Training and Development Impact on Employees’ Performance in the Administrative Cadre of the Personnel Management Office in The Gambia

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(1)Training and Development Impact on Employees’ Performance in the Administrative Cadre of the Personnel Management Office in The Gambia. by. Baboucarr Sarr. A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate Faculty in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of. MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION. Major: International Human Resource Development. Advisor: Chih-Chien Steven Lai, Ph. D. Graduate Institute of International Human Resource Development National Taiwan Normal University Taipei, Taiwan June, 2013.

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(6) ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The experience of working on this Master’s thesis has been very challenging. Some people have helped give my experience a wonderful meaning. On the academic side of the experience, I would first of all like to express sincere thanks to my thesis advisor, Dr. Steven Chih-Chien Lai, for having guided me to fulfil all my academic requirements during the course of the programme. With his exceptional guidance, I have been able to successfully complete this thesis project. I would also like to express my appreciation to the entire Faculty members of the Graduate Institute of International Human Resource Development, National Taiwan Normal University, starting from the Director of the Graduate Programme, Dr. WeiWen Vera Chang to everyone else for having given me the opportunity to develop myself in the Programme. I would not forget the International Cooperation and Development Fund (TaiwanICDF) for having offered me the scholarship to come to Taiwan and do this very important programme, which is another remarkable milestone in my career development endeavours. I would seize the opportunity to say a very big thank you to the people of Taiwan for their endless hospitality accorded to me during the period of my stay in Taiwan. Last but not the least, I would like to also express my sincere thanks to all my family members, particularly my mother, Ya Amie Joof and my grandmother, Ya Ndumbeh Jagne, who have struggled very hard to make sure we are educated and be able to stand on our own feet. I would also say a big thank you to my sister, Ramatoulie Sarr and her husband, Pateh Jah, and my elder brother, Demba Jallow for their wonderful support without which I would have found it tough to arrive all the way to this level..

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(8) ABSTRACT This study in an attempt to examine the training and development impact on employees’ performance in the administrative cadre of the Personnel Management Office (PMO), being the human resource unit of The Gambian Civil Service, investigated whether the trainings were meeting the training needs of administrative officers and whether there had been any improvement on their skills. The study also investigated whether training and development had made any significant changes to the administrative officers’ job performance and the impact of such performance on PMO and the Ministries on their service-delivery with reference to Kirkpatrick’s four-level evaluation model (reaction, learning, behaviour, and results). The research and interview questions were adopted and further developed to enhance their validity and credibility of the research. The study sample comprised four trainees (two from PMO and two from the Ministries), three heads of departments of the Ministries, and three senior management officers of PMO, who are both providers and beneficiaries of the training and development. Participants were interviewed and relevant documents at PMO reviewed for data collection. The interviews’ data were recorded and transcribed. Then the coding was done, categorized and themes identified, which helped establish the findings in line with the research questions. Results revealed that trainees’ training needs were basically met and skills improved significantly. Trainees also demonstrated improved job-related behaviours, which impacted positively on PMO and the Ministries in terms of timely individual and overall service-delivery, despite some identified short-comings based on which suggestions were made.. Keywords: training and development, impact assessment, employee performance. I.

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(10) TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ABSTRACT ...................................................................................................... I TABLE OF CONTENTS ................................................................................. III LIST OF FIGURES ....................................................................................... VII LIST OF TABLES ...........................................................................................IX CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION ....................................................................... 1 Background of the Study .............................................................................................. 1 Research Purpose ......................................................................................................... 3 Research Questions ...................................................................................................... 4 Significance of the Research ........................................................................................ 4 Definition of Terms ...................................................................................................... 5. CHAPTER II. LITERATURE REVIEW ........................................................... 7 Impact of Training and Development ........................................................................... 7 Kirkpatrick’s Four-Level Evaluation Model for Examining Impact of Training and Development ................................................................................................................ 8 Motivation Theories to Impact of Training and Development ..................................... 13 Evaluation of Trainings .............................................................................................. 16 Overview of the PMO of The Gambia ........................................................................ 17. CHAPTER III. RESEARCH METHOD .......................................................... 25 Research Framework.................................................................................................. 25 Research Approach .................................................................................................... 26. III.

(11) Sample and Participant Selection ............................................................................... 28 Data Collection .......................................................................................................... 30 Data Analysis ............................................................................................................. 33 Research Procedure .................................................................................................... 37 Research Validity and Reliability ............................................................................... 39. CHAPTER IV. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS .......................................... 43 Situation of T & D Programmes Meeting Administrative Officers’ Training Needs ... 44 Improvement of Administrative Officers’ Skills and Attitudes ................................... 49 Behaviour Change in Administrative Officers’ Actual Job Performance ..................... 53 Contributions of T & D Programmes to Service-delivery of PMO and the Ministries . 60 Other Findings ........................................................................................................... 68 Summary ................................................................................................................... 69. CHAPTER V. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS .................... 73 Conclusions ............................................................................................................... 73 Implications ............................................................................................................... 76 Suggestions ................................................................................................................ 77. REFERENCES ................................................................................................ 83 APPENDIX A CONSENT LETTER ............................................................... 87 APPENDIX B INTERVIEW QUESTIONS FOR THE TRAINEES ................ 89 APPENDIX C INTERVIEW QUESTIONS FOR THE HEADS OF DEPARTMENTS .................................................................................... 91. IV.

(12) APPENDIX D INTERVIEW QUESTIONS FOR THE TRAINING PROVIDER (PMO) ................................................................................. 93 APPENDIX E ORIGINAL RESEARCH QUESTIONS OF SAHIN (2006) .... 95 APPENDIX F ORIGINAL INTERVIEW QUESTIONS OF SAHIN (2006) ... 97 APPENDIX G INITIAL STAGE OF THE CODING PROCESS FOR THE ENTIRE FIRST THEME ......................................................................... 99 APPENDIX H LATER STAGE OF THE CODING PROCESS FOR THE LAST THREE THEMES……………………………………………….107 APPENDIX I SUMMARY RESULTS OF THE PILOT TEST ..................... 111. V.

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(14) LIST OF FIGURES Figure 2.1 Organizational Structure of the PMO ....................................................................20 Figure 3.1 Research Framework .............................................................................................26 Figure 3.2 Initial Stage of the Coding Process ………………………………………………35 Figure 3.3 Later Stage of the Coding Process …………………...…………………………..36 Figure 3.4 Procedures of the Study ………………………………………………………….38 Figure 4.1 Findings of the Training and Development Impact on the Administrative Cadre…………………………...………...………...………...………..43. VII.

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(16) LIST OF TABLES Table 2.1 Some of the Trained Administrative Officers of the Administrative Cadre ...........23 Table 3.1 The Profile of Participants ………………………………………………………...30 Table 3.2 The Implementation Process of the Interviews and Documents’ Review ………..32. IX.

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(18) CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION. This chapter begins with the background of the study, which is organized into content, importance of training and development, and the gap. This is followed by the research purpose, research questions that guide the study, and significance of the research, which highlights the contributions of the study. Following are the delimitation and limitations of the study and definition of key terms.. Background of the Study It goes without saying that training and development of employees is an issue that has to be faced by every organization in the public service. However, the quality and quantity of trainings offered differ enormously in organizations. According to Laing (2009) factors determining the quantity and quality of training and development activities include the degree of change in the external environment, internal change, availability of suitable skills and the extent to which management see training as a motivating factor for development of employees, who are well-equipped with skills and knowledge for effective performance. Many services in advanced economies in the 1990s have come under pressure to become more effective, so as to maintain the volume and quality of services supplied to the public. In this regard, they have been subjected to the introduction of various management techniques like performance measurement to bolster their training and development activities for effective performance of employees (Brignall & Modell, 2000). In the same vein, the administrative officers in the administrative cadre of the PMO have long realized the numerous benefits that could be derived from training and development, in response to the earlier-mentioned factors. In this regard, these officers have been increasingly requesting for training to enhance their potentials. In response to this and the fact that PMO has long realized the importance of training and development, the senior management officers have been arguing that training is critical for developing a productive workforce (NewGambia.gm, 2009). Human capital theory proposes that formal training such as that offered by training institutions improve the productive capacity of employees (Van der Meroe, 2010). This has resulted to the PMO investing so much money in the development of 1.

(19) the administrative cadre, being the Human Resource Unit of the Gambian Civil Service. PMO has a Centralized Vote, which is designed for sponsoring training and development programmes. It also goes into partnerships with Bilateral Donor Agencies like the Commonwealth Fund for Technical Co-operation in the domain of training and development. Currently, there is the Public Service Reform Project under the day-to-day Management responsibility of PMO. A Programme Support Unit has been established under PMO to strengthen its capacity to manage the sector interventions effectively. The total cost of the project was estimated at USD 7.25 million over the next five years (PMO, August 2007). It should be noted that allocating adequate funds for trainings is a precondition for developing the skills qualifications of the existing personnel and will eventually lead to improved social service delivery (African Development Bank Appraisal Report, 2008). PMO’s training and development basically aims atmeeting the training needs of administrative officers, improving their skills, and enabling them make significant changes to their job performance. It also seeks to enable administrative officers contribute effectively to the performance of their various offices, which would eventually result to positive performance of PMO and the Ministries in terms of effective public service delivery (PSRICD, December 2009). PMO has been training these officers locally at the Management Development Institute (MDI), while others are sponsored to do their Degree and Diploma training courses abroad. PMO sponsor administrative officers to do their studies in various Disciplines including Human Resource Management, Human Resource Development, Public Administration, among others. All these areas have been prioritized for training based on specific needs of Institutions and in line with the aims and objectives of Good Governance, Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP), and the Country’s Vision 2020 programmes (NewGambia.gm, 2009). The importance of this huge investment in training and development cannot be overemphasized. In fact, the relevance of training and development can be seen in the form of competent employees who are vital for their organizations, and they enable their organizations consistently deliver effective social services (Vokic, 2008). Furthermore, prosperous organizations develop sustainable capability through a systematic consideration of the human resource as the key asset and through a continuous process of training and development (Zairi, 1998). Training investments reassure employees that they are valued by 2.

(20) their employers, which in turn, enhances employee motivation and commitment to the organization (Santos & Stuart, 2003). However, analysis of the relevance of training and development in improving employees’ performance has been the big problem, which could be attributed to the unexpected changes in performance in the organization. Impact assessment needs to be conducted periodically and needs to be carried out by capable people working with the employees, to examine how they performed before and after the training programmes (Draft Training Policy Report, 2009). This confirms the fact that very little empirical research has been conducted to examine the impact of such training and development on the administrative cadre of the Personnel Management Office. This gap created the need for this explorative empirical study.. Research Purpose This study sought to examine the training and development impact on employees’ performance in the administrative cadre of the PMO by investigating whether the trainings were meeting the training needs of administrative officers and whether there had been any improvement on their skills and attitude. The study also sought to investigate whether training and development had made any significant changes to the officers’ job performance and the impact of such performance on PMO and the Ministries in terms of service-delivery. Short-comings were identified in the process based on which recommendations were proposed. Kirkpatrick’s four-level evaluation model was chosen for its ease and practical application in seeking information above the levels of only gaining information about the feelings of participants (reaction) and the learning that has taken place in the programmes (learning) (Sahin, 2006). It goes beyond these two stages and examines the programmes in terms of how and whether the concerned officers are able to use the skills they might have acquired in their various institutions and also whether the institutions have benefited from the programmes.. 3.

(21) The study tried to answer the following questions, which were formulated based on the Kirkpatrick’s four-level evaluation model:. Research Questions 1.. Are the training and development programmes meeting the administrative officers’ training needs?. 2.. Has there been any improvement in the administrative officers’ skills and attitudes?. 3.. Has there been any behaviour change in the actual job performance of the administrative officers?. 4.. What are the results of training and development on PMO and the Ministries in terms of service-delivery?. Significance of the Research Delivering effective public service with a view to meeting the needs of the citizenry on time and every time is a route to achieving and sustaining national development, and training and development is a tool that organizations can use to accomplish this very important goal (Burden & Proctor, 2000). As such, PMO has been very active in training and developing of administrative officers of the administrative cadre and has been investing huge amounts of money to meet their training needs. Accordingly, this study would inform the Management of PMO and other public service organizations that to improve performance, there is the need to have sufficient and retain well-trained and motivated employees. It would help in the provision of more training for employees in order to maintain a quality work life, which would provide an opportunity for employees’ job satisfaction and self-actualization. It would also help provide valuable suggestions for improvement of the training and development so that it becomes more effective for administrative officers, who are in need of it and for national development. Furthermore, this study would contribute to the field of research by enlightening training and development impact evaluators on the practicability of Kirkpatrick’s training programme evaluation model in its attempt to provide tangible results on training and development of organizations (Lockee, Moore, & Burton, 2002).. 4.

(22) Definition of Terms Training and Development: Training refers to planned and systematic approach to learning, while development refers to activities leading to the acquisition of new knowledge or skills for purposes of personal growth. Accordingly, impact of training and development refers to outcomes resulting from training and development activities, which in one way or the other affect the quality of life for a particular population (Aguinis & Kraiger, 2009). Personnel Management Office (PMO): It is the Agency of Government under the Office of the President responsible for the administration, management and co-ordination of training and development, and other personnel management issues in the Civil Service. In other words, it is the Human Resource Unit of The Gambian Civil Service (PMO, 2011). The Administrative Cadre: This is the cadre of Government which comprises the administrative officers, who are directly appointed by PMO and charged with the responsibility of managing and co-ordinating personnel issues in the Civil Service. In short, they are the PMO personnel, but others are posted out to Ministries to carry out the PMO functions. Commonwealth Fund for Technical Co-operation (CFTC): Training co-operation between PMO and the Commonwealth under which PMO receives technical assistance and funding for its training and development activities. Employee Performance: A concept in human resource related to everything about the performance of employees in an organization involving all aspects which directly or indirectly affect and relate to their work.. 5.

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(24) CHAPTER II. LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter basically begins by giving a description of the impact of training and development, and Kirkpatrick’s four-level evaluation model for investigating impact of training and development. These are followed by motivation theories to impact of training and development, evaluation of training, and overview of the PMO of The Gambia.. Impact of Training and Development Some studies have been carried out on the impact of training and development on organizations, including public service organizations, and it has been found that the operations of organizations in the business environment are very challenging as they have to struggle with the various changes that unexpectedly take place in the business environment (Tam, 2002). These changes in the external environment are not simple ones as they affect employees’ performance and the nature of services being offered to customers. In this context, it is required for organizations to be innovative as a source of competitive advantage in order to accommodate the rapid changes in the environment and changes embodied in complex products and processes (Panuwatwanich, Stewart, & Sherif, 2008). In addition to innovative technologies, the importance of the human resource can never be underestimated in the organization. Organizations that have well-planned training and development and properly selected and well-trained employees will enjoy positive gains over those whose ineffective selection and training methods have accumulated ineffective workers (Gammie, 1996). Laing (2009) added that the recognition of the importance of training in recent years has been heavily influenced by the intensification of competition and the relative success of organizations where investment in employee development is considerably emphasized. Technological developments and organizational change have gradually led some organizations to the realization that success relies on the skills and abilities of their staff, and this means considerable and continuous investment in training and development. The human resource department is the office wherein good decisions are expected to be made for employee and organizational performance. Despite the fact that their planning and other activities may also be affected by changes in the external environment, human resource managers are expected to help members of organizations see a connection between their learning and economic advancement and also help them through training to improve 7.

(25) performance (Zuzeviciute & Tereseviciene, 2010). Training needs assessment has to be conducted to select the right employees to undergo training in addition to making sure that training helps the organization achieve its objectives. Conducting needs assessment is fundamental to the success of a training programme. Organizations will often develop and implement training without first conducting needs assessment. These organizations run the risk of failure or ineffective training (Brown, 2002). Transfer of training is an important aspect of training and considerable attention should be paid to it. Considerable evidence suggests that a substantial part of organizations’ investment in training is often wasted due to poor learning transfer. If there is no transfer of training on the job, then training is not effective. Experts suggest limited opportunity to apply new skills, insufficient feedback and trainees’ low morale, pressure to resist change, poor organizational climate, and lack of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation as common reasons why the transfer process fails. Managers and trainers must take a more active role in supporting efforts to ensure successful transfer of training from classroom to workplace (Cheeseman, 1994). The global economy in recent years has been very competitive largely due to the impact of globalization, and performance of employees can be negatively affected as a result. In this regard, it is very important for organizations to differentiate themselves by developing and improving the skills, knowledge, abilities, and motivation of their workforces. According to a recent industry report by the American Society for Training and Development (ASTD),that is, the world’s association dedicated to workplace learning and performance professionals, United States (U.S) organizations alone spend more than one hundred and twenty-six (126) billion dollars annually on employee training and development (Aguinis & Kraiger, 2009).. Kirkpatrick’s Four-Level Evaluation Model for Examining Impact of Training and Development Kirkpatrick’s four-level evaluation model is capable of reducing the risk associated with reaching biased conclusions when evaluating training and development programmes (Galloway, 2005). The model is the most universally known in performance evaluation. The reaction level evaluates trainees’ feelings related to the general arrangement of the training programme. The learning level aims at understanding trainees' comprehension of techniques, principles, and ideas. The behaviour level evaluates the extent of trainees’ behavioural 8.

(26) change as applied in the job context. The final level, being the results level focuses on influence of trainees' behaviours on training outcomes in terms of complaints reduction and quality and quantity of improvements registered (Ford, 2004). Despite the use of the model for many years now, scholars have criticized it for its over-simplification of assessing training programmes and lack of consideration for the various intervening variables that might affect learning and transfer of training, and even suggesting that entirely different and better models of training and development evaluation are needed (Alliger, Tannenbaum, Bennett, Traver, & Shotland, 1997).They remarked that it focuses only on whether outcomes have been achieved or not. In an attempt to address these limitations, it has been suggested that the model should have been presented by Kirkpatrick (1998) as both planning and evaluating tool and should be reversed to re-organize the steps into a planning tool. Berger and Farber (1992) added that planned training identifies the organization’s potential trainees, what they will be trained to do, and how that training will be evaluated. Still, others claim that the model aims exclusively at training interventions. With a non-training intervention, Kirkpatrick's Level 2 is irrelevant. Some have argued that we can simply drop Level 2 whenever learning is not an intervention, but this presents another problem. Kirkpatrick's model implies a causal link among the four levels. According to his presentation of his model at the 2002 ASTD Convention, that is, the convention of the association dedicated to workplace learning and performance professionals, he argued that if participants react favourably to training, their learning should increase. If their learning increases, their job behaviour should change. If their behaviour changes, the organization should benefit from improved performance. If any of these linkages breaks down, that signifies a problem with the training implementation process (Ford, 2004). Despite all the criticisms levelled against the model, it has been seen as offering flexibility to users as it allows them to align outcomes of training with other organizational tools such as company reports and greater commitment of employees. Although the model has been used for years in the evaluation of commercial training programmes, yet some scholars have suggested its use for research studies of academic programmes and have used it for the purpose. Others have also suggested a combination of the model with other professional development tools (Aluko, 2009). Taking a thorough analysis of the different levels, one would see that the Kirkpatrick’s model is highly relevant to training and development impact evaluation particularly levels two, three, and four which seek tangible evidence that learning and transfer of training have occurred (Galloway, 2005). This research 9.

(27) found the model to be very relevant in determining the impact of training and development on the administrative cadre of the PMO. In this regard, the research questions and interview questions to the trained administrative officers (trainees), heads of departments in the Ministries, and the training providers of PMO, who are also beneficiaries of the training and development, were adopted from Sahin (2006). The questions were adopted because Sahin (2006) conducted a similar exploratory research to inquire about the impact of an in-service teacher training and development programme at the Middle East Technical University and this study inquiring about the impact of training and development on the administrative cadre of PMO is almost like an extension of the former. To further enhance the validity of the adopted interview questions, they were developed with reference to the Kirkpatrick’s fourlevel model to examine the impact of training and development based on the outcomes.. Usage of Kirkpatrick’s Four-Level Evaluation Model for Training and Development Technology has not only altered the nature of organizational operations, but it has also changed the way training is delivered and, in turn, the way training and development, which are increasingly based on technology, must be evaluated (Garvey, 2006). Different models have been suggested for evaluating the impact of training programmes. The most distinct ones include the Hamblin’s model. This model entails five levels which are linked to each other by a cause and effect such that reaction leads to learning, learning leads to changes in job behaviour, job behaviour leads to changes in the organization, which eventually leads to the achievement of the ultimate goals (the ultimate value). The Brinkerhoff’s six-staged model entails six stages in a cycle in the formative training evaluation process. These stages are goal setting, which identifies the need for the training programme, programme design, programme implementation, immediate outcomes (focus on participants’ learning), usage outcomes (focus on whether participants are using what they learned from the training on the job), and the impact (the programme’s contributions to the organization). The Phillips’ model involves reaction, learning, behaviour, results, and return on investment. The CIPP’s model, on the other hand, focuses on context (needs analysis), inputs (resources for training), process (for feedback to the implementers) and product (outcomes). Galvin reported survey results indicating that ASTD, the association dedicated to workplace learning and performance. 10.

(28) professionals, preferred the CIPP model to Kirkpatrick’s framework (Werner & DeSimone, 2009). Until recently, Kirkpatrick’s four levels (reaction, learning, behaviour, and results) for evaluating training programmes has been the predominant model for traditional training and development, delivery, and learning evaluation (Galloway, 2005). The rationale for evaluating training programmes, as Kirkpatrick (1998) highlighted, is to: 1.. justify the existence of the training provider in the way they endeavour to contribute to the achievement of the organization’s goals and objectives. 2.. decide whether a particular training programme should be continued or discontinued. 3.. seek information on how to improve the effectiveness of subsequent training programmes Sahin (2006) gave an overview of Kirkpatrick (1998)’s explanation of various. evaluation studies of training programmes, which were conducted using the Kirkpatrick’s four-level evaluation model. A case study was summarized involving a study conducted in a hypothetical company called Monac. The article that was presented described the benefits and the importance of each level in the model. Another study he presented focused on the evaluation of results compared with figures for those who were trained and those who were not. The figures were converted into savings. Yet another study evaluates a training course on performance appraisal and coaching. The programme was a pilot programme, which was conducted at the Charlotte, North Carolina branch of the Kemper National Insurance Companies. The evaluation included all levels and the summary of results was provided to executives concerned with the programme. While presenting these and many other studies of evaluations, Kirkpatrick stated that it is important that an evaluator can borrow forms, designs, and techniques and adapt them to their own settings and organizations. Another study examined the current training evaluation process and its challenges faced by Kuwaiti organizations. The study sample was five UK organizations recognized as best practice organizations in their training and development activities and 77 Kuwaiti organizations (40 government and 37 private organizations). Interviews and questionnaires were used. The study revealed according to responses from the majority of respondents that, both government and private sector organizations, only evaluate their training programmes occasionally. The most popular evaluation tools and technique used by government and 11.

(29) private sector organizations were questionnaires. The most common evaluation model used by Kuwaiti organizations is the Kirkpatrick’s model, while the most common level of evaluation for both government and private sector is reaction type (Al-Athari & Zairi, 2002). A Meta-analysis study was conducted in which the relationship between training design and evaluation features and the effectiveness of training in organizations were examined. The research involved a study of a wide range of evaluation studies of training programmes to those which measured some aspect of training effectiveness. These studies were taken from published journals, books, conference papers and presentations as well as dissertations and theses from 1960 to 2000. The number of articles and papers that were reviewed and included in the Meta-analysis numbered six hundred and thirty-six (636) from nine computer data bases and a manual search of reference lists. The evaluation criteria used in the study were Reaction, Learning, Behaviour, and Results. The main aim of the study was to examine whether the effectiveness of training varied as a result of the evaluation criteria used. The researchers reported that the results revealed a medium to large effect size for organizational training effectiveness. The researchers also reported that the smallest number of data points occurred in the reaction level, which is surprising since literature shows that reaction level is the most widely, used evaluation type in training evaluation. However, they explained that the literature naturally does not include many studies that only involve reaction levels as a means to evaluate the effectiveness of training. In addition, it is also reported in the article that the training method used, the skill or task characteristic that is trained, and also the choice of evaluation criteria all play a role in the effectiveness of training programmes (Arthur, Bennett, Edens, & Bell, 2003). Yet still, another study used the Kirkpatrick’s four levels to determine the impact of a management training programme. Hypotheses about the effects of internal and external locus of control and experiential learning styles were tested. Measures gathered at several points of time were compared to measures taken from a control group. Level four results were obtained by 360-degree feedback appraisal. Findings revealed that knowledge improved significantly. Trained managers also demonstrated improved management behaviours and they scored higher on long-term results. Trained supervisors with an internal locus of control acquired more knowledge than trained supervisors with an external locus of control. However, internals did not differ significantly from externals on actual behaviour measures. The hypothesized relationship between learning style and training effectiveness was not supported. The four levels method gave detailed insights in results. Attention should be paid to trainees' 12.

(30) locus of control. The study outlined the value of the four-level model of training evaluation and its contribution to the theory-based and evidence-based approach to the development of training and development programmes (Steensm & Groeneveld, 2010). In this regard, this research found the model to be very relevant and useful in assessing the impact of training and development on the administrative cadre of PMO. Therefore, the research questions and interview questions to the trained administrative officers, heads of departments in the Ministries, and the training providers of PMO, who are also beneficiaries of the training and development, were adopted from Sahin (2006). The interview questions were critically examined to ensure they were in line with the research questions, literature review, and research framework with reference to the four levels and further developed to enhance their validity and easy understanding by the participants.. Motivation Theories to Impact of Training and Development It should be noted that for effective learning and transfer of training on the job to take place, trainees need to be motivated (Franke & Felfe, 2012). In a learning environment, motivation provides the incentive that propels trainees to be devoted to learning activities, and intrinsic motivation is a critical success factor of learning. The self-determination theory proposes that for one to be motivated and to function at optimal level, a set of psychological needs must be met. These needs are relatedness, competence, and autonomy. Relatedness relates to association and sense of belonging with others. This association and belonging provide the required emotional security that individuals need to actively explore and effectively deal with their worlds. The rationale behind the self-determination theory from a learning perspective is that a strong sense of relatedness better positions trainees to take on challenges, set positive goals, and establish high expectations that motivate them. Furthermore, relatedness needs provide a motivating force for developing social regulations and adapting to interpersonal circumstances (Andrew & Martin, 2009). The theory of reasoned action argued those trainees’ reactions to technology use tends to affect performance of users. The theory was proposed by Fishbein and Ajzen in 1975. The assumption is based on the rationale that a person’s decision to engage in a specific behaviour is based on his or her own will, which is determined by organized thoughts. The theory highlights that under a great extent an individual’s behaviour can be reasonably assessed. 13.

(31) from his or her behavioural intention, which is decided by behavioural attitude and subjective norm. A person's attitude toward behaviour is determined by his or her salient beliefs about consequences of engaging in the behaviour in addition to evaluating those consequences. In the same vein, if trainees wilfully react favourably to training, their learning and transfer of training will likely take place (Chi, 2011). Kirkpatrick (1998) also mentioned that for the trainees of a training programme to successfully adopt what they learn in a training programme on their jobs, it is vital to provide help, encouragement, and rewards. He mentioned intrinsic (inward feelings of satisfaction, pride and happiness) and extrinsic (coming from the outside such as praise, freedom, and recognition) rewards as being very important for learning and transfer of training to take place. Also, trainees who are ambitious, oriented towards learning, composed, and exuberant are proposed to be more trainable. All these help for training and development to impact positively not only on the trainees, but also on the organization (Kraiger, McLinden, & Casper, 2004).. Impact of Training and Development for Organizations It has been reported that less than five percent (5%) of all training and development programmes are assessed in relation to their financial gains to the particular organizations. This issue changes for organizations that are highly recognized for their commitment to training and development activities. Nonetheless, many organizations recognized by American Society for Training and Development (ASTD), that is, the association dedicated to workplace learning and performance professionals, for their innovative training and development programmes determine the impact of training and development at some level of organizational performance. Productivity improvement, sales or revenue, and overall profitability are the organizational performance gains assessed in such organizations. On the whole, studies related to organizational-level impact of training and development is not as many as those on individual and team gains. It is not only that there has been relatively less empirical studies on organizational level training and development impact, but also all such conducted studies used self-report data and blurred causal link to training and development activities (Aguinis & Kraiger, 2009). However, there are many studies conducted in European countries that have recorded the impact of training and development on 14.

(32) organizational performance. One study was conducted to investigate the relationship between training and development and organizational performance by distributing questionnaires to four hundred and fifty-seven (457) organizations in the United Kingdom, Netherlands, Portugal, Finland, and Spain. Results revealed that some training and development activities, including on-the-job training, were positively related to most aspects of performance. This study related organizations’ training policies (functions performed by the training unit, goals of the training unit, nature of training, and how training is assessed) with four types of organizational-level gains. These gains are employee satisfaction, customer satisfaction, shareholder satisfaction, and workforce productivity. These results suggested that training and development programmes aimed at human resource development were directly related to employee, customer, and owner satisfaction as well as a reasonable measure of organizational performance (Aguinis & Kraiger, 2009).. Impact of Training and Development on Employee Job Performance Training and development has overall positive gains on job performance. However, the gains in training varied depending on the training delivery method and the skill or task being trained. For example, in a qualitative study involving some mechanics in Northern India, Barber (2004) realized that training within the workplace resulted to good innovation and tacit skills. With regards to innovation, the trained mechanics knew how to build two Jeep bodies using only a homemade hammer, chisel, and oxyacetylene welder. With regards to tacit skills, the work of a mechanic involves feel to be successful. In this regard, the trained mechanics developed an intuitive feel when removing dents. As a result of his informal training, a mechanic had a good feeling of how to hit the metal at the right spot so that the work proceeds in a systematic way. Such a tacit skill was very useful in the Indian market. Nonetheless, most shops in advanced countries would not even repair a fender in such a bad condition. This practice is very common in the developing world (Aguinis & Kraiger, 2009).. 15.

(33) Evaluation of Trainings Training is a key strategy for human resource development and in achieving organizational objectives. Organizations and public authorities invest large amounts of resources in trainings, but rarely have the data to show the results of that investment. Only a few organizations evaluate training in depth due to the difficulty involved and the lack of valid instruments and viable models (Pineda, 2010). Nonetheless, all social organizations are required to provide evidence of their effectiveness of training programmes. With training evaluation, this evidence will usually be established. There are summative and formative evaluations. Summative evaluation is information collected to evaluate trainees' learning, overall impact or effectiveness of particular training programmes. Formative evaluation, on the other hand, is used to provide information or feedback about progress toward learning goals. The use of feedback in making subsequent improvements to learning is what makes formative evaluation such a powerful process for trainers (Doolittle, 1996). According to Lin (2008) training evaluation is necessary, because it offers a great number of other gains as follows: 4.. it can help organizations decide who should participate in future training programmes, because a good assessment result can reveal the trainees who are likely to benefit the organization most. 5.. it matches up the training policy and practice to organizational goals. 6.. The training evaluation may improve the relationship between the department of training and the rest of the organization by providing worthwhile evidences, and by linking training events to improved organizational effectiveness. 7.. Trainers get feedback about their performance and how to improve their training methods. 8.. finally, the most common reason for doing training evaluation is that it completes the process of planned training programmes It is, therefore, obvious that there are strong links between evaluation and the training. programmes. It is important to evaluate training in order to examine its effectiveness in producing the learning outcomes specified when the training intervention was planned and to indicate where improvements or changes are required to make the training more effective 16.

(34) (Lin, 2008). Training programme is reviewed during and after its completion by the training officer, the line manager, and if necessary, by the trainees themselves. Evaluation differs from validation in that it attempts to measure the overall cost-benefit of the training programme and not just the achievement of its laid down objectives, and until control measures are taken to correct any deficiencies after the training, evaluation has not been completed and thereby ineffective. Evaluation is an integral feature of training, but it could be difficult because it is often hard to set measurable objectives. Interviews, Questionnaires, and tests or examinations are some of the most popular methods used for evaluating training (Laing, 2009). From the above discussions, it is quite evident that good training and development programmes, especially those using the Kirkpatrick’s four-level model of evaluation exhibit important features and attributes both at the individual participants and the organizational level. At the level of the training participants, they need to enjoy and have good thoughts and feelings about the programme. Participants at the end of the training need to be certain that the learning objectives for the training were met and as a result of the learning, their way of working and dealing with certain issues will change. Due to these changes in behaviour and approach to work, participants must be more effective at their jobs, which in turn, will lead to positive outcomes for their organizations (Siniscalchi, Beale, & Fortuna, 2008). In conclusion, there is a great deal of positive impact that could be derived from training and development both at the employee and organizational levels as indicated in the literature. However, this impact cannot be known if it is not evaluated or empirically investigated. It has been sufficiently recognized that evaluating impact does not only help develop a training programme, but also has a therapeutic value for ex-trainees and is an effective form of follow-up. The evaluation process itself can intensify and increase the extent of training impact and therefore, should be an integral part of any training and development package (Gunesekera, 1989).. Overview of the PMO of The Gambia The main delimitation of the study is that it was mainly focused on training and development programmes of the PMO in The Gambia. The Gambia is a small independent republic in West Africa and its population stands at 1.78 million. It is composed of a narrow. 17.

(35) strip of land on both sides of The Gambia River and is almost surrounded by Senegal. The country has a land area of about 10,698 square kilometres, ranging in width between 42 kilometres near the mouth of the river to 24 kilometres towards the upstream (“Implementation of Beijing,” 1995). The capital city is Banjul, its official language is English, and the local currency is the Dalasi (Mbendi, November 2011). The GDP per Capita in The Gambia was reported at 440.00 U.S. dollars in 2009, according to the International Monetary Fund (IMF). This is expected to rise up to 605.41 U.S. dollars in 2015 (Trading Economics, 2012). Agriculture is the backbone of the country’s economy and accounts for about a third of GDP, but of late, the sector has been going down due to various factors such as low rainfall and fall in the price of groundnuts in the world market. The tourism sector, which mostly takes the form of sun seekers, birdwatchers and African-Americans, make up about 18% of the Gambia's GDP (Gambia Information Site, 2012). The Gambia became independent from Britain on the 18th of February, 1965. The country is divided into Regions headed by Governors. These Regions are Kombo Saint Mary’s Division (KSMD), Western Region (WR), Lower River Region (LRR), Central River Region (CRR), North Bank Region (NBR), and Upper River Region (URR) (UNICEF, 2009). As a multi-party republic within the Commonwealth, the country is administered by an Executive President. Under the current constitution, general elections through secret ballots are held every five years to elect candidates who make up the country's House of Parliament (Gambia Information Site, 2012). The Government comprises different Ministries headed by secretaries of state who are appointed directly by the president. Immediately under the secretary of state is the permanent secretary. The permanent secretary directly oversees the Department of State assisted by a deputy permanent secretary (Gambia Information Site, 2012). The Personnel Management Office under the Office of the President and headed by a permanent secretary, who is assisted by two deputy permanent secretaries, is directly responsible for the personnel management functions of the various Departments of State. In 1994, PMO was reorganized to produce vital administrative reforms in the Civil Service of The Gambia. Besides the routine matters of enforcing the General Orders, the Public Service Regulations, and Departmental Circulars, it has also adopted a human resource development strategy which focuses on vital changes including administrative reforms 18.

(36) directed towards the achievement of The Gambia’s Vision 2020programmes and the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP). The Vision 2020 is the national long-term goal of The Gambia that aims to change the country into a financial centre, tourist paradise, trading, export-oriented agricultural and manufacturing nation, thriving on free market policies and a vibrant private sector, sustained by a well-educated, trained, skilled, healthy, self-reliant and enterprising population by 2020. The PRSP, on the other hand, is a global strategy that encourages countries to develop a more poverty-focused government and to own their own strategies through developing the plan in close consultation with the population. The document is required by the IMF and World Bank before a country can be considered for debt relief under the HIPC and other initiatives (NewGambia.gm, 2009). The programmes and policies of the PMO are formulated by its five Divisions. These five Divisions are the Management Services Division (MSD), Personnel Management Division (PMD), Human Resource Information System (HRIS), Finance and Administrative Division and the Human Resource Development Division. The Personnel Management Division (PMD) is the central coordinating Division which is responsible for personnel management issues in the Civil Service. It has the responsibility for handling all personnel matters such as recruitment, selection, promotions, development of personnel and promoting professional ethics and good working relationship. It carries out these functions by closely working with the Public Service Commission (PSC). The Human Resource Development Division, on the other hand, is one of the most important Divisions and is responsible for all matters related to training and development of the personnel both within and outside the PMO. It has been organizing different types of training and development programmes ranging from workshops, sensitization programmes to short and long-term training programmes (NewGambia.gm, 2009). In line with the Vision 2020, The Gambia needs very competent and productive workforce that is capable of meeting the challenges of the 21 st Century. In an attempt to achieve this very important goal, serious efforts are being made to implement the revised performance appraisal system throughout the Civil Service. This appraisal system is out to replace the confidential annual reports, which are no longer applicable in the Civil Service considering the fact that the number of civil servants and their volumes of work have drastically increased over the years. The appraisal system is basically designed to ensure that there is constant and effective monitoring of the performance of individual civil servants, with a view to identifying training and development needs, select the right personnel for 19.

(37) training as well as enable the various Ministries create an effective way for improvement. The performance appraisal system is currently being applied to the administrative cadre of the PMO, at the levels of cadet administrative officers and deputy permanent secretaries. Before these administrative officers are promoted to the next grades, they have to undergo this appraisal process to determine their suitability for the particular positions. PMO aims at the administrative officers’ personal development. This basically involves meeting the training and development needs of administrative officers, improving their skills, and enabling them make significant changes to their job-related behaviour. It also seeks to enable administrative officers contribute effectively to the performance of their various offices, which would eventually result to positive performance of PMO and the Ministries in terms of effective service-delivery (PSRICD, December 2009). Secretary General. Permanent Secretary. Deputy Permanent Secretary II. Deputy Permanent Secretary I. Personnel Management Division. Finance & Administration Division. Management Services Division. Human Resource Development Division. National Records Services. PSRICD. Human Resource Information System. Figure 2.1 Organizational structure of the Personnel Management Office (PMO). Adapted from “Personnel Management Office Organizational Structure,” 2011. Retrieved February 13, 2012 from http://www.pmo.gov.gm. Copyright 2011 by the IT Unit of MOICI. 20.

(38) The Situation of Employee Training and Development of PMO of The Gambia In its endeavour to promote an effective and efficient Civil Service, PMO has laid strong emphasis on training needs identification, and bridging up capacity gaps of not only PMO, but also those of the entire Government Ministries. PMO normally does not conduct training programmes on its own, except for the induction training programme for cadet administrative officers, in which some of its senior management officers participate as instructors. It normally contracts out its training and development programmes to training Institutes. Despite the fact that training funds are not always sufficient, the strategy has been on developing local tailor-made programmes at the Management Development Institute (MDI). PMO has also been sponsoring Degree and Diploma Programmes abroad based on local needs. In this case, the procedure has been that officers present their University Confirmation letters together with their sponsorship applications and PMO does the selection based on seniority and training needs. For short-term training programmes, officers do not need to apply for them, the Human Resource Development Division in consultation with Senior Management selects officers based on needs of Institutions. Beneficiaries of the training and development awards sign Surety Bond to ensure that they come back to work for the Government at the completion of their studies (Draft Training Policy Report, 2009). PMO has trained officers in the domain of Human Resource, Public Administration and Management, among others. These priorities have been rationalized on the basis of clear-cut needs of Institutions to complement the aims and objectives of Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper and Vision 2020 Programmes. The rationale behind all these training and development activities has been to provide the needed resources for personal development of administrative officers and deliver effective public service that would enhance socioeconomic development and sound economic management strategies. Succession planning and motivation are also part of its activities as means of career development for administrative officers (NewGambia.gm, 2009). Janko (2009) of the Daily Observer reported that, at the end of a two-day validation workshop on the development of the training policy and strategy organized by PMO, in collaboration with the Commonwealth Secretariat in London, Dr. Bah, the former secretary to Cabinet, commended PMO in coordinating such an important initiative to ensure that training. 21.

(39) and development in the Civil Service is better managed and strategized for better return on investment and further remarked: We are particularly proud of the Secretariat's interventions which are always demand-driven, and as such address our training and development needs. The Government has been eagerly awaiting such a policy tool and the challenge ahead will be appropriate implementation of the policy and to ensure adequate evaluation of the programmes. (p. 1). The objectives of the training policy are to improve the knowledge and skills of officers within the specific areas of training and sets out Strategy Implementation Plan which discusses elements of training for the short-term (2 years), medium-term (5 years) and longterm (10 years). PMO’s formulation and implementation of the training and development policy shows its commitment to ensure that sufficient concern and resources are allocated to the development of officers for the ultimate purpose of creating a strong workforce capable of performing effectively and efficiently. The challenge now and in the future is to put in place mechanisms to ensure that training and development is well-planned and implemented, and empirically evaluated in order to realize its maximum benefits (PSRICD, December 2009). MDI is one of the most important local training Institutes utilized by PMO to train administrative officers. It was set up to address very important measures of administrative reform related to capacity building, training, research and development. MDI has been supporting PMO train administrative officers, which is far cheaper than training them abroad. For example, one regular training and development programme for the administrative cadre conducted at MDI is the Induction Training Programme for cadet administrative officers. Other officers are sent abroad for training, most of the time in cases where the particular programmes are not offered in The Gambia (NewGambia.gm, 2009). The table below shows some administrative officers trained by PMO in areas ranging from short- to long-term training and development programmes. These officers have been trained locally and in countries such as the United Kingdom, Cyprus, Ghana, among others (NewGambia.gm, 2009).. 22.

(40) Table 2.1 Some of the Trained Administrative Officers of the Administrative Cadre Designation. Number. Field. Period. Permanent Secretaries(PS). 22. Admin.. _. Deputy PS. 19. Admin.. _. Prin. Asst. Secretaries. 21. Admin.. _. _. 34. Mgt./MDI. 2000-2004. _. 15. BA/UTG. 2002-2004. _. 85. _ /Overseas. 2000-2004. Directors. 45. _. _. Note. Adapted from “Personnel Management Office Website” 2011. Retrieved February 13, 2012 from http://www.pmo.gov.gm. Through its management of the Centralized Training Vote, PMO has been able to tap funds in the Estimates of the Recurrent Revenue and Expenditure. PMO also exploits opportunities offered by Multi-Sectoral and Bilateral Donor Agencies such as the Commonwealth Fund for Technical Co-operation, The Indian Government, and the Malaysian Technical Co-operation Programmes. Another important source of training assistance for PMO is the Public Service Reform Strategy Project that has been established under the Management of PMO. The project intends to strengthen the capacity of PMO to formulate policies and allocate resources to implement those policies so as to address capacity weaknesses and ensure effective delivery of public service (World Bank Document Report, 2010). The project has actually started operations and its cost was estimated to be 7.25 million US Dollars for the next five years. In fact, PMO has currently been able to train some officers of the administrative cadre in areas like Job Evaluation, Performance and Results Oriented Management Training, and Information Technology (IT) through the Public Service Reform Strategy Project. This huge investment emphasizes the need for assessment of the results of such a noble initiative (PMO, August 2007). This also means that PMO should establish a performance management system and conduct regular performance reviews (Klein, Randell, & Lauterbach, 2004). In conclusion, PMO with the support of the Government and its international partners has been providing trainings to the administrative cadre. All these efforts have been geared. 23.

(41) towards enhancing the performance of PMO, the Ministries, and personal development of administrative officers. Hence, pave the way for meeting the socio-economic development objectives of The Gambia. Needs assessment has been prioritized and actually all training experts recommend that needs assessment be the first step in any human resource development intervention (Leigh, Watkins, Platt, & Kaufman, 2000).Resources are invested in training and motivation of administrative officers, and there is consideration regarding trainees in terms of their individual capabilities and needs for training in their staff development endeavours. Experts suggest that characteristics such as motivation and attitudes are malleable individual difference factors that play a critical role in achieving positive training impact (Judge, Jackson, Shaw, Scott, & Rich, 2007). Administrative officers are appraised for promotion purposes. However, there is need for empirical research to determine the impact of its training and development activities (Draft Training Policy Report, 2009). Adequate assessment of training and development programmes’ impact is crucial for the decisions that must be made about HRD interventions (Werner & DeSimone, 2009). This will also help in the decision of whether to improve, sustain or discontinue the particular training programmes (Steensma, & Groeneveid, 2010).. 24.

(42) CHAPTER III. RESEARCH METHOD. This chapter displays the method that was utilized in conducting the present study. The chapter begins by describing what the researcher embarked on to study followed by the structure of the research framework. This is followed by a description of the research approach, including the semi-structured and open-ended interview questions, which were adopted to collect in-depth information from the respondents. The sample and participant selection describe the purposive sampling technique utilized for selection of administrative officers, heads of departments, and senior management officers of PMO as participants for the study. This is followed by a description of the data collection method, being the documents’ review and face-to-face interviews and the data analysis, which involved data coding in accordance with the research questions, research framework, and, literature review in interpreting the data. This is followed by the research process describing the flow of the whole research activities. Finally, the research validity and reliability explain the procedures taken to make the research more credible.. Research Framework The research framework was in line with what the researcher embarked on to study. The researcher in an attempt to investigate the training and development impact on employees’ performance in the administrative cadre of the PMO in The Gambia had categorized the outcomes into three groups. He developed the outcomes related to three identified stakeholders (administrative officers, PMO, and the Ministries) into key indicators of the training and development impact with reference to Kirkpatrick’s four-level evaluation model. As shown on figure 3.1, that helped ensure content validity based on the outcomes. One of the outcomes concerned about the administrative officers’ personal development. That is, the training and development meeting the administrative officers’ training needs, improving their skills and attitudes, and making significant changes to their job-related behaviours. The second and third outcomes concerned about the training and development enabling administrative officers contributes effectively to the performance of their various offices and the impact of such performance on PMO and the Ministries in terms of effective service-delivery (PSRICD, December 2009). 25.

(43) Training and Development Impact (Programmes’ Outcomes) Kirkpatrick’s four-level evaluation model. Administrative Officers’ Personal Development (trainees) -Meeting their training needs -Improving their skills and attitudes. Training and Development. - Behaviour change in their. Programmes. actual job performance. Provided by PMO -Contributions of T & D. PMO. programmes in terms of effective service-delivery Administrative. Senior Management Officers (Participants). Officers (Trainees). Ministries -Contributions of T & D. Heads of. programmes in terms of. Departments. effective service-delivery (Participants). Figure 3.1 Conceptual framework. Research Approach In this study, the researcher adopted a qualitative research approach and thus, intended to utilize a triangulation data collection method. By triangulation, the intention was to gather more in-depth pieces of information from three different sources, which produces richer findings (Patton, 1987). In this regard, the researcher intended to conduct direct observations, documents’ review, and interviews. The interview questions adopted from Sahin (2006) were critically examined to ensure they were in line with the research questions, literature review, 26.

(44) and research framework with reference to Kirkpatrick’s four-level evaluation model. They were further developed to enhance their validity and easy understanding by participants and finally organized into three sets. The first set of questions was for the administrative officers, who had undergone PMO sponsored training and development. Those questions related to the trainees’ needs, and motivation and satisfaction. The other questions related to trainees’ learning, behavioural change, performance, and their contributions to PMO and the Ministries. Refer to appendix B for those questions, they were all open-ended. The second set of questions was for the heads of departments at the Ministries. Those questions were organized into themes of reactions, behaviour, and results. The reaction questions inquired about the heads of departments’ work experiences in the administrative cadre, trainees’ reactions during the trainings and whether there were any changes to those reactions after the trainings. The other questions related to the heads of departments’ observations regarding the trainees’ behavioural change, contributions to their offices, and suggestions for improvement of the training programmes. Those questions were all open-ended. Refer to appendix C for those questions. The third set of questions was for the training providers of PMO, who are also beneficiaries of the training and development. Those questions related to the training needs of trainees, their reactions towards the training programmes, motivation and satisfaction, career progression, development of the trainees’ professional work abilities, their behavioural and attitudinal changes and general performance and contributions to PMO and the Ministries. Those questions were a mixture of semi-structured and open-ended questions. Refer to appendix D for those questions. The nature of all the questions provided ample room for responses, for instance, allowed the respondents to fully articulate their feelings about the issues asked (Pedrick, Babakus, & Richardson, 1993). Being a direct observer would have allowed the researcher study his participants without becoming a part of the whole show. Because of his humility, the participants might not even have realized they were being studied (Patton, 1987). The use of this method would have helped gain a close and intimate familiarity with the participants and their practices through an intensive involvement with them in their work environment. Unfortunately, the researcher could not conduct the direct observation method, other than the duration of the interviews due to time constraints and security reasons. The researcher, therefore, ended up utilizing mostly the face-to-face interviews and documents’ review methods. Accordingly, documents’ review on training and development activities of PMO was applied in addition to the interviews to complete the research. With the review of such 27.

(45) training and development documents and related reports, some content analysis helped construct a more comprehensive understanding of the whole training and development situation at PMO. That served as important sources in enhancing the completeness of the study, including providing an insight into the impact of training and development on the administrative cadre. A great deal of care was taken to ensure that there was proper content validity of the instrument. That was achieved by making sure that all the questions were in line with the stated outcomes as shown on figure 3.1, with reference to Kirkpatrick’s four-level evaluation model. The researcher developed a well-organized framework that showed the dependent relationships between the outcomes of the training and development, which should be determined by the needs of PMO (that institutions are expected to support), Ministries, and administrative officers.. Sample and Participant Selection In reality, sampling procedures should be chosen to get participants from the population most suitable for data collection. Despite the existence of several sampling techniques, the population from which the sample is drawn, or the sampling frame, can sometimes be difficult to determine and may lead to wrong sample selection. In order to avoid this problem, an alternative way for curbing sampling bias involves comparing different samples through careful techniques (Karney, Davila, Cohan, Sullivan, Johnson, & Bradbury, 1995). As such, after careful observation of the different sampling options in order to avoid sampling bias, the researcher finally decided to adopt purposive sampling in this study. Purposive sampling is sample selected in line with the appropriateness of the case based on the feature or process of interest of the research (Othman & Rahman, 2011). Accordingly, the participants were selected from the administrative officers of the administrative cadre using purposive sampling technique. This helped ensure proper sampling validity in that the instrument was able to assess the characteristics that were intended to be measured for the particular population (Scott & Johnson, 1972).These officers were trained by PMO and some of them were posted out to the Ministries of the Government, while others had been retained at the PMO. It does not matter where an administrative officer has been posted to. As long as one is an administrative officer and in the administrative cadre, one is directly under the. 28.

(46) Management responsibility of PMO. Specifically, four administrative officers who had undergone PMO training and development were selected based on the following criteria: 1.. They must have undergone the training programmes not less than a year ago.. 2.. They should not have changed jobs since a year ago.. 3.. They should still be officers of the administrative cadre. The selection criteria gave very little room to variation of those officers in terms of. exposure to training and development. Having undergone the trainings not less than a year ago was very important, because that gave sufficient time for any trainee who had undergone an effective training programme to transfer what he or she had learned on the job. Including those officers who had not changed jobs also ensured stability in job responsibilities and that officers were well-established in their positions to put into practice what they learned. Furthermore, still being officers of the administrative cadre was equally crucial in order to ensure maximum validity of the selection process. Maximum attention was also focused here. The study sample was also composed of three senior management officers of PMO. Being the providers as well as beneficiaries of the training and development programmes, it was important to include them into the sample. Furthermore, three heads of departments were selected from the Ministries as participants to the study. After all, having interviewed the trained administrative officers, it was equally crucial to hear from their supervisors. It should be noted that those senior officers had been widely exposed to training and development in their various Institutions. Therefore, including them as respondents helped gain a second opinion on the impact of training and development, beyond that which were reported by the trainees (Aluko, 2009). Actually, two trainees and the three senior management officers were selected as participants at the PMO, one trainee and a head of department were selected at the Ministry of Basic and Secondary Education, and one trainee and a head of department were selected at the Ministry of Tourism and Culture. For the Office of the Vice President, a trainee and a head of department were selected, but the trainee backed down from the research at the last moment giving reasons of busy schedules. As such, only the head of department participated in this study for that particular Ministry. The additional information on table 3.1 below gives the participants’ (interviewees) profile.. 29.

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