Health Management and Social Care Curriculum and Assessment Guide (Secondary 4 - 6)

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Technology Education Key Learning Area

Health Management and Social Care

Curriculum and Assessment Guide (Secondary 4 - 6)

Jointly prepared by the Curriculum Development Council and the Hong Kong Examinations and Assessment Authority Recommended for use in schools by the Education Bureau HKSARG


(with updates in

November 2015



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Preamble i

Acronym iii

Chapter 1 Introduction 1

1.1 Background 1

1.2 Rationale 2

1.3 Curriculum Aims 3

1.4 Interface with Junior Secondary Curriculum and

Post-secondary Pathways 4

1.4.1 Interface with junior secondary curriculum 4 1.4.2 Interface with post-secondary pathways 5

1.5 Cross-curricular Links 6

Chapter 2 Curriculum Framework 7

2.1 Design Principles 7

2.2 Learning Targets 9

2.2.1 Knowledge and understanding 9

2.2.2 Skills 9

2.2.3 Values and attitudes 10

2.3 Learning Outcomes 10

2.4 Curriculum Structure and Organisation 11 2.4.1 Organisation of the Compulsory and Elective

Parts 13

2.4.2 Time allocation 40

Chapter 3 Curriculum Planning 41

3.1 Guiding Principles 41

3.1.1 Positioning of Health Management and Social

Care in the school curriculum 42

3.1.2 Selection of modules 42

3.2 Progression 43

3.3 Curriculum Planning Strategies 45

3.3.1 Understanding the curriculum and student needs 45

3.3.2 SWOT analysis 47

3.3.3 Collaboration and networking 48


3.4 Curriculum Management 48 3.4.1 Roles of different personnel in schools 48

3.4.2 Capacity building 49

3.4.3 Time-tabling and grouping 49

3.4.4 Resource support and development 49

Chapter 4 Learning and Teaching 51

4.1 Knowledge and Learning 51

4.1.1 Views of knowledge 51

4.1.2 Views of learning and teaching 53

4.1.3 Views of assessment 56

4.2 Guiding Principles 56

4.3 Approaches and Strategies 59

4.4 Interaction 63

4.5 Catering for Learner Diversity 64

Chapter 5 Assessment 65

5.1 The Roles of Assessment 65

5.2 Formative and Summative Assessment 65

5.3 Assessment Objectives 67

5.4 Internal Assessment 68

5.4.1 Guiding principles 68

5.4.2 Internal assessment practices 70

5.5 Public Assessment 71

5.5.1 Guiding principles 71

5.5.2 Assessment design 72

5.5.3 Public examinations 72

5.5.4 School-based Assessment (SBA) 72 5.5.5 Standard and reporting of results 74

Chapter 6 Learning and Teaching Resources 77

6.1 Purpose and Function of Learning and Teaching

Resources 77

6.2 Guiding Principles 77

6.3 Types of Resources 78

6.3.1 References 78

6.3.2 EDB resources 79

6.3.3 The Internet and technology 80

6.3.4 Community resources 81

6.4 Flexible Use of Learning and Teaching Resources 81


6.5 Resource Management 82 6.5.1 Developing a school-based data resource bank 82

6.5.2 Sharing resources 83

Appendices 85

Appendix 1 Examples 85

Appendix 2 Learning and Teaching Resources 91

Glossary 95

References 99

Membership of the CDC-HKEAA Committee on Health Management and Social Care (Senior Secondary)


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The Education and Manpower Bureau (EMB, now renamed Education Bureau (EDB)) stated in its report1 in 2005 that the implementation of a three-year senior secondary academic structure would commence at Secondary 4 in September 2009. The senior secondary academic structure is supported by a flexible, coherent and diversified senior secondary curriculum aimed at catering for students' varied interests, needs and abilities. This Curriculum and Assessment (C&A) Guide is one of the series of documents prepared for the senior secondary curriculum. It is based on the goals of senior secondary education and on other official documents related to the curriculum and assessment reform since 2000, including the Basic Education Curriculum Guide (2002) and the Senior Secondary Curriculum Guide (2009). To gain a full understanding of the connection between education at the senior secondary level and other key stages, and how effective learning, teaching and assessment can be achieved, it is strongly recommended that reference should be made to all related documents.

This C&A Guide is designed to provide the rationale and aims of the subject curriculum, followed by chapters on the curriculum framework, curriculum planning, pedagogy, assessment and use of learning and teaching resources. One key concept underlying the senior secondary curriculum is that curriculum, pedagogy and assessment should be well aligned. While learning and teaching strategies form an integral part of the curriculum and are conducive to promoting learning to learn and whole-person development, assessment should also be recognised not only as a means to gauge performance but also to improve learning. To understand the interplay between these three key components, all chapters in the C&A Guide should be read in a holistic manner.

The C&A Guide was jointly prepared by the Curriculum Development Council (CDC) and the Hong Kong Examinations and Assessment Authority (HKEAA) in 2007. The first updating was made in January 2014 to align with the short-term recommendations made on the senior secondary curriculum and assessment resulting from the New Academic Structure (NAS) review so that students and teachers could benefit at the earliest possible instance.

This updating is made to align with the medium-term recommendations of the NAS review made on curriculum and assessment. The CDC is an advisory body that gives recommendations to the HKSAR Government on all matters relating to curriculum development for the school system from kindergarten to senior secondary level. Its

1 The report is The New Academic Structure for Senior Secondary Education and Higher Education – Action Plan for Investing in the Future of Hong Kong.


membership includes heads of schools, practising teachers, parents, employers, academics from tertiary institutions, professionals from related fields/bodies, representatives from the HKEAA and the Vocational Training Council (VTC), as well as officers from the EDB. The HKEAA is an independent statutory body responsible for the conduct of public assessment, including the assessment for the Hong Kong Diploma of Secondary Education (HKDSE). Its governing council includes members drawn from the school sector, tertiary institutions and government bodies, as well as professionals and members of the business community.

The C&A Guide is recommended by the EDB for use in secondary schools. The subject curriculum forms the basis of the assessment designed and administered by the HKEAA. In this connection, the HKEAA will issue a handbook to provide information on the rules and regulations of the HKDSE Examination as well as the structure and format of public assessment for each subject.

The CDC and HKEAA will keep the subject curriculum under constant review and evaluation in the light of classroom experiences, students’ performance in the public assessment, and the changing needs of students and society. All comments and suggestions on this C&A Guide may be sent to:

Chief Curriculum Development Officer (Technology Education) Curriculum Development Institute

Education Bureau

Room W101, 1/F, West Block

Education Bureau Kowloon Tong Education Services Centre 19 Suffolk Road

Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong Fax: 2768 8664




AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

ApL Applied Learning

BMI Body Mass Index

C&A Curriculum and Assessment CDC Curriculum Development Council

EC Education Commission

EDB Education Bureau

EMB Education and Manpower Bureau

HKALE Hong Kong Advanced Level Examination HKDSE Hong Kong Diploma of Secondary Education

HKEAA Hong Kong Examinations and Assessment Authority HMSC Health Management and Social Care

ICJ International Court of Justice

IT Information Technology

KLA Key Learning Area

NGO Non-governmental Organisation OLE Other Learning Experiences S1/2/3/4/5/6/7 Secondary 1/2/3/4/5/6/7 SBA School-based Assessment SEN Special Educational Needs SLP Student Learning Profile

SRR Standards-referenced Reporting SSCG Senior Secondary Curriculum Guide


SWOT Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats

TE Technology Education

UN United Nation

VTC Vocational Training Council WHO World Health Organisation


Chapter 1 Introduction

This chapter provides the background, rationale and aims of Health Management and Social Care (HMSC) as an elective subject in the three-year senior secondary curriculum, and highlights how it articulates with the junior secondary curriculum, post-secondary education, and future career pathways.

1.1 Background

Technology Education (TE) in the Hong Kong school curriculum focuses on how human beings solve their daily problems and how the processes involved can be replicated and transferred to solve new problems. It is an essential area of study for all students in Hong Kong.

In the 21st century, technology has become an integral part of our life. Citizens of today require much more than a basic ability to read, write, and do simple mathematics. To live in the modern world, we must understand how technology affects us. In this regard, we must be equipped to use technology effectively and flexibly to solve daily problems with positive attitude at home, in the community, and around the world; and to create new solutions, products, and services for the well-being of humankind.

By studying the related subjects developed in TE Key Learning Area, our students will be better prepared to meet the uncertainties and challenges of the future with regard to social, economic, ecological, scientific and technological changes, both locally and globally. Their studies in this area will help them to lead a healthy lifestyle in adulthood and to contribute to building a caring and harmonious society.

Building on the strengths of the existing TE curriculum and catering for social, economic and technological development, Health Management and Social Care is one of the five elective subjects developed under Technology Education Key Learning Area in the senior secondary curriculum.

The Senior Secondary Health Management and Social Care Curriculum and Assessment Guide incorporates the key recommendations in the Curriculum Development Council's Senior Secondary Curriculum Guide (2009) and the Technology Education Key Learning Area Curriculum Guide (Primary 1–Secondary 3) (2002), as well as the final report on its Holistic Review of the School Curriculum: Learning to Learn – The Way Forward in Curriculum Development (2001). These three documents outline the overall direction for


both education and curriculum development in Hong Kong, and seek to promote lifelong learning and whole-person development.

1.2 Rationale

The subject Health Management and Social Care (HMSC) is a new subject in senior secondary education in Hong Kong. It provides a context for students to understand the concepts of health and healthy practices, to take on responsibility for good citizenship in building a caring society, and to formulate a caring and support system which fits into our local needs and strengths, and assists in better managing the transitions our society is involved in. HMSC aims to develop the necessary knowledge and awareness of the following emerging health and social problems that are affecting not only our lives but also the society and the world at large:

 an ageing population

 the spread of infectious diseases

 the increasing signs of deterioration in our environment

 the changes in our way of life due to the changing nature of interactive relationships between individuals

 the changes in the traditional forms of caring and supportive relationships and in intimate relationships, including the collapse of family networks and the erosion of nuclear families

 the enormous increase in mobility and migration, and the ensuing sense of rootlessness, loss of stability and lack of permanence in relationships and networks.

Students in senior secondary education need to develop early knowledge and awareness of how to maintain their health and well-being in a modern society. Students who have health knowledge and skills have a better chance of maintaining their health and contributing to our local economic competitiveness by working more effectively, missing fewer days at work due to injury or illness, and using fewer medical services in adulthood. As a result, with a workforce whose members know how to be and stay healthy, the productivity of our society will increase.

As in other world cities, Hong Kong is inevitably drawn into the tide of globalization, which has given rise to various social conflicts and health problems. In response to these, our local support system and policies on health and social care need to be reviewed, in order to ensure that community resources are being generated effectively and utilised equitably for the needy population. Students who develop health and well-being knowledge and skills


in school are contributing members of the society and important to enhance the economic competitiveness of Hong Kong.

It is important for our students that they understand and are equipped to address emerging health and social issues.

1.3 Curriculum Aims

The study of the HMSC curriculum is designed to enable students to:

 understand, analyse and act upon the physical, psychosocial, ecological and cultural dimensions of health and social care throughout peoples’ developmental stages, and in the context of their communities;

 understand, analyse and act upon health-related hazards, conditions and situations, at the local, national and global levels, and in the context of the family, the workplace and of personal life;

 develop an understanding of the various approaches to creating and maintaining a healthy community and appreciate the value of sustaining its development;

 develop the basic competencies necessary to research, analyse, evaluate and communicate issues pertaining to health and to social and community care, and participate in related support services provided by institutions and organisations;

 develop an understanding of the issues in health and social care at and across all levels and perspectives, and make proposals for possible solutions to these problems;

 develop an understanding of the roles of a responsible individual as a citizen, worker or professional, and as an empathetic person in the family, the community, the workplace, and society;

 acquire the health knowledge and skills that contribute to community health and are important for economic competitiveness.


1.4 Interface with Junior Secondary Curriculum and Post-secondary Pathways

1.4.1 Interface with junior secondary curriculum

The HMSC curriculum builds upon the concepts and knowledge that students acquired in the junior secondary curriculum through a number of subjects, such as Home Economics, Integrated Science and Social Studies. Co-curricular activities, such as the Hong Kong Awards for Young People; and social service and uniformed groups may also provide an additional opportunity and experiences for students to acquire health and social care knowledge and skills. After completing the junior secondary education, students are expected to have acquired basic health and social care knowledge and skills, have developed an interest in knowing more about health and social care issues and be prepared to make proposals to solve problems in these areas.

Figure 1.1 Interface with junior secondary curriculum and Health Management and Social Care


SENIOR SECONDARY Technology Education Key Learning Area

Home Economics (S1–3) (SECONDARY 4 –6)

Food and nutrition Family living Community living

Health Management and Social Care Science Education Key Learning Area

Integrated Science (S1–3)

Physiological development of the human body

Personal, Social and Humanities Education Key Learning Area

Social Studies (S1–3)

Family formation and relationships Community living


1.4.2 Interface with post-secondary pathways

The HMSC curriculum contributes to the broad foundation required to enable students to make decisions about further education and career development at post secondary pathways.

The curriculum should serve to provide students with the requisite knowledge, as well as the capacity for continuing their learning in the areas of health care and medicine, in allied professions such as nursing, physiotherapy and occupational therapy, and in the areas of social work including social services and support, management, psychology and sociology.

Figure 1.2 Articulation to a range of post-secondary pathways

Related Applied Learning Courses Examples:

Health Care Practice

Child Development and Care

S5, S6

Chinese English Mathematics Liberal Studies

Hong Kong Diploma of Secondary Education (HKDSE) Core Subjects Elective Subjects (X)


Health Management X1 and Social Care


Career development

Health Care Sector (e.g. Medical Practitioner, Nurse, Physiotherapist, Healthcare Assistant) Social Services Sector (e.g. Social Worker, Welfare Worker, Counselors)

Education Sector (e.g. Teacher, Lecturer)

Business and Public Administration Sector (e.g. Executive, Manager)

Further studies

Related Master/ Bachelor Degrees Examples

Medicine – medicine, Chinese medicine, nursing, physiotherapy, Science – food and nutritional science Social Science – social work, psychology Education – primary/secondary education Management – health service management

Professional Qualifications Examples

Nurse, Doctor, Social Worker

Related Sub-degrees (including associate degrees, higher diplomas and diplomas) Examples

social work, nursing, Chinese medicine, business

administration, catering


1.5 Cross-curricular Links

In the senior secondary curriculum, students are expected to connect what they learn from and across various subject disciplines and examine their intertwining relationships and complexities from different perspectives through working on interdisciplinary themes, and through solving problems or creating new ideas / solutions in tackling local or global concerns. The knowledge and skills that students acquire from HMSC can be consolidated, extended or applied across Key Learning Areas of Chinese / English Language Education, Mathematics Education, Science Education, Personal, Social and Humanities Education, Arts Education, Physical Education and Other Learning Experiences. This will help them to develop a more holistic and coherent understanding of the world around them.


Chapter 2 Curriculum Framework

The curriculum framework for HMSC embodies the key knowledge, skills, values and attitudes that students are to develop at senior secondary level. It forms the basis on which schools and teachers plan their school-based curriculum and design appropriate learning, teaching and assessment activities.

2.1 Design Principles

The design of the HMSC curriculum is based on the learning goals and overarching design principles of the senior secondary curriculum as set out in the Senior Secondary Curriculum Guide (2009), viz.:

Prior knowledge

This curriculum builds upon the knowledge and understanding developed by the students at the junior secondary level in the subjects described in Section 1.4.1.

Balance between breadth and depth

HMSC is one of the elective subjects which contributes to students’ whole-person development, as well as widening the range of subject choices for students.

Balance between theoretical and applied learning

This subject is positioned midway on the continuum of theoretical and applied learning.

Balance between compulsory learning and choice

This subject develops students’ general competencies through their learning in the compulsory part and enables them to gain knowledge in specific areas of health and social care through a selection of modules in the elective part, according to their interests.

Learning how to learn and inquiry-based learning

This curriculum encourages students to build up a solid knowledge base and develop higher-order thinking skills, problem-solving skills and other generic skills to meet future challenges. The HMSC curriculum aims to enable students to find things out for themselves and to become independent learners.



Students can explore their interests through the study of the compulsory part in S4.

The part forms the foundation for smooth progress to S5 and S6 in their chosen studies.

Articulation to a range of post-secondary pathways

Students can pursue academic and vocational / professional education and training through articulation to programmes in a range of tertiary institutions or seek employment. Details are provided in Section 1.4.2.

Greater coherence

There are cross-curricular elements in the curriculum to strengthen connections and enhance horizontal and vertical coherence.

The design of the HMSC curriculum rests on the notion of the interconnectedness of the various levels at which phenomena related to health and sickness, well-being and ill-being, and personal and community care are to be understood. The curriculum aims to enable students to explore all of these levels as well as the relationships between them. The different levels can be interpreted as the individual, the family, the peer group, the community, the institutional setting, society, the nation and the world.

Figure 2.1 Design of the HMSC curriculum

Individual SOCIETY


Peer Family

Institutions COMMUNITY


2.2 Learning Targets

Through the learning of the HMSC curriculum, students should be able to:

2.2.1 Knowledge and understanding

 understand the processes of personal growth and development, and the different dimensions of a healthy individual

 understand and acknowledge the linkages between personal behaviour and practice and the health and social well-being of oneself and the community, as well as social processes and structures

 analyse and evaluate the interrelationships and mutual influences between people and ecology, and develop ways of promoting environmental health and personal safety

 understand the structures, processes, techniques and practices in health and social care organisations and agencies, and assess their effectiveness

2.2.2 Skills

 develop and apply skills for leading and maintaining a healthy lifestyle and preventing ill-health

 develop and apply knowledge and skills which contribute to making healthy choices when selecting consumer goods and services and when engaging in work and leisure activities across the lifespan

 develop the ability to critically analyse and apply personal health indicators as well as general and actual health-related information to maintain and improve health and quality of life

 plan and implement health promotion and social care activities in various environments and contexts, and for different groups

 develop an initial understanding of, and skills in, social science research, including formulating pertinent questions, collecting and analysing data, writing reports and communicating with interested and relevant audiences

 demonstrate the skills needed to interact with people when providing support to others

 develop and apply Information Technology (IT) skills in gathering, processing and analysing health care information before making informed health-related decisions during their lives.


2.2.3 Values and attitudes

 appreciate and practise lifelong personal and social responsibility for one’s own health and social well-being

 inculcate a sense of responsibility and concern for the health and social care of others in the family, school, peer group and community

 respect the dignity of individuals and recognise both differences and similarities among individuals and groups in terms of age, gender, culture, ethnicity, (dis-)ability, and socio-economic background

 develop interest in and concern for emerging contemporary issues of health and social care and their linkages with value and belief systems

2.3 Learning Outcomes

The learning outcomes of HMSC are:

 To be competent in understanding, analysing and evaluating local and global health and social care issues from the perspectives of different stakeholders, and in making ethical and constructive suggestions for promoting a healthy and caring community for the benefit of humankind.

 To realise and act upon their obligations as responsible citizens, which begin with self, family and community, by applying the knowledge and skills learned from the HMSC curriculum.

 To appreciate the importance of collaboration with others and of working with a positive attitude in the face of adversity and uncertainty.

These learning outcomes relate well to the intentions of the overall curriculum reform which focuses on preparing young people for a more responsible and satisfying adulthood – notably as citizens – and for engaging in further studies and lifelong learning.


2.4 Curriculum Structure and Organisation

The HMSC curriculum includes five main topics in the compulsory part and three modules in the elective part. The topics are as follows:

Compulsory Part

 Personal Development, Social Care and Health Across the Lifespan

 Health and Social Care in the Local and the Global Contexts

 Responding to Needs in the Areas of Health (Care, Promotion and Maintenance) and Social Care

 Promotion and Maintenance of Health and Social Care in the Community

 Health Promotion and Maintenance and Social Care in Action Elective Part

 Extended Study on Health Promotion and Health Maintenance Services

 Extended Study on Community and Social Care Services

 Current Issues of Health and Social Care

In the learning process, students have the opportunity to develop a holistic view of health and social care through personal empowerment, involvement in groups, community learning and action, and the application of strategies of social advocacy. In this way, students should be able to acquire the foundation knowledge stipulated in the compulsory part before attempting the elective part.


An overview of the topics in the compulsory and elective parts is given in the following diagram:

Figure 2.2 Curriculum structure and organisation

Compulsory Part Elective Part

Select any 2 out of the 3 modules

Health Management and Social Care

Personal Development, Social Care and Health Across the Lifespan

Health and Social Care in the Local and the Global Contexts

Responding to Needs in the Areas of Health (Care, Promotion and

Maintenance) and Social Care

Promotion and Maintenance of Health and Social Care in the Community

Health Promotion and Maintenance and Social Care in Action

Extended Study on Health Promotion and Health Maintenance Services

Extended Study on

Community and Social Care Services

Current Issues of Health and Social Care


2.4.1 Organisation of the Compulsory and Elective Parts

The curriculum is organised into compulsory and elective parts to cater for the different learning needs and interests of students. Those who take this subject are expected to study the compulsory part and select two elective modules out of the three provided. This combination of compulsory and elective parts is designed to offer a balanced approach to the study of this subject and the intended learning targets described in the earlier part of this chapter.

Compulsory Part

The compulsory part develops a holistic understanding of health, health care and maintenance, health promotion and illness prevention, social care, and welfare and community services in the interrelated context of the individual, family, the community, society and the nation. It lays the foundation for students’ further explorations and for the extension of their studies in specific areas of health and social care and according to their learning interests and future career plans, for example, health promotion and modern lifestyles; social care and the value of social capital; developing and nurturing supportive and caring environments; issues of access, equity and social justice in health and social care services provision and the allocation and distribution of appropriate resources; and working as volunteers and professionals in the areas of health and social and community care.

Elective Part

In the elective part, the focus is on creating action-oriented, experiential and contextualised learning experiences, together with the theoretical underpinning necessary to learn from them. Through engaging in practical learning experiences and applying the theory and concepts acquired in the compulsory part, each elective module enables students to extend their knowledge in the areas of: health care, promotion and advocacy, social care and related services or current issues related to health management and social care.

The topics to be included in the compulsory part and examples of learning themes for the elective part are listed in the following tables:


Compulsory Part

1. Personal Development, Social Care and Health Across the Lifespan

A. Biological, social, psychological, spiritual, ecological and cultural perspectives and dimensions

B. Factors which influence personal development C. Transitions and changes in the course of the lifespan

D. Factors affecting our health / illness experiences and personal and social well-being

E. The need for and the role of social care in the community and the private sphere across the lifespan

2. Health and Social Care in the Local and the Global Contexts

A. Structural issues related to health, social care and personal and social well-being B. Contemporary issues of vulnerability

C. Recent increases in vulnerability and exposure due to lifestyle changes, globalization and family changes

D. Developments in the health and care industries

3. Responding to the Needs in the Areas of Health (Care, Promotion and Maintenance) and Social Care

A. The notion and practice of health promotion, health maintenance, ill-health prevention, social care, welfare and community services

B. Developing health and social care / welfare policies C. Implementing health and social care policies

D. Cultural and political disagreements and tensions

4. Promotion and Maintenance of Health and Social Care in the Community

A. Disease prevention (primary, secondary and tertiary) and using precautions in our daily living patterns and lifestyles

B. Health and safety e.g. at home, in the community, and in the public sphere, at school, at work, in leisure and sport activities, and when travelling

C. Aspects of risk assessment and health management e.g. diet and nutrition, environmental health, emergencies management

D. Social care, healthy relationships, social responsibility and commitment in the family, community and groups

E. Health and social care professions and volunteers complementing primary/ private care

5. Health Promotion and Maintenance and Social Care in Action A. Professions in health and social services

B. Health and social care services and agencies

C. Mental health as a personal predicament and as linked to the social context D. Leadership in health and social care


Elective Part

This part provides students with opportunities for experiential learning in agencies or through projects in school or in the community. Students are required to select any two out of the three modules suggested.

1. Extended Study on Health Promotion and Health Maintenance Services Suggested learning theme (A):

Contemporary health care systems and their evolutionary characteristics: the cultural, ideological, economic and social philosophies informing the establishment of health policies and services, and their practical outcomes.

Examples of study questions

(a) What are the factors affecting the current health care system on maternity care?

(b) What are the differences between the existing health care system on maternity care and that in the past, say 20 years ago?

(c) How have the policies changed?

(d) What are the strengths and weaknesses of the existing health care policies on maternity care? Discuss.

(e) What are the differences between the local health care policies on maternity care and those of other countries?

Suggested learning theme (B):

An examination of (some) current practices and approaches in the management of health and health care, such as profit-making health services, government services based on social entitlement, and charity-based delivery of service; investigating the differences in user groups and their ability to afford such services.

Examples of study questions

(a) What are the differences between the government and profit-making

organisations in the current practices and approaches of providing home for the aged services?

(b) Who will be their target groups?

(c) What are the family members’ major concerns in selecting the home for the aged services?

(d) To what extent that the needs of the elderly are fulfilled?

(e) How could the health care service for the elderly be further improved?


Elective Part

2. Extended Study on Community and Social Care Services Suggested learning theme (A):

An examination of the history and development of the social welfare system and its associated policies in Hong Kong, including study of its ideological and philosophical underpinnings.

Examples of study questions

(a) What is the rationale for the social welfare system for elderly people in Hong Kong and what are its associated policies?

(b) What are the elderly people’s needs for health and social care?

(c) What was the historical background of the policy? What were the major welfare policies for elderly people from the 1970s to 2000s?

(d) Analyse the changes in the welfare system – for example, in terms of its priority in government policy, its direction of development or its areas of services?

(e) What are the strengths and shortcomings of the current policies?

Suggested learning theme (B):

Investigation of an area of social service delivery, either based on a certain group of people in need, or on a particular form of service delivery (e.g. home-based care, outreach work, therapeutic approaches, and the various roles played by professionals and volunteers).

Examples of study questions

(a) Which groups of people are more vulnerable to drug addiction?

(b) What is the possible impact of such addiction on themselves and society?

(c) In what ways can they be helped? What are the health and care needs of drug addicts (e.g. different types of treatments; financial assistance, psychological and social needs)?

(d) What services are available for them?

(e) Who provides the services? Are the any overlaps or inadequacies in these services? Discuss.


Elective Part

Suggested learning theme (C):

Investigation into one “site” where social care services are delivered and an in-depth study of the interactions between clients, workers and volunteers, and an analysis of the hierarchical and team-based forms of work.

Examples of study questions

(a) Outline the basic information on the site (e.g. a centre for the elderly), such as its location, area, and target groups.

(b) What services are available for the elderly in the centre?

(c) What activities are there in the centre?

(d) How do the workers, participants, volunteers or visitors interact with one another?

(e) What are the roles of the health and care professionals and how do they work and interact with their team members and the elderly?

3. Current Issues of Health and Social Care Suggested learning theme (A):

With reference to the key topics in the compulsory part, students select a specific theme related to a current issue for detailed study at a wide range of levels (e.g.

global, national, society, community, institutional, organisation, peer, family, and individual).

Examples of study questions

(a) Identify a contemporary infectious disease, and describe its symptoms and ways of transmission.

(b) What are the reactions of global organisations to this disease?

(c) How does this disease affect the world? Try to compare the situation in two countries.

(d) How has the local government responded to the disease? Have any policies been enforced?

(e) How does this disease affect the lives of people in their families and communities?


This section provides more details about the topics in the compulsory part, with some explanatory notes. The sequence of the topics is meant for teachers’ reference, and it is suggested that the elements listed should not be learned in isolation.

Topic 1 - Personal Development, Social Care and Health Across the Lifespan

Topics Explanatory Notes

1A Biological, social, psychological, spiritual, ecological and cultural perspectives and dimensions 1. Definitions of health

2. Biological perspective:

Physical growth and development

Biological defects

genetically inherited diseases (e.g.

Down’s syndrome)

prenatal exposure delayed effects (e.g. growth retardation of babies of heavy drinking mother)

3. Social perspective

Interpersonal relationships

Social support

The influence of economic changes, work, unemployment, violence, uncertainty 4. Psychological perspective

The inner lives of people

Personality development

Self-esteem and self-concept

Emotional and mental health (e.g. stress and anger management)

The effects of psychological elements on social development and upbringing 5. Spiritual perspective

Religious beliefs

Personal drive and will for survival 6. Ecological perspective

Exhaustion of natural resources e.g. water, land, food

Forms of Pollution and their impact on health

To understand the holistic concept of health

To understand that health can be examined by a range of biological, psychological, social, spiritual, ecological and cultural perspectives

To analyse the interrelationship between different aspects of health


Topics Explanatory Notes

Global warming

Genetically Modified food (GM Food) and food products

7. Cultural perspective

Cultural influences on social, mental and physical and spiritual aspects of human development, e.g.

different attitudes on health and care (health-seeking behaviour among Chinese)

cultural influences on human relationships

food culture and eating habits 8. Interrelationships between biological, social,

psychological, ecological, spiritual and cultural aspects in human development and health

1B Factors which influence personal development 1. Family

Definition of a family

Family as a socializing agent and the role of the family in

nurturing conditions for health and development

meeting the physical, social and emotional needs

developing one’s identity,

self-esteem, resilience and affection

inculcating family, social and cultural values

Parental roles

Parenting style

Effects of parental roles on child development

2. Education and schooling

Formal and informal learning in the community

To explore how the family, peers, school education and the community influence personal health and development

To identify and understand the positive factors and risk factors towards personal development

To take on the personal responsibilities in cultivating the conditions for personal development of oneself and the others


Topics Explanatory Notes

Health and social care content in the school curriculum

The role of literacy in health and social care

3. Peer groups

Meeting social and emotional needs

Peer pressure and one’s identity

Influence on life style and on a variety of health risk behaviours

4. Community influence

Living environment: physical aspect, social aspect and environmental aspect

Media, e.g. healthy city

Social relationships

The availability of health and social care services

1C Transitions and changes in the course of the lifespan 1. The various stages of life






2. Changes of human relationships across lifespan

Child-parent relationships, sibling relationships, friendship, courtship, working relationship

Moving from child-parent relationships to sibling relationships and relationships outside the nuclear family

The linkages between the nuclear and the extended family

3. Changes that occur in families throughout the life cycle


To recognise the lifespan perspectives on human development and the important features at different stages of life

To understand that transitions and changes across life span are inevitable

To develop positive attitude towards changes and life events

To learn how to deal with life events that affect personal development and health

To realise that real-life problems often have more than one solution

To understand the needs and care of people at various stages of life


Topics Explanatory Notes




4. Crucial examples of life events / experience

Work and its influence on the family- gender roles and work inside and outside the family

Illness (e.g. leading to disabilities)

Education (e.g. interface between kindergarten and primary, primary and secondary)


Death (e.g. a family member)

Separation and reunion

5. Positive responses to different life events, e.g.

injury, breaking up, changing living environment

6. Culturally diverse ways of dealing with life events: birth, child rearing, illness, eldership and death

7. Special needs and care throughout the life cycle, e.g.

Immunisation in infancy

Safety and nutrition in childhood

Emotional health in adolescence

Health in adulthood

Prevention of falls in the elderly

Legislation (e.g. about children and the elderly)

8. Community care and support services for the different stages of life

1D Factors affecting our health / illness experiences and personal and social well-being 1. Demographic factors



Race and ethnicity

To recognise the factors that influence personal and social health

To analyse the interrelationships between the factors that affect health and well-being

To realise that knowledge of the determinants


Topics Explanatory Notes 2. Social and economic factors

Social class



Lifestyle: leisure activities and exercises

Living environment

Accessibility to services

Economy 3. Nutritional factors

Balanced diet, eating habits

Malnutrition (e.g. in developing countries) 4. Socio-biological and psychobiological factors

The effects of over- and under estimation of children during their developmental phases

Hyperactivity and lack of concentration

Civilisation diseases (e.g. diabetes, high cholesterol level, obesity)

5. Ecological factors

Human activities: pollution, climate changes (e.g. global warming), genetic modification of foodstuff

Natural disasters: how natural disasters affect health and well-being

6. Globalization – examples of its impact

Cross-cultural influence on our eating pattern (e.g. Western-style fast food is popular world-wide)

the spread of infectious diseases due to high mobility

the ease of accessibility of health or social care information

7. Technological advancement and its impact on health and health care, e.g. pre-marriage advice and genetic screening, peri-natal care, vaccines, GM technology, cloning and its effect on medical aspects

of health serve to deepen our understanding of not just the problems but the interventions needed to address them

To explore the interventions required to minimise the effects of adverse health determinants

To analyse the impacts of technology advancement on health and social care


Topics Explanatory Notes

1E The need for and the role of social care in the community and the private sphere across the lifespan 1. Breaking down of community bonds and

relationships and the consequences for social care, health and well-being

Breakdown due to technology

advancement, individualism, long and irregular working hours, high mobility of community etc.

Possible negative consequences: lack of communication among people, ignorance on their living communities and support, crimes in community, social disorder etc.

2. The role of social care

Learn reciprocity and mutual care and support

Increase empathy to the disadvantaged and commitment to the community

Gain personal confidence through the experience of social care and social support

Develop communication and problem solving skills in the context of family, community and society

Grow up as balanced and socially responsible individuals

3. Forms of social care

Formal care provided by government and Non-governmental Organisations (NGOs)

Information provision and support services

Policies to build a caring society

Informal care provided by the private sphere and the community

the social support network to enhance personal growth

To understand the importance of social care for personal and social well-being

To identify and understand the roles of formal and informal care

To act as a supportive citizen in the community


Topic 2 - Health and Social Care in the Local and the Global Contexts

Topics Explanatory Notes

2A Structural issues related to health, social care and personal and social well-being 1. Vulnerable groups e.g. children, disabled, aged,

minority groups, poor families 2. Economic crises

Effects of economic “ups and downs” on communities, families and vulnerable groups

3. Displacement and migration

Population displacement may result from natural disaster, human activities such as dam project, war, job, education, family reunion etc.

Possible risks of displaced groups or migrants

Possible care deprivation in displaced population

Readjustment to new environment 4. Family problems e.g. Child and elderly abuse,

family violence 5. Poverty

underlying reasons, a poverty culture

Social security: social security as a safety net, social security systems in Hong Kong, their dependence on politics and economic fluctuations

6. Inequalities and resources deprivation

Concepts of equality and resources distribution

Inequalities and deprivation in social, national and global context

How they associate to social class, gender, age, ethnicity, and religions

7. Types of services and community resources in preventing and dealing with the above problems and other possible solutions

To analyse the relationship, impact and implications of structural issues in relation to personal and social well-being

To identify the support and services available for people / families in need and suggest other possible means or solutions

To appreciate equality and the value of international social justice


Topics Explanatory Notes 8. International social justice

International institutions, e.g. International Court of Justice (ICJ), United Nation (UN) and the World Health Organization (WHO) and their roles in promoting social justice

Relationships between developed and developing nations and societies

2B Contemporary issues of vulnerability 1. Addictions

Types of addictions, e.g. drugs, alcohol, nicotine, gambling, online computer games

Reasons for addictions, e.g. biological structures, psychosocial influence

Problems associated with addictions

Treatments 2. Ageing problems

Ageing population and related problems in Hong Kong and other countries

Active ageing

3. Prejudice and discrimination towards




Ethnic minorities


4. Infectious diseases, e.g. flu, AIDS, tuberculosis, hepatitis B

To understand the impact and implications of addiction, ageing problem, prejudice and discrimination and infectious diseases on the health / social care system

To explore possible means and solutions for dealing with issues of vulnerability

To value equal rights for individuals

To reflect upon the problem of discrimination and show respect to all

2C Recent increases in vulnerability and exposure due to lifestyle changes, globalization and family changes

1. Lifestyle changes and illness

Common illnesses in the local context

Communicable and non-communicable diseases

Lifestyle changes and communicable diseases (e.g. Cold, AIDS, food poisoning)

To identify factors leading to the increases in vulnerability and exposure

To analyse the relationships between lifestyle changes and common illnesses

To understand the impact of globalization


Topics Explanatory Notes

Lifestyle changes and non-communicable diseases (e.g. Cancer, heart disease, hypertension)

2. Globalization

Globalization and afflictions

Mobility and the spreading of communicable diseases

Effect on vulnerable groups e.g.

employment and wage rate in developing countries 3. Family changes and their effects

Family disintegration

Single parent households and the consequences

Role confusions and contradictory cultural values

on health and well-being

To identify the problems and effects associated with family changes

2D Developments in the health and care industries 1. Health and care industries – categories

2. Demographic changes and the implications for the needs of care services e.g. birth and death rate, life expectancy, ageing population, etc.

care sector expansion, increasing health and care expenditure

3. Conflicting agendas

Private vs. public responsibility

Expansion of public sector due to the increasing demand on health and care services

Concerns for pubic expenditure on care sector

Degree / extent of personal role on health and social care

Allocation of resources to different parties

Controversies, e.g. cloning, euthanasia 4. Deinstitutionalisation

Shift from institutionalised services to

To understand how the development of health and care industries are affected by the systemic factors, issues and concerns

To analyse the viewpoints or issues from different perspectives

To understand that value judgments may vary among different individuals or parties


Topics Explanatory Notes community-based services

5. Conflicting direction and potentials

cost-effectiveness vs. clients’ satisfaction

priorities of resource allocation to related parties and organisations

financing principles – percentage to be paid by users and tax payers

6. Changing infrastructure of social and health care e.g.

Changes in Hong Kong Social Security System

Introduction of the health financing model


Topic 3 – Responding to the Needs in the Areas of Health (care, promotion and maintenance) and Social Care

Topics Explanatory Notes

3A The notion and practice of health promotion, health maintenance, ill-health prevention, social care, welfare and community services

1. Health and well-being

Different aspects (social, psychological, emotional and physical) of health

Indicators for measuring physical health and their implications e.g. growth charts, Body Mass Index (BMI). blood pressure, pulse rate

Indicators for measuring different aspects of well-being e.g. stress indicators

2. Health maintenance and ill-health prevention:

Personal Role

Protective factors: exercise, recreation and rest, balanced diet, good hygiene practices, protective measures (e.g. helmets,

seat-belts), universal precautions

Risk factors: drug abuse, inadequate exercise/rest, unhealthy dietary habits, non-hygienic practices , harmful/unsafe practices , a sedentary lifestyle

Society Role

the role of government in health maintenance

the collection and application of data in health protection of the citizens

To use health indicators to keep track of general health conditions

To understand the protective factors and risk factors to health and well-being

To understand the roles of individual, community and government in health maintenance and ill-health prevention

To understand the concepts and models of health promotions

To demonstrate a commitment to the promotion of personal health and a healthy lifestyle

To encourage and support others in making health decisions for healthier lifestyles




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