Strands, Learning Targets and Learning Objectives Strands

In document Technology Education (Page 35-56)

Curriculum Framework

Chapter 2 Curriculum Framework

2.2 The Curriculum Framework

2.2.1 Strands, Learning Targets and Learning Objectives Strands

Strands refer to the categories of Knowledge and Concepts that should be acquired by students in a Key Learning Area (KLA).

In the TE curriculum, students achieve the aims of TE learning, enhance their generic skills and nurture their values and attitudes through the study of the following three strands:

A. Knowledge Contexts in Technology B. Process in Technology

C. Impact of Technology

Strand A Knowledge Contexts in Technology

Knowledge Contexts refer to a broad base of learning elements in the TE curriculum which could be updated as necessary to keep students abreast of the rapidly emerging changes in technology. They provide the contexts for the development of technological capability, understanding and awareness in students. These contexts should preferably be:

 related to daily life, local business or industries;

 updated and in line with current scientific and technological development;

 related to the experiences and interests of students; and

 related to the innovative development of the designed world, etc.

The following six knowledge contexts in TE are considered essential for our students to meet the challenges in the current Hong Kong context:

(i) Information and Communication Technology (ICT)

ICT has become the prime tool for learning and is now part of our daily life.

(ii) Materials and Structures (M&S)

Whether as a consumer or technologist, an understanding of materials and resources is essential and constitutes an important first step in the design process.

(iii) Operations and Manufacturing (O&M)

It is important that students acquire the necessary knowledge and skills to manage the resources and processes required to realise their design solutions.

(iv) Strategies and Management (S&M)

As Hong Kong is an important international centre of trade and finance as well as a logistic hub of the region, it is essential that our students be equipped with the concepts of business and management.


(v) Systems and Control (S&C)

Systems at both the micro and macro levels are all around us – in the home, in education, at work, etc. Our students need to have a good understanding of the concepts, applications and implications of systems.

(vi) Technology and Living (T&L)

Technology affects our lives and enhances the nurturing of quality people and quality homes.

The six knowledge contexts in the TE curriculum provide the platforms for the organisation of student learning. With reference to the TE learning targets and the existing subject curricula, learning elements for Key Stages 1 to 3 (P1 - S3) under the six knowledge contexts are developed for schools’ reference (see Figure 3). Of these learning elements, five, i.e. Technology and Society, Safety and Health, Information Processing and Presentation, Design and Applications, and Consumer Education are considered common to the six knowledge contexts. Contents of learning elements are listed in Figure 7 under Section 2.3 of this Guide.

Knowledge contexts are vehicles for student learning. Through studying the various knowledge contexts and engaging in a range of learning activities, students will acquire technological knowledge and concepts, as well as develop an understanding of the process of technological development and an awareness of the impact of technology on the individual, family, society and environment.


Figure 3 Learning Elements under Knowledge Contexts in Technology Education

Knowledge Contexts Learning Elements

Information & Communication Technology

Computer Systems

Computer Networks

Programming Concepts Materials & Structures

Materials & Resources

Material Processing

Structures & Mechanisms

Operations & Manufacturing

Tools & Equipment

Production Process

Project Management

Strategies & Management

Business Environments, Operations &


Resources Management


Systems & Control

Concepts of System

Application of Systems

System Integration

Control & Automation

Technology & Living

Food & Nutrition

Food Preparation & Processing

Fabric & Clothing Construction

Fashion & Dress Sense

Family Living

Home Management & Technology

(Further details of the learning elements at the junior secondary level, i.e. KS3 are listed in Figure 7 under Section 2.3)

Strand B Process in Technology

The Process in Technology enables students to gain experiences in identifying, developing, evaluating and refining ideas to solve technological problems. It also encourages the creation of innovative designs and the realisation of these designs to meet human needs.

Technological development always starts with a purpose in mind to create a hunting tool, a shelter to keep away from bad weather, a system to store a large amount of information which can be retrieved easily, etc.), followed by the design of artefacts and systems, the search for appropriate materials and the trying out of the design to see whether it fulfils the intended purpose. In most cases, more than one solution will emerge and we have to assess the effectiveness of each so as to make the best choice.


The “Process In Technology” strand is at the heart of the TE curriculum, enabling students to build up technological capability, and to acquire generic and transferable skills to develop further innovative technologies.

Strand C Impact of Technology

Studying the Impact of Technology helps students develop an awareness of the consequences of technological development and their applications. Students come to see how the beliefs, social values and ethics of individuals and groups influence and are influenced by such development.

Students should be provided with opportunities to appreciate how technology has improved our living, and to assess the “Impact of Technology” on themselves, their families, society and mankind; and to cultivate a global outlook towards innovative technological development.

However, students should not be blind followers of new technologies. They should be given opportunities to exercise values and attitudes, as well as to make decisions on the use of technologies in their daily life, and be aware of the impact of technological development in society from the perspective of a customer, a citizen, an employee, a designer or an engineer.

Figure 4 illustrates how the three strands of learning elements under TE are woven together to cultivate the three aspects of technological literacy in students.

Figure 4 Development of Technological Literacy


In Figure 5, the nature of learning in the TE curriculum is expressed as a close connection among the three strands of learning elements. Technology learning activities should be designed mainly for students’ application of learning elements from the three strands in an integrated manner.

The Learning Targets

Through various key stages of schooling, students will develop their technological literacy by studying the three strands in the TE curriculum as well as using the six knowledge contexts as the platform for their learning. The learning targets of the TE curriculum for primary, junior secondary and senior secondary students, as well as those for junior secondary students with a special interest and talent in technology are provided as follows.

Learning targets for students at the primary level (Key Stages 1 and 2, Primary 1 – 6) are to:

- develop an interest and curiosity in exploring everyday needs and in thinking of ways to respond to these;

- understand the importance of good eating habits, personal hygiene and safety, and find ways of maintaining these;

- understand the concepts and processes involved in the design cycle and applied them to solve simple problems; and

- develop an awareness of how the business world operates and of consumers’

rights and responsibilities.

Figure 5 Connection among the Strands in the Technology Education Curriculum


Learning targets for students at the junior secondary level (Key Stage 3, Secondary 1 - 3) are to:

- master basic skills in the use of their hands and minds to solve everyday problems and develop an understanding of how to use technologies appropriately;

- adopt a healthy lifestyle and maintain good family relationships;

- develop a basic understanding of the business world and of how to manage their personal finances; and

- become socially aware decision-makers who care about public morality and the environment.

Learning targets for students at the junior secondary level with a special interest and talent in technology are to:

- develop a more in-depth understanding in particular areas of technology, such as control and automation, project management and computer networks, etc.;

- integrate various learning elements within their knowledge framework and understand their interrelationships; and

- master the knowledge and concepts underpinning some applications of technology.

Technology education from the primary to junior secondary levels helps students acquire a solid foundation of technological knowledge and skills. At the senior secondary level, students can choose among various elective subjects under TE KLA to further develop their interests and explore career orientations in various areas of technology.

Learning targets for students taking the elective subjects under TE KLA at the senior secondary level (Key Stage 4, Secondary 4 - 6) are to:

- develop a comprehensive understanding in different areas of technology by integrating various concepts and knowledge elements;

- master the skills in applying the principles of technology to solve problems in authentic contexts;

- become acquainted with the process of idea generation and could critically appraise the effects of the processes and outcomes of technology when facing technological problems or issues; and

- develop strong interests in areas of technology and be prepared for careers orientation, further studies or lifelong learning.


The Learning Objectives

 The six knowledge contexts, which are the platforms to organise student learning, aim at developing students’ knowledge and concepts of technology, process in technology, impact of technology, generic skills, and values and attitudes.

 The learning objectives under the six knowledge contexts of KS1 to KS3 are outlined in Figure 6. These learning objectives would be further adapted for use in schools through various projects. Good practices would be disseminated from time to time for reference.

 At the primary level, the GS curriculum provides opportunities for students to integrate knowledge, skills and attitudes across three KLAs, including TE. For setting the learning objectives for KS1 and KS2, references should also be made to the General Studies Curriculum Guide (Primary 1 – Primary 6) (2017).

 For the learning objectives for KS4, references should be made to the Business, Accounting and Financial Studies (BAFS), Design and Applied Technology (DAT), Health Management and Social Care (HMSC), Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and Technology and Living (TL) ( Food Science and Technology/Fashion, Clothing and Textiles) Curriculum and Assessment Guides (Secondary 4 - 6) (2007) (with updates in November 2015).


Figure 6 Learning Objectives of KS1 to KS3

Knowledge Contexts

Learning Elements

Key S1 Primary 1 - 3

KS2 Primary 4 - 6

KS3 Secondary 1 - 3 Common

Topics of the six knowledge contexts

Technology &


• Be aware that technology is closely connected to activities in daily life

• Be aware of the functional and aesthetic aspects of

technological products

 Be aware of and concerned about the beneficial and harmful effects of the use of technology to mankind and the environment

 Accept that it is one’s

responsibility to make sound judgements on the use of technology

 Be aware of the latest

developments and limitations in technology

 Appraise the impact of

technology (direct and indirect, short-term and long term, etc.) on our personal and social lives, the structure and

economy of society, the natural and man-made world, etc.

 Understand issues related to the use and advancement of

technology, including legal, ethical, environmental and health issues, as well as issues related to a change in life style Safety &


 Know the importance of and the ways of maintaining personal hygiene and safety

 Exercise self-discipline in managing one’s hygiene and safety in daily life situations

 Show concern about the safety issues when using technology

 Know the factors affecting one’s health and safety, and ways to maintain health and manage risks

 Analyse relevant information and make informed decisions on personal health

 Understand the importance of community health

 Understand and apply safety precautions and regulations in handling tools, equipment and resources in technological process

 Be aware of the need to take into consideration safety precautions in planning the design process

 Be aware of current issues on health

 Know the responsibilities of a business in providing a safe


Knowledge Contexts

Learning Elements

Key S1 Primary 1 - 3

KS2 Primary 4 - 6

KS3 Secondary 1 - 3

environment to its employees, customers and third parties

 Know how to release stress and physical fatigue in the office environment

Information Processing &


 Know how to operate computers and the related devices

 Be aware of the wide applications of IT in our everyday life

 Develop skills to access, process and present

information, including sending and retrieving e-mail, and accessing information on the Internet

 Use IT tools or software packages to support learning

 Show concern about issues related to the use of IT

 Understand basic concepts related to the use of

information technology and the computer

 Develop the capability to process and present information independently or

collaboratively with peers

 Be aware of the validity and reliability of information, and be able to verify and evaluate the accuracy and reliability of information

 Be aware of intellectual property rights, data privacy issues, etc. and observe the rules and regulations in handling information

 Know how to apply good communication and

presentation skills to influence and obtain the desired


Knowledge Contexts

Learning Elements

Key S1 Primary 1 - 3

KS2 Primary 4 - 6

KS3 Secondary 1 - 3 responses from the intended audience

Design &


• Design and make artefacts with commonly available resources

• Develop interest and curiosity in knowing how things work

• Be aware of the functional and aesthetic aspects in a variety of designs and products

• Recognise the concepts used in the design cycle and apply them in solving problems

• Understand the functional and aesthetic requirements in design and project work

• Design and build models by using different materials and test the selected functional characteristics of the models built

• Develop and evaluate a product or a system according to the functional, aesthetic and other standards

• Know how to apply cost-benefit principles to technological processes

Consumer Education

 Be aware of consumers’ rights and responsibilities

 Identify the rights and

responsibilities of a consumer

 Be aware of the impact of advertising and other forms of promotion

 Recognise the role and functions of the Consumer Council

 Make rational consumers’



Knowledge Contexts

Learning Elements

KS1 Primary 1-3

KS2 Primary 4-6

KS3 Secondary 1-3 Information &

Communication Technology

Computer Systems

 Be aware of the different components of a computer and their functions

 Know the meaning of

hardware and software and be able to make a distinction between them

 Know about operations of different computer systems and the interaction among them

 Choose the appropriate hardware, software and computer systems to perform specific tasks

Computer Networks

 Know the meaning of a computer network

 Appreciate the importance and the wide applications of computer networks

 Be aware of the impact of computer networks to the society

 Develop skills to perform a variety of Internet activities


Knowledge Contexts

Learning Elements

KS1 Primary 1-3

KS2 Primary 4-6

KS3 Secondary 1-3 Programming


 Know the meaning of program and data, and be able to make a distinction between them

 Be aware of the approaches used in solving problems

 Know how to write simple program with templates

 Develop interest in

programming and collaborate with others in the process

 Be aware of the use of abstraction and pattern recognition in solving problems

 Apply different approaches in solving problems

 Develop skills to solve problems systematically

 Know how to develop simple programs to solve problems


Knowledge Contexts

Learning Elements

KS1 Primary 1-3

KS2 Primary 4-6

KS3 Secondary 1-3 Materials &


Materials &


 Identify some common materials and know their uses in daily life

 Classify materials by their properties and sources

 Explore the physical properties of different materials

 Understand the physical properties of a range of materials

 Choose and make use of suitable materials and resources for design and project work

 Be concerned about the use and disposal of materials that may affect the natural


 Understand the importance of reusing and recycling

resources for the sustainable development of our society Material


 Design and make artefacts with common materials

 Understand that different materials and resources could be processed to suit various needs

 Choose and use appropriate tools and machinery for material processing

 Understand common material processing procedures such as cutting, forming and finishing

 Be aware of the need to minimise damage to the environment during processing of materials


Knowledge Contexts

Learning Elements

KS1 Primary 1-3

KS2 Primary 4-6

KS3 Secondary 1-3 Structures &


 Recognise some

characteristics of movement

 Be aware that different

structures and mechanisms can enhance the functionality of various designs to suit different needs

 Make use of structural and mechanical properties of different materials and devices for design and project work

 Understand that different structural designs can lead to different loading capacities

 Make use of different mechanisms to enhance the functionality of various designs

Operations &


Tools &


 Be aware of the importance of working with tools safely

 Understand how to use small hand tools properly

 Choose and use the appropriate tools and

equipment for working with common materials and information

 Use tools, machines or equipment to process various materials, energy and


 Apply tools, machines or equipment for the realisation of design solutions


Knowledge Contexts

Learning Elements

KS1 Primary 1-3

KS2 Primary 4-6

KS3 Secondary 1-3 Production


 Be aware of the production process in various fields

 Be aware of various factors and constraints in the production process

 Understand the factors in selecting various process for designing and making products

 Understand a range of materials in the forming and removal process

 Understand a range of materials in the joining and finishing process

 Manipulate the tools and equipment in various production processes Project


 Be aware of the importance of planning and organising work into steps or procedures for given tasks

 Understand and apply concepts related to planning and organising the working procedures in formulating solutions

 Co-operate with individuals in projects and in decision-making, planning, organisation, control and evaluation


Knowledge Contexts

Learning Elements

KS1 Primary 1-3

KS2 Primary 4-6

KS3 Secondary 1-3 Strategies

& Management

Business Environments, Operations &


 Be aware of how innovative ideas could serve others via businesses

 Be aware of how innovative ideas could be commercialised and protected by law

 Know the business

environments and different types of business organisations

 Be aware of how to set up a business after identification of its missions and long-term objectives

 Understand the importance and procedures of decision-making, planning,

organisation, control, evaluation, and quality assurance in business operations and projects


Knowledge Contexts

Learning Elements

KS1 Primary 1-3

KS2 Primary 4-6

KS3 Secondary 1-3 Resources


 Be aware of the importance of effective and efficient

deployment of resources in achieving the specific goals of a project

 Be aware of how innovative ideas could be developed to be commercial products by means of venture capital

 Know how to handle money (e.g. bank notes, electronic money) wisely for self and the accounts of organisations such as class associations

 Understand how to prepare and control simple budgets and prepare reports for

managing one’s own resources and business projects

 Be aware of the importance of effectiveness and efficiency in sourcing and deploying

resources, including human resources, to pursue business goals

Marketing  Be aware of the difference

between technical feasibility and commercial viability of development projects

 Be aware of the importance to communicate with end users and business partners

 Understand the basic tools used in market research and know how to find out others’


 Be aware of how to plan and implement a promotion campaign

 Be aware of the importance of always providing quality customer service and obtaining feedback from customers


Knowledge Contexts

Learning Elements

KS1 Primary 1-3

KS2 Primary 4-6

KS3 Secondary 1-3 Systems &


Concepts of System

 Recognise some patterns and phenomena related to light, sound, electricity and movement

 Identify the stages of a control system as input, process and output

 Understand the concept of open loop and closed loop control system

 Understand the functions of system components

Application of Systems

 Understand the use of mechanical, electrical,

electronic and pneumatic tools in control systems

 Use construction kits to model control systems

 Design systems and sub-systems

System Integration

 Explain how different types of systems and sub-systems can be interconnected to achieve a particular function

 Identify and illustrate ways for combining interrelated

systems (software

applications, structures and/or mechanisms) to create a new system which may also be connected with other systems

In document Technology Education (Page 35-56)