School Administration Guide

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School Administration Guide

(2022/23 school year)

Education Bureau

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 This Guide is applicable to aided schools.

 The term “School Management Committee” (SMC) in this Guide covers the Incorporated Management Committee (IMC).

 Schools should also make reference to the Education Ordinance, Education Regulations, Codes of Aid and the relevant legislations in Hong Kong.

 Aided IMC schools should read this Guide in conjunction with the

“Supplement to the School Administration Guide”.

 The Education Bureau circulars/ circular memoranda mentioned in the various chapters of this Guide are highlighted in RED. The relevant circulars/ circular memoranda can be searched and retrieved via the

“Circular” section in “About EDB” at EDB homepage.

 Hyperlinks provided in this Guide are highlighted in BLUE.

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Co C o nt n te e nt n ts s

CHAPTER 1 SCHOOL-BASED MANAGEMENT ... 1

1.1 BACKGROUND ... 1

1.2 OBJECTIVES ... 2

1.3 KEY ELEMENTS ... 4

1.4 PARAMETERS ... 5

1.5 MAJOR REQUIREMENTS AND REGULATIONS FOR SCHOOL OPERATION ... 6

CHAPTER 2 LEARNING AND INSTRUCTIONAL MATTERS ... 15

2.1 SCHOOL-BASED CURRICULUM PLANNING ... 15

2.1.1 Introduction ... 15

2.1.2 Learning Goals ... 16

2.1.3 Guiding principles ... 17

2.1.4 Learning experiences ... 18

2.1.5 Life-wide learning ... 18

2.2 WHAT IS TO BE LEARNT IN THE SCHOOL CURRICULUM ... 20

2.2.1 Components of the school curriculum ... 20

2.2.2 Key Learning Areas ... 20

2.2.3 Generic skills ... 20

2.2.4 Values and attitudes ... 21

2.3 ENHANCING STUDENTS LEARNING ... 23

2.3.1 Principles of facilitating learning and teaching ... 23

2.3.2 Meaningful homework ... 27

2.3.3 Flexible use of learning time ... 28

2.3.4 Selection of textbooks and learningand teaching resources ... 29

2.3.5 Weight of school bags ... 33

2.4 DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES TO SUPPORT SCHOOLS AND TEACHERS ... 35

2.4.1 Curriculum support materials ... 35

2.4.2 Teacher development programmes... 35

2.5 THE ROLES OF CHANGE AGENTS IN SCHOOLS ... 37

2.5.1 School heads ... 37

2.5.2 Primary school curriculum leaders ... 37

2.5.3 Senior teachers and panel heads ... 38

2.5.4 Teachers ... 38

2.5.5 Teacher-librarians ... 38 A

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seeccoonnddaarryy aanndd sseenniioorr sseeccoonnddaarryy lleevveellss ............................................................................................................................ 4040

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CHAPTER 3 STUDENT MATTERS ... 45

3.1 INTRODUCTION ... 45

3.2 ADMISSION, ATTENDANCE AND ABSENCE, DROPOUT, TRANSFER ... 46

3.2.1 Admission ... 46

3.2.2 Attendance and absence ... 47

3.2.3 Dropout ... 49

3.2.4 Transfer ... 50

3.3 RECORDS, PROMOTION, REPETITION AND PROGRESSION ... 51

3.3.1 Records ... 51

3.3.2 Promotion and repetition ... 51

3.3.3 Progression of students in special schools ... 53

3.4 SAFETY MATTERS ... 54

3.4.1 Safety precautions and guidelines ... 54

3.4.2 Handling accidents and medical emergency ... 55

3.4.3 First aid ... 57

3.4.4 School bus services ... 57

3.4.5 Flag days ... 58

3.4.6 Insurance ... 59

3.5 HEALTH MATTERS ... 60

3.5.1 Healthy learning environment ... 60

3.5.2 Points to note ... 60

3.5.3 Health services ... 62

3.5.4 Handling incidents of communicable diseases ... 63

3.5.5 Healthy meal ... 66

3.6 DISCIPLINE ... 68

3.6.1 General principles ... 68

3.6.2 School rules ... 68

3.6.3 Reinforcing positive behaviour ... 69

3.6.4 Handling misbehaviour ... 69

3.7 SERIOUS STUDENT BEHAVIOURAL PROBLEMS ... 74

3.7.1 Student suicide cases ... 74

3.7.2 Drug taking and trafficking ... 76

3.7.3 Sex related problems ... 78

3.7.4 Pornographic materials ... 79

3.7.5 Gambling ... 79

3.7.6 Bullying ... 81

3.7.7 Gang activities ... 82

3.7.8 Suspected student illegal behaviour ... 82

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3.8 SUPPORT SERVICES ... 83

3.8.1 Counseling and guidance services ... 83

3.8.2 School Social Work service for secondary schools ... 84

3.8.3 Life planning education and career guidance for secondary schools ... 84

3.8.4 Support for students with special educational needs ... 87

3.8.5 Support for gifted students ... 89

3.8.6 Support services for newly-arrived children and returnee children 90 3.8.7 Support for non-Chinese speaking students ... 90

3.8.8 Student financial assistance schemes ... 93

3.8.9 Handling of child maltreatment cases ... 94

ApApppeennddiixx 11 ReReccoommmmeennddeedd lliisstt ooff ffiirrsstt aaiidd iitteemmss ........................................................................................................................ 101000 ApApppeennddiixx 22 MeMeddiiccaall hhiissttoorryy ooff ssttuuddeenntt ((ssaammppllee)) ............................................................................................................................ 101011 ApApppeennddiixx 33 GoGovveerrnnmmeenntt aanndd pprrooffeessssiioonnaall oorrggaanniissaattiioonnss pprroommoottiinngg aannttii--ddrruugg eedduuccaattiioonn .................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 101033 CHAPTER 4 HOME-SCHOOL-COMMUNITY PARTNERSHIP ... 109

4.1 INTRODUCTION ... 109

4.2 ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF PARENTS ... 110

4.3 HOME-SCHOOL PARTNERSHIP ... 111

4.3.1 Policy and opportunities for parental participation ... 111

4.3.2 Means of effective communication ... 112

4.3.3 Parent education programmes ... 114

4.4 STRATEGIES FOR HANDLING COMPLAINTS... 115

4.4.1 Guidelines on handling complaints ... 115

4.4.2 Dealing with the media and public bodies ... 117

4.5 DISTRICT AND COMMUNITY RESOURCES ... 119

4.5.1 Regional Education Offices ... 119

4.5.2 Government departments/ organisations ... 119

4.5.3 Non-Governmental Organisations ... 125

CHAPTER 5 PLANNING, SCHOOL SELF-EVALUATION AND BUDGETING ... 126

5.1 INTRODUCTION ... 126

5.2 SCHOOL MISSION, PHILOSOPHY AND GOALS ... 127

5.3 PLANNING AND SCHOOL SELF-EVALUATION ... 128

5.3.1 School Development Plan ... 128

5.3.2 Annual School Plan ... 129

5.3.3 School Report ... 129

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5.3.4 Suggested schedule for drawing up the School Development Plan,

Annual School Plan and School Report... 130

5.4 IMPLEMENTATION OF MEASURES RELATED TO SAFEGUARDING NATIONAL SECURITY AND NATIONAL SECURITY EDUCATION ... 131

5.4.1 Background ... 131

5.4.2 Fundamental principles ... 131

5.4.3 Follow-up measures ... 132

5.5 BUDGETING ... 133

5.5.1 Principles of budgeting ... 133

5.5.2 Programme budgeting ... 133

5.5.3 Budgeting process ... 133

CHAPTER 6 SCHOOL FINANCE MATTERS ... 135

6.1 INTRODUCTION ... 135

6.2 SCHOOL REVENUE ... 136

6.2.1 Government subventions ... 136

6.2.2 Other sources of school income ... 140

6.3 TRADING OPERATIONS ... 143

6.4 PROCUREMENT OF STORES AND SERVICES ... 145

6.4.1 Guiding principles ... 145

6.4.2 Procurement requirements ... 145

6.5 ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL CONTROL ... 148

6.5.1 Statutory requirements ... 148

6.5.2 Recommended practices ... 148

6.6 INTERNAL CONTROL ... 150

6.6.1 Guiding principles ... 150

6.6.2 Allocation of accounting duties ... 150

6.6.3 Handling of school income ... 151

6.6.4 Making payments ... 152

6.6.5 Safe keeping school assets and other valuables ... 153

6.6.6 Operating bank accounts and signing cheques ... 153

6.7 ANNUAL AUDITED ACCOUNTS ... 155

6.8 RETENTION OF ACCOUNTING RECORDS ... 156 ApApppeennddiixx 11 CoCommppoonneennttss ooff tthhee OOppeerraattiinngg EExxppeennsseess BBlloocckk GGrraanntt ................................................................ 151577 ApApppeennddiixx 22 CoCommppoonneennttss ooff tthhee EExxppaannddeedd OOppeerraattiinngg EExxppeennsseess BBlloocckk GGrraanntt ............................ 151599 ApApppeennddiixx 33 ApAppprroovveedd lliisstt ooff ffiinneess// cchhaarrggeess && ffeeeess ...................................................................................................................... 161611 ApApppeennddiixx 44 ApAppprroovveedd ccoolllleeccttiioonnss ffoorr ssppeecciiffiicc ppuurrppoosseess .................................................................................................... 161622 ApApppeennddiixx 55 ReReqquuiirreemmeennttss iinn ccoonnnneeccttiioonn wwiitthh ffuunndd--rraaiissiinngg aaccttiivviittiieess ffrroomm ootthheerr

ggoovveerrnnmmeenntt ddeeppaarrttmmeennttss .............................................................................................................................................................. 161633

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IInnccoommee aanndd EExxppeennddiittuurree AAccccoouunntt ............................................................................................................................ 171700 ApApppeennddiixx 1122 ReRellaaxxeedd rreeqquuiirreemmeennttss ffoorr tthhee iissssuuee ooff ooffffiicciiaall rreecceeiippttss ffoorr cceerrttaaiinn ttyyppeess

ooff ccoolllleeccttiioonnss .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 171733 ApApppeennddiixx 1133 PrProoffoorrmmaa LLooaann RReeggiisstteerr ............................................................................................................................................................ 171744

CHAPTER 7 PERSONNEL MATTERS ... 175

7.1 INTRODUCTION ... 175

7.2 APPOINTMENT, REGRADING, PROMOTION AND ACTING APPOINTMENT ... 178

7.2.1 Appointment of teaching staff ... 178

7.2.2 Regrading ... 182

7.2.3 Appointment of non-teaching staff ... 182

7.2.4 Promotion and acting appointment ... 184

7.3 STAFF SELECTION ... 186

7.3.1 General principles and procedures ... 186

7.3.2 Selection panel ... 187

7.4 ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES FOR THE APPOINTMENT OF SCHOOL STAFF ... 189

7.4.1 Physical check-up ... 189

7.4.2 Verification of qualifications and experience ... 189

7.4.3 Teacher registration ... 192

7.4.4 Employment contract ... 193

7.4.5 Staff data and personal file ... 197

7.5 RIGHTS AND BENEFITS OF SCHOOL EMPLOYEES ... 198

7.5.1 Employment protection under the Employment Ordinance ... 198

7.5.2 Staff safety and staff injured on duty ... 198

7.5.3 Leave matters ... 199

7.5.4 Provident Fund Scheme ... 200

7.5.5 Long Service Payment/ Severance Payment for non-teaching staff201 7.6 STAFF DEVELOPMENT ... 202

7.6.1 Introduction ... 202

7.6.2 Responsibilities of the SMC ... 202

7.6.3 Staff development planning ... 202

7.6.4 Recognition and Incentive ... 203

7.7 STAFF APPRAISAL ... 205

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7.8 STAFF CONDUCT AND DISCIPLINE ... 206

7.8.1 Standards of professional conduct ... 206

7.8.2 Conflict of interest ... 206

7.8.3 General principles in taking disciplinary actions ... 207

7.9 HANDLING STAFF COMPLAINTS ... 209

7.10 STAFF RESIGNATION, RETIREMENT AND EXTENSION OF SERVICES ... 211

ApApppeennddiixx 11 DoDoccuummeennttss // iinnffoorrmmaattiioonn ttoo bbee ssuubbmmiitttteedd ffoorr aapppplliiccaattiioonn ffoorr tthhee aappppooiinnttmmeenntt ooff sscchhooooll hheeaadd ...................................................................................................................................................... 212133 ApApppeennddiixx 22 NoNonn--tteeaacchhiinngg ssttaaffff eemmppllooyyeedd iinn vvaarriioouuss ttyyppeess ooff aaiiddeedd sscchhoooollss .................................... 212155 ApApppeennddiixx 33 ApApppooiinnttmmeenntt ooff tteeaacchhiinngg ssttaaffff .............................................................................................................................................. 212166 ApApppeennddiixx 44 ChCheecckklliisstt ffoorr rreeccrruuiittmmeenntt pprroocceedduurreess ...................................................................................................................... 212177 ApApppeennddiixx 55 StStaaffff pprroommoottiioonn aanndd aaccttiinngg aappppooiinnttmmeenntt .......................................................................................................... 222211 ApApppeennddiixx 66 ReReggrraaddiinngg ooff sseerrvviinngg tteeaacchheerrss ooff aaiiddeedd pprriimmaarryy sscchhoooollss iinn tthhee nnoonn--ggrraadduuaattee tteeaacchhiinngg ggrraaddeess ttoo tthhee ggrraadduuaattee tteeaacchhiinngg ggrraaddeess .................................. 222233 ApApppeennddiixx 77 SuSuggggeesstteedd lliisstt ooff iinnffoorrmmaattiioonn ttoo bbee kkeepptt iinn ssttaaffff’’ss ppeerrssoonnaall ffiillee .................................... 222244 ApApppeennddiixx 88 SuSuggggeesstteedd rreetteennttiioonn ppeerriiooddss ffoorr eemmppllooyymmeenntt -- rreellaatteedd ppeerrssoonnaall ddaattaa .............. 222255 ApApppeennddiixx 99 LeLeaavvee eennttiittlleemmeenntt ffoorr ssttaaffff iinn aaiiddeedd sscchhoooollss .................................................................................................. 222277 ApApppeennddiixx 1100 ApAppprroovviinngg aauutthhoorriittyy ffoorr ggrraannttiinngg ooff lleeaavvee .................................................................................................. 232344 ApApppeennddiixx 1111 CoConnfflliicctt ooff iinntteerreesstt ................................................................................................................................................................................ 232366 ApApppeennddiixx 1122 ReReffeerreennccee ppooiinnttss ffoorr hhaannddlliinngg ccaasseess ooff tteeaacchheerr mmiissccoonndduucctt .......................................... 232399 CHAPTER 8 SCHOOL PREMISES AND SAFETY ... 246

8.1 INTRODUCTION ... 246

8.2 USE OF SCHOOL PREMISES ... 247

8.2.1 Requirements in the Codes of Aid and legislations ... 247

8.2.2 Hire of accommodation ... 247

8.2.3 Proper use of lockers ... 248

8.3 SECURITY AND SAFETY MEASURES ... 250

8.3.1 Security measures in schools... 250

8.3.2 Security measures in classroom ... 251

8.3.3 Fire prevention measures ... 252

8.3.4 Safety measures ... 252

8.4 CRISIS MANAGEMENT... 253

8.4.1 Common crises ... 253

8.4.2 Gas leakage ... 253

8.4.3 Bomb calls ... 253

8.4.4 Acts and activities with elements to endanger national security ... 254

8.4.5 Crisis management team ... 254

8.5 MAINTENANCE OF SCHOOL PREMISES ... 256

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8.5.1 Minor repairs ... 256

8.5.2 Major repairs ... 256

8.5.3 Emergency repairs ... 257

8.5.4 Maintenance of slopes and drainages ... 257

8.6 ALTERATIONS TO SCHOOL PREMISES ... 259

8.6.1 Improvement and extension to school buildings ... 259

8.6.2 Change of room use ... 260

8.7 DAMAGE/LOSS TO SCHOOL PREMISES ... 262 ApApppeennddiixx 11 PrProoffoorrmmaa rreeccoorrdd ooff hhiirree aaccccoommmmooddaattiioonn .......................................................................................................... 262633 ApApppeennddiixx 22 SoSommee hhiinnttss oonn sseeccuurriittyy mmeeaassuurreess ffoorr ttrraannssppoorrttiinngg ccaasshh .......................................................... 262644 ApApppeennddiixx 33 ScSchhooooll aasssseettss aanndd rreeppllaacceemmeenntt ooff lloosstt iitteemmss .................................................................................................. 262655 ApApppeennddiixx 44 PoPoiinnttss ttoo nnoottee aanndd ffiirree ssaaffeettyy rreeccoommmmeennddaattiioonnss iinn oorrggaanniizziinngg bbaarrbbeeccuueess

aanndd hhoott ppoott aaccttiivviittiieess iinn sscchhooooll .............................................................................................................................................. 262666 ApApppeennddiixx 55 SaSammppllee ooff tthhee rreessoouurrccee ddiirreeccttoorryy .................................................................................................................................... 262688 ApApppeennddiixx 66 TeTemmppllaattee ooff lleetttteerr ttoo ggoovveerrnnmmeenntt ddeeppaarrttmmeennttss aappppllyyiinngg ffoorr cchhaannggee ooff

rroooomm uussee ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 262699 ApApppeennddiixx 77 CoConnttaacctt ppooiinnttss ooff tthhee rreessppeeccttiivvee ggoovveerrnnmmeenntt ddeeppaarrttmmeennttss iinn pprroocceessssiinngg

rroooomm ccoonnvveerrssiioonn ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 272700

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C C ha h ap pt te er r 1 1 Sc S ch ho oo ol l- -b ba as s ed e d M Ma an n a a g g em e me en nt t

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Back in 1991, the then Education Department (ED) introduced the School Management Initiative (SMI) Scheme, which offered a school-based management (SBM) framework for enhancing the effectiveness of schools. In the Report No.7 on Quality Education issued in 1997, the Education Commission formulated recommendations to improve school management and performance for the provision of quality school education, to prepare our young people to face the challenges and competition which lie ahead in a global and knowledge-based economy. One of the recommendations is that schools should practise SBM, in the spirit of the SMI Scheme, to develop their own ways of meeting the needs of the students and enhancing learning outcomes.

SBM is the decentralization of decision-making from the Education Bureau (EDB) to schools regarding personnel procedures, financial matters and the design and delivery of curriculum. Nevertheless, schools are required to operate in compliance with the government regulatory requirements and the Codes of Aid (COA).

Since 1999, measures have been taken to facilitate schools’ implementation of SBM, including more flexible funding arrangements, streamlining of administrative procedures, and devolution of more responsibilities to schools in personnel, financial and curriculum matters. All these measures are to create more room for schools to develop quality education with their own characteristics and provide schools with more flexibility in the use of public funds. Schools can find more information on the background and implementation of SBM at the “School-based Management” webpage.

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1.

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1. SBM aims to enable schools to manage their operation and resources in an effective and accountable manner so as to raise the standards of learning and teaching and thus improve the students’ learning outcomes. Hence, schools are devolved more responsibilities and provided with the necessary resources, autonomy and flexibilities so that they can respond proactively to the needs of the students and the community in the delivery of educational services.

2. The objective is that schools will develop a management framework for building a shared vision and ownership among all members of the school community, and strengthening the partnership among the various stakeholders through participatory decision-making. The key stakeholders can contribute their views and expertise for the betterment of the school.

3. We envisage that our schools will be professional learning communities wherein decisions are made by those who work directly with the students and continuous improvement is ensured through more systematic planning and self-evaluation processes.

4. The Figure below illustrates how SBM influences student learning outcomes and the interaction/ inter-relationship among the various elements of school operation:

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SCHOOL MANAGEMENT COMMITTEE

School sponsoring body members

Principal

Parent members

Teacher members

Independent members

Alumni members

SCHOOL SPONSORING BODY-VISION AND MISSION

GOALS AND TARGETS

PERSONNEL POLICIES

Recruitment

Induction / Professional development

Performance management

Reward and compensation

Deployment and work allocation

Exit policy

RESOURCE POLICIES

Establishment of block grant

IT strategy

Library resource and facilities

Building maintenance and management

Community resources

Donations

Revenue generation

EXTERNAL ASSESSMENT

Student performance

Organisational effectiveness

STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES INSTRUCTIONAL

POLICIES

Curriculum

Learning & teaching

Assessment

Life-wide Learning

Lesson time allocation

Homework policy

Student support

SELF - EVALUATION

Key Performance Measures

Stakeholder Survey

Student achievement

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1.

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1. SBM is a school-based, student-centred and quality-focused framework for school management.

2. The Education Commission recommended that schools have to be more accountable for their performance and more transparent in their operation and SBM should comprise the following five key elements:

a. development of formal procedures for setting school goals and evaluating progress towards these goals;

b. provision of a school development plan, a school profile, school budgets and means of evaluating progress;

c. preparation of a written constitution for the School Management Committee (SMC);

d. participation of teachers, parents and alumni in school management, development planning, evaluation and decision-making; and

e. development of formal procedures and resources for staff appraisal and staff development according to teachers’ needs.

For the planning of school development, self-evaluation and preparation of school budget, please refer to Chapter 5. For the establishment of a formal staff appraisal system in school, please refer to Section 7.7.

3. According to the “Education Ordinance” (Chapter 279 of the Laws of Hong Kong), all aided schools are required to set up an incorporated management committee (IMC) to manage the school through participatory governance.

4. The composition of IMC comprises six categories of school managers: sponsoring body managers; the principal (as an ex-officio manager); teacher managers elected by all teaching staff; parent managers elected by the recognized parent-teacher association, alumni manager(s) elected by the recognized alumni association and independent manager(s) nominated by the IMC. Despite the difference in background, school managers should collaborate closely as members of an effective team.

5. Acting in good faith and personal capacity, school managers of all categories shall participate actively in the discussion concerning school affairs and make decisions in an impartial manner for the best interests of students and school development.

For the roles and responsibilities of school managers, please refer to the “School Managers’ Handbook”, “Tips for School Managers” and other related information posted on the “School-based Management” webpage.

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1.

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1. A self-managing school is not free from regulation. It operates within a framework of policies, standards and accountability. In parallel with the autonomy given to schools in the context of school-based management, schools are also required to be publicly accountable for their educational achievements and proper use of public funds.

2. The SBM framework operates in the following ways:

a. There will be increased transparency of school governance through direct participation of the key stakeholders in school decision-making and management.

b. Schools shall comply with the rules and regulations under the Education Ordinance and Education Regulations as well as the other related ordinances; the relevant COA; instructions as may be issued by EDB from time to time and the guidelines from the school sponsoring bodies.

c. Schools shall measure and report on their own performance through self-evaluation processes.

d. EDB oversees quality assurance and offers schools an external perspective on their performance.

e. EDB develops performance indicators and assessment tools for the schools’

reference in conducting their self-evaluation.

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1.

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oooll ooppeerraattiioonn 1. Learning and Instructional Matters

Education Regulations: R92(12)

 The responsible person shall inform the Permanent Secretary for Education of any change in the hours of school work.

Education Regulations: R98(1)

 No instruction, education, entertainment, recreation or activity of any kind which, in the opinion of the Permanent Secretary for Education , is in any way prejudicial to the welfare of the students or to their education generally shall be permitted on any school premises or on the occasion of any school or classroom activity.

2. Student Matters

Education Regulations: R58

 No teacher shall administer corporal punishment to a student.

Education Ordinance: S73 - S78

 The Permanent Secretary for Education may issue an Attendance Order requiring a student to attend regularly at primary or secondary school specified in the order.

Education Regulations: R55(1)-(4)

 At least one first aid box shall be provided on the premises of every school.

 At least 2 teachers in every school shall be trained in administering first aid.

 First aid boxes shall be maintained fully equipped at all times. First aid boxes must be fitted outside and adjacent to all science laboratories and school workshops. All science teachers, workshop instructors and their assistants must be familiar with the contents and use of the first aid boxes.

Education Regulations: R53

 The Principal shall immediately report to a medical officer of schools any suspected or known case of infectious disease amongst teachers, students or employees of a school, or when he/ she suspects or knows that any such person has been in contact with a case of infectious disease. The

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management authority shall cause the exclusion of such teachers, students, or employees from school if so required by the medical officer of schools.

Education Regulations: R57(1)

 The responsible person of every boarding school shall ensure that every student is medically examined before he/ she is admitted as a boarder.

Education Regulations: R94

 The management authority shall submit information concerning the school or students as may be required by the Permanent Secretary for Education.

3. School Finance Matters

Education Regulations: R60A, R61

 Fees other than the inclusive fees printed on the fees certificate are prohibited unless such collection has been previously approved by the Permanent Secretary for Education.

Education Regulations: R67

 The school shall exhibit the fees certificate in a conspicuous place on the school premises.

Education Regulations: R65

 Any change of the inclusive fee requires the Permanent Secretary for Education’s written approval.

Education Regulations: R66(2)

 No manager or teacher of a school shall make collection among students without the Permanent Secretary for Education’s written permission.

(not applicable to schools with incorporated management committee (IMC)).

Education Regulations: R63

 The school shall issue formal receipts in respect of every payment made by students/ parents/ guardians.

(not applicable to IMC schools)

Education Regulations: R99A

App 1, COA for PS, App 1, COA for SS App 1, COA for SPS, Vol. I & Vol. II

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 The SMC shall obtain the Permanent Secretary for Education’s prior written permission in any of the following cases

 to operate or to allow any person to operate any business or trading undertaking on the school premises; or

 to enter into any business or trading arrangements, directly or indirectly, with any person for the supply of any items for students.

 The SMC shall furnish to the Permanent Secretary for Education an annual audited statement of accounts of every such business or trading undertaking, or business or trading arrangements, together with a statement indicating how the profits have been applied or are intended to be applied, within 4 months after the end of the financial year of the school.

 No SMC member shall apply the profits for any purpose not directly benefiting the students of the school without the prior permission in writing of the Permanent Secretary for Education.

Education Regulations: R99B S14.5(g) of COA for Aided Schools

 Education Regulations: R99A is not applicable to IMC schools. IMC schools shall comply with Education Regulations: R99B.

 The IMC shall not apply any profits arising from trading operations for any purpose not directly benefiting the pupils of the school without the prior written permission of the Permanent Secretary for Education.

 The IMC shall furnish to the Permanent Secretary for Education the annual audited financial statements which include the profits arising from such businesses or trading undertakings or trading arrangements within 6 months after the end of the financial year/ the year end date of the school.

Education Regulations: R64

 The management authority shall keep proper accounts and retain the accounts and relevant vouchers for a period of not less than 7 years for inspection by the Permanent Secretary for Education.

S14(b), COA for PS, S14(c), COA for SS S15(c), COA for SPS, Vol. I

S12, COA for SPS, Vol. II

 Income arising from subscriptions may not be transferred to any other body or any other fund separately kept by the sponsoring body unless the school has previously obtained the written permission of the Permanent Secretary for Education.

S14.3(e), COA for Aided Schools

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 An IMC school must not transfer income arising from the approved collection of other fees and charges to any other body, or to a fund separately kept by the IMC for educational development or any other purpose unless such transfer has been approved by the Permanent Secretary for Education in writing.

S17, COA for PS, S17, COA for SS S18, COA for SPS Vol. I

S15, COA for SPS Vol. II S14.4, COA for Aided Schools

 The SMC should seek approval from the Permanent Secretary for Education before accepting donations which may incur recurrent expenditure from the Government.

 All such income must be properly reflected in the Subscriptions/Capital Reserve Fund Account.

4. Personnel Matters

Education Ordinance: S42 - S44 & S48 - S49 Education Regulations: R68 - R70

 No person shall teach in a school unless he is a registered teacher or a permitted teacher. Applications for registration as a teacher or permission to employ a permitted teacher shall be made on the specified form and accompanied by the documents specified.

Education Ordinance: S87(3)

 It is an offence for any person who is not a registered teacher or permitted teacher to teach in a school and the person who employs or permits him to teach is also guilty of an offence.

Education Ordinance: S87(5)

 A period of exemption is provided under the Education Ordinance for the first application for teacher registration.

Education Ordinance: S53 & S57

 The Permanent Secretary for Education’s approval is required for the appointment of principal within one month after the registration or provisional registration of a school, the SMC shall recommend, for the approval of the Permanent Secretary for Education, a teacher of the school to be the principal.

S22&App 3 - 5, COA for PS, S21, App 3-5 & App 9, COA for SS

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S23, App 3 - 5, COA for SPS, Vol. I & Vol. II S10.1 & S13.2(b), COA for Aided Schools

S2 & S4, Compendium to COA for Aided Schools

 For the employment of staff paid out of the Salaries Grant, the SMC has to ensure that the appointee possesses the qualifications required for the respective grade or post as stipulated in the COA.

Education Regulations: R76

 The appointment of any teaching staff shall be approved by the majority of the managers of the school.

 The dismissal of any teaching staff shall be approved by the majority of the managers of the school at an SMC meeting.

Education Regulations: R77

 The management authority shall be responsible for issuing to all teachers letters of appointment which shall set out the conditions of service, salary scale and conditions of termination of appointment.

Employment Ordinance

 The terms and conditions of employment shall not violate the provisions of the Employment Ordinance. Any term of an employment contract which purports to extinguish or reduce any right, benefit or protection conferred upon the employee by the Employment Ordinance shall be void.

Sex Discrimination Ordinance, Disability Discrimination Ordinance, Family Status Discrimination Ordinance, Race Discrimination Ordinance

 The SMC, as the employer, has to ensure that there is no discrimination at work on any grounds, including sex, marital status, pregnancy, disability, family status or race.

 Sex or disability discrimination by an employer in recruiting for a job or in providing opportunities for promotion or transfer to, or training for, a job is not unlawful where sex or the absence of disability is a genuine occupational qualification.

Education Ordinance: S85 and its subsidiary legislation

 All teaching staff are required to join the Provident Fund Scheme.

Mandatory Provident Fund Schemes Ordinance

 All non-teaching staff are required to join the Mandatory Provident Fund Schemes unless they are exempted under the Ordinance.

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The Prevention of Bribery Ordinance- S9

 The SMC, as an employer, is responsible for determining the advantages which may or may not be accepted by the staff of the school.

S57, App 6 & App 7, COA for PS, S57, App 6 & App 7, COA for SS

S62, App 7 & App 8, COA for SPS, Vol. I, App 6 & App 9, COA for SPS, Vol. II S6, Compendium to COA for Aided Schools

 The SMC shall follow the relevant procedures for dismissal and termination of employment (including non-renewal of contract) of teaching staff as laid down in the COA.

Occupational Safety and Health Ordinance Occupational Safety and Health Regulation

 The SMC, as an employer, has a general duty to ensure, so far as reasonably practicable, the safety and health of their employees at work.

Employment Ordinance

 The SMC must keep employment and wages records for all staff and such records shall be retained for at least 6 months after the employee ceases to be employed.

Employees’ Compensation Ordinance

 The Supervisor is required to obtain insurance against employer’s liability, as well as to sign and display the Notice of Insurance on the school premises.

5. School Premises and Safety

Education Regulations: R98 S48, COA for PS, S47, COA for SS

S52, COA for SPS, Vol. I, S53, COA for SPS, Vol. II S16.1, COA for Aided Schools

 The school premises shall not be used in any way prejudicial to the welfare of the students and to their education generally.

S18, COA for PS, S18, COA for SS, S19, COA for SPS, Vol. I, S16, COA for SPS, Vol. II

S14.2(d), COA for Aided Schools

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 The profit received from hiring out the school premises shall be credited to the school’s accounts.

Education Ordinance: S20, Education Regulations: R10

The Permanent Secretary for Education’s approval is required for the following matters:

 additional premises, alternative premises and deletion of premises;

 structural alterations to the school premises;

 alteration to the latrine accommodation or the sanitary arrangements of the school;

 alteration to the ventilation or lighting of a classroom; and

 any subdivision of a classroom.

Education Regulations: R16 1

 No roof or balcony shall be used for physical education or recreational purposes without the written approval of the Permanent Secretary for Education.

Education Regulations: R17

 The school shall obtain a certificate of stability issued by an authorized person, who certifies the suitability of using the roof as a playground, and specifies the maximum number of students at any one time.

Education Regulations: R18

 Students using roof playgrounds or balcony shall be under supervision of a teacher.

Education Regulations: R21(2)(a)

 Instruction shall be given in the use of tools or the operation of machines or in science experiments by a responsible teacher.

Education Regulations: R22

 No machinery or machine tools shall be installed or used in a school workshop except in accordance with the written consent of the Permanent Secretary for Education.

Note1 If the roof is used to conduct PE lessons or co-curricular physical activities, it is recommended to have the total height of the parapet wall and the metal fence at a minimum of 6.0m continuous all the way round. For the above information, please refer to the following link:

https://www.edb.gov.hk/attachment/en/curriculum-development/kla/pe/references_resource/safety-guidelines/Safe_e.pdf (page 3 of Chapter ONE)

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Education Regulations: R21, R22A, R22B, R32 & R33

 A teacher shall be appointed to be in charge of (i) every workshop; and (ii) every science laboratory and store room. The teachers shall be responsible for ensuring that all necessary safety precautions are adopted.

Education Regulations: R27

 No student shall be permitted to enter any school workshop or science laboratory unless a teacher is present.

Education Regulations: R28

 Not more than 20 students may be taught in a school workshop at the same time by any one teacher without the approval of the Permanent Secretary for Education.

Fire Service (Installation and Equipment) Regulations

 Fire service installations or equipment must be kept in efficient working order and inspected by a registered contractor at least once every 12 months.

Education Regulations: R39(1)

 All fire service installation and equipment on the school premises must be kept in good condition at all times.

Education Regulations: R40 - R50

 The school shall comply with the requirements regarding health and sanitation.

Education Regulations: R56

 Boarding schools shall comply with the requirements regarding facilities and management of the dormitory.

Education Regulations: R51

 No smoking and spitting shall be permitted on the school premises.

6. General Administration

Personal Data (Privacy) Ordinance

 Schools shall ensure that the purpose and manner of collection of personal data, the use of personal data, the security measures for personal data, and

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access to personal data, etc. are in line with the respective legislation. Each school shall keep and maintain a log book of refusals to comply with data access or correction requests.

Education Regulations: R79 - R82

 Schools shall send to the Permanent Secretary for Education before 15 August in each year notice of all holidays it is intended to give in the coming school year. Holidays not mentioned in the notice shall only be given with the approval of the Permanent Secretary for Education.

Education Regulations: R83

 The school holiday list signed by the Principal and/ or countersigned by the Supervisor shall be posted at all times in a conspicuous place on the school premises.

Education Regulations: R90

 A separate attendance register in a form approved by the Permanent Secretary for Education shall be kept for each class.

Education Regulations: R38

 The Principal shall draw up a practical scheme for the evacuation of the school premises in case of fire. Fire drills carried out by teachers and students, and the time taken to evacuate the school premises, shall be recorded in a school log book.

Copyright Ordinance

 School practices shall be in conformity with the legislation on copyright, in particular, photocopying, use of computer software, etc.

Disability Discrimination Ordinance, Sex Discrimination Ordinance, Family Status Discrimination Ordinance, Race Discrimination Ordinance

 Schools shall eliminate all forms of discrimination in their policies, procedures and daily operation.

 Schools shall take reasonably practicable steps to ensure that the school is free from any sexually hostile or intimidating environment, including developing a school policy (in written form) to eliminate sexual harassment, raising the understanding and awareness of both staff and students about sexual harassment and setting up complaint handling mechanism to resolve sexual harassment complaints.

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C C ha h ap pt te er r 2 2 Le L ea ar rn n in i n g g a a nd n d I I n n st s tr ru uc ct ti io on na al l M Ma at tt te er rs s

The “Basic Education Curriculum Guide (Primary 1 - Primary 6)” (2014), the

“Secondary Education Curriculum Guide” (2017), the “Supplementary Notes to the Secondary Education Curriculum Guide (2017)” and curriculum documents of other subjects, cross disciplinary areas (such as Values Education and National Security Education) and other learning experiences prepared by the Curriculum Development Council (CDC) and published for use in schools by the EDB, provide schools with comprehensive guidelines and suggestions on curriculum planning, learning, teaching and assessment. Details about “Curriculum Guides” are accessible at the EDB webpage on “Curriculum Development”.

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Students are entitled to holistic learning experiences. Schools and teachers should adopt the curriculum documents published by the CDC and observe the guidelines from the Curriculum Development Institute (CDI), taking into account their own contexts, in developing and making adaptations to their school-based curriculum. To facilitate students lay a solid knowledge foundation, nurturing generic skills, positive values, attitudes, and behaviours, schools should adopt measures conducive to student learning, including setting the learning targets, varying the organisation of learning and teaching contents, offering subject choices, and adopting diversified learning, teaching and assessment strategies. When developing a school-based curriculum in accordance with the curriculum documents published by the CDC, schools should take into account students’ learning needs and teachers’

professional judgements. To facilitate home-school co-operation, parents may also be invited to give their views on the school-based curriculum (e.g. through parent-teacher association).

Schools should develop a feasible whole-school curriculum plan, which is based on the school’s strengths, its mission as well as the curriculum aims. A systematic and strategic plan allows every member of the school to work towards a shared goal.

Schools have to ensure that the school-based curriculum is in line with the overall aims of education set out by the Education Commission and the overall aims of the school curriculum set out by the CDC:

Overall Aims of Education set out by the Education Commission

 To enable every person to attain all-round development in the domains of ethics, intellect, physique, social skills and aesthetics according to his/her own attributes so that he/she is capable of lifelong learning, critical and exploratory thinking,

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innovating and adapting to change; filled with self-confidence and a team spirit;

willing to put forward continuing effort for the prosperity, progress, freedom and democracy of their society, and contribute to the future well-being of the nation and the world at large.

Overall Aims of the School Curriculum set out by the CDC

 The school curriculum should provide all students with essential lifelong learning experiences for whole-person development in the domains of ethics, intellect, physical development, social skills and aesthetics, according to individual potential, so that all students can become active, responsible, and contributing members of society, the nation and the world.

 The school curriculum should help students to learn how to learn through cultivating positive values, attitudes, and a commitment to lifelong learning, and through developing generic skills to acquire and construct knowledge. These qualities are essential for whole-person development to cope with the challenges of the 21st century.

 A quality curriculum for the 21st century should therefore set the directions for teaching and learning through a coherent and flexible framework which can be adapted to changes and the different needs of students and schools, in order to enable students to become a quality citizen with commitment to society, a sense of national identity, love for Hong Kong and an international perspective.

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Schools have to ensure that the school curriculum is in line with the goals and learning objectives at each stage of schooling. In view of the contexts of Hong Kong and the development strategies proposed below, students at the primary level should be able to:

1. know how to distinguish right from wrong, fulfil their duties as members in the family, the society and the nation, and show acceptance and tolerance towards pluralistic values;

2. understand their national identity and be concerned about the society, the nation and the world, and to fulfil their role as a responsible citizen;

3. develop an interest in reading extensively and cultivate a habit of reading;

4. actively communicate with others in English and Chinese (including Putonghua);

5. develop independent learning skills, especially self-management skills and collaboration skills;

6. master the basics of the eight Key Learning Areas to prepare for studying in secondary schools; and

7. lead a healthy lifestyle and develop an interest in aesthetic and physical activities and an ability to appreciate these activities.

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For students at the secondary level, they should be able to:

1. become an informed and responsible citizen with a sense of national and global identity, appreciation of positive values and attitudes as well as Chinese culture, and respect for pluralism in society;

2. acquire and construct a broad and solid knowledge base, and to understand contemporary issues that may impact on students’ daily lives at personal, community, national and global levels;

3. become proficient in biliterate and trilingual communication for better study and life;

4. develop and apply generic skills in an integrative manner, and to become an independent and self-directed learner for future study and work;

5. use information and information technology ethically, flexibly and effectively;

6. understand one’s own interests, aptitudes and abilities, and to develop and reflect upon personal goals with aspirations for further studies and future career; and 7. lead a healthy lifestyle with active participation in physical and aesthetic activities,

and to appreciate sports and the arts.

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In planning the school-based curriculum, schools are advised to observe the following guiding principles:

1. Students should learn how to learn, which involves developing their independent learning capabilities leading to lifelong learning and whole-person development.

2. A learner-centred approach should be adopted in the best interests of students and in line with the curriculum documents published by the CDC.

3. All students have the ability to learn, though they might have their own ways of learning. Therefore, they should be entitled to opportunities for essential learning experiences for whole-person development, as well as opportunities for developing diverse potentials.

4. Both the primary and secondary curricula should be broad and balanced, comprising five essential learning experiences and eight Key Learning Areas, in order to lay a good foundation for students’ future life, employment, further studies and lifelong learning.

5. The senior secondary curriculum should be broad and balanced with diversification and sufficient choices, providing students with a variety of options for some specialisation to cater for their different interests, aptitudes and abilities.

6. Curriculum development should be a continuous improvement process to help students learn better. The school-based curriculum should keep up with the times and be geared to the school contexts.

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Learning experiences are the contexts of learning processes, learning contents, and the social environment in which students learn how to learn. Students should be entitled to the five essential learning experiences that correspond to the aims of “moral, intellectual, physical, social and aesthetic” development in education –

1. Values Education: to foster positive values and attitudes so as to deal with the challenges in their life;

2. Intellectual Development: to enrich and extend learning in KLAs and cross-curricular studies to lay a firm foundation of knowledge;

3. Community Service: to nurture care and respect for others, and to develop commitment and responsibility;

4. Physical and Aesthetic Development: to develop an active and healthy lifestyle and aesthetic appreciation; and

5. Career-related Experiences: to provide information on vocational and professional education and training (VPET) and the world of work for developing career aspirations and nurturing work ethics.

The five essential learning experiences listed above are to be developed throughout all stages of schooling to facilitate whole-person development.

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Life-wide learning extends learning beyond the classroom to other contexts, and attaches great importance to learning in authentic settings to enable students to achieve learning objectives which are more difficult to achieve through classroom learning alone. It requires teachers to make good use of resources and facilities available at their schools and in the community to create suitable learning contexts (combinations of time, place and people) for specific learning objectives. Under the school curriculum framework, life-wide learning performs the following important functions – 1. to extend the classroom learning experiences in the eight Key Learning Areas, e.g.

field trips and visits to museums;

2. to enrich students’ learning experiences beyond the eight Key Learning Areas, e.g.

community service and uniformed groups; and

3. to enable students to develop essential skills and attitudes for both classroom learning and their daily lives, e.g. leadership training, adventure-based training and emotional management.

Under the overarching concept of life-wide learning, learning inside and outside the classroom should complement each other to achieve the aim of lifelong learning and whole-person development. Schools have to ensure that the school-based curriculum provides students with sufficient opportunities for life-wide learning. It is important to note that it is not the quantity but the quality that matters in implementing

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life-wide learning. Teachers need to ensure that the learning experiences are aligned with the learning objectives being pursued, and that students are guided to reflect on what has occurred in order to learn from the experiences. Cost-effectiveness should be considered and expensive activities are not necessarily more effective than those that cost less. Schools have to develop a mechanism to promote life-wide learning in a holistic and well-planned manner, and should make flexible use of learning time to provide students with essential learning experiences beyond the classroom. For more details, please visit the “Life-wide Learning” webpage on the Education Bureau website.

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The CDC develops a school curriculum framework as the basic structure for learning and teaching throughout all stages of schooling. The curriculum framework allows flexibility for schools to organise learning experiences, adjust the breadth and depth of the learning content, and adopt various learning strategies and modes to cater for individual needs.

The curriculum framework comprises three interconnected components, namely:

1. Knowledge in Key Learning Areas 2. Generic Skills

3. Values and Attitudes 2.

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Key Learning Areas (KLAs) are structured around fundamental and connected concepts of major knowledge domains. These provide the context for the development and application of generic skills, values and attitudes. The existing subjects are grouped under eight KLAs, namely:

1. Chinese Language Education 2. English Language Education 3. Mathematics Education

4. Personal, Social and Humanities Education

5. Science Education General Studies for

6. Technology Education Primary Schools

7. Arts Education 8. Physical Education

Details about “Subjects under the eight KLAs” are accessible at the EDB webpage on “Curriculum Development”.

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Generic skills are fundamental to help students learn how to learn and are transferable to different learning situations. They are to be developed through learning and teaching in the context of different subjects or KLAs. Nine types of essential generic skills are listed below:

1. Communication skills

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2. Mathematical skills (known as Numeracy skills at primary level) 3. Information Technology skills

4. Critical Thinking skills1 5. Creativity

6. Problem-solving skills 7. Self-management skills

8. Self-learning skills (known as Study skills at primary level) 9. Collaboration skills

For the primary and secondary levels, an integrative approach is recommended.

Meaningful contexts should be provided for the development of the nine generic skills for better integrative understanding and application in a holistic manner. Please refer to the “Basic Education Curriculum Guide (Primary 1 - Primary 6)” (2014); Booklet 2 on “Learning Goals, School Curriculum Framework and Planning” of the “Secondary Education Curriculum Guide” (2017); the “Supplementary Notes to the Secondary Education Curriculum Guide (2017)” and curriculum documents of other subjects and other learning experiences for details.

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1. Values are qualities that students should develop as principles for conduct and decision, e.g. rights and responsibilities, commitment, honesty and national identity, while attitudes are the personal dispositions needed to perform a task well, e.g. open-mindedness and co-operativeness. Values, attitudes and behaviors affect the development of each other.

2. Values can be learned as key concepts, for instance, filial piety and honesty in school subjects such as Chinese Language and General Studies, education for sustainable development in Science and Geography, hospitality in Tourism and Hospitality Studies, or they can be applied to specific themes for relevant understanding and appropriate act, e.g. respect for law.

3. Positive values, attitudes and behaviours are to be cultivated whenever the learning activities help, e.g. perseverance in Physical Education, integrity in project learning. Meanwhile, teachers should also employ those attitudes as pedagogical principles to guide student learning, e.g. giving students freedom to choose a topic of interest, being open-minded and respecting evidence in the development of critical thinking.

1 The Curriculum Development Council updated the Chinese translation of critical thinking skills as

“慎思明辨能力” in June 2021.

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4. As recommended in the curriculum reform, schools should consider developing students’ ten priority values and attitudes, i.e., perseverance, respect for others, responsibility, national identity, commitment, integrity, caring for others, law-abidingness, empathy and diligence, and selecting other values and attitudes in accordance with the school mission and students’ needs, as the direction of values education. In addition, schools are also encouraged to strengthen the connection among learning activities of values education in various cross-curricular domains, such as sex education, life education, education for sustainable development, media and information literacy education, Constitution and Basic Law education as well as national security education, with a view to providing students with holistic learning experience, and facilitating their whole-person development.

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The following principles are based on research evidence, literature from various sources as well as the practical experience of schools:

 opportunities for learning and the learning environment

 improving the curriculum

 learning and teaching strategies

 assessment for learning

 home-school co-operation and parental support

1. Opportunities for learning and the learning environment

Opportunities to learn are to be found in a variety of environments, e.g. the school, the classroom, the community, the home, the physical environment, the Internet and the workplace. Efforts should be made to expose students to learning opportunities geared towards achieving the aims of the school curriculum. The general principles are:

a. physical qualities such as adequate space, ventilation, lighting and furnishing should be catered for;

b. the environment should be safe and caring, with positive feedback and encouragement and without threats, humiliation and embarrassment;

c. the environment should provide a variety of learning resources and stimulate learning;

d. the environment should provide room for students to progress through both collaborative and independent learning;

e. the learning environment may be outside the school to expose students to relevant, authentic and meaningful experiences; and

f. the learning environment should value diversity in students’ dispositions as well as learning outcomes.

2. Improving the curriculum

a. The answer to “what is worth learning” is an important aspect of deciding whether students will learn how to learn. The contents of learning include knowledge, skills, values and attitudes. They will change with time as the needs of students and society change. Therefore, the curriculum, as learning experiences, should be continuously improved in order to keep abreast of changes.

b. Each school should have a curriculum plan that is in line with the curriculum documents published by the EDB. Relevant policies are to be reviewed and

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References

Related subjects :