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1 Destination Geography


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Manual on Module III – Destination Geography

(Fine-tuned version)


Dr. Thomas Bauer, Assistant Professor, School of Hotel and Tourism Management,

The Hong Kong Polytechnic University and

PSHE Section, Curriculum Development Institute


Region. Commercial use is strictly prohibited. Offenders will be liable to legal responsibility.

Schools need not apply for permission to copy this manual in whole or in part for non-profit making educational or research purposes. All other uses should gain prior permission in writing from the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. Requests should be directed to the:

Education Bureau

13/F, Room 1319, Wu Chung House 213 Queen’s Road East,

Wan Chai Hong Kong


We would like to express our gratitude to the following organizations for giving us the permission to reprint some of the pictures and /or providing us with information for completing the curriculum support package:

The Association of National Tourist Office Representatives in Hong Kong, ANTOR (HK)

Passport On World Flags - Image courtesy of Grant Cochrane / FreeDigitalPhotos.net New York London Sydney Time - Image courtesy of Digitalart / FreeDigitalPhotos.net

Globe With Currency Symbols - Image courtesy of David Castillo Dominici / FreeDigitalPhotos.net Plane on Passport - Image courtesy of Gualberto / FreeDigitalPhotos.net

Visa Application Denied Stamp - Image courtesy of Stuart Miles / FreeDigitalPhotos.net Visa Application Approved Stamp - Image courtesy of Stuart Miles / FreeDigitalPhotos.net Travel Signs - Image courtesy of Naypong / FreeDigitalPhotos.net Drawing The Dream Travel

Around The World On Old Paper

- Image courtesy of Nutdanai Apikhomboonwaroot, / FreeDigitalPhotos.net

All photographs by Dr Thomas Bauer except where stated otherwise



A set of curriculum support package of tourism and hospitality learning and teaching materials is being developed by the Personal, Social and Humanities Education Section of Curriculum Development Institute, Education Bureau for the implementation of the senior secondary Tourism and Hospitality Studies fine-tuned curriculum in schools. The curriculum support package is comprised of five manuals, and they are developed to broaden students’ knowledge of the five different units of the Tourism and Hospitality Studies curriculum.

The content of this manual – Destination Geography, should enhance students’ understanding of the dynamic nature of the tourism and hospitality industry. In addition, the manual includes activities to deepen students’ understanding and help them to apply theories and concepts. Furthermore, students should be able to develop enquiry, problem-solving and decision-making skills through these activities.

All comments and suggestions related to this curriculum support package may be sent to:

Chief Curriculum Development Officer (PSHE) Personal, Social and Humanities Education Curriculum Development Institute

Education Bureau

13/F, Room 1319, Wu Chung House 213 Queen’s Road East,

Wan Chai Hong Kong

June 2013



Preface 4

Chapter 1: Basic Concepts of World Geography 7 1.1. Introduction of Hemispheres, Continents and Oceans 7 1.2. Climate Zones and Seasonality of Destinations 33 1.3. Definition of GMT, UTC, International Day Line and Time Zones 36

1.4. Definition of Latitude and Longitude 39

Chapter 2: Tourist Attractions 42

2.1. What is ‘Attraction’? 42

2.2. Role and Attributes of Attractions 44

2.3. Typology of Attractions 46

2.4. Supply Side Aspects of Tourism and Its Role in the Process of Tourist Destination Image Formation


Chapter 3: Major Tourism Regions 69

3.1. The World’s Top Ten Tourism Destinations 69

3.2. The world top tourist receiving countries in different regions 69

3.2.1 Asia – China, Malaysia and Thailand 71

3.2.2 Africa – Morocco, South Africa and Tunisia 74

3.2.3 Europe – France, Italy and Spain 77

3.2.4 Middle East – Dubai, Egypt and Saudi Arabia 80 3.2.5 North America – Canada, Mexico and the United States 83 3.2.6 Oceania – Australia, New Zealand and Papua New Guinea 86 3.2.7 South America – Argentina, Brazil and Chile 89


The world is split by degrees north and south of the equator. To the north of the equator is known as the Northern Hemisphere, and south of the equator is known as the Southern Hemisphere.

The world can also be divided into Eastern and Western Hemispheres. However, these hemispheres are not divided in the same way as latitude and longitude, at the prime meridian. Instead, the imaginary line dividing east from west runs down the middle of the Atlantic Ocean.

The Western Hemisphere refers to the half of the Earth that lies west of the Prime Meridian (which crosses Greenwich in London, England, United Kingdom), including the Americas and Greenland.

The Eastern Hemisphere is a geographical term for the half of the Earth that is east of the Prime Meridian which crosses Greenwich ( England, United Kingdom) and west of 180° longitude, including Europe, Africa, the Middle East, Asia, Australasia and Oceania.

2) Continents

The world has seven continents: North and South America (sometimes referred to as one continent called ‘The Americas’) Europe, Africa, Asia, Australasia (including Oceania), and Antarctica.

Note: The continent of Australasia and Oceania refers to a much larger area than just Australia, because it includes Papua New Guinea, Tasmania, New Zealand and many island groups in the South Pacific, e.g. Fiji, Solomon, etc.


North America consists of Canada, the United States of America (USA) and Mexico.TThhee rereggiioonn a

accccoouunnttss ffoorr 10.8 % of global tourist arrivals and for 15.3% of all receipts. The United States is home to a wide diversity of tourist attractions. They range from the exciting attractions in cities like New York, Los Angeles, San Francisco and Las Vegas to the natural beauty of the many national parks such as the Grand Canyon, Yosemite and Yellowstone. Apart from city attractions in Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver and Ottawa, Canada features thousands of square kilometers of wilderness and natural areas where camping, river rafting, fishing and hunting are the major attractions.

Mexico forms the continental bridge to Central America and its attractions are mainly based on the heritage of cultures such as the Aztec and Maya Indians ( Indians are of course at home in India but Christopher Columbus who “discovered” America in 1492 mistakenly believed that he had reached India and hence named the locals Indians).The country is also well known for its beach resorts in places such as Cozumel, Acapulco and Cancun and for its capital, Mexico City which is located 2240 metres above sea level. Inter North-American tourism is the most important type of tourism with


Canadians driving across the border into the United States and US citizens driving north into Canada.

The border between the United States and Mexico is, however, very well protected because many Mexicans attempt to cross it illegally to seek employment in the United States.

The Statue of Liberty symbolises the freedom spirit of the United States. It was a gift of friendship from the French people and was erected on Ellis Island, New York in 1886. For millions of immigrants who arrived by ship this was the first sight of their new country. (Photo: FreeFoto.com)

Visitors admire one of the deepest canyons on earth, the Grand Canyon in Arizona. (Photo FreeDigitalPhotos.net) They have the choice of looking at it from above or hiking to its bottom. Some people also travel through the canyon by rafting on the Colorado River that has created this mighty canyon.

Exercise 1.1

Look at a map of North America and locate ten cities or natural attractions that you find interesting. Go on-line and find out the 5 most interesting tourism attractions in each of the locations. Compare your findings with those of your classmates.


(Brazil), Buenos Aires (Argentina), Santiago de Chile (Chile) and Lima (Peru). The natural attractions include the fantastic waterwalls of Iguazu on the border of Paraguay, Argentina and Brazil; the Atacama desert in Chile where rainfall is hardly ever recorded; the Amazon basin where the world’s largest tropical rainforest can still be found (but it is under threat from extensive logging); the high mountain ranges of the Andes which themselves are a continuation of the North American Rocky Mountains and the mainly volcanic mountains that run down the west coast of Central America.

The jewel in the crown of tourist attractions in South America are the Galapagos Islands, a thousand kilometres from the coast of Ecuador which owns the islands. These World heritage listed islands were made famous by the writings of Charles Darwin who, after visiting them and observing their unique wildlife, developed the theory of evolution which is based on the notion of adaptation and the survival of the fittest. Other highlights in South America include the great ruins of Machu Piccu, the last strongold of the Inca civilization and the highest navigable lake in the world, Lake Titicaca.

Sugarloaf mountain in Rio de Janiero, Brasil is one of the most popular tourist attractions in South America. You can reach the peak by travelling on a cable car

(Photo: www.bigfoto.com)


The vibrant port of Buenos Aires, La Boca (the mouth) was once a poor migrant neighbourhood.

Today it is one of the most popular tourist attractions in the capital city of Argentina. This is a good example of how tourism attractions can evolve.

(iii) EUROPE

Because of its high concentration of people, relative wealth and the relatively short distances between countries, over fifty percent of global tourism happens within Europe. The automobile is the most important tourism leisure vehicle. The continent offers a great variety of tourist attractions and they are too numerous to list here. Each country has its own major and minor natural and created attractions but broadly speaking Northern Europe (countries such as Norwar, Sweden, Finland and Denmark) are attractice because of their natural beauty. Because they are located in the high latitudes (closer to the Arctic) they have to content with severe winters and hence tourism takes place mainly during the warmer summer months of June to September.

Central Europe offers the traveller interesting cities such as Paris, Berlin, Brussels, and Amsterdam with all their associated culture and entertainment.

The Eiffel Tower in the French capital Paris is one of the most recognized landmarks in the world (Source FreeDigitalPhotos.net)

Accommodation in Europe is plentiful and ranges from camp grounds to some of the finest 5 Star hotels in the world. Heritage hotels like the Hotel Hornburg (above) in Rothenburg o.d.T, Germany provide


The medieval walled town of Rothenburg ob der Tauber has been a favourite tourist destination for many years. Recently Mainland Chinese tourists have also discovered its charms, even during the cold and snowy German winter.

The Alpine regions of France, Switzerland, Austria, Northern Italy and Bavaria provide the setting for some of the best mountain scenery in the world: the European Alps, a mountain range that stretches for over 1,100 kilometres. There the traveller can find world class ski resorts where winter sports activities such as downhill and cross country skiing as well as snowboarding are carried out. During the summer months, the Alps are popular as a hiking destination.

The early travellers saw the The European Alps as a barrier that slowed down their travels from Central to Southern Europe. Today the Alps provide the setting for summer tourism (hiking) as well as winter tourism (skiing) and aircrafts can cross them in less than one hour. Climate change and the predicted increase in air temperature will lead to the retreating of glaciers and a rise in the altitude where snow falls.

The United Kingdom (UK) consists of England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. The attractions include its cities (in particular London), its culture and history and its natural beauty. Many stately homes and castles can be found across the UK.


London is the capital city of the United Kingdom. The Tower Bridge across the river Thames is a well recognised landmark. (Source FreeDigitalPhotos.net)

Balmoral castle in Scotland is the private residence of HM Queen Elizabeth II. The entrance fees paid by tourists and their spending on food, beverages and souvenir items help to pay for the high cost of maintaining the castle and its extensive grounds.

Southern Europe has a more pleasant climate and destinations in Italy, Spain, Portugal, Greece and the countries along the eastern shoreline of the Adriatic Sea are popular summer destinations for tourists from the colder more northern countries of Europe. Apart from beaches these countries are also rich in historical attractions – Venice, Florence, Siena, Athens and Olympia are just a few examples.

Since the fall of the “Iron Curtian” the line that divided the western capitalist countries from those that followed communism in the East, the countries of Eastern Europe have gained popularity as tourism destinations. Cities such as Prague (Czech Republic), Budapest (Hungary) as well as Moscow and St.

Petersburg in Russia have become popular destinations.

Exercise 1.2

Locate the following places on a map of Europe: Oslo, Mykonos, Malaga, Athens, Munich, Vienna, Prague, Nice, Budapest, Edinburgh. Why do you think these plaes are popular tourist destinations?



Mt Everest (8850m) is the highest point on Earth. It is located on the border between Nepal and China and was first climbed in 1953. Climbing this peak is an exciting adventure that is open only to a very limited number of very fit people. Ordinary tourists prefer to take a one hour mountain flight to experience the scenic beauty of the Mt. Everest region. In the above photograph, Mt. Everest is the pyramid shaped peak on the left hand side of the picture.

The Forbidden City in Beijing is one of the most important tourism assets of the capital of the People’s Republic of China .


Mega sports events like the Olympic Games provide destinations like Beijing with the opportunity to show their tourism attractiveness to the world. The most important benefits of Olympic Games is the opportunity for local leaders to improve the quality of life of residents by improving their living environment. This can include improved air quality, a better public transport system, improved housing and more parks and recreation spaces for locals to enjoy. Future tourists also benefit from such improvements.

The ancient Khmer monuments of Angkor located near Siem Reap in the North West of Cambodia provide the country with its main tourist attraction. Managing and maintaining such sites is costly and entrance fees paid by tourists provide revenue to help maintain the site.

The Tibetan Autonomous Region’s capital city Lhasa provides many attractions but a visit to the Potala Palace is a must for all tourists. The recent opening of the Qinghai-Lhasa railway has brought many additional Chinese and overseas tourists into Lhasa and visitor management at the palace has become an issue. As in other situations when demand for a product (a visit to the palace) exceeds supply (ability for the resource to accommodate the increased number of visitors) a balance has to be found.

This may require the introduction of a booking system where visitors have to pre-book their visit some time in advance.


The preservation of significant heritage buildings and sites for future generations has become a major issue across Asia. The Ssanggyesa Temple in the Republic of Korea is an excellent example of how buildings can be preserved and still be enjoyed by visitors.

The cave system at Viengxay in Huaphan Province in Laos PDR provided shelter for over 20,000 people during the many years of American bombardment during the Vietnam War era. Today the caves are open for tourists and visitors will soon be able to tour them using an audio-tour – a pre-recorded story about the history of the caves and its human inhabitants. These caves are an interesting example of how sites of war activities can be turned into tourism attractions that can help to generate income for local people and to reduce poverty.


Many Asian countries offer settings for holidays in the sun such as at a hotel swimming pool in the Sri Lankan capital Colombo (left) and at Kuta Beach on the island of Bali, Indonesia (right).

The integrated resort of Nusa Dua on the island of Bali, Indonesia was established following the development of a tourism master plan. Many up-market hotels are located along the beach and locals have found employment in a variety of positions in these hotels.


The recently opened Venitian Macao provides high class accommodation, conference and exhibition facilities, luxury shopping and gambling on the Cotai Strip.

Hotels are a very important component of the tourism infrastructure in any city. Sometimes they can also be tourist attractions in their own right.

Hong Kong is one of the most popular tourist destination in the world. In 2008 the city expects to welcome nearly 30 million tourists.


The one-horned rhino is one of the many endangered species of wildlife across Asia. It is unique to the North East of India where it still exists in national parks but this one was photographed in the zoo in Guwahati, Assam.

The central Asian Republics are among the least visited tourism regions of Asia.

The above photo shows traditional yurt housing near Almaty in Kazakhstan. These dwellings are only put up during the summer months and in this case serve for the staging of wedding parties.


Only a very limited number of countries in Africa have a vibrant tourism industry. The continent only receives 4.9% of world tourist arrivals and only 3.3% of tourism receipts. The main tourist receiving countries in Africa are:

 Egypt

 Morocco

 Tunisia

 The Gambia

 Kenya

 Tanzania

 Botswana

 Namibia

 South Africa

Most attractions of the above countries are based on the local culture and heritage, natural features and wildlife.. The following photographs serve as examples.


The nomadic Masai of Kenya have a long and proud tradition. Their colourful clothing distinquishes them from other local tribes.This young man has just started a fire without using matches – he used a stick to create friction which created heat and allowed him to set some dried grass alight.

Masai dancers perform for tourists


Elephants and other large mammals such as giraffes and lions provide the backbone of the tourism industry in countries like Kenya, Tanzania, South Africa, and Namibia. Conflicts between wildlife and local people frequently arise when animals such as elephants destroy the crops of people. Moving people away from their normal places of residence and establishing sanctuaries for wildlife there and subsequently allowing paying tourists to view the wildlife generates money that can be used to compensate local people for their loss of income from farming.

Ancient monuments such as the Pyramids of Giza and the Temple of Hatshepsut are the major attractions of Egypt. Often ancient monuments alone are not enough to attract repeat tourists and hence Egypt has developed beach resorts along the shores of the Red Sea where tourists can swim, dive and snorkel in the warm waters.


Tourism can provide the opportunity to improve the living conditions and incomes of poor people. The above photograph was taken from a hot air balloon as it was traveling over houses near the Valley of the Kings near Luxor in Egypt.

Many cruise ships operate on the section of the Nile between Aswan and Luxor.

The scenery along the river banks looks like it has not changed in thousands of years.

A bull is used to draw water from a well so that the farmer can water his crops. This is a very old method of pumping water from underground.


Sunset on the river Nile provides a perfect ending to an interesting day of sailing on the world’s longest river.


The island continent of Australia is located entirely in the Southern hemisphere. Much of the continent’s interior is desert where very few people live. Early tourism to the country was heavily restricted by the need for long sea voyages. Tourism changed substantially after the introduction of long range aircraft.

Even in today’s age of fast intercontinental wide bodied jet aircraft, flights from Europe to Australia take almost 24 hours and as a result visitor arrivals have only recently exceeded the 5 million mark. During 2007 a total of 5.64 million tourist arrivals were recorded.

The Sydney Opera House is one of the most recognized landmarks in the world and is the most popular tourist site in the city.


The Great Barrier Reef stretches for two thousand kilometres along the East coast of Australia.

Snorkelling and diving are very popular activities. Several Barrier Reef Islands also have comfortable resorts. The reefs are threatened by the impacts of Global Warming.

Surfers Paradise on Queensland’s Gold Coast has developed into one of the most popular tourist destinations in Australia. It is a year-round playground for tourists. The slogan of Queensland is

“Beautiful One Day – Perfect the Next” indicating that the state can be visited at any time of the year.

While this is true for places like Surfers Paradise other parts of the state such as Far North Queensland are more seasonal. Under the influence of the summer monsoon the tropical North of Queensland and other parts of northern Australia receive heavy rainfall. They are also exposed to tropical cyclones (the equivalent of Hong Kong typhoons) during the wet season from December to April.

Australia is a land of contrasts. Fan palms only grow in the tropical rainforest region of Far North Queensland and tropical rainforests that once dominated the landscape today only cover 1 percent of Australia.


Australia’s Outback is a dry but fascinating place. Huge termite mounds (above) and unsealed roads (below) provide a great contrast to the lush coastal regions only 3 hours to the east in Far North Queensland. Travellers who venture into the outback must come well prepared because there are only a few people and if a car breaks down it can be a long time before help arrives. The outback teaches travellers to be self sufficient.

Sometimes the strangest things can become tourist attractions. Australia has many “Big” attractions such as the Big Pineapple, Big Banana or the Big Shrimp but the Big Phantom Skull Cave, located on a private property called “Dundee Park” in Far North Queensland is perhaps the most unusual one.


Beaches like this one in Mission Beach, Far North Queensland provide major tourist attractions along the eastern coastline of Australia.

Exercise 1.3

Using your atlas or earth.google.com/ locate the Australian state of Queensland. Look at the topography and landscape features to get an idea of why tourism happens mainly in the South East and Far North of the State.


(vii) The Islands of the South Pacific

The islands of the south Pacific stretch over a vast area of ocean. The major countries and territories are New Zealand, New Caledonia, Fiji, Vanuatu, the Solomon Islands, Papua New Guinea, Tonga, Samoa, the Cook Islands and Tahiti. With the exception of New Zealand (the country has some larger cities) the slow pace of island life, the friendliness of the local population and the scenic beauty, especially the beaches are the main attractions of the South Pacific.

The serenity of a calm morning on the coast of Fiji’s main island of Viti Levu symbolizes one of the main attractions of the South Pacific.


Exercise 1.4

Look at a world map and locate as many islands in the South Pacific as you can find. Imagine that you are traveling on a cruise ship in this region. The ship can travel at an average speed of 20 knots (1 knot

= 1 nautical mile = 1.852 kilometres ). Measure the distance between two islands of your choice and calculate how long the ship would take to cover the distance from one port to the next.



The Antarctic continent is located at the southernmost reaches of the Earth. Ninety eight percent of the 14 million square kilometer continent is covered by ice. Antarctica is extremely remote and difficult to reach for travelers. Virtually all tourism that takes place there is ship based tourism and most ships leave from the southern most city in the world, Ushuaia in Argentina.

Exercise 1.5

Locate Antarctica on a map and study its geography including glaciers, ice shelves and mountain ranges. Investigate from which ports on other continents ship could leave if they wanted to travel to Antarctica.


Exercise 1.6

Make a list of what things come to mind when you think of Antarctica and discuss why you think that an increasing number of passengers are traveling there.


A small cruise ship approaches the Antarctic Peninsula at Neko Harbour. Travel to the continent is restricted to the warmer southern summer months of November to March.


Penguins like these Adelies are marine animals. There home is the ocean but they come ashore to mate and to raise their young. As you can see in the picture they also don’t mind to get a free ride on a floating iceberg.

Icebergs are made of fresh water and some 85 percent of the bergs are below water which can make them dangerous for ships.

Sometimes ships can be completely surrounded by ice and unless they are an icebreaker they cannot free themselves.


3) Oceans

The world also has seven important oceans: North and South Pacific, North and South Atlantic, the Indian Ocean, the Arctic Ocean and the Southern Ocean.

Oceans are of great importance for our climate and in the tourism context they provide opportunities for cruise holidays and beach vacations.

Exercise 1.7 : Locating the hemispheres, continents and oceans

Read section 1.1. about hemispheres, continents and oceans. Then, using the atlas, identify the hemispheres and plot the following continents, areas and oceans on a blank map of the world.

1. Identify the following HEMISPHERES:

 Northern

 Southern

 Eastern

 Western

2. Locate all of the following CONTINENTS:

 Europe

 Africa

 North America

 South America

 Asia

 Australasia

3. Now locate the following major OCEANS:

 North Atlantic Ocean

 South Atlantic Ocean

 Pacific Ocean

 Indian Ocean


World Map


Exercise 1.7 : Suggested Answers

Map of Northern and Southern Hemispheres and Eastern and Western Hemispheres

Map of plotted oceans, areas and continents



2. The world’s largest Ocean is the ______________________.

3. The ___________________ Ocean lies to the south of central Asia.

4. The Hawaiian Islands are to be found in the __________________ Ocean.

5. The Ocean to the east of Brazil is the _________________________ Ocean.


Exercise 1.8 : Suggested Answers

Complete the following sentences about the world’s oceans:

1. The North Atlantic Ocean lies between Europe and America.

2. The world’s largest Ocean is the Pacific.

3. The Indian Ocean lies to the south of central Asia.

4. The Hawaiian Islands are to be found in the Pacific Ocean.

5. The Ocean to the east of Brazil is the South Atlantic Ocean.



currents. (Refer to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Climate)

The following table introduces the concept of climate zones which can systematically highlight the climatic features of different regions with typical examples.

Climate Zone Example Rain Fall Temperature Seasons

Hot-Equatorial Singapore Average

241.3cm per annum

27.2 C Very humid at all times; wettest from November to January;

temperature fairly constant all year

Hot-Tropical Northern

Australia, Coastal Regions


4cm per annum

26.7 C A short rainy

season; generally warm and dry

Hot-Desert Sahara Less than

12.7cm per annum

Can drop to 0

C at night;

rising to 54.4

C during the day

Climate constant throughout year



Rome, Italy Average 65.7cm per annum

Winter 7 C;

summer 25 C

Distinct changes from Spring, Summer, Autumn and Winter

Temperate-Cool Edinburgh,


Average 65.3cm per annum

Winter 3.5 C;

summer 14.5C

Distinct Spring, Summer, Autumn and Winter

Cold Finland Average

58.5cm per annum

Winter -8.9C;

summer 15.6C

Long winters

changing quickly to short summers

Arctic/Polar Antarctic


Less than 5cm

As low as -

88.3C Almost continual

darkness in winter changing to

continual day light in summer

Table 1.1 – Climate Zones


2) Seasonality

Many people travel to escape from unpleasant weather and climatic condition at the places where they live and travel to somewhere more comfortable. This is especially so in parts of the world that experience very cold and dark winters. North America and Europe are good examples. People in the northern parts of the United States and in Canada escape their winters by heading south to places such as Florida. Europeans from countries like Sweden, Norway, Finland, Great Britain or Germany escape their winter climates by flying to countries such as Spain, Portugal, Greece and Turkey or even as far a the Canary Islands or the Maldives.

Driving in the snow can be dangerous and living in a harsh climate like this can be difficult. No wonder that people prefer to fly to sunny destinations like the Maldives in the Indian Ocean instead where the sun shines all year.

Sun lovers on Bandos Island, Maldives, Indian Ocean



2 Sydney


September to


13 - 22C December

to February

Hottest months and most rain in February

3 Sapporo


December to March

-4.9 – 4.7 C February Peak snow season

4 Kenya January to


14 – 34 C April to June and October to December

Rainy seasons and flooding often occurs

Table 1.2 – Best Time to Travel


 www.arridecube.com

 www.goaustralia.about.com

 www.snowjapan.com

 www.go2africa.com/kenya

Exercise 1.9

Establish the average monthly temperatures and hours of sunshine for Germany, Hong Kong and the Maldives.

Useful references:




3) Climate Change

Al Gore’s documentary An Inconvenient Truth was released in 2006 and it stimulated a great public debate about the impacts of human activity on climate change. Climate change is any long-term significant change in weather patterns that local people consider to be the normal weather for their specific region. If you are intersted in learning more about issues of climate change and sustainable tourism please join the Wiki of the Sustainable Tourism Advisory Committee of the Pacific Asia Travel Association (PATA), the largest not-for-profit tourism organisation in the world URL http://sustainable- tourism.wetpaint.com

Tourism will be impacted by a changing climate in many ways. Low altitude ski resorts may have to close if there is insufficient snowfall. Low lying islands in the South Pacific and Indian Ocean may be submerged if sea levels rise significantly. This will lead to a displacement of local populatiosn and to the collapse of the tourism industry. It is therefore very important that we all play our part in minimizing our negative impacts on the environment.

1.3. Definition of GMT, UTC, International Day Line and Time Zones

1) Definition of GMT and the Greenwich Meridian

The current system dates back to October 1884. At the behest of the President of the United States of America, 41 delegates from 25 nations met in Washington, DC, in the USA for the International Meridian Conference.

At the Conference the following important principles were established:

1. It was desirable to adopt a single world meridian to replace the numerous ones already in existence.

2. The Meridian passing through the principal Transit Instrument (the telescope) at the Observatory at Greenwich, in London was to be the prime meridian.

3. That all longitude would be calculated both east and west from this meridian up to 180° (i.e.

Greenwich would be 0° longitude).

4. All countries would adopt a universal day.

5. The universal day would be a Mean Solar Day, beginning at the Mean Midnight at Greenwich and counted on a 24-hour clock.

6. That nautical and astronomical days everywhere would begin at mean midnight.

What is the Meridian Line?

We have already discussed the Prime Meridian, which is an imaginary line that runs from the North Pole to the South Pole. By international convention it runs through ‘the primary transit’ instrument (main telescope) at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich. GMT (Greenwich Mean Time) became a world time and date standard because Britain’s Royal Navy and merchant fleet used it during the nineteenth century.


The International Date Line is an imaginary line that runs from the North Pole to the South Pole and is 180° away from the Greenwich Meridian.

3) Co-ordinated Universal Time (UTC)

UTC replaced Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) as the World standard for time in 1986. It is based on atomic measurements rather than the earth’s rotation. Other terms used to refer to it include ‘Zulu time’,

‘universal time’, and ‘world time’.

UTC uses precise atomic clocks, short-wave time signals, and satellites to ensure that UTC remains a reliable, accurate standard for scientific and navigational purposes.

Despite the improvements in accuracy, however, the same principles used in GMT have been carried over into UTC, and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is still the standard time zone for the Prime Meridian (Zero Longitude), which is used for time calculation.

4) Definition of Time Zones

Twenty-four time zones were established to the east and west of Greenwich with the International Date Line lying along the 180° line of longitude. The International Date Line deviates in places to avoid crossing any land.

Zero (0) ° is the central time zone with 12 time zones to the east and 12 time zones to the west of it.

Most adjacent time zones are exactly one hour apart, and by convention compute their local time as an offset from UTC (see also Greenwich Mean Time http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Time_zones

Below you can see a map of the world showing how the world has been split into different time zones.

You can see that some of the lines are not straight and this is because some states or countries do not want to be split into different time zones.

The line labelled ‘The Greenwich Meridian’ represents 0° longitude. All countries to the east of this are ahead of GMT. All countries to the west of the meridian are behind GMT.


Time zones need to be taken into account when people travel on long flights. “Jet lag” is a term often used by air travellers when they feel tired after an east- west or west –east flight that crosses several time zones.


always quoted first. This co-ordinate shows which parallel line the place sits on, either north or south of the equator.

From the equator to the North Pole there are 90 degrees (the symbol for degrees is °). There are 90°

from the equator to the South Pole. 0° is the equator and 90° are at the poles. North of the Equator is measured as ‘degrees North’ and south of the equator is measured in ‘degrees South’. 90° North (shown as 90 N) is the North Pole and 90° South (90 S) is the South Pole. Places are referred to as between 0 and 90 ° N or ° S of the equator.

The cross co-ordinate lines are called lines of longitude and are sometimes called meridians. These are imaginary vertical lines that run from pole to pole. These are not parallel lines but come together at the pole and are widest at the equator. These lines measure the distance in degrees to the east and west of the Prime Meridian, which runs through Greenwich in the UK.

The Prime Meridian is at 0° and there are 180 degrees in both east and west directions. They meet at the International Date Line, which is on the other side of the globe from the UK in the Pacific Ocean.

Places are referred to as between 0 and 180 ° W or ° E of the Prime Meridian.

To pinpoint a location using only degrees north or south, east or west, would therefore be quite vague.

You would only be positioning it within a 70-mile square. The degrees of longitude and latitude are therefore further divided into minutes (symbol is ') and seconds ("). There are 60 minutes in each degree. Each minute is divided into 60 seconds.

Seconds can be further divided into tenths, hundredths, or even thousandths, although this is only used for locating a position very precisely.

Mostly just degrees and minutes are used. For example, Glasgow in Scotland is located at 55°52' N and 4°15' W (55 degrees, 52 minutes north of the equator and 4 degrees, 15 minutes west of the prime meridian passing through Greenwich, England).


Exercise 1.10 : Latitude and Longitude Co-ordinates

Read 1.4 about latitude and longitude. After your teacher or tutor has explained how co-ordinates are given by describing a feature’s latitude followed by its longitude, complete the following activity.

The table below shows the co-ordinates of several places in the world. Study the table and then complete the sentences shown below.

City Latitude Longitude

° ’ ° ’

Hong Kong, China 22 20 N 114 11 E

Tokyo, Japan 35 41 N 139 46 E

Glasgow, Scotland 55 52 N 4 15 W

Nairobi, Kenya 1 25 S 36 55 E

Moscow, Russia 55 45 N 37 36 E

Santiago, Chile 33 28 S 70 45 W

1. Hong Kong is ___________ degrees and __________ minutes north and _________ degrees ___________ minutes east.

2. Glasgow is ___________ degrees and __________ minutes north and _________ degrees ___________ minutes west.

3. Nairobi is __________ degrees__________ of the equator.

4. Santiago lies 33 _________ and 28 _________ south of the _____________.

5. Moscow is positioned _________ ° and _________ ’ north of the _____________.

6. Santiago lies __________ degrees and ____________ minutes to the _____________ of the prime meridian.

7. The city positioned 35 degrees and 41 minutes North and 139 degrees 46 minutes east is _____________________.

8. The city which lies at 1°25' S and 36°55' E is ______________________.


Tokyo, Japan 35 41 N 139 46 E

Glasgow, Scotland 55 52 N 4 15 W

Nairobi, Kenya 1 25 S 36 55 E

Moscow, Russia 55 45 N 37 36 E

Santiago, Chile 33 28 S 70 45 W

1. Hong Kong is __22__ degrees and __20__ minutes north and __114__ degrees __11__ minutes east.

2. Glasgow is __55__ degrees and __52__ minutes north and __4__ degrees ___15__ minutes west.

3. Nairobi is __1__ degrees _south_ of the equator.

4. Santiago lies 33 __degrees__ and 28 _minutes_ south of the ___equator___.

5. Moscow is positioned ___55__ ° and ___45___ ’ north of the ___equator___.

6. Santiago lies ___70___ degrees and ___45___ minutes to the ___west___ of the prime meridian.

7. The city positioned 35 degrees and 41 minutes North and 139 degrees 46 minutes east is ____Japan____.

8. The city which lies at 1°25' S and 36°55' E is ___Nairobi___.



Chapter 2: Tourist Attractions

Tourist attractions are kinds of tourism products. People travel to tourist attractions for pleasure, looking for tourist resources, facilities and events that provide them with entertainment and interest. In this section, the term of ‘tourist attractions’, including its role, functions, attributes and typology would be explained in detail.

2.1. What is ‘Attraction’?

1) Definition of Attractions

Any resources, facilities or events that attract tourists to a particular place are called attractions. One broader definition of attraction is provided as below:

“A tourist attraction is a feature in an area that can be a place, venue or focus of activities and does the following things.

(i) Sets out to attract visitors/ day visitors from residence or tourist populations, and is managed accordingly.

(ii) Provides a fun and pleasurable experience and an enjoyable way for customers to spend their leisure time.

(iii) Is developed to realize this potential.

(iv) Is managed as an attraction, providing satisfaction to its customers.

(v) Provides an appropriate level of facilities and services to meet and cater to the demands, needs and interests of its visitors.

(vi) May or may not charge an admission for entry”

Source: Walsh-Heron, J. and Stevens, T. (1990). The management of visitor attractions and events. Prentice Hall.

2) Tourist Attractions and Destinations

According to Swarbrooke (2003), there differences between attractions and destinations:

- ‘Attractions’ are generally single units, individual sites or very small, easily delimited geographical areas based on a single key feature.

- ‘Destinations’ are larger areas that include a number of individual attractions together with the support services required by tourists.


The process of how a single attraction can be developed to a diversified destination can be referred to Figure 2.1 below.

Figure 2.1 – Attractions and the Development of Destinations

Source: Swarbrooke, J. (2003). The Development and Management of Visitor Attractions, 2nd ed. Oxford, UK: Butterworth- Heinemann.

3) Concerns in Developing Attractions and Destinations

Attractions, no matter physical or cultural, are the main pull factor of tourist flow. Without these attractions, there would be no need for other tourist services. Since attraction entices travelers to a destination, the marketing strategies of these destinations tend to focus on these attractions and they are often the symbols of the destinations in the minds of tourists.

However, the attractiveness of a destination will be different for different people, and it may change with time. For example, in line with product life cycle theory, some destinations may reach a fifth stage


where some of the original attractions go into decline and the pattern of support services changes accordingly. Therefore, a combination of attractions may help to create a stronger tourist appeal, which can attract different people and prolong the product life cycle of a tourist destination.

Besides, accessibility of attractions and destinations can be another concern in the developing stage.

From a geographical point of view, a tourist destination can be a resort, a city, an area within a country, the whole country or a larger area of the globe. Therefore, the development and maintenance of efficient transport is important in stimulating tourist flows between tourist generating areas and tourist receiving areas.

2.2. Role and Attributes of Attractions 1) Role and Functions of Attractions in the Tourism Industry

Role and functions of attractions in the tourism industry can be explained in three different aspects as follow:

(i) Destinations

- As mentioned earlier, popular attractions facilitate the growth of a destination and services such as hotels, restaurants and shops gather around the attractions to meet the needs of visitors. It could be said that attractions are the main elements for the development of a destination.

- Most of the world’s largest and most successful destinations developed from one major attraction. They take the role as the icon of the destination in minds of tourists.

(ii) Transport

- The existence of major attractions leads to the development of new public transport services to meet the demand of visitors. Example: the Disneyland Resort Line constructed for Hong Kong Disneyland by the MTR.

- Modes of transport can often be an attraction in themselves, with passengers being encouraged to use them as a type of special event. Example: visitors taking the Star Ferry to enjoy the view of the Victoria Harbour.

(iii) Tour Operations

- Attractions are vitally important to tour operators who put together in package holidays.

- Specialist attractions are vital to the provision of special interest holidays by tour operators, such as visiting vineyards in wine tours and tours for theatre shows.

Source: Swarbrooke, J. (2003). The development and management of visitor attractions, 2nd ed. Oxford, UK: Butterworth- Heinemann.


friendly hospitality.


- Is this attraction in good, visitor-friendly condition?

- How does it rate in terms of appearance, operations, hospitality and resource protection?

(ii) Authenticity

It refers to how a true picture can be provided by a destination. It means letting the distinctive local flavor of a community shine through in ways that create and produce a “sense of place”. ]


- Does this attraction reflect the natural, cultural or economic heritage of the community?

- Does it reflect the communities “sense of place”?

(iii) Uniqueness

It is the “edge” that sets an attraction in your community apart from the competition somewhere else.


- Is the attraction unique within a 150 to 300 mile market area?

(iv) Drawing Power

It is measured in terms of the number of visitors who will travel a specified distance to visit your community and whether they will return for repeat visits.


- What geographic areas do / will customers come from?

(v) Activity Options

They are important characteristics of attractions. The first impulse is to concentrate on buildings, sites and facilities. But, it is important to remember the activities that provide resident and visitors things to do.


- Does the attraction offer a varied and changing set of activities?

Sources: Community Tourism Handbook: Minnesota Extension. Adapted by: Roger Merchant, Extension Educator Natural Resources and Community Development

University of Maine Cooperative Extension, September, 2005.


2.3. Typology of Attractions

There are different ways in classifying tourist attractions. Some examples of how attractions can be categorized are introduced as below:

1) Primary and Secondary Attractions

One simple way to classify attractions is by dividing them into two main categories: (i) primary attractions and (ii) secondary attractions.

(i) Primary Attractions

They are those which are the main reason for taking a leisure trip. They tend to be those attractions where visitors will spend most of their time either because the site is a vital resource for a preferred activity or it is necessary to spend several hours at least on the site to enjoy all its elements and to obtain value for money. In the latter case the attractions are often those with relatively high entrance charges. Based on these two explanations of primary attractions, it is clear that two good examples are beaches and theme parks respectively.

(ii) Secondary Attractions

They are those places visited on the way to and from the primary attractions. Their role is usually to break a long journey, to provide an opportunity for eating and drinking, or to give the trip some variety.

Visits to secondary attractions may be as short as a few minutes. They can be used as a compromise solution to please members of the family or party who may have not wanted to visit the primary attraction but were overruled in the decision-making process.

It should be noted, however, that these are generalizations and that what is a primary or secondary attraction is different for each tourist, depending on their preferences, attitudes and interests.

Source: Swarbrooke, J. (2003). The development and management of visitor attractions, 2nd ed. Oxford, UK: Butterworth- Heinemann.

2) Natural and Man-made Attractions

‘Natural’ and ‘man-made’ is another general way in classifying attractions. In fact, ‘man-made’

attractions can be further divided into two categories according to their purposes of construction. Figure 2.2 shows how attractions can be classified based on this principle. There are four major groups under this classification as named below:

- Natural environment

- ‘Man-made’ but not originally designed primarily to attract tourists - ‘Man-made’ and purpose-built to attract tourists

- Special event


Figure 2.2 – Typology of Attractions

Source: Swarbrooke, J. (2003). The development and management of visitor attractions, 2nd ed. Oxford, UK: Butterworth- Heinemann.


Natural Environment


but not originally designed primarily to attract tourists


and purpose- built to attract


Special Event


 Mountain

 Beach


 Wong Tai Sin Temple


 Hong Kong Disneyland


 Cheung Chau Bun Festival


Figure 2.3 – Overview of Attractions

Source: Goeldner, Charles R, Ritchie, J.R. Brent, Mcintosh, Rober W, Tourism – Principles, Practices, Philosophies, 8th ed., Wiley, 1999, p.217

Having a closer look at Figure 2.3, it can be found that other scholars also considered natural resources as one kind of attractions (Highlighted in red in Figure 2.3). Besides ‘events’ which is also categorized as an individual dimension, other man-made elements are grouped differently when compared with Figure 2.2, including cultural attractions, recreation and entertainment attractions.

Although there is no standard way in classifying attractions and it is always quite difficult to draw clear lines between categories, tourists and industry practitioners, in certain extents, can usually tell and distinguish some of the key characteristics featured by different kinds of attractions. Similarities and variations of classification as compared with Figure 2.2 can be illustrated by the ‘Overview of Attractions’ suggested by other scholars as shown below some general types of attractions and their descriptions in detail.


a) Climate

In order to enjoy their holiday, tourists must be physically comfortable with the climatic conditions of the holiday destination. First, they must be comfortable irrespective of their activity, be it passive (e.g.

sunbathing) or very active (e.g. surfing, horse riding, snow skiing, etc.). Secondly, climate of the holiday destination must be attractive. People tend to be more relaxed and cheerful when it is sunny and clear than when the sky is overcast and gloomy.

Climate is important to tourism for the following reasons:

- Climate itself is an attraction

In winter, people from Northern Europe are attracted to the warmer Mediterranean countries for enjoying the sun. At the same time, thousands of people travel to the Alps of France, Switzerland, and to the Rockies in the United States to ski. It is the promise of sunny, clear and cold days that attracts the tourists to spend their holidays on these ski-slopes.

- Tourists must feel comfortable whether they take part in passive or active activities.

A comfortable warm climate is determined by a combination of humidity and wind. Traveling in hot, dry condition is more comfortable than in hot, humid condition. A comfortable cold climate is determined by wind. Wind increases the feeling of winter cold by causing rapid heat loss.

The following climatic elements are associated with human comfort:

• Temperature

• Relative humidity

• Wind

Figure 2.4 shows the range of temperature and relative humidity within which a person feels comfortable.


Figure 2.4 – Correlation Among Tourist Activities, Temperature and Humidity Source: After Burton, “Travel Geography”, Pitman, 1991.

b) Physical Features and Scenery

Natural features and scenery are fascinating attractions for tourists. They can be classified broadly as:

• Landforms

• Natural vegetation and wildlife

- Landforms

Mountains and hills attract tourists for:

Their fascinating natural features;

The clear and fresh air;

Activities such as climbing hills, photography, etc.; and

Winter sports.

Coastlines with beaches, bays, lagoons, islands and reefs attract tourists for:

Their beautiful scenery of sun, sand and sea; and

Activities such as surfing, swimming, diving, fishing, etc.


Underground river, Philippines Source: Philippines NTO

Taal volcano, Philippiine Source: Philippines NTO

Landforms as tourist attractions


- Natural Vegetation and Wildlife

Observation of natural vegetation and animals in their natural environment is increasingly popular. For example, tourists go into the Amazon for its rich rainforest and wildlife. Tourist activities related to wildlife can be further divided into observation and hunting (See Table 2.1).

Other examples of attractions involving vegetation and animals can be referred to Table 2.2 below.

Coral Reef Stystem, Philippines

Source: Philippines NTO

Mount Titlis, Switzerland Source: Switzerland NTO

The UNESCO Biosphere Entlebuch, Switzerland

Source: Switzerland NTO


instead of guns. such as Poland and Hungary offer expensive hunting trips to western tourists.

Table 2.1 – Tourist Activities Related to Wildlife

Types Flora/Fauna Examples Activities

Tropical rainforests Subtropical forests

Monkeys Birds Butterflies Orchids Mangroves

Amazon Brazil Madagascar Congo Indonesia Xishuangbanna Australia USA

Mai Po (Hong Kong)

 Eco-tourism

 Eco-tourism

 Bird watching

Savannas Bisons

Zebras and wild beasts

Plains of USA

Serengeti Plains of East Africa

 Wildlife expeditions and safaris


forests Pine forests Redwood trees Pandas

Europe California Alpine bamboo

thickets of Sichuan(四 川)

 Cycling

 Horse-riding


grasslands Wild horses Steppes of Russia  Wildlife expeditions Tundra and

polar regions Caribou Wolves Whales Seals Penguins

Northern Canada Alaska

Arctic Antarctic

 Wildlife expeditions

Table 2.2 – Vegetation and Animals as Tourist Attractions


Adventure tourism

Source: Philippines NTO

Coral Reef System



spectacular views (e.g. across the Grand Canyon).

2. Pursue activities that require a natural landscape setting or that depend on rurally located resources, rather than for the scenic quality of the rural backdrop. Activities such as sailing, canoeing, potholing, shooting, climbing, hang-gliding and skiing are examples of the latter where the quality of the resource is more significant than the landscape in which it is set, whereas activities such as cycling, horse riding and walking perhaps depend more closely on high quality landscapes.

3. Visit the countryside as a destination in order to experience a non-urban way of life for a period, as a relief from the congestion and pressures of the urban environment.

4. See wildlife in its natural habitat rather than in the zoo or safari park setting.

5. Visit the countryside purely for the pleasure of looking at, and being in attractive rural landscapes.


(II) Cultural Attractions

There are different types of cultural attractions:

a) Historic resources

People have always been interested in their past, so historic monuments, buildings, and places have become important tourist attractions. Historic attractions include historic relics, sites, history museums and buildings. All of these have special significance in relation to historical events or people. Each country and the various cultural groups within a country have their own unique history which attracts many interested tourists. Examples of historic attractions are shown in Table 2.3 below.

Types Examples

Historic sites Stonehenge in England

Aboriginal rock paintings in Kakadu National Park, Australia Archaeological ruins at Mohenjodaro in the Indus valley in Pakistan

Maya site of Copan in Honduras Historic center of Florence

Auschwitz concentration camp run by Nazi Germany in Poland during World War II

 For more information on Hong Kong’s heritage conservation and the revitalization of our historic buildings, visit

Development Bureau’s heritage website “ Conserve and Revitalize Hong Kong Heritage” -

http://www.heritage.gov.hk/en/buildings/monuments.htm Famous constructions The Great Wall of China

The Parthenon, Athens, Greece.

The pyramids of Egypt Taj Mahal in India

History museums British Museum in United Kingdom The Louvre in Paris

Historic relics Qin Terra Cotta Warriors, Xian, China (西安兵馬俑) Crown Jewels of the Queen of England

Table 2.3 – Historic Attractions


The traditions of Chinese society in Asia or throughout the world provide a focus of interest for many westerners.

ii) Art

Most tourists like to visit places where art such as paintings, sculpture, graphics and architecture is being produced or displayed.

iii) Handicrafts

Handicrafts of many cultural groups are of interest to tourists, and demonstration of the

craftsman’s skills in making the handicrafts also attracts interest. Sale of arts and crafts as souvenir items or gifts is created by:

 The demand of tourists to bring back a souvenir to remind them of their visit; and

 The desire of many tourists to enhance their prestige among friends and relatives by having something to show that they have visited an exotic destination.

iv) Food

Differences in the types of food and the way which they are prepared provide one of the most interesting ways to learn about another culture. Since people have to eat and usually enjoy doing so, trying new food is a novel experience that is enjoyed by most tourists.

v) Music and Dance

Music and dance are probably the most entertaining and appealing cultural attractions for tourists.


vi) Lifestyle

The lifestyle of a particular culture would be represented by elements of daily life such as:


Food and eating habits

Traditional celebrations



In Asia, the lifestyle of Buddhist monks in Tibet and Thailand also provide a point of interest for tourists who wish to find out more about the influence of religion upon the host society.

With the establishment of “model villages”, the lifestyles of particular cultures have been

“packaged” for tourists who have a limited amount of time. In order to fit the tight schedules of tourists and to make it convenient for them, the development of such villages enables tourists to experience various aspects of one or a number of cultural groups.

Examples of model cultural villages are the Splendid China and China Folk Culture Village in Shenzhen. (深圳的錦繡中華及中華民俗文化村)and the Polynesian Cultural Center in Hawaii. The cultural villages are designed as living museums where the lifestyles of various cultural groups are recreated for visitors to experience. Traditional dances, ceremonies, and music are usually featured. Demonstrations of cooking or craft skills are also provided to educate and entertain visitors. Common types of cultural attractions are shown in Table 2.4 below.

Types Examples

Traditions Dragon dance

Art The Edinburgh Festival in Scotland Handicrafts Italy is famous for its leather goods

Czech Republic for its crystal

Food Thai food

Chinese “dim-sum”

Music & dance Thai dancing

The Vienna Boys’ Choir

Lifestyle Shenzhen Splendid China Folk Culture Village

Table 2.4 – Different Types of Cultural Attractions


roots and to experience the culture of their own country.

2. Tourists of different cultural backgrounds may enjoy visiting historic sites purely for the appreciation of the beauty of the art and architecture, e.g. Greek temple at Sounion, Taj Mahal in India.

3. Visitors may be attracted to buildings and places for their historical/cultural meaning rather than their visual appeal, e.g. the site of 1911 Revolution in Wu Chang(武昌), Waterloo Battlefield in Belgium, Mecca in Saudi Arabia and the holy city of Jerusalem in Israel.

4. Tourists are interested in how other people live, work and play. They are attracted by the local/native dances, ceremonies and work skills.


c) Religious Attractions

Religion also gives rise to travel. This type of tourism may include pilgrimages, meetings or visits to religious headquarters and historical sites.

This form of tourism may stem from the curiosity of a tourist from another faith, or the spiritual

motivation/inspiration of a tourist of the same faith. Common types of religious attractions are shown in Table 2.5 below.

Table 2.5 – Types of Religious Attractions

Types Examples

Places of

pilgrimages Mecca by Islamic believers

Lourdes in France by Catholics with illnesses Religious

headquarters Catholics to Rome Jews to Israel

Religious sites The birthplace of Jesus Christ Westminster Abbey in London


have their unique and attractive architectural styles, fascinate many people.

Fisherman Wharf in Macau

Golden Gate Bridge, San Francisco, USA

The Great Wall, China


(III) Entertainment attractions

a) Theme and Amusement Parks

Theme and amusement parks are developed from circuses, carnivals and tournaments of Asia and Europe. Disneyland in Anaheim (California) changed the local amusement park business by integrating shops, shows, and restaurants into a theme embracing adventure, fantasy, history, and science fiction.

b) Zoos

Zoos have function similar to that of museums and parks. They entertain and educate visitors and preserve the wildlife in their charge. Zoos serve as centers for scientific research in all areas of zoology and biology, and many zoos are involved in an effort to rescue endangered species through carefully controlled breeding programs.

c) Aquariums

Aquariums are special buildings for fish and aquatic mammals, such as dolphins and seals.

Visitors are able to observe aquatic animals, from and below the waterline.

d) Science Museums

Science museums have displays that help us understand the modern world in which we live.

Hong Kong Disneyland



identify different types of tourist attractions and examine the factors affecting the development of tourism in these places;.4. recognize factors affecting tourist flows and the

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