedom and Behavior Control.” Encyclopedia of Bioethics. Ed. Warren T.
Reich. 4 vols. New York: Free Press, 1992. Print
“From OED to OAD.” Oxford American Dictionary. 1980. Print
“Massolo, Arthur James.” Who’s Who in America. 48th ed. 1994. Print
“Money.” Compton’s Precyclopedia. 1977 ed. Print.
Raju, P.T. “Religious Existentialism.” An Encyclopedia of Religion. Ed. Vergilius T.A. Ferm.
3 vols. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1968. Print.
“Sybarite.” The Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd ed. 1989. Print.
“Tibia.” Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary. Electronic ed., version 1.5, 1996.
Massolo was largely responsible for First Chicago’s initial strong position in Malaysian banking (“Massolo”).
Shells were used as currency in many Mediterranean countries in the pre-Christian era (“Money”).
5. Essays or Articles in a Collection/Anthology
“p” or “pp” (abbreviations for “page” and “pages”) are not used before listing the page or range of pages.
Hennessy, Margot C. “Listening to the Secret Mother: Reading J. E. Wideman’s Brothers and Keepers.” American Women’s Autobiography: Fea(s)ts of Memory. Ed. Margo Culley. Madison, WI: U Wisconsin P, 1992. 302-314. Print.
If the work is a reprint of a previously published article, the complete information for both the original publication and the reprint in the anthology can be included:
Darling, Jayden A. “Wondering about Siblings: A Study of Jealousy’s Early Onset.” Atlantic Monthly May 2004: 77-98. Rpt. In Contemporary Psychological Studies. Ed. Jeffrey W.
Turveydrop. Vol. 44. Madison, WI: U Wisconsin P, 1992. 302-314. Print.
“Wideman, like the woman autobiographer, has to investigate the silences of culture in order to inscribe the story of his people” (Hennessy 306).
6. Separate Works by the Same Author
After citing the name of an author once in his/her first work, use three hyphens to replace the name when citing other works by the same author. However, if the author’s name is associated with or combined with other authors in the other publications on the reference list, three hyphens should not be used and all the authors’ names should be fully cited.
Works by the same author should be alphabetised according to the first significant word of the title, ignoring the articles “a”, “an” and “the” (i.e. “The” in The Highway and the City is ignored, and “Highway and” precedes “Highways Choking” in the following example.). If the author serves as an editor or translator, put a comma after the three hyphens and indicate the function with the appropriate abbreviation (“ed.” or “trans.”).
Mumford, Lewis. The Highway and the City. Boston: Houghton, 2002. Print.
- - -. Highways Choking our Cities. New York: Prentice, 1967. Print.
In the parenthetical citation, the title of the piece being used must be included in addition to the author’s name.
The so-called Eisenhower system of interstate highways begun during the 1950s has had disastrous effects on many small towns in America (Mumford, Highways Choking our Cities 186).
7. Journals, Magazines, and Newspapers a) Signed magazine articles
To cite a magazine article in a periodical published every month or every two months, use the month and year only (without a comma between them) and leave out the volume and issue numbers. If the article appears on more than one consecutive page, give the page range.
The parenthetical citation in the text should indicate the exact page number of the citation.
If the magazine or journal used is published more often than once a month, show the complete date starting with the date with no comma (e.g. 17 Dec. 1999). Abbreviate all months except May, June, and July and use a full stop after the abbreviated months.
Wolkomir, Richard. “Charting the Terrain of Touch.” Smithsonian June 2000: 38-48. Print.
b) Scholarly journal articles
When citing an article in a scholarly journal, show the volume and issue numbers only if the journal does not number its pages beginning anew with each volume (e.g. volume one ending with page 322 and volume two starting with page 323). Omit any articles at the beginning of a journal’s name when listing on the references. If the article does not appear on sequentially printed pages, use the first page with a plus sign, as in 29+.
Christie, John S. “Fathers and Virgins: Garcia Marquez’s Faulknerian Chronicle of a Death Foretold.” Latin American Literary Review 13.3 (1993): 21-29. Print.
The parenthetical citation in the text should indicate the exact page of the cited materials.
“The combination of these large patterns of similarity is particularly useful in examining Chronicle of a Death Foretold since both writers break down narrative authority through innovative use of multiple perspectives” (Christie 22).
c) Unsigned magazine articles
Begin with the title of the article and ignore “a”, “an” and “the” when alphabetising. If the article appears on only one page, give that page number (without p. or pp. abbreviations). If the article appears on more than one consecutive page, list the inclusive page numbers.
“What a Hoatzin?” Newsweek 27 Sept. 1993: 72-73. Print.
The parenthetical citation in the text should indicate the exact page of the citation.
“Perhaps the most distinctive trait of the hoatzin is its odor. It smells like manure – cow manure, to be precise” (“What’s a Hoatzin?” 72).
d) Signed newspaper articles
Omit the initial “The” in newspaper titles. Do not put commas in the date construction. “+”
indicates that the article is carried over onto subsequent pages (but not necessarily the next page).
Huffstutter, P. J. “Music Rights Get Tangled on the Web.” Hartford Courant 31 May 2000, eastern ed.: A1+. Print.
The exact page of a citation should be indicated parenthetically in the text.
“Federal law says that when an Internet service provider gets a complaint about a person allegedly breaking copyright law, the ISP must remove that user from its service”
e) Unsigned newspaper articles
Newspapers usually assign a byline for their articles. Sometimes, an author’s name cannot be found and the title of the article would be used to alphabetise the work.
“U.S. Troops Capture Chief Aide to Warlord.” Hartford Courant 22 Sept. 1993: A5. Print.
“Somalis consider the middle-aged Atto to be Aidid’s No. 2 man” (“U.S. Troops” A5).
If the author’s name of the editorial cited is known, use that name at the beginning of the entry as the alphabetising element. If the author of the editorial cited cannot be identified, list the title first and add the label “Editorial”. Alphabetise according to first significant word, ignoring “a”, “an” and “the”.
Hayward, Steven. “The Sprawl Myth: America Isn’t Running Out of Land.” Editorial.
Hartford Courant 31 May 2000, Eastern ed.: A13. Print.
“An Unfathomable War.” Editorial. Hartford Courant 31 May 2000, eastern ed.: A12. Print.
If the item being cited is a letter to the editor or a reply to a letter, indicate that in place of “Editorial”.
Boudreaux, Donald J. “State of the Union.” Letter. Atlantic Monthly May 2004: 22. Print.
According to an editorial in the Hartford Courant, members of the world organization are
“naïve” in putting faith in Africa’s own peacemaker, the Organization of African Unity, to settle the conflict (“An Unfathomable War”).
The rate at which land is being used each year is hard to pinpoint because up-to-date and comprehensive national data are unavailable (Hayward).
Williams, Larry. “Powerful Urban Drama Builds in Bell’s Tense ‘Ten Indians’.” Rev. of Ten Indians, by Madison Smartt Bell. Hartford Courant 1 Dec. 1996: G3. Print.
If the review has a title but no author’s name, begin (and alphabetise) the citation with the title of the review.
“Powerful Urban Drama Builds in Bell’s Tense ‘Ten Indians’.” Rev. of Ten Indians, by Madison Smartt Bell. Hartford Courant 1 Dec. 1996: G3. Print.
If the review has no title and author’s name, begin the citation with “Rev. of” followed by the name of the piece being reviewed. Alphabetise according to the first significant word of the title.
Rev. of Ten Indians, by Madison Smartt Bell. Hartford Courant 1 Dec. 1996: G3. Print.
10. Materials from Electronic, Online Resources
Online (Internet) resources must be held to the same high standards of scholarly integrity as material in the library. Students need to be cautious about using materials that are not retrievable by others in the community of scholars (especially e-mail and discussion groups).
They should also avoid using or referring readers to URLs that are accessible only with a password (course websites are usually accessible only with a password). Sites accessible by easy and free registration (typical of newspapers) are acceptable, but are not encouraged if
they lead to archived materials available only with a fee.
“Beyond the MLA Handbook: Documenting Electronic Sources on the Internet” by Andrew Harnack of Eastern Kentucky University also provides useful references on ways to incorporate quoted online material into a paper. The document can be accessed through the URL:
a) WWW (World Wide Web) sites
To cite files available for viewing/downloading on the World Wide Web, the MLA suggests giving the following information, including as many items relevant and available from the list below.
1. Name of the author, editor, compiler, or translator, reversed for alphabetising and followed by an abbreviation such as “ed.”, “trans.”, if appropriate
2. Title of the work (article, poem, short story with the scholarly project, database, periodical). Italicise if the work is independent; in Roman type and quotation marks if the work is a part of a larger work
3. Publication information for any print version of this resource (if such a thing exists) 4. Title of the overall website; for a site with no title, a description such as homepage 5. Name of the editor of the scholarly project or database (if available)
6. Date of electronic publication, of the latest update, or of posting (day, month, and year, as available)
7. Page/paragraph/section numbers of the material (if any) 8. Name of the publisher or sponsor of the website
9. Date of access (day, month, and year)
Electronic address, or URL, of the resource in angle brackets (i.e. “< >”) can be provided as supplementary information especially when the reader may have difficulty locating the source without it. Show the URL (Uniform Resource Locator) of the website in its entirety without break or inappropriate hyphens at line-endings and without spaces. Start a new line to provide the URL, as illustrated below:
If the URL must be broken up at the end of a line, do so immediately after a slash. When confronted with a very long URL which is probably impossible to use, use the source page that takes readers to that page and include appropriate keywords that will yield the specific source with an appropriate search. It should be noted that spelling is critically important in reporting URLs.
In parenthetical citations, online resources are treated the same as other kinds of resources, according to their type (book, journal article, etc.). The key is to provide the means necessary for readers to discover and share the resources found, whether on a library shelf or in cyberspace.
As Fitter points out, “Landscape description in this period is in transition, from traditional paysage moralisé to pictorialism, and verse such as Saint-Amant’s La Solitude, for instance, anticipates Romantic “mood-music” in the age of the emblem book” (59).
i)Scholarly projects Work Cited
The Avalon Project: Articles of Confederation, 1781. Co-Directors William C. Fray and Lisa A. Spar. 1996. Yale Law School. 2 Dec. 2003
ii)Professional sites Work Cited
Guide to Grammar and Writing. Capital Community College. 4 April 2004
iii)Personal sites Work Cited
Jascot, John. Home page. 1 Dec. 1997. 28 Jan. 2004
iv)Course websites Work Cited
Darling, Charles. Introduction to Literature. Course Website. Jan. 2004–May 2004. Dept. of Humanities, Capital Community College. 20 May 2004
v)Books published online Work Cited
Du Bois, W.E.B. The Souls of Black Folk. Chicago, 1903. Project Bartleby. Ed. Steven van Leeuwen. Dec. 1995. Columbia U. 2 Dec. 2003
vi)Poems Work Cited
Dunbar, William. “The tretis of the twa mariit women and the wedo.” The Poems of William Dunbar. Ed. James Kinsley. Clarendon Press, New York. 1979. University of Virginia Library Electronic Text Center. Ed. David Seaman. Jan. 1994. U. of Virginia. 2 February 2004
vii)Articles in an online journal Work Cited
Fitter, Chris. “The Poetic Nocturne: From Ancient Motif to Renaissance Genre.” Early Modern Literary Studies 3.1 (Sept. 1997): 60 pars. 4 Mar. 2004
viii)Articles in an online magazine Work Cited
Bowden, Mark. “Lessons of Abu Ghraib.” Atlantic 293.5 (June 2004): 12 pars. 24 May 2004
ix)Articles in a discussion group or blogs Work Cited
Norton, J. R. “Torture at Abu Ghraib: A Timeline.” The O’Franken Factor (June 2004): 34 pars. 24 May 2004
b) Databases on CD-ROM
Libraries often subscribe to databases that provide a wealth of material on CD-ROMs. And many textbooks, nowadays, are accompanied by CDs containing essential and ancillary materials. To cite material accessed from a periodically published database on CD-ROM, use the following sample:
Angier, Natalie. “Chemists Learn Why Vegetables are Good for You." New York Times 13 Apr. 1993, late ed.: C1. CD-ROM. New York Times Ondisc. UMI-Proquest. Oct. 1993.
If the material on the CD-ROM does not exist in a printed version, use the following model:
“U.S. Population by Age: Urban and Urbanized Areas.” 1990 U.S. Census of Population and Housing. CD-ROM. US Bureau of the Census. 1990.
For a non-periodical publication (i.e. material that is published one time, without obvious plans for periodic updating) on CD-ROM:
Poetry Speaks. Eds. Paschen, E. and Rebekah Presson Mosbyeds. CD-ROM. Sourcebooks MediaFusion: Naperville, Ill. 2001.
“Albatross.” The Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd ed. CD-ROM. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1992.
If some of the information required for a CD-ROM citation (e.g. the city and name of the publisher) cannot be found, cite what is available.
c) Other online sources of full-text articles
To cite full-text articles appearing in online resources such as EBSCO, Periodicals Abstracts, Newspaper Abstracts, or Health Index, list the name of author (if given), title of article, title of journal (or other kind of resource), volume and issue number, date of publication, number of pages or “n. pag” (for no pagination), publication medium (Online or CD-ROM), name of the computer network (EBSCO, Periodicals Abstracts, etc.), date of access to the material.
Heinegg, P. “You Still Can’t Get There from Here.” America 187.12 (21 Oct. 2002): 26.
Online. Gale Database. Contemporary Literary Criticism. Capital Comm Coll Lib, Hartford, CT. 26 May 2004.
Anderson, J. “Keats in Harlem.” New Republic 204.14 (8 Apr. 1991): n. pag. Online.
EBSCO. Capital Comm Coll Lib, Hartford, CT. 29 Dec. 2003.
“There are no stylistic pyrotechnics, a la John Updike, no convoluted allegories of ego, a la Philip Roth, just quirky, meandering, anticlimactic narratives with perfect-pitch dialogue about a bunch of ordinary male, female and pre-adolescent losers” (Heinegg).
11. Government Documents
More often than not, an author is not listed for government publications. Instead of using an author’s name, use the name of the office that is responsible for the piece’s publication. State the name of the government first. Use the publication information found on the first page of the document.
Connecticut. Dept. of Higher Education. Community Colleges. Hartford: State Publishing Office, 1999. Print.
United States. Dept. of Education. Feral Children in American Classrooms. Washington:
Government Printing Office, 1998. Print.
Enclose the title of unpublished dissertation in quotation marks without italicisation. Cite a published dissertation in the same way for citing a book but add “Diss.” After the title.
(a)Unpublished Dissertation Work Cited
Darling, Charles W. “Giver of Due Regard: The Poetry of Richard Wilbur.” Diss. U. of CT, 1977. Print.
(b)Published Dissertation Work Cited
Darling, Charles W. Giver of Due Regard: The Poetry of Richard Wilbur. Diss. U. of CT, 1977. Hartford: Merganser Press, 1979. Print.
If the dissertation is published by University Microfilms International (UMI), add the order number after the period after the year, e.g. Ann Arbor: UMI, 1982. 9834456.
Cite the page number of the dissertation in brackets as in the following example:
Darling contends that Wilbur’s analysis of Poe’s stories and poems is critical in understanding Wilbur’s own verse (72).
An abstract is a brief summary of a journal article, dissertation or other sources of information. An abstract of a PhD dissertation, for example, will usually be about one page in length. Abstracts are often found in journals created primarily for the purpose of collecting such summaries. The abstract often provides enough information about the source for a reader to determine if looking up the original source would be worthwhile.
Use “DAI” to refer to abstracts in Dissertation Abstracts International where applicable for dissertation abstracts. For article abstracts, provide the item numbers where appropriate.
(a)Dissertation Abstract Work Cited
Darling, Charles W. “Giver of Due Regard: The Poetry of Richard Wilbur.” Diss. U. of CT, 1977. DAI 38 (1978): 1210A.
(b)Article Abstracts Work Cited
Garrett, Anne W. “In Vitro Ocular Alternatives.” Drug & Cosmetic Industry 9 160 (1995):
344-353. Abstract. Journal of International Business Studies 26 (1997): item (BWBA) 97030352.
Leach, Joan, and Julia M. Rosa. “Stress in Nursing Education in the Community College.” International Journal of Nursing Education 14 (1996): 124- 78. Psychological Abstracts 84 (1997): item 1432.
14. Radio and Television Programmes
Give the title of the episode if available, the title of the programme plus any pertinent information about performers, writers, narrator, director, etc. depending on the purpose in citing the resource. List the network and the local station and date on which the broadcast was heard or recorded.
Schneider, Pamela. Interview. Seniors: What Keeps Us Going. With Linda Storrow. Natl.
Public Radio. WNYC, New York, 11 July 2003. Radio.
“The War in Iraq.” Fallows, James. Interview. The O’Franken Factor With Al Franken. Air America Radio. WLIB, New York, 11 May 2004. Radio.
Changes in tax structures for citizens on fixed incomes are changing seniors’ need to re-enter the workplace (Schneider).
If the transcript of a programme is cited instead of the actual broadcast of a programme, add the word “Transcript” to the end of the citation. If the primary purpose of citing a broadcast is to acknowledge the work of an individual, for example, a narrator or a writer, use that person’s name and role before the name of the programme.
“Busted by the FBI!” Narr. Morley Safer. Sixty Minutes. CBS. WFSB, Hartford. 14 Feb.
Safer, Morley, writ. “Busted by the FBI!” Sixty Minutes. CBS. WFSB, Hartford. 14 Feb.
Cite the name of the programme using quotation marks in the text.
The FBI was aware of federal funding going to illegal subsidy programs prior to 1995 (“Busted by the FEB”).
For interviews on television or published in a magazine or journal, put the title in quotation marks after the name of the person interviewed if the published or broadcast interview has a title.
Amis, Kingsley. “Mimic and Moralist.” Interviews with Britain’s Angry Young Men. By Dale Salwak. San Bernardino: Borgo, 1984. 34-47. Print.
Jolie, Angelina. Interview. 60 Minutes. CBS. WCBS, New York: 3 Feb. 2009. Television.
If the writer of the paper, as a researcher, conducts his own interview, indicate the nature of that interview (e.g. Personal interview, Telephone interview) immediately following the name of the person interviewed.
Redford, Robert. Telephone interview. 14 Feb. 2000.
An online interview should indicate the same information as above, but the URL for the interview should be included. The final date in the entry indicates the date the interview was accessed online as in the following example:
Clinton, Bill. Interview by Biff Scroggs. Plainspeaking. Dec. 1999. Web. 18 Jan. 2000.
Redford bases his latest screen persona on Paul Newman’s portrayal of the rebellious prisoner in Cool Hand Luke (Redford).
In an interview in 2000, Redford stated that he based his latest screen persona on Paul Newman’s portrayal of the rebellious prisoner in Cool Hand Luke.
When a lecture has no title, simply label the resource (e.g. lecture, speech, personal communication, letter) and provide the sponsor of the lecture or hosting institution, place where the lecture took place and the date.
Darling, Charles. “The Decadence: The 1890s.” Humanities Division Lecture Series. Capital Community College, Hartford. 12 Dec. 1996. Lecture.
Scroggs, Biff G. Bushnell Conf. on Dead Baseball Heroes. Bushnell Auditorium, Hartford.
12 May 2003. Keynote speech.
“The gothic element of the French Symboliste movement owes much to the poets’
fascination with the stories and poems of Edgar Allan Poe” (Darling).
17. Songs, Lyrics and Liner Notes
The name of a specific song should be enclosed within quotation marks, while the name of an album or collection should be underlined or italicised. Do not underline or italicise the name of a musical piece that is identified by number or key (e.g. Symphony no. 8 in F Major, Op. 45). If it is relevant, add the recording date before the name of the manufacturer.
If the date is not known, insert “n.d.” (i.e. “no date”) without italicising and underlining.
Simon, Paul. “Me and Julio Down by the School Yard.” Concert in the Park. Warner Bros., 1991. Audiocassette.
In his lyrics for “Me and Julio Down by the School Yard,” Simon has mixed his earlier flippant qualities with an earnest social statement (Simon).
18. Verse and Drama
Verse and drama create special problems in citations, particularly regarding line arrangements. Refer to Capital Community College’s “Writing about Literature”, which is accessible on the following website for more guidelines on how to cite verse and drama:
grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/GRAMMAR/composition/literature.htm Work Cited
Williams, Tennessee. The Night of the Iguana. Three by Tennessee. New York:
Signet-Penguin, 1976. 1-127. Print.
Nora’s epiphany occurs when she realizes her husband will never reciprocate the sacrifices she’s made to protect his pride. She finally stands up to Helmer, telling him, “You neither think nor talk like the man I could join myself to” (Doll’s House Act 3).
KROGSTAD. Yes, yes, yes, to the point: there’s still time, and I’m advising you to use your influence to prevent it.
NORA: But Mr. Krogstad, I have absolutely no influence.
KROGSTAD: You haven’t? I thought you were just saying –
NORA: You shouldn’t take me so literally! How can you believe that I have any such influence over my husband? (Doll Act 1)
19. Brochures and Pamphlets
Pamphlets and brochures are usually published without an author’s name. Treat them in the same way as for a book.
Gufflethwaite, Edward, ed. Finding Your Way Around Nook Farm. Hartford: Mark Twain Press, 1996. Print.
State-wide Council on Saving Connecticut for Community-Technical Colleges. Community Colleges: Good for Connecticut, Good for You! Hartford: Capital Press, 2000. Print.
Big Apple! New York: Doubleday, 1999. Print.
20. Audio-Visual Materials and Films
The italicised title of the film is followed by information such as the names of the screenwriter, performers, producers and the distributor.
The Mirror Has Two Faces. Dir. Barbra Streisand. Perf. Barbra Streisand, Jeff Bridges, Lauren Bacall, Mimi Rogers, Pierce Brosnan, George Segal. Tri-Star, 1996. DVD.
Creation vs. Evolution: “Battle of the Classroom.” Dir. Ryall Wilson, PBS Video, 1982.
The battle over Creationism – whether it is a science or a pseudo-science – has not abated since the so-called monkey-trial of the 1920s (Wilson, Creation vs Evolution).
For an example of a paper adopting the MLA style of documentation, refer to the URL below:
For an example of a paper adopting the APA style of referencing, refer to the URL below: