台灣文心蘭種苗病毒驗證制度之建立與展望

Download (0)

全文

(1)12:141-148, 2003. 1,3. 1 2 3. 2. 1. cachang@wufeng.tari.gov.tw 91 12 11. 1. 1. +886-4-23331089. . 2003.. .. 12:141-148. (Oncidium spp.). ORSV) CMV). (Odontoglossum ringspot virus, (Cucumber mosaic virus,. (Cymbidium mosaic virus, CyMV) (Tomato spotted wilt virus, TSWV) ORSV CyMV. 2003. 3. 12. (3,4,6). (Oncidium spp.) (2,3). (2). Gower Ramsey (13).

(2) 142. 12. 3. 2003. 85 1986 (2). (cv. Gower Ramsey). (2). 1991. 10 2001. 1996. (4,7). 88. (2). 185. (6). 1992 3000. 1996. 2,456. 14.7%. 1999. 11,430 56.7% (2,3). (6). (2,3). (. (6). ). (. ) 1. (2,6). (. ) 15. (3). (5000. ). 2 1. 3. Table 1. Effects of virus infection on the growth of mericloned oncidium seedlings during tissue culture stage and after transplanting in pots Characters Plant height (cm) Leaf width (cm) Leaf length (cm) No. of buds 1.. VF 9.3 0.8 -3 -. Tissue culture staged seedlings 1 ORSV CyMV O+C 7.5 0.7 -. 8.0 0.6 -. 8.2 0.8 -. VF 33.5 3.1 29.3 3.5. Transplanted seedlings 2 ORSV CyMV 33.4 2.2 22.5 3.4. 29.0 2.7 25.8 3.3. O+C 21.0 1.8 15.4 3.1. Plants of Oncidium var. Gower Ramsey were divided into four groups for inoculation treatment with ORSV, CyMV, ORSV mixed with CyMV (O+C), and mock (VF), respectively. After confirming the infection by ELISA tests, each group of plant were subjected for meristem tissue culture cloning. Stage I mericloning was done by Tai-Da orchid nursery, whereas propagation of the subsequent stages were conducted in our laboratory. Seedlings of stage II about 3-4 cm in height were selected and transferred into stage III flasks. Twentyfive seedlings were planted in each flask. Measurements of plant height and leaf width of the stage III seedlings were conducted every month until 5 months after transplanting. Five flasks and four seedlings from each flask were randomly selected from each inoculation treatment for measurement. Only the data of 4 months after transplanting was shown in this table. 2. Aforementioned stage III tissue culture seedlings from each inoculation treatment were removed from flasks and transplanted into pots when they were about 8 cm in height. About 300 seedlings from each inoculation treatment were planted together for observation. Every 6 months after transplanting, 20 seedlings were randomly selected from each treatment for measurement of plant height, leaf width, leaf length and bud number. The data shown in this table are averages of measurement taken 18 month after transplanting..

(3) 143. 9. (ORSV) 1. (Gower. 18. Ramsey). ORSV (volcano queen). (avana) (10). (. ). ORSV (6). ORSV (10,16,23). ORSV ORSV. ( 87. ). ORSV. CyMV (10). (10). 2. ORSV. (Tobamovirus). (16,23). 300 nm (23) (16,23). 95. 89. 20. (8,10). 10 ORSV. 2001. (9,20) (22,25). ORSV. 2002. ORSV. 3. (1). 12. (CyMV) 1. CyMV. Gower Ramsey. ORSV (Odontoglossum ringspot virus, ORSV) CyMV). (Cymbidium mosaic virus, (Cucumber mosaic virus, CMV). 0.5 - 1. (10). (Tomato spotted wilt virus, TSWV) (6,7). ORSV. CyMV (7,22,25). CyMV (. ). CyMV. ORSV ORSV (10). 20 (22,25) (10). (21).

(4) 144. 12. 3. 2003. (10). ORSV. CMV. CyMV RT-PCR. CMV DNA. CMV. (. ) CMV. 2. CyMV. X. CMV. (14). (Potexvirus) Tobamovirus (14,18). 450 nm 70. CMV. (18). CMV. 60 -. 2003. (18). 25 CyMV. (1). CMV. ORSV. CMV. (14,18). 2.. (TSWV). CMV. 1.. (24). Cucumovirus. 28 nm (24) 365 TSWV. 800. 85 (24). CMV. (19). TSWV. (24) (19). CMV. TSWV ORSV. CyMV. 2. TSWV. (17). (Tospovirus). (5). (enveloped) 85 nm (17) 45. (17). 5. (thrips) (17). Hawaii. TSWV. Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande. Hawaii. (19). TSWV. (CMV) 1. CMV CMV. (. ).

(5) 145. (4). 3.. F. 1. 1.. (oven). 2.. (autoclave). (laminar. flow stage) (. ). (11,12,15). ORSV. CyMV. ORSV. 10. (. (21). (Certificates). 2002. ) 3. 12. (1). 2.. (. ) (Inspector) 2003. 3. 12.

(6) 146. 12. 3. 2003. Fig. 1. Flowchart of virus-free oncidium seedling propagation and certification program in Taiwan.. (1). (. ) (1). (RT-PCR) CyMV. ORSV CMV (ELISA) (. 1-2. ). CyMV. ORSV.

(7) 147 (9,20). 8.. . 2001. . P.91-101. .. 9.. . 156 pp . 2002.. .. 351:24-31 10. (8,10). 2003. 3. . 2002.. . P.. 169-186.. 12. .. .. . 269 pp (1). 11.. . 1999. .. 8:180. 12.. . 1999. . 8:29-36. (9,20). 13.. . 2002. . P.86-133.. 1.. . 2002. . P.248-256.. .. .. . 269 pp 2.. . 2002.. . P.2-9.. .. .. .. 269 pp 3.. . 2002. .. 4.. . P.10-20. .. . 269 pp. . 1998.. .. 34:1-7 5.. . 1997.. .. 39:63-73 6.. . 2000. .. 7.. . 2001.. 35:1-7 1-. . . 32 pp. .. .. . . 269 pp 14. Brunt, A. A., Foster, G. D., Martelli, G. P., and Zavriev, S. K. 2000. Genus: Potexvirus. P.975-981. In: Virus taxonomy; Classification and nomenclature of viruses. Van Regenmortel, M. H. V. et. al. (eds.), Academic Press, San Diego, CA. 1162 pp. 15. Chang, C. A., and Pang, J. H. 1990. Preparation of antisera against cymbidium mosaic virus and odontoglossum ringspot virus and their uses in serological indexing for orchid industry in Taiwan. Plant Prot. Bul. 32:336. 16. Edwardson J. R., and Zettler, F. W. 1988. Odontoglossum ringspot virus. P.233-247. In: The plant viruses. Vol. 2. Van Regenmortel, M.H.V., and Fraenkel-Conrat, H. (eds.), Plenum Publishing Corporation, New York, USA. 17. Elliott, R. M., Bouloy, M., Calisher, C. H., Goldbach, R., Moyer, J. T., Nichol, S. T., Pettersson, R., Plyusnin, A., and Schmaljohn, C. S. 2000. Genus: Tospovirus. P.617621. In: Virus taxonomy; Classification and nomenclature of viruses. Van Regenmortel, M. H. V. et. al. (eds.), Academic Press, San Diego, CA. 1162 pp. 18. Hollings, M., and Stone, O. M. 1977. Cymbidium ringspot virus. CMI/AAB. Description of Plant Viruses, No. 178. 19. Hu, J. S., Ferreira, D., Wang, M., and Xu, M. Q. 1993. Detection of cymbidium mosaic virus, odontoglossum ringspot virus, tomato spotted wilt virus, and potyviruses infecting orchids in Hawaii. Plant Dis. 77:464-468. 20. Huttinga, H., and van Zaayen A. 2002. Naktuinbouw (Netherlands inspection service for horticulture). Acta. Hort. 568:111. 21. Inouye, N. 1983. Host range and properties of a strain of odontoglossum ringspot virus in Japan. Nogaku Kenkyu 60:53-67. 22. Lawson, R. G., and Hsu, H. T. 1995. Orchid viruses. p..

(8) 148. 12. 3. 2003. 409-420. In: Virus and virus-like diseases of bulb and flower crops. Loebenstein, G. et. al. (eds.), John Wiley & Sons, West Sussex, UK. 543 pp. 23. Paul, H. L. 1975. Odontoglossum ringspot virus. CMI/AAB. Description of Plant Viruses, No. 155. 24. Roossinck, M. J., Bujarski, J., Ding, S. W., Hajimorad, R., Hanada, K., Scott, S., and Tousignant, M. 2000. Genus:. Cucumovirus. P.929-930. In: Virus taxonomy; Classification and nomenclature of viruses. Van Regenmortel, M. H. V. et. al. (eds.), Academic Press, San Diego, CA. 1162 pp. 25. Zettler, F. W., Ko, N. J., Wisler, G. C., Elliott, M. S., and Wong, S. M. 1990. Viruses of orchids and their control. Plant Dis. 74:621-625.. ABSTRACT 1,3. 2. 1. Chang, C. A. , Lee, H. H. , Chen, C. C. , Lin, M. J. 1, Wang, C. P. 1 2003. Phytosanitary certification program of oncidium seedlings and its future prospect to the development of ornamental industry in Taiwan. Plant Pathol. Bull. 12:141-148. (1. Dept. of Plant Pathology, Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute; 2. Bureau of Animal and Plant Health Inspection and Quarantine, Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan; 3. Corresponding author, Email: cachang@wufeng.tari.gov.tw, Fax:+886-4-23331089) Oncidium orchid is considered a potential commodity in the ongoing development of ornamental industry in Taiwan. The quality of Taiwanese oncidium cut flowers is highly appraised in Japanese floral auction market. The number and acreage of oncidium orchid nurseries have increased in Taiwan during the last decade of the 20th century. Although oncidium industry has been developing prosperously, there are problems need to be solved. One of the concerns that affect most growers is the constant availability of high quality virus-free seedlings. In the past, tissue culture derived seedlings, the only propagation materials for oncidium orchids in Taiwan, were mainly imported from Thailand. However, many investigations have shown that those imported seedlings were frequently found with unacceptable virus infection rate. Nurseries growing these seedlings always suffered significantly from economical losses. Our growers, therefore, have increased their dependences on domestic tissue culture companies to supply oncidium seedlings. Virus diseases have become less problematic but still remain. There are four viruses, i.e. Odontoglossum ringspot virus (ORSV), Cymbidium mosaic virus (CyMV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), and Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) known to infect oncidium orchids in the literature. In Taiwan and many orchid exporting countries, ORSV and CyMV are considered the most widely spread and economically important viruses. Besides infecting mother stocks, which are the major sources for virus dissemination, both ORSV and CyMV can easily contaminate orchid seedlings during tissue culture processing. This is because of their unusual in vitro stability. In order to produce high quality virus-free seedlings, we have developed an oncidium seedling propagation and certification program, in which on-site inspection and laboratory virus indexing are integrated to ensure phytosanitary production of oncidium tissue cultured seedlings. On March 12, 2002, the Bureau of Animal and Plant Health Inspection and Quarantine (BAPHIQ) officially issued, for immediate implementation, the "Rules and Regulations for Certification of Virus-Free Oncidium Hybrids ". This is the very first phytosanitary certification program in the history of plant industry in Taiwan. Phytosanitary certification has been implemented for more than sixty years in the Netherlands resulting in strong international recognition of the Dutch floral industry. By enforcing the seedling certification program, we hope that the quality of Taiwanese oncidium seedlings will be improved and recognized and their international competitiveness will thus be increased. Key words: Oncidium, orchids, virus disease, seedling, phytosanitary certification.

(9)

數據

Updating...

參考文獻

相關主題 :