Chapter 3 Curriculum Planning
In planning the TE curriculum, schools may make reference to the following booklets of the SECG (Secondary 1 – 6) (2017) which provide more information and suggestions on incorporating the TE KLA into the whole-school curriculum, enhancing smooth interfaces between different key stages and identifying quality learning and teaching resources to enhance the implementation of the TE KLA:
Booklet 2 Learning Goals, School curriculum Framework and Planning
Booklet 8 Interfaces between Key Stages 2 and 3, and Key Stages 3 and 4
Booklet 10 Quality Learning and Teaching Resources 3.1 A Balanced Curriculum
3.1.1 At the junior secondary level, a balanced TE curriculum should:
have a balanced focus on the three strands of Technology Education:
Knowledge Contexts in Technology, Process in Technology and Impact of Technology;
include a wide spectrum of knowledge contexts so as to give students more exposure to various technologies;
nurture students’ generic skills as well as their positive values and attitudes, with special emphasis on problem solving, creativity, critical thinking skills, and communication skills.
3.2 Central Curriculum and School Curriculum Development
3.2.1 This Guide sets the direction for the development of the TE curriculum from Primary 1 to Secondary 6. It provides a central curriculum for the TE KLA in the form of a curriculum framework and sets out what students are expected to achieve, i.e.:
subject knowledge and skills as expressed in the form of learning targets under the three strands as well as the learning objectives;
generic skills; and
positive values and attitudes.
The TE curriculum framework allows schools the space and scope for innovative curriculum practices. Schools are encouraged to capitalise on it and develop their own TE curriculum, taking into consideration factors such as:
vision and mission of the school and its sponsoring body;
strengths of the school and its teaching force;
background and learning needs of students;
provision of a broad and balanced curriculum for students; and
resources of the school that can support learning and teaching.
3.2.2 Chapter 2 of this Guide provides the TE learning targets for students from Primary 1 to Secondary 6 as well as the learning objectives for students from Primary 1 to Secondary 3 (see Section 2.2.1 for details). For the learning objectives for KS4, reference should be made to the Curriculum and Assessment Guides of the five elective subjects of the senior secondary TE curriculum. This Guide also provides the learning elements of the TE curriculum (see Section 2.3 for details), which are the entitlement of every student and should be included in the curriculum of every school.
3.2.3 Curriculum development is an ongoing process. Schools could develop their own TE curriculum in consideration of the school contexts and students’ needs. They should also encourage the professional development of teachers and collaboration with other stakeholders to achieve the aims, learning targets and objectives of the TE curriculum.
3.2.4 Schools should address the following major aspects in developing their TE curriculum:
• TE KLA as one of the eight KLAs of the school curriculum
Technology education is the entitlement of every student. Students develop technological literacy through studying the three strands of the TE curriculum, namely knowledge contexts in technology, process in technology and impact of technology. In order to provide students with a solid foundation of technological knowledge and skills, schools should allocate sufficient curriculum time to the TE KLA. The core learning elements set out in this Guide should be covered so as to ensure the provision of a broad and balanced TE curriculum for students.
This Guide provides a central curriculum in the form of an open and flexible framework. At the primary level, learning elements of the TE curriculum are delivered through General Studies. At the junior secondary level, schools are recommended to adopt a modular approach for managing the TE KLA curriculum. Technology learning elements are grouped into core and extension learning elements under each of the six knowledge contexts. The core learning elements are intended for all students, while extension learning elements are intended for students with special interests or aptitude. In order to provide a smooth progression to and interface with senior secondary, core learning elements should be covered in the school’s TE curriculum so as to ensure the provision of a broad and balanced TE curriculum for students. Schools can base on their schools’ contexts and students’ learning needs, adapt the central curriculum and plan their school TE curriculum, adopting different modes of curriculum implementation.
At the senior secondary level, five TE elective subjects are offered to accommodate students with different orientations. TE subjects could prepare students for further studies for further studies or lifelong learning in different contexts, such as business, information technology and engineering, design, health, food science and fashion design. Schools should offer a diversified
choice of elective subjects to cater for different students’ interests, abilities and needs.
- This Guide is one of the eight KLA Curriculum Guides prepared by the CDC. It sets the direction for the learning, teaching and assessment of the TE curriculum from Primary 1 to Secondary 6. Schools are expected to fulfil the requirements spelt out in this Guide to ensure that students receive their entitlement to the same opportunities for technology education. This Guide, however, should not be regarded as a prescribed uniform syllabus for all schools and students.
- Schools can base on their own contexts and students’ learning needs, and adapt the central TE curriculum by varying the organisation of curriculum contents, learning and teaching strategies, and criteria and modes of assessment to help their students achieve the learning targets and objectives.
- It should be noted that a school TE curriculum should be the outcome of the balance between guidance from the CDC and the autonomy of the school. The balance is subject to updating over time in face of the continual changing social context and students' needs which lead to renewed school curriculum emphases.
• Holistic curriculum development
Holistic curriculum planning is recommended to ensure vertical continuity and lateral coherence in the planning of a school TE curriculum. Schools are advised to take into consideration the interests and abilities of their students and the expertise of their teachers when setting the goals and plans for the school curriculum development. During the planning process, schools need to consider flexible use of time, and also the resources available according to individual contexts. Due attention should be drawn to the curriculum emphases when devising STEM-related activities for students. The process of Planning-Implementation-Evaluation (P-I-E) that schools are familiar with can be adopted for the development of the school curriculum.
All TE teachers should get involved in the development of the school TE curriculum. While the TE KLA co-ordinators or panel chairpersons take the lead in co-ordinating the development process, all TE teachers have roles to play in planning, implementing and evaluating the TE curriculum. For cross-KLA activities, TE teachers need to collaborate with their counterparts of other related KLAs in planning and organising relevant activities. In the process, a collaborative culture could be developed within and across KLAs. Close collaboration among teachers of the STEM-related disciplines can enhance professionalism, thus producing a synergy effect and maximising the benefit to students.
Curriculum decisions derived from holistic curriculum development and extensive involvement of teachers can facilitate the development of a school curriculum with vertical continuity and lateral coherence. A coherent school
curriculum will enable students to establish a strong foundation in learning technology and to proceed smoothly from one key stage to another.
Figure 9 illustrates how to develop a school TE curriculum with full consideration of the major factors, and eventually arrive at a curriculum decision that can benefit student learning.
Figure 9 Holistic Curriculum Development in the Technology Education KLA
School vision and mission
Analysis of school context
Students’ interests and abilities, and teachers’ expertise
A school TE Curriculum with Vertical Continuity and Lateral Coherence
Smooth Learning Progression from One Key Stage to Another
Students’ Solid Foundation in TE