Ongoing Renewal of School Curriculum – Focusing, Deepening and Sustaining
Updating the Personal, Social and
Humanities Education Key Learning Area Curriculum
(Primary 1 to Secondary 6)
Curriculum Development Council
Preamble: Ongoing Renewal of School Curriculum –Focusing, Deepening and Sustaining
1. Why and how updates are to be made?
1.1 Keeping abreast of new developments in the PSHE KLA
1.2 Responding to the changing contexts 1.3 Building on strengths, Filling the gaps
2. What are the major updates?
2.1 Curriculum aims
2.2 Curriculum framework
2.3 Pedagogies (including e‐learning) 2.4 Assessment
2.5 Curriculum planning and management
3. What are the supporting strategies?
3.1 Learning and teaching resources
3.2 Professional development of curriculum leaders and teachers
3.3 Building school capacity through partnerships with external organisations
4. Frequently Asked Questions p. 26
Appendix 1: The seven learning goals of primary education p. 30 Appendix 2: Diagrammatic representation of the PSHE KLA
curriculum framework with proposed updates
Appendix 3: Proposed updates made to the description of the sub‐strands and perspectives associated respectively with the six strands of the PSHE KLA
Appendix 4: Proposed updates in the proposed list of learning objectives for the six strands at Key Stages 1‐3
Appendix 5: Proposed updates in the core elements/
essential content for learning for the six strands at Key Stages 1‐3
Appendix 6: Exemplars to show the implementation of the key emphases for the curriculum renewal in the PSHE KLA
Appendix 7: A Comparison table highlighting the proposed updates in the 2016 version in relation to the 2002 version
Ongoing Renewal of School Curriculum –Focusing, Deepening and Sustaining
The Learning to Learn curriculum reform that started in 2001 has been promoting curriculum and pedagogical change that fosters learners’ whole-person development and learning to learn capabilities to achieve lifelong learning. Over the past decade or so, much has been achieved in schools through the implementation of the reform. To mention a few of the achievements, the curriculum reform has brought about a new breed of students who are more proactive and in possession of greater learning agility and stronger transferable skills; the strength of our students’ performance in mathematics, science and reading in Chinese is internationally recognised; teachers have achieved a paradigm shift from teacher-centred classroom practices to learner-centred learning; the assessment culture in schools has changed with greater emphasis placed on assessment for/as learning; and there is increasing collaboration among teachers within and across schools.
Alongside the implementation of the Learning to Learn curriculum reform, there have been a lot of changes and challenges in our society and around the world, such as those observed in economic, scientific, technological and social developments. To maintain Hong Kong’s competitive edge and to prepare our students well for the local and global changes taking place in various fields, it is necessary to enhance the Learning to Learn curriculum reform, to sustain and deepen the accomplishments achieved and to identify new focuses in the curriculum as we move to a new phase of curriculum renewal and updating.
Capitalising on the positive impacts and experience gained, the curriculum renewal (also known as “Learning to Learn 2.0”) being introduced is an enhanced version of the Learning to Learn curriculum reform that started in 2001. It is not an “add-on” but a continual journey to work smarter and in a more focused manner in promoting Learning to Learn for the next five to ten years. In this new phase of curriculum renewal, the curriculum will remain learner-centred and continue to focus on learning, particularly the improvement of its quality and effectiveness. However, to closely respond to various contextual changes locally and globally, more attention will be given to the development of personal attributes expected of our students across KLAs in the coming decade, and focuses such as Language across the Curriculum, Information Literacy, as well as Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Education will be given stronger emphasis with renewed understanding of learning goals, generic skills and values and attitudes.
In response to the new phase of curriculum renewal, the Basic Education Curriculum Guide (Primary 1-6) was updated in mid-2014. The corresponding Secondary Education Curriculum Guide and the curriculum guides for the various KLAs are also being updated and will be available for schools’ reference tentatively in 2016 upon the completion of feedback collection. Schools are encouraged to sustain, deepen and focus on areas deemed essential for further improving students’ independent learning capabilities.
This consultation brief presents the major updates related to the Personal, Social and Humanities Education (PSHE) Key Learning Area (KLA) and the key emphases for the ongoing curriculum renewal proposed for schools’ adoption. Examples are also provided to illustrate how these key emphases are achieved through this KLA, particularly in the aspects of learning aims/targets/objectives, curriculum planning as well as learning, teaching and assessment. Schools may formulate plans to incorporate these recommended updates and the key emphases for the ongoing curriculum renewal from the 2016/17 school year, taking into consideration the school context, teachers’ readiness and students’ needs. As the recommendations proposed in this consultation brief have a direct bearing on school-based curriculum development over the next decade and will set new directions for future curriculum updating and renewal and chart the way forward for sustaining the existing curriculum reform, we would like to solicit views and feedback from stakeholders, in particular the school sector. Comments and suggestions on this consultation brief are welcome and should be sent by 15 February 2016 to:
Chief Curriculum Development Officer (PSHE) Curriculum Development Institute
Rm 1319, 13/F Wu Chung House 213 Queen’s Road East
Wanchai, Hong Kong Fax: 2573 5299
1. Why and how updates are to be made?
The Personal, Social and Humanities Education Key Learning Area Curriculum Guide (Primary 1 - Secondary 6) (2016) is prepared by the Curriculum Development Council (CDC) Committee on Personal, Social and Humanities Education. It is an updated version of the Personal, Social and Humanities Education (PSHE) Key Learning Area (KLA) Curriculum Guide (Primary 1 - Secondary 3) (2002), with an extension of the curriculum for the three-year senior secondary.
The updates of the PSHE KLA Curriculum Guide are in line with the guiding principles for the ongoing renewal of the school curriculum and the updated learning goals of school education. More details are provided in the Overview for Ongoing Renewal of the School Curriculum – Focusing, Deepening and Sustaining.
Significant changes and rapid developments taking place around the world have called for changes in the PSHE KLA curriculum in order to prepare students for living and working in the 21st century and to develop them into informed, competent and responsible citizens who will contribute to the development of the local, national and global communities. This part of the consultation document presents the rationale for updating the current PSHE KLA curriculum.
1.1 Keeping abreast of new developments in the PSHE KLA
The PSHE KLA provides a context for the study of the human world and aims to promote the maturation of a person as a human being and citizen. More specifically, the major goals of learning in the PSHE KLA are to enable learners to recognize their own worth and realize their full potential; develop effective and fulfilling relationships in life; understand and cherish history and culture as common human experiences and develop a sense of common humanity; respect diversity and contribute to social well-being; and understand contemporary developments of, and develop a sense of responsibility to, the society, the nation and the world. To achieve these objectives, the updated PSHE KLA curriculum continues to situate learners in different social contexts structured along the dimensions of time, place, institution, culture and values; engage learners in examining the present, making connections with the past and considering future possibilities; and guide them to draw on knowledge from different disciplines to attain an integrated understanding of human behaviours, events and issues in different social contexts.
Pedagogically, the updated PSHE KLA curriculum continues to emphasize the importance of learning through enquiry and participation. Students are encouraged to play an active role in their learning by taking part in a wide range of activities and experiences across and beyond the curriculum, co-constructing knowledge with peers and contributing to the well-being of their school and communities. To support student learning, continued emphasis is placed on providing opportunities for students to acquire knowledge in an authentic and stimulating learning environment, and great attention is given to the choice of content which is closely linked to daily life and societal developments and incorporates the ever-changing socio-economic and political dynamics.
Taken together, new developments in subject disciplines related to the PSHE KLA as well as new developments in the local community, the nation and the world have rendered the need to introduce new content and new knowledge in order to equip students with solid and up-to-date knowledge to enable them to meet new and dynamic circumstances.
1.2 Responding to the changing contexts
Significant changes and rapid developments have been taking place around the world.
In this context of change, the challenge for schools to provide all-round education, nurture lifelong learners and empower the younger generation to meet the new and dynamic circumstances, has become all the more acute. Students have to acquire a solid body of knowledge, including an in-depth understanding of themselves, the local community, the nation and the world, and develop an understanding of the humanistic dimensions in their fields of study. They have to learn to think critically, creatively and constructively in response to changes and developments as well as solve problems and tackle issues. They also have to be prepared for civic and social engagement.
Locally, while maintaining a high level of socio-economic development, Hong Kong is facing challenges of social, economic, political, cultural and environmental nature, which include poverty problem, human power mismatch, youth unemployment, social cleavages arising from diverse views on constitutional development and controversies over development and cultural and environmental protection and conservation. At national level, alongside its rapid economic ascendance, China is facing challenges of different nature, which include: socially, demographic pressures related to the aging population and internal migration of labour, and rapid urbanization; economically, the need to increase the competitive edge of its industries and the need to translate the
“Belt and Road” initiative into feasible economic development plans; politically,
development of effective governance, including governing the country in accordance with the law; culturally, increased attention to historic and cultural conservation; and environmentally, increased attention to environmental sustainability. At global level, globalization has engendered major human development gains, given rise to new forms of cultural diversity, and led to growing awareness of and commitment to global issues. Alongside these human development advances, there are growing concerns for emerging risks and dangers in the social, economic, political and environmental arenas, such as current major conflicts in the international political arena, global economic problems and global environmental issues.
The dynamic contexts at the local, national and global levels have rendered the need to introduce the key emphases for the ongoing curriculum renewal in the PSHE KLA in order to promote various qualities, attributes and preparedness among our students for their present and future academic and career pursuits as well as civic and social engagement and participation.
1.3 Building on strengths, Filling the gaps
The implementation of the PSHE KLA curriculum along the directions of development set out in the Personal, Social and Humanities Education Key Learning Area Curriculum Guide (P1-S3) (CDC, 2002) has made achievements on the following1:
curriculum organisation - the adoption of an open and flexible curriculum framework in many subjects in this KLA, which has facilitated schools’ effort in catering for learner diversity as well as integration between modules or subjects;
curriculum leadership - the appointment of a PSHE co-ordinator to provide leadership in curriculum planning and management and to strengthen collaboration among different PSHE subjects;
school culture - the encouragement of co-planning of lessons and co-planning and sharing of teaching materials as well as collaboration within the PSHE KLA and/or across KLAs, which contributes to the development of a collaborative culture;
learning and teaching - the adoption of a variety of learning and teaching strategies and modes of assessment to engage students in different learning experiences, including the adoption of an enquiry approach and emphasis on the development of generic skills, such as creativity, critical thinking skills, communication skills and problem-solving skills, in different PSHE subjects; and
1 Based on findings from the PSHE KLA Review Study (2011), curriculum development visits and focus group interviews with teachers conducted by Curriculum Development Institute as well as reports
student engagement - the provision of sufficient opportunities for students to engage in the Four Key Tasks, in particular Project Learning which has developed students’ enquiry skills, broadened their learning experiences and facilitated application of learning in authentic contexts.
However, after the implementation of the PSHE KLA curriculum in schools over the decade, there are yet some gaps that need to be filled, which include:
the need to strengthen the interface between the upper primary and junior secondary curricula as well as between the junior secondary and senior secondary curricula;
the need to ensure adequate allocation of curriculum time to primary General Studies and junior secondary PSHE subjects and a balanced coverage of the strands and their associated essential learning elements to develop solid subject knowledge, in particular at junior secondary level;
the need to strengthen the link between assessment and curriculum planning and make better use of the assessment data to inform learning and teaching;
the need to equip students with solid foundation knowledge to prepare them for studies at senior secondary level and beyond; and
the need to strengthen students’ interest in global issues with the aim of nurturing their global perspective.
The ongoing renewal of the school curriculum being introduced is a continuation of the Learning to Learn Curriculum Reform which was introduced in 2001. The introduction of the curriculum renewal is timely, as reform efforts that took place in schools in the past 15 years have laid important groundwork for further improvement of the school curriculum and the completion of the New Academic Structure Medium-term Review has enabled the consolidation of experiences gathered from the previous reform cycle. In this curriculum renewal, schools are encouraged to capitalise on their existing strengths and make timely responses to areas in need of improvement.
In gist, the following major areas of updates are put forth to reflect the changing contexts and education trends, and to provide suggestions for the development and implementation of the PSHE KLA curriculum for now and the next five to ten years.
2. What are the major updates?
This part of the consultation document puts forward the following major areas for updates in support of the key emphases proposed for the ongoing curriculum renewal.
The key messages provide suggestions for the development and implementation of the PSHE KLA curriculum at the primary and secondary levels.
2.1 Curriculum aims
The curriculum aims of the PSHE KLA are set in line with the learning goals of school education.
Learning Goals of School Education
There was a consensus on the seven learning goals in the school community as informed by the feedback from various channels and they were considered appropriate to serve the needs of student learning for the 21st century. These seven learning goals would continue to focus on promoting the whole-person development and lifelong learning capabilities of students, while revisions are made to take into consideration the changes in society as well as the experience gained in the curriculum reform at the school and KLA levels.
The seven learning goals are updated as follows:
1. To be proficient in biliterate and trilingual communication for better study and life;
2. To acquire and construct a broad and solid knowledge base, and to be able to understand contemporary issues that may impact on learners’ daily lives at personal, community, national and global levels;
3. To develop and apply generic skills in an integrative manner, and to become an independent and self-directed learner for future study and work;
4. To be informed and responsible citizens with a sense of national and global identity, appreciation of positive values and attitudes as well as Chinese culture, and respect for pluralism in society;
5. To use information and information technology ethically, flexibly, and effectively;
6. To understand one’s own interests, aptitudes and abilities, and to develop and reflect upon personal goals with aspirations for further studies and future career;
7. To lead a healthy lifestyle with active participation in physical and aesthetic activities, and be able to appreciate sports and the arts.
Appendix 1 presents the seven learning goals of primary education.
2.1.1 Overarching aim, learning targets and learning objectives of the PSHE KLA curriculum
The overarching aim sets out the broad and general educational expectations of the PSHE KLA curriculum, from which the learning targets and learning objectives were derived. The overarching aim and learning targets have been found to be relevant in the present-day context and therefore, in this updating, they are proposed to remain unchanged. The overarching aim of the PSHE KLA curriculm is “to enable students to understand themselves, society and the world at large, maintain a healthy personal development and contribute to the well-being of the family, the local community, the nation and the world as confident, informed and responsible persons” (Appendix 7, Section 2.1.1, p. 64). Deriving from the aim, the learning targets set out, in more specfic terms, what students will learn in the curriculum, i.e., develop a healthy lifestyle, develop an understanding of the impact of the past on the present and future, appreciate one’s own culture and cultures of others, appreciate the interaction between human beings and the environment and contribute to its sustainable development, appreciate the optimal use of resources, and demonstate active and responsible citizenship (Appendix 7, Section 2.1.2, p. 64).
The above learning targets are translated into learning objectives arranged within the six strands of the PSHE KLA, defining more specifically what students are expected to learn, in terms of knowledge, skills and values and attitudes, during the different Key Stages of learning (Appendix 7, Section 2.1.3, p. 65). Necessary updating is proposed to be made to some of the learning objectives for the six strands at Key Stages 1-3 in order to align them closely with the expected student achievements. On the whole, four types of changes are proposed:
enriching the existing descriptions of learning objectives (e.g., by including new elements, updating the terminology, refining the use of words, etc.);
combining or splitting existing descriptions to form new ones;
adding new descriptions to replace the less relevant or obsolete ones, to enrich the existing ones, or to address the new sub-strands; and
deleting less relevant or obsolete descriptions.
Appendix 4 presents the proposed updates in the proposed list of learning objectives for the six strands at Key Stage 1-3.
2.1.2 Directions for the current updating of the PSHE KLA curriculum
The key emphases for the curriculum renewal are intended to provide focal points for improving curriculum development work in schools. Based on these key emphases, three directions for the current updating of the PSHE KLA curriculum are proposed.
(1) FOCUSING: humanistic qualities and entrepreneurial spirit Humanistic qualities
Nurturing humanistic qualities in students has long been an important goal of the PSHE KLA curriculum. Humanistic qualities help students hold themselves and others in high regard. With humanistic qualities, the value of every human individual will be respected, and self-actualization will be pursued. Instilled with humanistic qualities, students will possess self-esteem, pursue meaning in life and strive for excellence. They will be eager to build a caring and tolerant society by treating others as equals and with mutual respect. Students will place equal importance on common good and their personal interests. They will cherish history and culture as common human experiences and cultivate an enhanced capacity for aesthetic appreciation.
With a view to making a better world for all, they will direct much of their effort to promoting development that is sustainable.
To nurture humanistic qualities in students is to help them:
hold the belief that they are unique and valued, have high self-expectations and are always striving to excel;
care about the well-being of others and are willing to contribute to the common good;
cherish history and culture as common human experiences;
cultivate an enhanced capacity for aesthetic appreciation; and
possess a love for nature and are concerned about its sustainable development.
Appendix 6.1 presents examples of topics in PSHE subjects which are conducive to the cultivation of humanistic qualities.
Entrepreneurial spirit refers to the inquisitiveness to conceive new ideas and the ability to turn ideas into actions. PSHE KLA provides an entry point for the development of students’ entrepreneurial spirit. The learning activities of PSHE KLA
help students develop the essential qualities associated with entrepreneurial spirit such as:
possessing creativity and innovativeness;
taking initiative and responsibilities;
taking calculated risks;
upholding perseverance in times of uncertainty; and
seizing the best of the opportunities ahead.
Appendix 6.2 presents an example on nurturing students’ entrepreneurial spirit through a learning activity in Economics.
(2) DEEPENING: Basic Law education, e-learning and generic skills
Basic Law education
The Basic Law is a constitutional document for the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR). It enshrines within a legal document the important principle of “one country, two systems”, that Hong Kong is an inseparable part of the People’s Republic of China, and that Hong Kong as a special administrative region has a high degree of autonomy. It also prescribes the various systems to be practised in the HKSAR.
In order to develop the distinct goals of Basic Law education, the EDB will use the holistic approach of multi-pronged and mutual support to strengthen Basic Law education and ensure that all primary and secondary students would enhance their understanding of the Basic Law and the principle of “one country, two systems”, as well as the close connection between the Basic Law and our daily lives.
Encouraging students to understand the Basic Law not only enriches their knowledge of local, national and global community, but also reinforces the cultivation of their values and attitudes, including the rule of law, justice, national identity, democracy, freedom, human rights, equality, tolerance, respect for different opinions and rationality, so that they can develop into positive and responsible citizens, contributing to the betterment of society, the country and the world. Teachers can provide learning opportunities to facilitate students’ reflection on, and understanding and application of the Basic Law according to the existing curricula, learning age of students and students’ needs.
In the PSHE KLA, students will develop an empathetic understanding of the historical background and the principle of “one country, two systems” as well as the basic ideas and underlying rationale of the Basic Law through their study of the subject General Studies at primary level, and the subjects Chinese History, History, and Life and Society, etc. at secondary level. PSHE teachers can adopt diverse learning, teaching and assessment strategies, for example, issue-enquiry, values clarification, e-learning, experiential and participatory learning, to promote students’ learning of the Basic Law.
Appendix 6.3 presents the resources produced by EDB to support the promotion of Basic Law education through the PSHE KLA at junior secondary level.
Information Literacy (IL) is an ability and attitude that would lead to effective and ethical use of information. It aims to help students: (i) identify the need for information; (ii) locate, evaluate, extract, organise and present information; (iii) create new ideas; (iv) cope with the dynamics in our information world; and (v) use information ethically and refrain from immoral practices such as cyber bullying and infringing intellectual property rights.
In PSHE KLA, promoting e-learning is proposed as one way to develop students’ IL.
e-Learning refers to an open and flexible learning mode involving the use of the electronic media, including the use of digital resources and communication tools to achieve the target learning objectives. The essence of e-learning is to enhance learning and teaching effectiveness in schools and helps develop students’ necessary qualities (e.g., self-directed learning) for the 21st century. Teachers may develop a repertoire whereby e-learning may help enhance, modify and complement some existing learning and teaching strategies or break new ground in pedagogy.
Appendix 6.4 presents an exemplar of incorporating “mobile learning” in geography fieldwork.
Nine generic skills have been identified as essential for student learning for the 21st century in the school curriculum since 2001. Based on the past experiences of implementing the curriculum reform, as well as dynamic changes in society and recent research, the nine generic skills are grouped in three clusters of related skills,
namely Basic Skills, Thinking Skills, and Personal and Social Skills, for better understanding and integrative application:
Basic Skills Thinking Skills Personal and Social Skills
Communication Skills Critical Thinking Skills Self-management Skills Mathematical Skills1 Creativity Self-learning Skills2
IT Skills Problem Solving Skills Collaboration Skills Remarks: 1Numeracy Skills and 2Study Skills were used respectively in Learning to Learn:
Life-long Learning and Whole-person Development (2001).
PSHE KLA provides meaningful contexts for the development of generic skills through appropriate learning and teaching activities and specific topics alongside KLA/subject specific skills. Schools should plan PSHE KLA-related learning and teaching activities in a holistic manner whereby the generic/cluster of skills would be suitably and effectively applied and developed.
Appendix 6.5 presents a teaching exemplar which shows how learning and teaching activities can be structured to promote the integrative development of generic skills in students.
(3) SUSTAINING: promotion of national understanding and Language across the Curriculum
Promotion of national understanding
One of the seven learning goals identified by the Curriculum Development Council in 2001 is that students should be able to “understand their national identity and be committed to contributing to the nation and society”. It has also been highlighted in Learning to Learn – The Way Forward in Curriculum (2001) that “national identity and Chinese culture is one of the six strands” in the curriculum framework for General Studies at primary level and “students in all types of junior secondary schools will study Chinese history and culture, because Chinese history and culture are part of the Essential Contents for Learning in the PSHE KLA”.
In line with the renewed emphasis on developing in students a sense of national identity and appreciation of the Chinese culture in the updated learning goals of school education (Brief, Section 2.1, p.7), PSHE KLA will sustain its effort in
nurturing in students a positive perception of Chinese history and culture, and a sense of responsibility to nation, culture and humanity. Promotion of students’ national understanding is to be achieved through learning and teaching of Chinese history and culture, contemporary developments of our country as well as the Basic Law in subjects such as General Studies at primary level and Chinese History, History, Geography, and Life and Society, etc. at secondary level. Schools are also encouraged to design cross-curricular learning activities to guide students to connect relevant learning elements in relevant topics, for example, the Belt and Road Initiative.
Interflow and exchange activities across PSHE strands/subjects to be held on the Mainland will also be meaningful learning experiences for our students.
Language across the Curriculum
The Language across the Curriculum (LaC) approach, which integrates language learning and content learning, can be adopted for learners to learn the PSHE KLA through English or Chinese and to explore knowledge and develop skills in a comprehensive and integrative manner. While English/Chinese teachers focus on helping learners master the accurate use of the language (e.g., vocabulary and grammar) as well as recognise the importance of coherence, cohesion and appropriacy in texts, PSHE KLA teachers can facilitate the transfer of the English/Chinese knowledge and skills by emphasising the use of relevant language features for presenting the subject content and providing assignments or tasks for learners to apply relevant English/Chinese knowledge and skills to demonstrate their understanding of the PSHE KLA content.
PSHE KLA teachers can collaborate with English/Chinese teachers to facilitate LaC through:
identifying the entry points, setting realistic goals and drawing up a plan or schedule of work to facilitate the transfer of English/Chinese knowledge and skills;
developing learning, teaching and assessment materials and activities that connect students’ learning experiences;
identifying a common topic between the PSHE KLA and English/Chinese for learners to read about and discuss, and assigning learning activities or tasks outside the classroom to broaden learners’ experiences;
providing learners with exposure to the text types typical of the PSHE KLA (e.g., expositions); and
teaching KLA-specific language functions (e.g., comparing and contrasting, giving explanations) explicitly to facilitate the completion of the PSHE KLA-based tasks.
2.1.3 Congruence between the key emphases for the ongoing curriculum renewal and learning targets of PSHE KLA
In relation to the key emphases for the curriculum renewal, two new sub-sections are proposed to be added. Section 126.96.36.199 in Appendix 7 (p. 64) will delineate the congruence between the existing PSHE KLA learning targets and the intentions of the key emphases, with the intention of helping teachers see that the key emphases are not totally new and that they have been taking place in schools in some form or other.
Section 188.8.131.52 in Appendix 7 (pp. 64-65) will highlight the need to prioritize the importance to be placed on each of the key emphases in different PSHE subjects due to the varied nature of their subject matter.
2.1.4 Cross-KLA learning activities to support STEM education in PSHE KLA STEM is an acronym that refers collectively to the academic disciplines of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics. In the local curriculum context, STEM education is promoted through the Science Education, Technology Education and Mathematics Education KLAs, with the aim of:
developing in students a strong knowledge base in the STEM-related disciplines;
strengthening their ability to integrate and apply knowledge and skills;
nurturing their creativity and innovativeness, collaboration and problem solving skills; and
promoting the development of positive values and attitudes.
PSHE KLA shares the expected learning outcomes of STEM education, in particular those related to promoting integrative understanding and application of knowledge and skills, the development of creativity and innovativeness, collaboration and problem solving skills and positive values and attitudes.
PSHE KLA contributes to the promotion of STEM education. Through cross-KLA collaboration, opportunities can be provided for students to strengthen their ability to integrate and apply knowledge and skills learnt in PSHE and other subjects, and to develop associated skills and values and attitudes through solving meaningful problems.
2.2 Curriculum framework
2.2.1 Incorporating key emphases for the ongoing curriculum renewal as important curriculum intentions
The PSHE KLA curriculum framework provides a structure to help schools plan and develop their own PSHE KLA curricula with essential learning experiences to achieve the curriculum aims. It sets out what students should know (knowledge), be able to do (skills) and value (values and attitudes) at different Key Stages of learning.
To keep abreast of the latest developments in subject disciplines related to PSHE, needs of the Hong Kong society, the nation and the world as well as developmental needs of students (Appendix 7, Section 2.2.1, p. 65), it is proposed that the PSHE KLA curriculum framework published in 2002 be updated by incorporating the key emphases for the curriculum renewal as important curriculum intentions, which are to be achieved through diversified modes of curriculum organization and effective linkage of learning, teaching and assessment in schools. It will remain open and flexible, allowing schools and teachers to have autonomy and flexibility in adopting/adapting curriculum organisation modes most suited to the needs of their students and school conditions, while keeping pace with the changes in the Hong Kong society and around the world (Appendix 7, Section 2.2.2, p. 65). This openness and flexibility will contribute to schools’ and teachers’ sense of ownership of their curricula. Appendix 2 presents a diagrammatic representation of the PSHE KLA curriculum framework with proposed updates.
2.2.2 Updating of sub-strands and perspectives for enquiries
The six strands of the PSHE KLA are proposed to remain unchanged (Appendix 7, Section 2.2.3, p. 65). They enable students to understand people as both individuals and groups (Strands 1 and 6) in relation to time (Strand 2), space and the environment (Strand 4), as well as their place in the cultural and material world (Strands 3 and 5).
The six strands and their sub-strands specify the major concepts and knowledge to be learned as well as the perspectives for enquiries. In this updating, the sub-strands of Strand 1 will remain the same, but re-arrangement of their order is proposed for better alignment with the sequencing of the content. For Strands 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, new sub-strands are proposed to be added to accommodate content and new knowledge from disciplines relevant to the study of these strands. Appendix 3 presents the proposed updates made to the description of the sub-strands and perspectives associated respectively with the six strands of the PSHE KLA.
2.2.3 Updating of core elements
The core elements/essential content for learning are intended to help schools plan and review their PSHE KLA curricula to ensure balanced provision of the relevant learning experiences to help students achieve the learning objectives for the six strands at Key Stages 1-3. Some necessary updating to the core elements is proposed:
improving the existing descriptions of the core elements (e.g., by including new elements, updating the terminology, refining the use of words, etc.);
consolidating existing descriptions to form integrated ones;
using new descriptions to replace the less relevant or obsolete ones, to enrich the existing ones or to address the new sub-strands; and
deleting less relevant or obsolete descriptions.
Appendix 5 presents the proposed updates in the core elements/esential content for learning for the six strands at Key Stages 1-3.
2.2.4 Refinement of generic skills
The nine generic skills which were first introduced in 2001 are proposed to be refined and updated in terms of their intended learning outcomes for each Key Stage of learning and their annotations, in order to keep pace with the latest developments in recent research and changes in the Hong Kong society and around the world (Appendix 7, Section 2.2.7, pp. 65-66). Two directions for updating the generic skills are proposed. First, the nine generic skills are to be grouped around three clusters, namely Basic Skills, Thinking Skills, and Personal and Social Skills, to strengthen the connections among the generic skills. Second, some related generic skills are to be grouped to form generic skills in an integrative approach (e.g., Collaborative Problem Solving Skills, Holistic Thinking Skills) to strengthen the integrative understanding and application of these generic skills. Collaborative Problem Solving Skills involve the integrative use of Collaboration Skills, Communication Skills and Problem Solving Skills to solve problems, whereas Holistic Thinking Skills involve the integrative use of Critical Thinking skills, Creativity and Problem Solving Skills to deal with complex issues.
2.2.5 Promotion of positive values and attitudes development and their application
The PSHE KLA curriculum will continue to emphasize the importance of nurturing the development of positive values and attitudes in students (Appendix 7, Section 2.2.8., p. 66). This section will build on the content of the section with the same title
in the 2002 PSHE KLA Curriculum Guide, elaborating on learning environments and opportunities conducive to the development of positive values and attitudes in students (e.g., studies in the six strands, Basic Law education, cross-KLA learning activities, etc.). Two key points will be highlighted to guide schools in implementing values education: first, the seven priority values and attitudes and the school-based selection of priority values and attitudes will remain the emphases; and second, the development of students’ abilities to apply the priority values and attitudes in different situations and to reflect on these values and attitudes in their decision-making processes will be emphasized.
Values education/cultivation of positive values and attitudes is an integral part of the school curriculum through different components in the KLAs/subjects, moral and civic education, cross-curricular learning opportunities and life-wide learning experiences.
According to the framework for moral and civic education provided by the Curriculum Development Council in 2008, seven priority values and attitudes, which reflect both Chinese and Western cultures/values and address students’ and societal needs, were identified as of vital importance for students’ whole-person development. They are perseverance, respect for others, responsibility, national identity, commitment, integrity and care for others.
Schools are recommended to implement values education and cultivate positive values and attitudes related to individual, family, society, the country and the world as well as values in accordance with the mission and contexts of their schools.
Schools should adopt a whole-school approach to curriculum planning that closely connects with the KLAs/subjects, and design relevant learning experiences for students to nurture their positive values and attitudes. In PSHE KLA, values education can be carried out through relevant topics and appropriate learning and teaching activities that help students apply and reflect on positive values and attitudes, or introducing different situations in which students are required to understand the issues from different perspectives, analyse them in a rational and objective manner, and adopt positive values and attitudes as the guiding principles to make judgment and decisions.
2.2.6 Enhancement of the learning of Chinese history and culture and Basic Law education
There will be two important emphases in the PSHE KLA curriculum. First, the PSHE KLA curriculum will continue to emphasize the enhancement of the learning of Chinese history and culture (Appendix 7, Section 2.2.5, p. 65). The content in this section is proposed to remain unchanged. Second, a new section on promoting Basic Law education (Appendix 7, Section 2.2.6, p. 65) is proposed to enhance students’ empathetic understanding of the historical background and the principle of
“one country, two systems”, basic ideas of the Basic Law and the underlying rationale of the selected articles of the Basic Law.
On modes of curriculum organisation as well as allocation of curriculum time to PSHE subjects, please refer to Section 2.5.2 (Brief, pp. 21-23). On collaboration among PSHE subjects and with other KLAs, please refer to Section 2.5.2 (Brief, p.
22) for an examplar on cross-curricular studies to promote national understanding in students; as well as Section 2.1.4 (Brief, p. 14) on cross-KLA collaboration to support STEM education in PSHE KLA.
2.3 Pedagogies (including e-learning)
2.3.1 Updating the guiding principles for pedagogical design
Necessary updating is proposed to be made to the guiding principles for pedagogical design, with the intention of helping schools and teachers to translate the key emphases for the curriculum renewal into learning and teaching practices (Appendix 7, Section 4.1, p. 68). The updated guiding principles for pedagogical design proposed will emphasize the importance of keeping abreast of the changes in the subject disciplines and pedagogical practices (in particular e-learning as a prominent pedagogical innovation to promote student learning in the information age), needs of society and developmental needs of students; choosing learning and teaching strategies that best match the expected learning outcomes and students’ ability levels and learning needs; capitalising on teachers’ expertise in lesson planning and delivery; and catering for learner diversity.
2.3.2 Advancing pedagogical changes to enhance learning and teaching
We will continue to emphasise the importance of enquiry learning, project learning and life-wide learning as approaches to learning and teaching in the PSHE KLA. Two new sections are proposed to be added. First, Section 4.2 in Appendix 7 (pp. 68-69)
will focus on the strategies to implement the key emphases for the curriculum renewal in learning and teaching practices in the PSHE KLA. This section will build on the content of the section entitled “Approaches to Learning and Teaching” in the 2002 PSHE KLA Curriculum Guide. Supported by illustrative examplars, the original content will be re-focused and re-organised to highlight the inter-connections among the key emphases and how, with careful planning, single learning activities can effectively address these different key emphases (including humanistic qualities, entrepreneurial spirit, generic skills, promotion of national understanding and e-learning). Second, Section 4.3 in Appendix 7 (pp. 69-70) will focus on ways to advance pedagogical changes to enhance learning and teaching in the PSHE KLA.
Suggestions on learner support will be provided, which include: first, provision of support for subject-specific language development in students to strengthen their subject-specific reading and writing skills so as to promote their learning in the PSHE KLA; and second, adoption of a wide repertoire of learning and teaching approaches (including the issue-based enquiry approach) to provide a variety of learning opportunities for students.
2.3.3 Catering for learner diversity
The PSHE KLA curriculum will continue to emphasize the importance of catering for learner diversity (Appendix 7, Section 4.4, p. 70). This section will build on the content of the section entitled “Catering for Student Diversity” in the 2002 PSHE KLA Curriculum Guide. The original content will be extended to provide two main focuses: first, highlighting the diversity of student characteristics commonly found in the PSHE KLA; and second, suggesting the adoption of a wide variety of pedagogical strategies (including differentiated instruction and flipped classroom) to cater for learner diversity.
2.4.1 Updating of the guiding principles for assessment design
The emerging global trends of assessment and assessment-related issues in Hong Kong that have been identified in the Short-term Review and Medium-term Review provide the background for introducing changes in assessment. Necessary updating is proposed to be made to the guiding principles for designing assessment practices in schools to reflect the key emphases for the curriculum renewal. The updating will put renewed emphasis on the importance of providing timely and quality feedback, engaging students in assessment, viewing assessment as an integral part of learning and teaching, and aligning assessment practices at junior and senior secondary levels (Appendix 7, Section 5.1, p. 71).
2.4.2 Assessment of the key emphases for the ongoing curriculum renewal and e-assessment
While the PSHE KLA curriculum will continue to emphasize the need to employ a diversity of assessment modes (including tests and examinations, self-assessment and peer-assessment, project work, assignments, and values and attitude assessment) to serve different assessment purposes, two new emphases are proposed to be added, namely how to assess the key emphases for the curriculum renewal and how to implement e-assessment in schools in response to the Fourth Strategy on Information Technology in Education (ITE4) (Appendix 7, Section 5.2, pp. 71-72).
2.4.3 Guiding principles for internal and external assessment
Two new sections are proposed to be added, one for internal and one for external assessment. First, the new section on internal assessment will set out the guiding principles of internal assessment for mainstream students, gifted students and students with special education needs. It will also elaborate on the development of a holistic assessment framework for the whole school in the PSHE KLA (Appendix 7, Section 5.3, pp. 72-73). In addition, the original content on formative assessment and summative assessment in the 2002 PSHE KLA Curriculum Guide will be extended to include a discussion on the interrelationships between “assessment of learning”,
“assessment for learning” and “assessment as learning” and how the formative use of summative assessment can be a useful tool for improving student learning (Appendix 7, Section 5.3, pp. 72-73). Second, the new section on external assessment will focus on the changes brought by the implementation of the new public examination measures and how schools should prepare students for public examinations (Appendix 7, Section 5.4, pp. 73-74).
Appendix 7 shows a comparison table highlighting the major changes in the updated PSHE KLA Curriculum Guide in relation to the 2002 version.
2.5 Curriculum planning and management
The PSHE KLA will continue to emphasize the importance of providing a curriculum with a balanced coverage of the different perspectives offered by the studies of the six strands, with the aim of contributing to students’ whole-person development. To help schools and teachers plan and manage their PSHE KLA curriculum/PSHE subject curricula, updating is proposed to be made to two areas, namely curriculum planning and management and guiding principles for curriculum adaptation/school-based curriculum planning.
2.5.1 The five-stage cycle of curriculum planning
Building on the discussion on the five stages of whole-school curriculum planning in the Secondary Education Curriculum Guide (forthcoming), this model will be adapted for use in the PSHE KLA curriculum planning, with the intention of offering to schools and teachers one way of going about planning their school-based curriculum at KLA/subject level (Appendix 7, Section 3.2, pp. 66-67). Each of the five stages of curriculum planning (i.e., (1) Context analysis; (2) Curriculum planning and resources deployment; (3) Implementing the curriculum; (4) Continuous monitoring; and (5) Review and evaluation) will be described in detail, with examples illustrating how the five stages can be applied in planning the PSHE KLA curriculum or PSHE subject curricula in schools to achieve the objectives of the key emphases for the curriculum renewal.
2.5.2 Guiding principles for school-based curriculum planning
The content related to the principles for school-based curriculum development which appeared in the 2002 PSHE KLA Curriculum Guide will be expanded to include a new section on the guiding principles for curriculum adaptation/school-based curriculum planning (Appendix 7, Section 3.3, p. 67). A total of 10 guiding principles will be highlighted. Among them, two principles, namely “adopting the key emphases for the curriculum renewal in an integrative manner” and
“strengthening e-learning”, will bear most direct relevance to what have been proposed in the curriculum renewal.
When planning and managing the PSHE KLA curriculum or PSHE subject curricula in schools, maximum attention is proposed to be placed on the following areas:
interfacing between different Key Stages of learning (Appendix 7, Sections 2.3.1, 2.3.2, 3.3 and 3.4, pp. 66-68)
Attention to the interfacing between different Key Stages of learning will ensure that students have acquired the knowledge, skills and values and attitudes essential for advancement to a next higher level of learning, in particular from upper primary to junior secondary and from junior secondary to senior secondary. Ensuring a smooth progression throughout the different Key Stages of learning is most beneficial to student learning and development.
interfacing with other KLAs (Appendix 7, Section 3.3, p. 67)
Students’ learning experiences can be significantly enriched and deepened in studies of an integrative nature which require them to draw on knowledge, skills and values and attitudes acquired from learning in different KLAs.
Such integrative learning activities will bring forth consolidated teacher efforts and contribute to the attainment of learning objectives in all the participating KLAs. For example, to help students understand the different aspects of the Belt and Road Initiative (such as the histories and cultures of participating countries and regions, the economic and political situations in the global context, economic development in different regions of China, the strengths and potentials of HKSAR, as well as the mechanisms and areas of collaboration), cross-curricular studies at junior secondary level can be structured to guide students to connect relevant learning elements from different subjects such as Chinese History, History, Geography, Life and Society and/or Religious Studies.
links between knowledge, skills and values and attitudes (Appendix 7, Section 2.2.9, p. 66)
The learning objectives of the six strands specify what students are expected to learn in the PSHE KLA in terms of knowledge, skills and values and attitudes. At both curriculum planning and instructional levels, the links between these components should be emphasized to help students achieve the learning objectives of the PSHE KLA and contribute to their whole-person development.
different modes of curriculum organisation (Appendix 7, Section 2.3, p. 66)
The open and flexible nature of the PSHE KLA curriculum framework allows schools to adopt different modes of curriculum organisation to attain the requirements of the curriculum. Different modes of curriculum organisation (i.e., independent subject mode, integrated curriculum mode and mix mode) in the PSHE KLA have been suggested. Schools should adopt curriculum organisation modes that are most responsive to students’
needs and the school conditions in order to bring forth effective student learning.
In particular, schools are recommended to conduct an audit of their junior secondary PSHE KLA curricula to ensure they have fulfilled all the basic curriculum requirements and that students receive the same entitlement in terms of equality of learning opportunities. For this purpose, a sample checklist will be proposed for schools’ adoption/adaptation.
allocation of curriculum time (Appendix 7, Sections 1.24 and 3.5, pp. 63 and 68)
At the primary level, the suggested time allocation for General Studies is 12-15% of the total curriculum time. Schools can create curriculum space by spending about 80% of the allocated learning time on core elements and flexibly arranging the remaining 20% on other PSHE-related learning opportunities (e.g., introducing new learning elements, pursuing in-depth study of some PSHE topics in classroom settings or life-wide learning settings).
At the junior secondary level, the suggested time allocation for PSHE is 15-20% of the total curriculum time. The open and flexible curriculum framework of the PSHE KLA enables schools to adopt different modes of curriculum organisation to attain its learning objectives. Schools can make flexible use of the learning time by making alternative timetabling arrangements (e.g., offering two PSHE subjects in one term, each with four 40-minute periods per week, instead of offering four PSHE subjects throughout a school year, each with two 40-minute periods per week).
At the junior secondary level, regardless of the modes of curriculum organisation adopted for the PSHE curriculum, schools should devote 25%
of the total curriculum time spent on PSHE (about two periods per week) to the learning and teaching of Chinese history and culture.
To facilitate effective articulation with various studies at senior secondary level, in particular Liberal Studies (S4-6) and other senior secondary PSHE subjects, as well as to strengthen personal, social and humanities education for science oriented students who are not taking PHSE subjects at senior secondary level, it is recommended that a wide range of PSHE-related learning experiences be provided at secondary level through, for example, class teacher periods, school assemblies and co-curricular activities, to increase students’ exposure to different learning experiences and to develop their understanding and interest in the humanistic dimensions in their fields of study.
3. What are the supporting strategies?
3.1 Learning and teaching resources
Quality learning and teaching resources can assist students to learn and support teachers in their role as facilitators (Appendix 7, Section 6.1, p. 74). With the coming of the information age, e-learning has become an important trend in the pedagogical development in education. Riding on this emerging trend of developing e-learning in schools, suggestions on using learning and teaching resources to support student learning in the PSHE KLA will focus on the following areas: the use of e-resources (Appendix 7, Section 6.2, pp. 74); the use of the school library and other resources (including human resources and community resources), in particular to support self-directed learning (Appendix 7, Section 6.2.2, p. 75); and the management of school and community resources in the digital era (Appendix 7, Section 6.3, p. 75).
3.2 Professional development of curriculum leaders and teachersProfessional development for curriculum leaders and teachers is an important strategy to develop school capacity for change through increasing the competence of individual teachers. In recent years, a more expanded view of teacher learning has been advanced, focusing on the importance of teacher learning and acting in communities of practice. Development of a collaborative culture among teachers within and beyond schools is central to the development of these communities of practice. Within schools, teacher learning in communites of practice will take place when teachers plan school-based subject curricula and develop instructional plans and materials collaboratively in subject teams; or when teachers are supported to join government- or university-initiated school development projects, in which, supported by curriculum or subject specialists, they engage in curriculum development and curriculum resources development. Beyond schools, the development of extended professional networks among teachers across schools will encourage teachers to exchange views and expereinces on learning and teaching.
3.3 Building school capacity through partnerships with external organisations
School capacity building means strengthening different kinds of school resources to enable the school to respond to new demands arising from change. Conventionally, parent involvement and community-linked social services obtained from the community have been viewed as valuable social resources for strengthening the
capacity for school improvement. An evolving thinking has been to view schools as integral parts of communities and that the coming together of schools and their communities around issues of student learning can provide important learning opportunities for students. For example:
schools can network with other schools to offer senior secondary elective subjects to students;
schools can join school-support projects initiated by local universities to benefit from external expertise;
schools can collaborate with local universities to offer courses;
schools can form partnership with business organisations to provide learning opportunities related to business practices in authentic situations; and
schools can form partnerships with local universities to benefit from school-based consultancies provided by university curriculum or subject specialists.
4. Frequently Asked QuestionsQ 1: What is Learning to Learn 2.0?
A 1: Learning to Learn 2.0 is the curriculum renewal of the Learning to Learn curriculum reform implemented since 2001 in response to the local and global contextual changes in economic, scientific, technological, social and political aspects. With a view to keeping our school education abreast of the times and maintaining the global competitiveness of our students, it is necessary for the Hong Kong school curriculum to embark on the next cycle of updating and renewal, which aims to deepen and sustain previous accomplishments and to focus on the possible areas for curriculum planning. Ongoing engagement of stakeholders through multiple channels has been conducted in setting the direction for the ongoing curriculum renewal.
Q 2: Is Learning to Learn 2.0 another curriculum reform?
A 2: No, Learning to Learn 2.0, an enhancement of the Learning to Learn curriculum reform launched more than a decade ago, is not another reform but a continued learning journey to excel in Hong Kong curriculum development. With learners’ achievements and teachers’ readiness, as well as positive experience gained over the past decade, schools are recommended to sustain the existing momentum of curriculum reform in a more focused manner in promoting effective school-based curriculum development. In Learning to Learn 2.0, the curriculum remains learner-centred and continues to focus on improving the process and outcome of student learning.
Q 3: How do the key emphases proposed for the ongoing renewal of the school curriculum capitalise on the strengths in the implementation of the PSHE KLA curriculum in the past decade?
A 3: The implementation of the PSHE KLA curriculum in the past decade along the directions of the Learning to Learn curriculum reform has made notable achievements in the areas of curriculum organisation, curriculum leadership, school culture, learning and teaching and student engagement2. These positive impacts and experiences have laid important groundwork for
2 Based on findings from the PSHE KLA Review Study (2011), curriculum development visits and focus group interviews with teachers conducted by Curriculum Development Institute, and reports from the Quality Assurance Section.
further improvement of the school curriculum, which could be achieved through the enactment of the key emphases proposed for the curriculum renewal. For example, schools and teachers could build on students’
broadened knowledge base and independent learning capacities to strengthen the nurturing of their humanistic qualities and entrepreneurial spirit. In addition, knowledge, skills and experiences in curriculum development accumulated by teachers over the years could be capitalised on to enhance school-based curriculum development work in response to the key emphases.
Q 4: As many schools have been promoting qualities similar to humanistic qualities in the PSHE KLA, why is it necessary to highlight humanistic qualities as one of the focuses in the direction for curriculum development of the PSHE KLA?
A 4: In this second decade of the 21st century, changes are taking place at all levels at an unprecedented pace, local, national and global. Political, economic, social, cultural, technological and environmental matrixes are rapidly evolving towards new stages. It is widely believed that prevalent values and interests will become increasingly pluralistic. Pressure on the individual beings is high. Students are facing a world much more complex than ever before. In view of this, it is imperative to highlight humanistic qualities as one of the focuses in the direction for curriculum development of the PSHE KLA.
Q 5: Why is entrepreneurial spirit included in the direction for curriculum development of the PSHE KLA?
A 5: The PSHE KLA curriculum has been nurturing the qualities of entrepreneurial spirit in students, which include taking initiatives and responsibilities, upholding resilience, working autonomously and collaboratively, and thinking critically and creatively.
In the 21st century, the world is moving in waves of changing demands and uncertainties. Globalization and technical advances, the digital revolution in particular, have drastically transformed the economic landscape. In the coming decades, our society needs school graduates who possess Innovativeness, Creativity and Entrepreneurship (ICE), which will enable them to conceive new and better ideas and turn ideas into actions. To enable our students to navigate their way through these changes, it is
recommended that schools should further strengthen students’ qualities of entrepreneurial spirit, especially qualities such as taking calculated risks, preparing for possible failure and seizing the best of the opportunities ahead.
Q 6: How can objectivity and neutrality be maintained in the promotion of Basic Law education?
A 6: The Basic Law is the constitutional document for the HKSAR and our young people’s understanding of the importance of the Basic Law is essential to their present and future. The EDB has always attached great importance to the promotion of the Basic Law as a regular and on-going task, to ensure that Basic Law education will proceed along with the times.
In EDB’s production of curriculum support materials and professional development programmes for teachers on Basic Law education, objectivity and neutrality have always been maintained when presenting facts and knowledge, for example, by introducing heterogeneous viewpoints on controversial issues, and at the same time, taking into account the level of students and the curriculum space. With EDB’s promotion of students’
self-directed learning and the Fourth Strategy on IT in Education, schools will find greater flexibility and dexterity in promoting Basic Law education using strategies most suited to their own contexts and curriculum development needs, without losing sight of objectivity and neutrality.
Q 7: Why are leadership skills, decision making skills and other 21st century skills not mentioned in the updating exercise?
A 7: The skills for goal setting, taking initiative, collaborating in groups and decision making have been embedded in the nine generic skills (such as Self-management Skills) and the two integrative generic skills (Collaborative Problem Solving and Holistic Thinking). Most of the 21st century skills, such as IT Skills, Critical Thinking Skills, Creativity, Problem Solving Skills and Communication Skills have been covered in our framework. Career Skills and Employability Skills are understood as specific skills and will be developed in programmes related to Life Planning Education, Other Learning Experiences and Life-wide Learning.
Q 8: How will teachers in the PSHE KLA be supported in implementing the key emphases for the curriculum renewal?
A 8: Communication and dissemination strategies will be devised to facilitate the access to information by teachers. Professional capacity of teachers in different positions will be enhanced through professional development programmes and the production and dissemination of relevant curriculum support materials. Based on existing strengths, the development of PSHE KLA learning communities both within and beyond the school level will be supported to facilitate the exchanges of ideas and experiences and sharing of responsibility for advancing learning and teaching. Collaboration with different sectors in the community around issues of student learning will also be supported as a strategy to strengthen resources available to teachers so as to enable them to respond to new demands arising from the changes.