Enriching Knowledge for the SS

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Enriching Knowledge for the SS

Tourism and Hospitality Studies Series:

Introduction to Hospitality – Basic Knowledge of Food and Beverage

Service Principles (New)




Operations Menu design


Operation Table Setting

Conclusion Future






Organization of



Organization of Restaurant



Food and beverage manager

● Dealing with all matters concerning spirits, wines and beers

● Purchasing, receiving, storing and issuing liquor as well as controlling the overall inventory

● Ensuring that the profit margins are achieved for each food and beverage outlet

● Promotion of the beverage department and marketing

Restaurant manager

● Responsibilities to the customers, employer and staff training

● Responsibilities for health and safety;

● interviewing and selecting new staff

Station waiter

● In larger hotels this position is sometimes called a chef de rang.

● This employee will work under the direction of the Station Head Waiter and serve customers.


Examples of F&B departments in hotel

Room Service (In-room dining)

● For enhancing the efficiency of this service unit, the room service department should be located conveniently near the kitchen and the service elevators.

● To ensure the freshness of food orders, hot dishes are kept in the warmer inside the service cart

● Close communications with the housekeeping department are essential to ensure no used trays and dishes are kept outside the guest rooms.


Examples of F&B departments in hotel

Room Service (In-room dining)


● Delivery of orders on time

● Making it a profitable department within food and beverage

● Avoiding complaints, e.g. food being cold or delivered late

● Forecasting when the busy times will be during a day or week.


Examples of F&B departments in hotel

Stewarding Department

The correct cleaning, drying and storage of all equipment used in the preparation and cooking of food is critical to prevent the spread of bacteria and cross-contamination.

Responsibilities of the Chief Steward:

● Cleanliness of back-of-house

● Washing of pots and pans and other kitchen equipment

● Cleanliness of glassware, china and cutlery

● Inventory of chemical stock

● Maintenance of dishwashing machines;


Relationship Between Food and Beverage Department and Other Departments

a) Rooms Division

● has coordination with Rooms Division in performing different duties.

● housekeeping departments would help to collect used trays and utensils after the consumption of food items by in-room guests on each floor

a) Engineering

● maintain all restaurant and kitchen facilities in good condition.

● repairing and conducting maintenance tasks for all kitchen equipment in a regular basis or upon request.

a) Security

● the F&B department will inform the security in advance if large-scaled conferences or banqueting events are to be held in the property


Relationship Between Food and Beverage Department and Other Departments

d) Human Resources

● The need of F&B department in recruiting a large quantity of casual staff in case of peak season relies heavily on the support of the human resources department.

e) Sales and Marketing

● F&B department should have close communication with sales and marketing department which aims at fulfilling the sales and marketing objectives set by the hotel in each financial year.


Modes of operation

• Independent ownership

• Chain ownership

• Franchise

• Profit Making Focused

• Non-Profit Making Focused


Independent ownership

• Self-financed single or unrelated restaurants

• The owner has the power to make decisions

• The outlook, internal design, menu, raw food purchase, operation, financial management and restaurant development are decided by the owner


Examples - Independent ownership


Chain ownership

With the great investment, standardized and systemized management. Expand the scale.

• Single-concept chains

• Multiple-concept chains

• International food services chain

• Local food services chain


Local examples – Chain ownership

Maxim‘s Catering Group


International examples - Chain ownership

McDonald’s (USA)

● the world's largest restaurant chain by revenue

● serving over 69 million customers daily in over 100 countries across 37,855 outlets (2018)


International examples - Chain ownership

Yum! Brands (USA)

● has over 53,000 restaurants in more than 155 countries

● territories primarily operating the company’s restaurant brands – KFC, Pizza Hut and Taco Bell

● global leaders of the chicken, pizza and Mexican-style food categories



• The parent company licenses the trademark to the company to operate

• Operate based on the parent company's trademark, services, products, and training

• The franchisee must pay a certain fee or a certain percentage of the parent company's revenue


Example - Franchise

• 包點料理 • La Kaffa Coffee


Profit & Non-Profit Making Focused

◆ Profit Making Focused

Food and beverage services available in the market are commercial-based

◆ Non-Profit Making Focused

Food and beverage services are mainly subsidized or welfare in their nature Emphasize on cost reduction


Examples- Non-Profit Making Focused

Cafe 8

• A unique collaboration between the Hong Kong Maritime Museum and The Nesbitt Centre

• Provides employment opportunities to those with special needs


Different food service markets

• Hotel Market

• Leisure Market

• Business and Industrial Market

• Student Market

• Retail Market

• Transportation Market

• Health Care Market

• Other Public Sector Market


Different food service markets

Hotel Market

• Service providers in the hotel market represent those restaurants or outlets

Leisure Market

• operating in the sites of tourism attractions or leisure places

Business and Industrial Market

• built inside the commercial or industrial buildings which provide a convenient dining place


Different food service markets

Student Market

• Cafeterias or canteens operated in schools or universities

Transportation Market

• provided in transportation, such airplanes, rails and cruises

Retail Market

• self-service operations which sell food and beverage items for ‘on-site’ consumption

Health Care Market

• refer to meals provided in hospitals and nursing homes


Characteristics of different types of restaurants

• Fine Dining Restaurants

• Casual Dining Restaurants

• Café

• Specialty Restaurants

• Fast Food Restaurants

• Bars


Fine Dining Restaurants


✔ Noble & elegant decoration

✔ Spacious which provides certain levels of

customers’ privacy

✔ With soft lights & music


✔ A la carte menu

✔ Orders can be customized

✔ Use expensive food and focus on freshness &



✔ High staff to guest ratio

✔ Require table manner

✔ Service charge of 10%

is required


Examples - Fine Dining Restaurants

China Tang (The Landmark)

• Traditional Chinese cuisine


Casual Dining Restaurants


✔ Provide a casual environment

✔ Design for target customers, provide roomy seats

✔ Less formal in decoration


✔ Dishes are moderately- priced

✔ Provide a la carte menu, some will provide buffet

✔ In a popular price


✔ No formal dress code or dining etiquette

✔ Simple table setting

✔ Lower staff-to-guest ratio


Examples - Casual Dining Restaurants


Peko Peko Eatery




✔ Provide soft music and light

✔ Provide a comfortable environment to guests

✔ Roomy seat


✔ Simple menus with limited choices

✔ Simple menu, mainly provide drinks & finger

✔ Purchase in the cashierfood


✔ Self-service

✔ No table setting

✔ Free seating and no reservation is needed


Examples - Café

Starbucks Pacific Coffee


Specialty Restaurants


✔ Create a comfortable environment

✔ Match the theme of the restaurant


✔ The menu is centre to a theme

✔ ranged from ethnic to healthy cuisine


✔ Need to wear the same uniform

✔ Varied from low staff-to- guest ratio to full service

✔ Provide a relax feeling to guests


Examples - Specialty Restaurants

Cabin Crew Coffee Wonder Garden Cafe


Fast Food Restaurants


✔ Simple and clear decoration

✔ Mainly use a vital logo

✔ Narrow seat but provide a personal seat


✔ Limited choice in the

✔ Most of the food are menu cooked

✔ Simple food and easy cooking


✔ Little interactive between guests and staffs

✔ Very low staff-to-guest ratio

✔ Little or no waiting time


Examples - Fast Food Restaurants

FIVE GUYS Shake Shack




✔ Dim lights & music

✔ Some will arrange performances

✔ have a bar table with bartenders preparing drinks visible to the customers


✔ Mainly provide beverage and party food

✔ Some provide discount in non-peak hours to attract more businesses


✔ Only accommodate age 18 or above

✔ Some require membership for entrance


Examples - Bars

Bar Pacific


Menu Design


Types of menu

• À la carte Menu

• Table d’hote Menu

• Carte du jour

• Children’s Menu

• Banqueting Menu

• Cocktail Menu (finger food)

• Cycle Menu


Objectives of menu

● Make a menu profitable for a commercial operation.

● To identify the food and drink to be offered and portions to be served.

● To identify the quantities and quality of food and beverage ingredients to be purchased.

● It contributes in a big way to the business’s market image.

● Menus are effective marketing tools if they are designed with the needs of the target markets in mind.


Types of menu

A la carte Menu

• list out all dishes and provide the price for each dish

Table d’hote Menu

• set menu

• a fixed number of courses

• limited choices within each course


Types of menu

Carte du jour

• The menu will be renewed every day

Children’s Menu

• Smaller food portion compared with adult’s menu

• Mainly with colorful food


Types of menu

Banqueting Menu

• include different kind of food include appetizers, main courses and dessert

• dishes will be presented individually

Cocktail Menu

• Usually no menu card

• Dishes can be hot or cold


Consideration – menu planning

Customer-related factors Food-related factors

Types of customers to be attracted Cost & price of the food materials

Spending power Supply of food materials

Dining sequence Nutritional value of food

Special requests Variety and the number of choices Food hygiene and safety

Operation-related factors Marketing-related factors

Kitchen size and facilities Competitors’ practices The restaurant’s location Decoration of restaurant

Operational hours Marketing tool

Skills of the kitchen staff Variety and the number of choices Language


Comparison of different types of menu

Advantages of applying non-selective menus Advantages of applying selective menus

● Additional staff are not required in the production;

● Simpler and easier to control purchasing;

● Less costly due to the limited items required;

● Better and easier portion control.

● Often less expensive as the menu can be balanced with less expensive items;

● A large quantity of food is not required as you have more varieties to choose from;

● Items can be frequently updated based on changes in trends and seasonality →

stimulate the consumption of target customers.


Comparison of different types of menu

Selective vs Non-selective

À la carte Menu Highly selective

Table d’hote Menu Less selective to non-selective

Carte du jour Less selective to non-selective

Children’s Menu Mostly non-selective to non-selective

Banqueting Menu Non-selective or advanced requests are required for any changes

Cocktail Menu (finger food) Non-selective since menus are confirmed in

advance. True menus are usually not required or provided in the service process.

Cycle Menu Less selective to moderately selective

Selective vs Non-selective menu


Menu pricing

Cost-based Approach

Food cost

Food cost percentage = —————— x 100%

Selling price

● In generally cases, the food cost percentages of restaurants are ranged from 20 to 30%.

● Some exceptional cases, such as steak and seafood items can have higher food costs.

● Beverages usually have lower food cost percentages, meaning a higher profit margin can always be achieved by restaurants through selling of beverages and alcohols.


Menu pricing

Subjective Approach

● Pricing through this approach is not based on the consideration of food production cost but other factors

e.g, Some fast-food restaurants would use this approach by pricing some menu items below the market prices to attract customers. This ‘lowest price’ approach can especially help in

increasing the market share and it usually works well under the assumption that customers who come for a ‘low-priced’ item would also purchase other items in their dining experiences.


Menu design

• Book-folded or a single sheet

• Colour

• Type of card or paper used

• Language used and the font size and type

• Size of the menu

• Cover design

Considering the following aspects of menu design:


Menu design

• The menu cover should reflect the identity or the décor of the restaurant.

• The paper or card chosen needs to be of good quality, heavy, durable, stain and grease resistant.

• Menu design should be unique, simple, highly recognizable.

• Clip-on inserts in menus may be used to advertise daily specials and upcoming events.


Menu design

Book-folded menu Window-folded menu


Menu design

Table tent Sandwich menu


Table Setting


Table Setting

Portrays the image of the business and the ambience of the dining areas


Kinds of Table Settings

Formal dinner setting

Lunch setting


Kinds of Table Settings

• À la carte setting

Menu with all the dishes individually priced.

Cooked to order. List of dishes.

Table Setting: Large joint knife and fork

(1) Base plate (2) Fish knife and fork

(3) Side plate with side knife

(4) Napkin

(5) Glass


Kinds of Table Settings

• Table d’hote setting

Menu is at a set price, usually with two or three courses. Fixed price

(1) Dinner(main course) knife and fork (2) Fish knife and fork

(3) Soup spoon

(4) Side plate and side knife (bread plate and butter knife) (5) Dessert (sweet) spoon and fork

(6) Wine glass (7) Napkin (1)

(2) (3)


(5) (6)



Silverware, Tableware and Glassware used

1. Silverware and Tableware


Silverware, Tableware and Glassware used

2. Glassware


Silverware, Tableware and Glassware used

3. Bar Equipment


Ambience of a



Factors can affect the ambience of a restaurant

• Décor

• Uniforms

• Senses


Factors can affect the ambience of a restaurant


- Style of interior furnishings - Design and Theme

- Decoration

- Colour of the lighting


Factors can affect the ambience of a restaurant


- A uniform is a set of standard clothing worn by an employee of a hospitality organization while

participating in that organization's activities


Factors can affect the ambience of a restaurant

Senses - Sight - Touch - Hearing - Smell

- Temperature





Types of Kitchens

Food preparation area Banqueting kitchen

Grill room Pastry kitchen


Kitchen Design

• Calculate the kitchen size

• Design for easy manoeuvrability

• Modern equipment standards

• Energy efficiency

• Ventilation & maintenance


Well-planned Kitchen

• Designed - easily managed

• Management - easy access & good visibility

• Products - easy flow of raw materials to finished product

• Personnel - a good workflow & good time management

• Containers/Equipment/Utensils - separated into specific process areas

• Storage areas - clean and tidy


Considerations - kitchen design

• Type of restaurant

• Kitchen’s area

• Menu content and equipment

• Number of staff

• Equipment characteristics and water, electricity supply

• Sequence of presentation

• Guest capacity and dining specialty

• Efficient district design

• Follow the law





Kitchen organizational chart


Responsibilities of different Station Chefs

Station Chef Responsibilities

Sauce chef Sauté station & preparation

of most of the sauces

Roast and Grill chef Grilled/broiled/roasted items

Fish chef Fish & shellfish items

Vegetable chef Hot appetizers, soup &


Pantry chef Cold appetizers, canapés & salads

Relief Chef Fills in at any position

Pastry chef Baked items & sweets





Reshaping menus

• Food offers for a post COVID-19 world will need to change dramatically. Menus will need to be more ‘delivery’ friendly or be able to be hosted in newly designed workplace


• Any sharing, or self-service style food to be removed

https://www.hospitalityandcateringnews.com/2020/04/futur e-workplace-catering-forecast/


Health and safety

• Specific training and development will be

required by teams in a new socially-distanced environment.

• Customers and guests will need to be offered guidance and information about new ways of working and measures taken to minimize risk.

• Restaurant hosts and guides are likely to be deployed to guide people through zones and control the movement of people.


Future workplace catering forecast – Shift based footfall

• Some city businesses are likely to implement shift patterns for those who come to the office.

‘A’ and ‘B’ teams are likely to be deployed on a weekly basis.

• There are likely to be lunch shifts in some organizations to reduce traffic and queuing wherever possible.


Future workplace catering forecast – Intelligent technology

• There will be more emphasis on using technology to pre-order food.

• Technology will communicate key messages to customers and guests to help reassure them during the initial post-lockdown period.

• ‘Click and collect’ is expected to feature heavily during the initial months.


Thank You




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