Technology Education

266  Download (0)

全文

(1)

Prepared by

The Curriculum Development Council Recommended for use in schools by The Education Bureau

HKSARG 2017

Technology Education

Key Learning Area Curriculum Guide (Primary 1 – Secondary 6)

Technology Education Key Lear ning Ar ea Curriculum Guide (Primary 1 – Secondary 6 ) 2017

(2)

(Blank Page)

(3)

i

Preamble

The development of the Hong Kong school curriculum has advanced into a new phase of ongoing renewal and updating. It ushers in a new era for curriculum development to keep abreast of the macro and dynamic changes in various aspects in the local, regional and global landscapes in maintaining the competitiveness of Hong Kong. For the ultimate benefits of our students, schools are encouraged to sustain and deepen the accomplishments achieved since the Learning to Learn curriculum reform started in 2001, and to place new emphases on future needs in curriculum development for achieving the overall aims and learning goals of the school curriculum.

The eight Key Learning Area (KLA) Curriculum Guides (Primary 1 - Secondary 6) have been updated and recommended by the Curriculum Development Council (CDC)1 to support the ongoing renewal of the school curriculum at the primary and secondary levels.

In updating the KLA Curriculum Guides, the respective KLA committees under the CDC have taken into consideration the concerns, needs and suggestions of various key stakeholders including schools, principals, teachers, students and the public at large. A series of school briefing cum feedback collection sessions coupled with a territory-wide school survey were conducted in 2015 to gauge schools’ views on the major updates of the respective Curriculum Guides.

The eight KLA Curriculum Guides (2017) supersede the 2002 versions. Each KLA Curriculum Guide presents the updated curriculum framework which specifies the KLA’s curriculum aims, learning targets and objectives, delineates the direction of ongoing curriculum development at the KLA level, and provides suggestions on curriculum planning, learning and teaching strategies, assessment, as well as useful learning and teaching resources. In addition, updated examples of effective learning, teaching and assessment practices are provided for schools’ reference. Supplements to some KLA Curriculum Guides and subject curriculum guides are also available to provide further suggestions on their implementation at specific key stages. Schools are encouraged to adopt the recommendations in the KLA Curriculum Guides, taking into account the school contexts, teachers’ readiness and learning needs of their students.

For a better understanding of the interface between various key stages and connections of different learning areas, and how effective learning, teaching and assessment can be achieved, schools should make reference to all related curriculum documents recommended by the CDC and the latest versions of the Curriculum and Assessment Guides jointly prepared by the CDC and the HKEAA for the senior secondary curriculum to ensure coherence in curriculum planning at the school, KLA and subject levels.

As curriculum development is a collaborative and ongoing process, the KLA Curriculum Guides will be under regular review and updating in light of schools’ implementation experiences as well as the changing needs of students and society.

1 The CDC is an advisory body offering recommendations to the Government on all matters relating to school curriculum development from kindergarten to secondary levels. Its membership includes heads of schools, teachers, parents, employers, academics from tertiary institutions, professionals from related fields or related bodies, representatives from the Hong Kong Examinations and Assessment Authority (HKEAA), and officers from the Education Bureau.

(4)

ii

Views and suggestions on the development of the Technology Education KLA Curriculum are always welcome. These may be sent to:

Chief Curriculum Development Officer (Technology Education) Curriculum Development Institute

Education Bureau

Room W101, 1/F, West Block

Kowloon Tong Education Services Centre 19 Suffolk Road, Kowloon Tong

Kowloon, Hong Kong Fax: 2768 8664

E-mail: teched@edb.gov.hk

(5)

iii

Key Messages

Technology Education Key Learning Area (TE KLA)

Technology

Technology is the purposeful application of knowledge, skills and values and attitudes in using resources to create products or systems to meet human needs and wants.

(Section 1.2.1)

Technology influences and is influenced by the cultures of people, and is part of our daily life.

(Section 1.2.2) Technology Education

Technology Education (TE) is the entitlement of each student. It is the learning of how human beings solve their daily problems and how the process could be replicated and transferred to solve new problems that arise from time to time.

(Sections 1.3.1 – 1.3.2) Subjects under TE KLA

At the primary level, the content of TE is subsumed in the General Studies curriculum.

At the junior secondary level, many schools are adopting subject-based learning approach through subjects such as Computer Literacy, Design and Technology, and Home Economics/Technology and Living to implement the learning element modules of the TE curriculum.

At the senior secondary level, five elective subjects are offered to facilitate students in pursuit of a wide range of future studies or career pathways.

(Sections 1.3.4 – 1.3.6) Direction for the Development of the TE KLA

The development of the TE KLA will be moving from acquisition of confined discipline-based knowledge and skills to understanding of broader technological contexts so as to keep abreast of changes in the world.

(Section 1.4.2)

(6)

iv

Major Emphases in the Implementation of TE KLA in Schools

At the primary level, schools are expected to strengthen learning activities for students to explore technology concepts and be aware of technological development and its impacts on the society.

At the junior secondary level, schools are expected to offer a broad and balanced TE curriculum that could prepare students to continue their studies in TE or other aspects at higher level.

At the senior secondary level, schools are expected to provide TE subjects as elective subjects so that students could specialise for lifelong learning or preparation for work. Schools should offer a diversified choice of elective subjects to cater for students’ interests, abilities and needs.

(Section 1.5.2) Aims of TE

The TE KLA curriculum aims to develop technological literacy in students through the cultivation of technological capability, technological understanding and technological awareness.

- Technological Capability to identify needs, problems and opportunities;

communicate and evaluate solutions; and make informed decisions;

- Technological Understanding to understand the interdisciplinary nature of technological activities; the concepts, knowledge and processes of different technologies;

- Technological Awareness to be aware of the cultural and contextual dependence of developing technologies, and their impact on the society and the environment.

(Section 2.1.1) Principles in Implementation

- Schools could build on their strengths and use different modes of curriculum implementation to provide a more balanced and enriched TE KLA curriculum, shifting the emphasis from rigid subject-based contents towards a more open, flexible and updateable curriculum.

Schools should choose the contexts, contents, learning and teaching strategies, and activities most suited to the needs and interests of their students.

Life-wide learning opportunities are provided to bring about exposure to a wide variety of technologies and to ensure that the learning is up to date.

(Sections 1.5.1 & 3.2.4) The Central Curriculum of TE

The central curriculum helps students develop their knowledge, generic skills, and values and attitudes through the study of the following three strands:

- Knowledge Contexts in Technology:

- Process in Technology - Impact of Technology

(Section 2.2.1)

(7)

v

Core and Extension Modules

TE is an entitlement of every student as well as a KLA where students can have ample opportunities to develop and excel in areas of their interests and inclinations.

Core learning elements which every student is expected to study are suggested in the six Knowledge Contexts.

For each Knowledge Context, extension learning elements are provided to help students excel in areas of their own choice.

(Section 2.4) Emphasis of the TE Curriculum at Different Key Stages

Key Stages 1 and 2 (Primary 1 – Primary 6 in General Studies): Awareness and Exploration

Key Stage 3 (Secondary 1 – Secondary 3): Experiencing and Application

Key Stage 4 (Secondary 4 – Secondary 6) and beyond: Orientation for Lifelong Learning and Specialisation

(Sections 1.4.4) Central Curriculum and School Curriculum Development

Consideration factors:

- Vision and mission of the school and its sponsoring body - Strengths of the school and its teaching force

- Background and learning needs of students

- Provision of a broad and balanced curriculum for students - Resources of the school that can support learning and teaching

(Section 3.2.1)

Modes for the implementation of TE curriculum in schools:

- Subject-based learning

- Aligning subjects/knowledge contexts

- Collaborative teaching of subjects/knowledge contexts - Theme-based learning

- Life experiences of students

(Section 3.2.7 - 3.2.9)

(8)

vi

Learning and Teaching

The learning and teaching of TE should:

- be purposeful

- be progressive and iterative in nature

- involve the coordination of the hands and mind

- integrate the different knowledge contexts in TE curriculum

- nurture in students the basic knowledge, skills and attitudes for lifelong learning

- enable the pursuit of excellence in specialised fields for students with interest or talent in TE

- infuse MRE of the ongoing renewal of the curriculum such as promoting STEM education

(Section 4.1.1) Assessment

Guiding principles for developing assessment strategy for the TE KLA:

- Purposeful and holistic

- Reflect all the components of the TE curriculum

- Formative assessment (i.e. assessment for learning) and summative assessment (i.e. assessment of learning) are equally important

- Observation and testing are used

- Assessment should be part of the learning process

- Everyone involved in the assessment process knows how to interpret and make use of the assessment results

(Section 5.1.2)

Some common modes of assessment:

- Project work assessment - Task-based assessment

- Assessing essential manipulative skills - Assessing knowledge and concepts - e-Assessment

(Section 5.2.2)

(9)

vii

Contents

Preamble i

Key Messages iii

Chapter 1 Introduction 1

1.1 What is a Key Learning Area? 3

1.2 Overview of Technology 3

1.3 Position of the Technology Education Key learning Area in the School Curriculum

5 1.4 Rationale and Direction for Development 7

1.5 Strategies for Development 11

1.6 Structure of the Guide 13

Chapter 2 Curriculum Framework 14

2.1 Aims of Technology Education 16

2.2 The Curriculum Framework 18

2.3 Learning Elements 50

2.4 Core and Extension Modules 53

2.5 Curriculum and Subject Organisation 97

2.6 Smooth Transition from Kindergarten to Primary, and from Primary to Junior Secondary

97 2.7 Smooth Transition from Junior Secondary to Senior

Secondary

98

Chapter 3 Curriculum Planning 99

3.1 A Balanced Curriculum 100

3.2 Central Curriculum and School Curriculum Development 100

3.3 Cross Key Learning Area Linkage 118

3.4 Multiple Pathways 119

3.5 Time Allocation 120

Chapter 4 Learning and Teaching 129

4.1 Principles to Guide Actions 130

4.2 Approaches to Learning and Teaching 130

4.3 Embracing Learner Diversity 141

4.4 Meaningful Homework 142

Chapter 5 Assessment 144

5.1 Principles to Guide Actions 146

5.2 Modes of Assessment 146

5.3 Formative Assessment 152

5.4 Summative Assessment 153

5.5 Reporting 154

5.6 Internal Assessment and Public Assessment 155

(10)

viii

Chapter 6 Learning and Teaching Support 157

6.1 Quality Learning and Teaching Resources 158

6.2 Professional Development Programmes 159

6.3 Partnership 159

6.4 Resources Management in Schools 159

Examples of Developing a Technology Education Curriculum in Primary and Secondary Schools

162

Examples of Learning, Teaching and Assessment Activities 174

Appendices 235

Bibliography 244

Membership of Curriculum Development Council Committee on Technology Education

248

(11)

ix

Examples

1 Emphasis on Awareness and Exploration 9

2 Emphasis on Experiencing and Application 10

3 Emphasis on Exploring Orientation for Lifelong Learning and Specialisation

10

4 Developing Problem Solving Skills 42

5 Developing Creativity 42

6 Developing Critical Thinking Skills 43

7 Developing Communication Skills 43

8 Developing Information Technology Skills 44

9 Developing Mathematical Skills 44

10 Developing Collaboration Skills 45

11 Developing Self-management Skills 45

12 Developing Self-learning Skills 46

13 Establishing Links between Knowledge Contexts 111

14 Establishing Links between Subjects 111

15 Theme-based Learning (1) 113

16 Theme-based Learning (2) 115

17 Developing Civic Mindedness through Technology Education Learning Activities

133

18 Developing Skills to Read across the Curriculum through Technology Education Learning Activities

133

19 A Technology Project for Primary Students 134

20 IT for Self-directed Learning in the Technology Education Curriculum 134 21 Using Visual Programming Languages to enhance Computational

Thinking and Generic Skills

135

22 e-Learning 136

(12)

x

23 e-Learning Resources 136

24 Technology Education through Life-wide Learning – The Hong Kong Olympiad in Informatics (HKOI) and International Olympiad in Informatics (IOI)

137

25 Technology Education through Life-wide Learning – Career-related Experience

138

26 Project Work Assessment – Light Source 148

27 Project Work Assessment – Improving Our Community 148 28 Project Work Assessment – Software for an Information Kiosk for Your

School

148

29 Task-based Assessment 150

30 Assessing Essential Manipulative Skills 151

31 Use of e-Portfolio 152

32 Technology Education Curriculum in ABC Secondary School 163 33 Technology Education Curriculum in LCM Secondary School 167 34 Technology Education Curriculum in DEF Primary School 172 35 A Multimedia Presentation for Promoting “Discover Hong Kong” 175 36 Case Study: 3G – Green Design, Green Technology and Green

Enterprise

178

37 From Tough to Tender – Methods of Tenderising Meat 182

38 Building a Tower 185

39 Meal Planning 188

40 Project Work Assessment – Design Challenge – Mobile Device 195

41 Theme-based learning: Sustainable Architecture 197

42 Cater for Learner Diversity in Health Management and Social Care 203 43 Self-directed Learning in Health Management and Social Care 205 44 Project-based Learning: Business Venture – From Theory into Practice 210

(13)

xi

45 Use of Information Technology in Teaching Accounting 216 46 Developing Integrative Learning Capabilities through Project Learning 219 47 Cross-curricular Project Learning for STEM Education 222 48 Developing Students’ Coding Capability: Simulation Package for the

Cat to Find the Mouse

228

49 Learning Technology Through Project Learning at the Primary Level 230 50 Fostering Deep Learning in Technology Education 231

(14)

xii

Appendices

1 Technology Learning Activity 237

2 References for Teachers 239

(15)

xiii

List of Figures

1 Subjects under the Technology Education Key Learning Area 6 2 Diagrammatic Representation of the Technology Education Curriculum

Framework

19

3 Learning Elements under Knowledge Contexts in the Technology Education

22

4 Development of Technological Literacy 23

5 Connection among the Strands in the Technology Education Curriculum 24

6 Learning Objectives from KS1 to KS3 27

7 Contents of Learning Elements under the Knowledge Contexts in Technology Education

51

8 Modules of Learning Elements (Core and Extensions) under the Six Knowledge Contexts at the Junior Secondary level

54

9 Holistic Curriculum Development in the Technology Education KLA 104 10 Modes for Implementation of Technology Education Curriculum in

Schools

108

11 Integrated Learning Elements in Technology Education Subjects 112

12 8% of the Total Lesson Time for KS3 (220 hours) 121

13 15% of the Total Lesson Time for KS3 (413 hours) 122 14 Selection of Modules under Computer Literacy and Allocation of

Lesson Time

125

15 Selection of Modules under Design and Technology and Allocation of Lesson Time

126

16 Implementation of Modules under Home Economics/Technology and Living and Allocation of Lesson Time

128

17 Two Approaches to Organising STEM Learning and Teaching Activities 139

18 A Framework of School Assessment Practices 145

19 Technology Education Reporting System 155

(16)

1

Chapter 1

Introduction

(17)

2

Chapter 1 Introduction

In response to the changing needs of society, the rapid development of science, technology and engineering in the world, the views of stakeholders collected through various surveys and engagement activities as well as the need to align with the direction for the ongoing curriculum renewal of the school curriculum, the recommendations provided in the Technology Education Key Learning Area Curriculum Guide (Primary 1 - Secondary 3) (2002) have been reviewed. Building on the strengths of Hong Kong students in technology, the curriculum emphases of the Technology Education Key Learning Area (TE KLA) have been updated, together with the aims, targets and objectives of Technology Education for different key stages to highlight the Major Renewed Emphases (MRE) of the ongoing renewal of the school curriculum, in particular STEM2 education. Given that elements of STEM education are already embedded in individual KLAs of Science Education, Technology Education and Mathematics Education of the school curriculum, there is a need to further strengthen the coherence and collaboration among KLAs. In this connection, the promotion of STEM education is a development focus to further enhance the quality and effectiveness of learning, hence enabling students to become more effective lifelong learners in the 21st century.

The Technology Education Key Learning Area Curriculum Guide (Primary 1 - Secondary 6) (2017) (this Guide) is prepared by the Curriculum Development Council (CDC) Committee on Technology Education. It is an updated version of the Technology Education Key Learning Area Curriculum Guide (Primary 1 - Secondary 3) (2002) and has been extended to include the three-year senior secondary Technology Education to provide reference for schools in developing a coherent school Technology Education curriculum.

The direction for the development of this Guide aligns with the Seven Learning Goals of Primary and Secondary Education (see Appendix 1 for the Seven Learning Goals of Primary Education and the Updated Seven Learning Goals of Secondary Education) and the major recommendations in the Basic Education Curriculum Guide – To Sustain, Deepen and Focus on Learning to Learn (Primary 1-6) (2014) and the Secondary Education Curriculum Guide (Secondary 1 - 6) (2017).

This Guide provides the overall direction for the development of the Technology Education curriculum in the five to ten years to come. It reinforces the curriculum emphases provided in the Technology Education Key Learning Area Curriculum Guide (Primary 1 - Secondary 3) (2002) to enhance learning and teaching and puts forth MRE which take into account the significant developments in our society and around the world in various fields, and for the ultimate benefits of student learning. This Guide includes examples relevant to different key stages of learning to illustrate the concepts and ideas introduced and to narrow the gaps in curriculum implementation.

This Guide helps schools move from the existing subject orientation towards a balanced Technology Education (TE) curriculum framework and its associated curriculum planning.

Schools should make reference to the following curriculum documents for suggestions on

2 STEM is an acronym that refers collectively to the academic disciplines of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics. In the Hong Kong curriculum context, STEM education is promoted through the Science, Technology and Mathematics Education KLAs.

(18)

3

the planning and development their school TE curriculum as well as strategies for the learning, teaching and assessment at different key stages:

General Studies Curriculum Guide (Primary 1 - 6) (2017)

Technology Education Key Learning Area Curriculum Guide Supplementary Notes (Secondary 1 - 3) (2013)

Business, Accounting and Financial Studies (BAFS), Design and Applied Technology (DAT), Health Management and Social Care (HMSC), Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and Technology and Living (TL) (Food Science and Technology/Fashion, Clothing and Textiles) Curriculum and Assessment Guides (Secondary 4 - 6) (2007) (with updates in November 2015)

1.1 What is a Key Learning Area?

A Key Learning Area (KLA) is an important part of a curriculum. It is founded on fundamental and connected concepts within major fields of knowledge which should be acquired by all students. A KLA provides a knowledge context for the development and application of generic skills (e.g. communication, critical thinking and collaboration skills, creativity), subject-specific skill as well as positive values and attitudes through appropriate use of learning and teaching activities and strategies. It serves as a context for the construction of new knowledge and the development of understanding. The studies offered in each KLA may have an academic, social or practical orientation or a combination of these, depending on their purpose(s). They can be organised into subjects, modules, units, tasks or other modes of learning.

The three interconnected components of the curriculum framework, i.e. Knowledge in KLAs, Generic Skills, and Values and Attitudes can be represented in the figure below:

1.2 Overview of Technology

1.2.1 In the context of this Guide, technology is defined as the purposeful application of knowledge, skills, and values and attitudes in using resources to create products, services or systems to meet human needs and wants. It involves novel ideas and

(19)

4

problem solving process to improve the well-being of human. Technologies have been employed and constantly improved over time to satisfy human needs and wants in various aspects of our life, for example:

In clothing:

Using natural materials such as animal skin

Weaving with silk and cotton

Production of synthetic fabrics such as nylon and polyester

In food:

Primitive hunting and fishing

Organic farming

Production of genetically modified food

In housing:

Living in caves and igloos

Using wooden pillars and beams in traditional Chinese architecture and

marble in ancient Greek architecture

Using pre-fabricated building parts in intelligent buildings

In transportation:

Carriages drawn by horses

Trains powered by steam engines

High-speed trains

1.2.2 Technology influences and is influenced by the cultures of people, and is part of our daily life. It has different impact on the individual, family, society and environment.

The inventions and innovations of technology influence the development of human civilisation, affecting and changing the interactions among people, organisations, systems, etc.

1.2.3 Technology also constitutes an influential factor in the social and economic development of our society. There are significant technological developments in areas of information and communication, transportation, medical, automation and food production in recent decades. The milestones in technological development often bring about a rearrangement of values and beliefs as well as a change in the social, economic and political structures of our society. A few examples are provided in the following box for illustration.

(20)

5

Papermaking printing and word processing facilitate the keeping of records, the passing on of knowledge and the process of communication.

It is more feasible to explore the world with a compass, resulting in greater mobility.

The invention of Global Positioning System (GPS) makes navigation more accurate and convenient.

Development in information technology, for example, from the abacus to the computer, has resulted in great leaps forward in the processing of data and information. The appearance of the smart phones enables people to communicate more efficiently across boundaries.

1.3 Position of the Technology Education Key Learning Area in the School Curriculum

1.3.1 TE is one of the eight KLAs that each student is entitled to study. It provides students with the essential knowledge contexts that are related to the improvement of everyday living, and the social and economic development. TE helps keep Hong Kong students abreast of technological advancement in the world. The contexts within which technology operates include areas like home, design, food, business and finance, information and communication, creative media, engineering, etc.

which should be updated whenever required.

1.3.2 Technology learning experiences focus on how human beings solve their daily life problems and how the process could be replicated and transferred to solve new problems that arise from time to time. Hence technology education is also an effective platform for nurturing students’ problem solving skills, creativity and critical thinking skills, and for promoting learning by doing. Students are provided with ample opportunities to realise their ideas through hands-on experiences which cater for their interests and learning styles. Technology education helps students develop the knowledge and skills for further studies, for work, or both, as well as cultivate their attitude as lifelong learners for the betterment of their adult life.

1.3.3 The existing school subjects under the TE KLA curriculum (see Figure 1) are of diversified orientations. Schools should gradually move towards a balanced study of knowledge, key concepts, skills, values and attitudes promulgated in the TE curriculum to satisfy the diverse interests and needs of students. Some subjects will be phased out and new ones phased in to align with the changes in the school curriculum and academic structure.

(21)

6

Figure 1 Subjects under Technology Education Key Learning Area

Primary Level (P1 - 6)

Junior Secondary Level (S1 - 3)

Senior Secondary Level (S4 - 6)

General Studies TE KLA Curriculum (S1-3) (fully implemented in the 2016/17 school year)

Elective Subjects:

 Business, Accounting and Financial Studies (BAFS)

 Design and Applied Technology (DAT)

 Health Management and Social Care (HMSC)

 Information and

Communication Technology (ICT)

 Technology and Living (TL) (Food Science and

Technology/Fashion, Clothing and Textiles)

Note: The TE KLA Curriculum (S1-3) comprises 6 Knowledge Contexts, namely Information & Communication Technology, Materials & Structures, Operations &

Manufacturing, Strategies & Management, Systems & Control, and Technology & Living.

1.3.4 At the primary level, the contents of the TE curriculum is subsumed in the General Studies (GS) curriculum together with the related contents of the Personal, Social and Humanities Education (PSHE) and Science Education (SE) KLAs. The total suggested time allocation for GS is 12% - 15%.

1.3.5 At the junior secondary level, many schools are adopting subject-based learning approach through subjects such as Computer Literacy, Design and Technology, and Home Economics/Technology and Living to implement3 the learning element modules of the TE curriculum4, and has a suggested time allocation of 8% - 15%

of the total lesson time.

1.3.6 At the senior secondary level, five elective subjects, namely Business, Accounting and Financial Studies, Design and Applied Technology, Health Management and Social Care, Information and Communication Technology, and Technology and Living are offered for senior secondary students for specialisation of studies in the TE curriculum. The subjects are designed to facilitate students in pursuit of multiple pathways for further studies or future career development.

3 Please refer to Figure 10 on p.104-105 for the different modes for implementation of TE curriculum in schools.

4 Please note that the New Technical Curriculum (NTC) previously designed for ex-prevocational and ex- technical schools has been phased out completely in the 2016/17 school year.

(22)

7

1.4 Rationale and Direction for Development 1.4.1 Rationale for the development of the TE KLA

• The 21st century is a technology-led era. There is an urgent need to prepare students to meet the challenges of a rapidly changing world as well as maintain Hong Kong’s competitive edge in the Asia-Pacific Region and in the world.

• TE subjects are therefore introduced to meet the various needs of society and prepare students for lifelong learning and work. The timely updating and reorganisation of the TE curriculum would keep students’ learning in pace with the technological, social and economic developments and thus help prepare students for their adult life.

• The provision of various technology learning experiences to students gives them the opportunities to develop their potential to the fullest. In addition to an understanding of the technological development in society, schools should nurture in students the quality of innovation and an entrepreneurial spirit that the future society requires. Educational programmes should also be arranged to help students understand the world of work, develop their readiness for work, healthy lifestyle and financial literacy which are essential for their personal and professional success in future.

• Most schools provide opportunities for students to develop their basic skills in information technology. However more space should now be given for students to acquire and construct knowledge, and develop their capabilities and awareness in different areas of technology.

• With no change in the broad curriculum framework, the following MRE are put forth in response to the changing contexts and the latest education trends, and to provide suggestions for the development and implementation of the TE curriculum in the five to ten years to come:

- The TE KLA curriculum, which comprises broad learning elements, can provide a good basis to develop the technological literacy5 in students.

Emphasising technological literacy is developed through the cultivation of technological capability, technological understanding and technological awareness (see Section 2.1.1 of this Guide for details). It facilitates students to build a solid foundation of knowledge and skills, develop generic skills, as well as nurture positive values and attitudes.

- Promote STEM education which aims at further enhancing students’

interest in learning, developing in them a strong knowledge base in the relevant disciplines, and strengthening their integrative learning and application skills. STEM education can enhance students’ creativity, innovation and problem solving skills, which are the essential skills and qualities required in the 21st Century. An integrative learning and application of the related knowledge contexts in technology education can help nurture students’ technological understanding and capability. Students

5 Technological literacy is the cultivation of technological capability, technological understanding and technological awareness to deal with the challenges of the future. This is further elaborated in Section 2.1.1 in Chapter 2 of this Guide.

(23)

8

can apply technological theories and principles to design and create products/systems for improving and enhancing the quality of life of mankind.

- Highlight other elements of the ongoing renewal of the school curriculum in planning and implementing the TE curriculum in schools.

- Promote e-learning to motivate students’ interest in learning technology, enhance interaction and collaboration, and facilitate self-directed learning, with relevant measures in parallel to strengthen information literacy (IL) of students.

- Emphasise the importance of holistic curriculum planning and the process of Planning-Implementation-Evaluation (P-I-E) for successful implementation of the MRE and sustainable development of technology education in schools.

- Stress the continuous need to cater for learner diversity in technology education through giving appropriate attention to students of different learning needs and styles, including ordinary students, students with special educational needs (SEN) and gifted students.

1.4.2 Direction for the development of the TE KLA

Schools should give due consideration to the following direction in the development of the TE KLA:

• From acquisition of confined discipline-based knowledge and skills to understanding of broader technological contexts so as to keep abreast of changes in the world

• From a choice between academic or vocational studies to a judicious balance of theoretical and practical studies for solving daily life problems, for lifelong learning and for work

• From acquisition of technical know-how to application of knowledge and generic skills in new situations to develop creativity, critical thinking and problem solving skills

• From a subject-based curriculum to diversified modes of curriculum implementation based on the strengths of schools, and the needs and interests of students

• From compartmentalised knowledge and skills in respective TE subjects to integrated knowledge and skills in STEM education to solve problems in authentic contexts and make inventions to improve the quality of life in the contemporary world

(24)

9

1.4.3 Aims and design of the TE KLA curriculum

The aims and design of the TE curriculum, from the primary to the junior secondary and then to the senior secondary level, should be coherent, continuous and progressive, in accordance with the social, cognitive and physical development of students.

1.4.4 Emphasis of the TE curriculum at different key stages

Primary Level Junior Secondary Level Senior Secondary Level

Key Stages 1 and 2 Key Stage 3 Key Stage 4

Awareness & Exploration Experiencing &

Application

Orientation for Lifelong Learning and Specialisation

Through strands in General Studies

Through the junior secondary subjects/core and extension modules in

the TE KLA curriculum

Through the senior secondary elective subjects:

BAFS, DAT, HMSC, ICT & TL

 At the primary level (Key Stage 1 (KS1) & Key Stage 2 (KS2)): Awareness and Exploration

Example 1 Emphasis on Awareness and Exploration

Through playing with battery-powered cars or lightweight model planes powered by elastic rubber bands, students learn about sources of energy and their characteristics.

They can explore the amount of energy provided by a different number of batteries by referring to the number of turns given to the elastic rubber band, or the rubber bands with different elasticity. They can also experience how technology works and how cars or planes are designed so that the amount of energy provided is not wasted. Through these activities, students develop their interest and curiosity in technology, as well as their ability to examine technological products critically.

(25)

10

 At the junior secondary level (KS3): Experiencing and Application Example 2 Emphasis on Experiencing and Application

In TE classes at the junior secondary level, students learn about the characteristics of energy supplied through the mains (gas and electricity). Through hands-on activities, they learn about the convenience of having these energy supplies, how gas and electricity are used to power our household appliances to improve our quality of life, and the potential hazards and related safety issues associated with their use. Students will learn to act sensibly, apply what has been learned, and know what to do and what not to do when there is a gas leak. Students may work on simple projects such as using different energy sources to drive vehicles.

On progressing into the senior secondary level (KS4): Orientation for Lifelong Learning and Specialisation

Example 3 Emphasis on Exploring Orientation for Lifelong Learning and Specialisation

Through further studies on energy sources, students acquire in-depth knowledge about how the power generated by different energy sources can be controlled, how the efficiency can be maximised, and how the design and control concepts can be integrated to develop systems or products to satisfy identified needs such as energy saving.

Students learn to see the global nature of different sources of energy as they explore them. They acquire concepts pertaining to sustainable development as they examine the world energy consumption and the current energy crisis. They develop their communication and information processing skills as they explore and disseminate information pertaining to these issues. Through the process of learning TE, students are better equipped for future study and work.

1.4.5 Interface across key stages

For the benefits of student learning, a smooth interface in the planning of the TE curriculum across different key stages is important. TE teachers should fully understand the knowledge, skills and experience of their students should acquire or have acquired at different key stages so that their planning of the learning experiences could be meaningful and constructive. For better articulation of students’

learning, relevant contents and challenging learning activities could be organised by building on what students have learned and experienced in school and their daily life.

(26)

11

1.5 Strategies for Development

1.5.1 In adopting strategies for the development of their school TE curriculum schools need to ensure that.

 The development is gradual, based on the strengths of existing subjects such as Design and Technology, Computer Literacy, Home Economics/Technology and Living, and the linking up of common learning elements among them.

 Generic skills are infused into the learning and teaching process of TE.

 Life-wide learning opportunities are provided to bring about exposure to a wide variety of technologies and to ensure that the learning is up to date.

 The Four Key Tasks, in particular Project Learning, Reading to Learn: Towards Reading across the Curriculum, and Information Technology for Self-directed Learning, are used to promote technological capability, understanding and awareness.

 Schools could build on their strengths and use different modes of curriculum implementation to provide a more balanced and enriched TE KLA curriculum, shifting the emphasis from rigid subject-based contents towards a more open, flexible and updateable curriculum.

 Schools should choose the contexts, contents, learning and teaching strategies, and activities most suited to the needs and interests of their students.

1.5.2 Schools need to consider the following for the implementation of their own TE KLA curriculum.

Curriculum and Planning

 Schools should ensure the equal opportunities of learning TE for all students and of diversified learning needs and interests.

 Holistic curriculum planning is important and schools should give due consideration to the provision of different scenarios for students to integrate and apply knowledge and skills across disciplines.

 At the primary level, schools are expected to strengthen the learning activities for students to explore technology concepts, raise their awareness of technological developments and their impact on society.

 At the junior secondary level, schools are expected to offer a broad and balanced TE curriculum which nurtures students’ capability for understanding various technologies, raises their awareness of the impact of technology on our daily life, provides opportunities for students to develop creativity, problem solving and critical thinking skills in authentic contexts, and prepares them to continue their studies in technology at a higher level or future development in other aspects.

 At the senior secondary level, schools are expected to provide TE subjects as elective subjects so that students could specialise for lifelong learning or preparation for work in areas of their interest, such as business, information technology, engineering, design, health, food science and fashion design.

(27)

12

Schools should offer a diversified choice of elective subjects to cater for students’ interests, abilities and needs.

 Schools may implement the TE curriculum in different modes, including the subject-based and modular approach for the TE KLA curriculum at the junior secondary level.

 TE KLA co-ordinators and panel heads should develop a coherent and progressive school TE curriculum, with strong connections among the subject disciplines within the TE KLA and collaboration with other KLAs.

 Schools should provide a favourable environment with ample opportunities for students to integrate and apply knowledge and skills across the STEM-related KLA curricula during the learning process.

 Schools should plan for long-term development by considering their school curriculum and the resources required for the sustainable development of TE.

Students’ Learning

 Students should be engaged in authentic, hands-on problem solving learning activities using easily available materials and equipment.

 Students should be encouraged to solve problems and to develop programming- related capabilities, coding skills, etc.

 Students should develop the knowledge and skills to cope with the rapidly emerging technologies.

 Students should develop the willingness to update their knowledge and skills in technology from time to time.

 Students should appraise the impact of technology and develop critical thinking ability.

 Students should be provided with opportunities to think critically and creatively and to come up with fresh problem solving ideas that can be applied in simulated and/or authentic situations.

 Students should be encouraged to participate in STEM-related competitions and other fun-filled learning activities organised by local and overseas organisations or different professional bodies.

Teachers’ Professional Development

 Teachers should explore and introduce new technologies or learning elements to continuously update and enrich the TE curriculum in schools.

 TE teachers’ professional knowledge and skills for the implementation of the TE curriculum should be continuously enhanced, including the ability to select and use different pedagogical approaches (such as case studies, thematic projects) for organising the technology learning experience for students, and use a variety of methods to assess students’ learning progress and outcomes.

(28)

13

 Teachers can make use of various e-platforms and participate actively in related teachers’ networks or learning communities for peer support, collaboration and sharing of experiences and good practices to enhance their professionalism.

 TE KLA teachers could work in collaboration with other STEM-related KLA/subject teachers to develop integrated and cross-disciplinary learning experiences for students.

Engagement in Broader Contexts

 Schools should provide more opportunities for students’ life-wide learning by encouraging them to participate in a wide variety of interschool, regional or international activities such as visits or competitions to enhance students’

interests in learning, broaden their exposure to technology development and nurture their entrepreneurial spirit.

 Teachers may strengthen the connection with tertiary institutions to seek advice from experts on students’ project work, and learn about the latest research and development in different areas of technology.

 Schools may establish networks with industry for understanding of the innovative development of technology, the operation and marketing strategies of enterprises, as well as for seeking opportunities to arrange job attachments or industry projects for students.

1.6 Structure of the Guide

Chapter 1 sets out an overview of the TE KLA and the direction and strategies for development of the TE KLA curriculum.

Chapter 2 defines the TE curriculum framework.

Chapter 3 provides suggestions on the planning and organisation of TE curriculum at the primary and secondary levels, as well as the principles and strategies for holistic curriculum development of TE in schools.

Chapter 4 focuses on the principles and strategies for organising learning and teaching in the TE curriculum.

Chapter 5 focuses on the guiding principles and strategies for assessment in the TE curriculum.

Chapter 6 provides information on the learning and teaching supports for technology education.

The examples and appendices illustrate the concepts and ideas introduced as well as the suggestions made in this Guide.

(29)

14

Chapter 2

Curriculum Framework

(30)

15

(31)

16

Chapter 2 Curriculum Framework

2.1 Aims of Technology Education

2.1.1 The TE KLA curriculum aims to develop technological literacy in students through the cultivation of technological capability, technological understanding and technological awareness. Technology education provides students with the opportunities to acquire the essential knowledge and concepts, learn the process and skills, and be aware of the impact of technologies in improving everyday living, enhancing social and economic development, and keeps Hong Kong students abreast of the technological advancement.

Through TE, students are enabled to:

Technological Capability

• develop their abilities in identifying needs, problems and opportunities, their respective constraints and preferences

• develop, communicate, implement and evaluate solutions creatively

• develop their abilities in making informed decisions in creating, using and modifying artefacts, systems and environments

Technological Understanding

• understand the interdisciplinary nature of technological activities

• understand the underlying concepts and principles of technological artefacts, systems and environments

• understand and apply the knowledge of process and resources used in designing, making and evaluating products, systems and solutions

Technological Awareness

• be aware of the cultural and contextual dependence of technological developments

• respect cultural differences and the rights of others as well as develop a sense of social responsibility in performing technological activities

• be aware that the well-being of oneself, one’s family, society and the natural environment depends upon decisions on how to use technological artefacts and systems appropriately

• appraise the impact of technology on society and the environment

The aims of the TE curriculum also contribute to achieving the Updated Seven Learning Goals of Secondary Education as stated in Booklets 1 & 2 of the Secondary Education Curriculum Guide (SECG) (Secondary 1 – 6) (2017). Please refer to following table for details.

(32)

17

Aims of the TE Curriculum Updated Seven Learning Goals of Secondary Education

To enable students to: To enable students to:

Technological Capability

• develop their abilities in identifying needs, problems and opportunities, their respective constraints and preferences

• develop, communicate, implement and evaluate solutions creatively

• develop their abilities in making informed decisions in creating, using and modifying artefacts, systems and environments

• develop and apply generic skills in an integrative manner, and to become an independent and self-directed learner for further study and work

• use information and information technology ethically, flexibly and effectively

• be proficient in biliterate and trilingual communication for better study and life Technological Understanding

• understand the interdisciplinary nature of technological activities

• understand the underlying concepts and principles of technological artefacts, systems and environments

• understand and apply the knowledge of process and resources used in

designing, making and evaluating products, systems and solutions

• acquire and construct a broad and solid knowledge base, and to understand contemporary issues that may impact on students’ daily lives at personal,

community, national and global levels

Technological Awareness

• be aware of the cultural and contextual dependence of technological

developments

• respect cultural differences and the rights of others as well as develop a sense of social responsibility in performing technological activities

• be aware that the well-being of oneself, one’s family, society and the natural environment depends upon decisions on how to use technological artefacts and systems appropriately

• appraise the impact of technology on society and the environment

• become an informed and responsible citizen with a sense of national and global identity, appreciation of positive values and attitudes as well as Chinese culture, and respect for pluralism in society

• lead a healthy lifestyle with active participation in physical and aesthetic activities, and to appreciate sports and the arts

• understand one’s own interests, aptitudes and abilities, and to develop and reflect upon personal goals with aspirations for further studies and future career

(33)

18

2.2 The Curriculum Framework

The curriculum framework for TE is the overall structure for organising learning, teaching and assessment for the subjects of the TE KLA. The core part of the framework is a set of interlocking components including:

 knowledge contexts;

 generic skills; and

 values and attitudes.

The framework sets out what students should know, value and be able to do at various key stages of schooling. It gives schools and teachers flexibility and ownership to plan and develop their school TE curriculum according to their strengths and the different needs and aspirations of their students.

Figure 2 is a diagrammatic representation of the updated TE curriculum framework.

 The learning needs of students under the contemporary contexts, including the development of students’ information literacy and abilities to apply literacy skills to construct knowledge are also included in the framework.

 Great emphasis is placed on integration and application of knowledge and skills when connecting learning in the TE KLA and other KLAs/subject disciplines.

This is particularly important in STEM education, which is promoted through three KLAs including TE.

 The learning of technology also requires the effective use of resources and strong partnerships with tertiary institutions, professional bodies and technology-related organisations in the provision of a range of meaningful and authentic learning experiences.

(34)

19

Figure 2

Diagrammatic Representation of the Technology Education Curriculum Framework

*The six Knowledge Contexts for KS1 - 3:

Information and Communication Technology (ICT)

Operations and Manufacturing(O&M) Systems and Control (S&C) Materials and Structures (M&S) Strategies and Management (S&M) Technology and Living

(T&L)

Aims of Technology Education – To develop technological literacy

Information Technology in Education

Language across the Curriculum (LaC)

Values and Attitudes

Generic Skills

Resources and Partnership

Integration and Application (STEM Education)

KS1 - 3 Knowledge Contexts*

ICT M&S O&M S&M S&C T&L

KS4

Business, Accounting and Financial Studies

Information and Communication Technology

Health Management and Social Care

Design and Applied Technology

Technology and Living

(35)

20

2.2.1 Strands, Learning Targets and Learning Objectives Strands

Strands refer to the categories of Knowledge and Concepts that should be acquired by students in a Key Learning Area (KLA).

In the TE curriculum, students achieve the aims of TE learning, enhance their generic skills and nurture their values and attitudes through the study of the following three strands:

A. Knowledge Contexts in Technology B. Process in Technology

C. Impact of Technology

Strand A Knowledge Contexts in Technology

Knowledge Contexts refer to a broad base of learning elements in the TE curriculum which could be updated as necessary to keep students abreast of the rapidly emerging changes in technology. They provide the contexts for the development of technological capability, understanding and awareness in students. These contexts should preferably be:

 related to daily life, local business or industries;

 updated and in line with current scientific and technological development;

 related to the experiences and interests of students; and

 related to the innovative development of the designed world, etc.

The following six knowledge contexts in TE are considered essential for our students to meet the challenges in the current Hong Kong context:

(i) Information and Communication Technology (ICT)

ICT has become the prime tool for learning and is now part of our daily life.

(ii) Materials and Structures (M&S)

Whether as a consumer or technologist, an understanding of materials and resources is essential and constitutes an important first step in the design process.

(iii) Operations and Manufacturing (O&M)

It is important that students acquire the necessary knowledge and skills to manage the resources and processes required to realise their design solutions.

(iv) Strategies and Management (S&M)

As Hong Kong is an important international centre of trade and finance as well as a logistic hub of the region, it is essential that our students be equipped with the concepts of business and management.

(36)

21

(v) Systems and Control (S&C)

Systems at both the micro and macro levels are all around us – in the home, in education, at work, etc. Our students need to have a good understanding of the concepts, applications and implications of systems.

(vi) Technology and Living (T&L)

Technology affects our lives and enhances the nurturing of quality people and quality homes.

The six knowledge contexts in the TE curriculum provide the platforms for the organisation of student learning. With reference to the TE learning targets and the existing subject curricula, learning elements for Key Stages 1 to 3 (P1 - S3) under the six knowledge contexts are developed for schools’ reference (see Figure 3). Of these learning elements, five, i.e. Technology and Society, Safety and Health, Information Processing and Presentation, Design and Applications, and Consumer Education are considered common to the six knowledge contexts. Contents of learning elements are listed in Figure 7 under Section 2.3 of this Guide.

Knowledge contexts are vehicles for student learning. Through studying the various knowledge contexts and engaging in a range of learning activities, students will acquire technological knowledge and concepts, as well as develop an understanding of the process of technological development and an awareness of the impact of technology on the individual, family, society and environment.

(37)

22

Figure 3 Learning Elements under Knowledge Contexts in Technology Education

Knowledge Contexts Learning Elements

Information & Communication Technology

Computer Systems

Computer Networks

Programming Concepts Materials & Structures

Materials & Resources

Material Processing

Structures & Mechanisms

Operations & Manufacturing

Tools & Equipment

Production Process

Project Management

Strategies & Management

Business Environments, Operations &

Organisations

Resources Management

Marketing

Systems & Control

Concepts of System

Application of Systems

System Integration

Control & Automation

Technology & Living

Food & Nutrition

Food Preparation & Processing

Fabric & Clothing Construction

Fashion & Dress Sense

Family Living

Home Management & Technology

(Further details of the learning elements at the junior secondary level, i.e. KS3 are listed in Figure 7 under Section 2.3)

Strand B Process in Technology

The Process in Technology enables students to gain experiences in identifying, developing, evaluating and refining ideas to solve technological problems. It also encourages the creation of innovative designs and the realisation of these designs to meet human needs.

Technological development always starts with a purpose in mind to create a hunting tool, a shelter to keep away from bad weather, a system to store a large amount of information which can be retrieved easily, etc.), followed by the design of artefacts and systems, the search for appropriate materials and the trying out of the design to see whether it fulfils the intended purpose. In most cases, more than one solution will emerge and we have to assess the effectiveness of each so as to make the best choice.

(38)

23

The “Process In Technology” strand is at the heart of the TE curriculum, enabling students to build up technological capability, and to acquire generic and transferable skills to develop further innovative technologies.

Strand C Impact of Technology

Studying the Impact of Technology helps students develop an awareness of the consequences of technological development and their applications. Students come to see how the beliefs, social values and ethics of individuals and groups influence and are influenced by such development.

Students should be provided with opportunities to appreciate how technology has improved our living, and to assess the “Impact of Technology” on themselves, their families, society and mankind; and to cultivate a global outlook towards innovative technological development.

However, students should not be blind followers of new technologies. They should be given opportunities to exercise values and attitudes, as well as to make decisions on the use of technologies in their daily life, and be aware of the impact of technological development in society from the perspective of a customer, a citizen, an employee, a designer or an engineer.

Figure 4 illustrates how the three strands of learning elements under TE are woven together to cultivate the three aspects of technological literacy in students.

Figure 4 Development of Technological Literacy

(39)

24

In Figure 5, the nature of learning in the TE curriculum is expressed as a close connection among the three strands of learning elements. Technology learning activities should be designed mainly for students’ application of learning elements from the three strands in an integrated manner.

The Learning Targets

Through various key stages of schooling, students will develop their technological literacy by studying the three strands in the TE curriculum as well as using the six knowledge contexts as the platform for their learning. The learning targets of the TE curriculum for primary, junior secondary and senior secondary students, as well as those for junior secondary students with a special interest and talent in technology are provided as follows.

Learning targets for students at the primary level (Key Stages 1 and 2, Primary 1 – 6) are to:

- develop an interest and curiosity in exploring everyday needs and in thinking of ways to respond to these;

- understand the importance of good eating habits, personal hygiene and safety, and find ways of maintaining these;

- understand the concepts and processes involved in the design cycle and applied them to solve simple problems; and

- develop an awareness of how the business world operates and of consumers’

rights and responsibilities.

Figure 5 Connection among the Strands in the Technology Education Curriculum

(40)

25

Learning targets for students at the junior secondary level (Key Stage 3, Secondary 1 - 3) are to:

- master basic skills in the use of their hands and minds to solve everyday problems and develop an understanding of how to use technologies appropriately;

- adopt a healthy lifestyle and maintain good family relationships;

- develop a basic understanding of the business world and of how to manage their personal finances; and

- become socially aware decision-makers who care about public morality and the environment.

Learning targets for students at the junior secondary level with a special interest and talent in technology are to:

- develop a more in-depth understanding in particular areas of technology, such as control and automation, project management and computer networks, etc.;

- integrate various learning elements within their knowledge framework and understand their interrelationships; and

- master the knowledge and concepts underpinning some applications of technology.

Technology education from the primary to junior secondary levels helps students acquire a solid foundation of technological knowledge and skills. At the senior secondary level, students can choose among various elective subjects under TE KLA to further develop their interests and explore career orientations in various areas of technology.

Learning targets for students taking the elective subjects under TE KLA at the senior secondary level (Key Stage 4, Secondary 4 - 6) are to:

- develop a comprehensive understanding in different areas of technology by integrating various concepts and knowledge elements;

- master the skills in applying the principles of technology to solve problems in authentic contexts;

- become acquainted with the process of idea generation and could critically appraise the effects of the processes and outcomes of technology when facing technological problems or issues; and

- develop strong interests in areas of technology and be prepared for careers orientation, further studies or lifelong learning.

數據

Updating...

參考文獻

相關主題 :