(2) Abstract. Character and competitiveness are common concerns of parents everywhere when making arrangement for their children’s educational and living environment. But if these parents cannot pick up both, what would they do? Which values concern them most? That is exactly the case of today’s Taiwanese businesspeople in China (Taishang): with China’s emerging role and challenging curriculums on one hand but Taiwan’s much better moral and personality education on the other hand. What would these parents choose for their children? Would they let their kids continue their education in Taiwan or move to China and stay with them? Such decision may provide rich clues for us to. 政 治 大 conducted in 2009 and 2010, I find that the primary concern of these Taiwanese parents 立 is still their children character. Most of them tend to leave their kids in Taiwan, explore the deep concern behind all educational choices. Based on my field research. ‧ 國. 學. protecting them with an education system they could really trust. Otherwise, they have to bring their children with them and they would normally send the kids to some Taiwanese. ‧. or international schools, which can safeguard their children from character and. sit. y. Nat. personality degradation.. n. al. er. io. Keywords: China, Taiwan, education, competitiveness, Taishang. Ch. engchi. i n U. v. 2.
(3) Table of Contents 1. Introduction…………………………………………………………………………......4 1.1 Background………………………………………………………………………..4 1.2 Motivation…………………………………………………………………………5 1.3 Research Questions and Hypothesis………………………………………………6 1.4 Methodology………………………………………………………………………7 2. Literature Review……………………………………………………………………...10 2.1 Migration and Education………………………………………………………....10 2.2 Character and Education…………………………………………………………12. 政 治 大 2.4 Prospects for the Future of China and Taiwan…………………………………...15 立 3. Analysis of Competitiveness Concern …………………………………………..........17 2.3 Competitiveness and Education………………………………………………….14. ‧ 國. 學. 3.1 School Education………………………………………………..……………….18 3.2 Social Impact…………………………………………………………………….28. ‧. 3.3 Higher Education and Job Obtainment………………………………………......33. y. Nat. 3.4 Family Influence…………………………………………………………………36. sit. 3.5 Brief Summary…………………………………………………………………...37. al. er. io. 4. Analysis of Character Concern…………………………………………………..........40. n. v i n Ch 4.2 Social Impact…………………………………………………………………….45 engchi U 5. School Selection……………………………………………………………………….49 4.1 Family Influence…………………………………………………………………41. 5.1 Leave Children in Taiwan………………………………………………………..49 5.2 Bring Children to China………………………………………………………….52 6. Conclusions……………………………………………………………………………59. References………………………………………………………………………………..62 Appendix I: Interview Outline…………………………………………………………...66 Appendix II: Interviewee Outline………………………………………………………..68. 3.
(4) Chapter1. Introduction Parents always want to give the best for their children. Same for the Taiwanese businesspeople in China, when it comes to their children’s education, they try to make the best choice. In the 1990s, most Taiwanese businessmen preferred their children to be educated in Taiwan instead of China because they did not trust the education system. They worried that different family values and thoughts would be created. Since children’s character could be molded by education greatly, parents are concerned their children’s mind cultivation and always wish to foster their children’s good concept and personality. Because of the living standard and quality in China was not as good as Taiwan in the 1990s, most Taiwanese businessmen chose to let their children be educated in Taiwan.. 政 治 大. However China is rising in the recent years, for the constant economy growth, China. 立. also makes any endeavor to develop education. The key primary and high schools have. ‧ 國. 學. outstanding school achievements and the Mainland Chinese teachers have strived to teach students well. At the same time, under the financial recession in Taiwan, more and more. ‧. people have viewed China as the future working base. Combined with the education improvement in China and future job market, studying in China is a way to build the. sit. y. Nat. abilities and local networks for children’s future career plan. Here this paper will delve. io. er. into the Taiwanese businessmen’s difficult decision of their children’s study plan over character and competitiveness.. n. al. 1.1 Background. Ch. engchi. i n U. v. On March 21, 2008, Taiwan held its twelfth presidential election, KMT candidate Ma Ying-jeou was elected with 58.45 percent of the vote.1 Ma’s China policy principles are “no reunification, no independence, and no use of force”, which means that he will not negotiate reunification with China during his presidential term, nor will he declare Taiwan’s independence. He is also against the use of force by either side. In his inaugural address, he argued for the principle of “face reality, pioneer a new future, shelve controversies and pursue a win-win solution”, as the response to President Hu’s call in. 1. Central Election Commission, Mar. 22, 2008, available at: http://18.104.22.168/Excel/chart54.xls. 4.
(5) 2007 for “building mutual trust, shelving controversies, finding commonalities despite differences, and creating together a win-win solution”. 2 China and Taiwan have gradually realized the maintaining peace and stability is a common interest. Under the improvement of mutual consensus of keeping peace and stability, economic opportunities matter for most people in financial tsunami. Working in China is a trend among the younger generation. According to a survey conducted by the biggest job hunting website in Taiwan, more than 60 percent of respondents said that they would consider working in China. The survey concludes that “do you want to work in China or not?” is no longer a pertinent question; rather the issue is “where are my opportunities in China and what can I do there?” The top three reasons young people consider working in. 政 治 大 long-term career goals; 2) It is better to get a spot before the job competition gets too 立 intense; 3) China is more international than Taiwan. As a result, the tendency of many. China are: 1) China has huge potential. Work experience in China will be helpful for 3. ‧ 國. 學. Taiwanese people viewing China as a working base comes with the consideration---their children’s education. There are some points that are worthy of our future studies and. al. er. io. sit. y. Nat. 1.2 Motivation. ‧. discussion.. n. v i n C career look after both sides of family and bring their children with. The ensuing h e nsogthat chi U. Many Taiwanese businessmen who go to China for investing and working want to. problem is their children’s education. Ensuring competitiveness in the future fierce job market in the world is vital to the tens of thousand of parents. When I read one article published in Business Weekly, the chief editor points out one example, that is, some. parents send their children to study in the affiliated school of Tsinghua university in Beijing rather as before to send children to the U.S. They detain the note in China, not in. 2. President Ma’s inauguration speech on May 20, 2008, available at: http://www.president.gov.tw/php-bin/prez/shownews.php4?Rid=14000, President Hu’s report on the 17th National People’s Congress on Oct. 24, 2007, available at: http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2007-10/24/content_6938749.htm. 3 “Taiwan Minzhong Qipan Liangan Zhihang,” (Taiwanese Look forward to the Three Links), 104 Job Bank, Feb. 29, 2008, available at: http://www.104.com.tw/cfdocs/2000/pressroom/104news970229.htm.. 5.
(6) the U.S.4 Facing increased pressure to ensure their children to be capable for the future global village, parents’ decision of bringing their children to China or not, competitiveness crucially takes into highly account. On the other hand, education in China started to bloom in the 1990s but the comprehensive quality enhancement still is a long road to go. In the primary schools, because of the existence of one-sided pursuit of entering a higher-school proportion, the result is the overloaded schoolwork and the fragile character education. Compared with Taiwan’s education executive blueprint, Taiwan puts a lot of emphasis on character education and carries out enthusiastically in school education.5 Except for the visible textbooks, the influence and change imperceptibly transform the personality and. 政 治 大 this concealed worry make Taiwanese businessman step backward to bring their children 立 with to China? character of children of Taiwanese businessman in the social atmosphere in China. Will. ‧ 國. 學. 1.3 Research Questions and Hypothesis. ‧. y. Nat. The general interest of this paper, under the scope of education, is to assess the. sit. influence of character and competitiveness to decide whether Taiwanese businessmen. al. er. io. bring their children with to China and try to predict the future trend of education. n. v i n C h look at Taiwanese Here, the paper will take a closer e n g c h i U businessmen’s consideration of bringing their children with or not. That is why the study wants to empirically examine relocation for Taiwanese businessmen in China.. Taiwanese businessmen’s decisions to achieve, character or competitiveness, what they most care about. I am intentionally omitting children’s moral and personality always come to the first in parents’ minds. Then, what affects do character and competitiveness have on their final decision? What implications will the condition of bringing their children to China have on our next generation?. 4. “Siao Liou Syue Sheng Zai Beijing,” (Studying Abroad in Beijing), Business Weekly, vol. 1113(Mar. 23, 2009):16.. 5. Sun-chi Liu, “Educational Reform in China from 1978 to 2006,” Bulletin of the National Institute of Education Resources and Research, 32 (December 2006): 61-88.. 6.
(7) 1.4 Methodology. This study’s objective is to examine the factors of Taiwanese businessmen’s decision of bringing their children with to China from the perspective of character and competitiveness under the scope of children’s education. This study will execute with three stages — anticipatory preparation, material collection and interview analysis. This paper is in the use of in-depth interview. I am going to interview with parents who have children and people who have comments on this issue. I plan to interview 20 Taiwanese businessmen and related people such as Taima, children both in Taiwan and China. In order to meet the theoretical saturation, the field work will be conducted in the. 政 治 大 Firstly, anticipatory preparation focuses on the followings: collecting the relative 立 literature review, having dialogue with associated theories; launching the detailed scheme area of Shanghai and Taiwan over a eight-month period from July 2009 to March 2010.. ‧ 國. 學. of the research framework, emphasizing on conceptual operation; carrying on the implementation of interview design. The second stage, material collection, is consisted of. ‧. in-depth interview, participation and observation. The third stage, data analysis, includes. y. sit. io. n. al. er. writing.. Nat. field data compilation; field data analysis; establishment of demonstration and thesis. Ch. engchi. i n U. v. 7.
(8) Figure1: Research flow chart. -------------------------------------------------------. Collecting Literature Review. First stage: anticipatory preparation --------------------------------------------------------. Second stage: material collection. Launching Detailed Scheme of Research Framework. In-Depth Interview. Participation & Observation. 政 治 大 -------------------------------------------------------------Field Data Compilation 立. ‧ 國. 學 Field Data Analysis. Third stage: data analysis. ‧ y. n. er. io. al. Establishment of Demonstration and Thesis Writing. sit. Nat. --------------------------------------------------------. Ch. engchi. i n U. v. Figure2: Chart of Research Progress Duty Stage. Work Course. Anticipatory Preparation Sep 2008～Jun 2009. Field Work. Data Analysis. Jul 2009～Feb 2010. Mar 2010～Jun 2010. 8.
(9) The study will be conducted through qualitative approaches.. Qualitative research. will be based on field work conducted in the area of Shanghai and Taipei. Bringing children with to China or not, the decision making is personal and subjective, and also influenced by social networking and other specific characteristics. Therefore, the research is based upon the qualitative approach, in the use of semi-structured questionnaire to collect and analyze qualitative data. It is helpful to understand the Taiwanese businessmen’s personal intention and social networks. In the qualitative approach, this research will be assisted with in-depth interview to better understand the decision making. What’s more, through the collection and review of second-hand academic journals, books, and newspapers provide background, the study of the evolution of Taiwanese. 政 治 大. businessmen’s attitudes and decision of bringing their children with to the rising China will be more completed.. 立. ‧. ‧ 國. 學. n. er. io. sit. y. Nat. al. Ch. engchi. i n U. v. 9.
(10) Chapter2. Literature Review The thinking, concept and culture related to character exist in every move of one’s life. Culture and identity are to behave and think at one’s will. It is very exclusive depending on one’s personal decision and also influenced gradually by the environment and atmosphere. On the contrary with the inner will, competitiveness is affected by the outside world really. The competitiveness relates career opportunity and profit making. Though rich in soul is quite important, it won’t exist without well-living in daily life. People seek for better living standard and well-being undoubtedly.. 2.1 Migration and Education. 立. 政 治 大. Education has been identified in sociological research as a catalyst of social,. ‧ 國. 學. economic and ideational change. The relationship between education and migration is not new in theory or research. It is however, a complex relationship both from the theoretical. ‧. and empirical pointview that is not thoroughly understood. Some studies have indeed found strong positive effects of educational attainment on the propensity to migrate.6. y. Nat. sit. However, other studies have found negative effects of educational attainment on. n. al. er. io. migration in certain settings,7 and still others have found no significant effects at all.8. 6. 7. 8. Ch. engchi. i n U. v. John C. Caldwell, African Rural-Urban Migration: The Movement to Ghana’s Towns, New York: Columbia University Press, (1969); Oded Stark & J. Edward Taylor, “Migration Incentives, Migration Types: The Role of Relative Deprivation,” The Economic Journal, 101(1991): 1163-1178; and Katharine M Donato, “Current Trends and Patterns of Female Migration: Evidence from Mexico,” International Migration Review, 27:4 (1993): 748-771. Robert E.B.Lucas, “Migration amongst the Batswana,” The Economic Journal, 95(1985): 358-382; Douglas S. Massey, Rafael Alarcon, Jorge Durand, and Humberto Gonzalez, Return to Aztlan: The Social Process of International Migration from Western Mexico. Berkeley & LA: University of California Press, (1987); Douglas S. Massey & Kristin E. Espinosa, “What’s Driving Mexico-U.S. Migration?” American Journal of Sociology, 102:4(1997): 939-999; Michael A. Quinn & Stephen Rubb, “The Importance of Education-Occupation Matching in Migration Decisions,” Demography, 42: 1(2005): 153-167. Robert D. Emerson, “Migratory Labour and Agriculture,” American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 71:3(1989): 617-629.; R. H. Adams, “The Economic and Demographic Determinants of International Migration in Rural Egypt,” Journal of Development Studies 30:1 (1993):146-167. ; Sara R Curran & Estela Rivero-Fuentes, “Engendering Migrant Networks: The Case of Mexican Migration,” Demography 40:2 (2003):289-307.. 10.
(11) In general, the literature appears to favor the prospect that educational attainment does increase the likelihood of migration.9 The link between education and migration is often viewed as problematic in public discourse. Of recent, however, a more positive view of this context is taken, which emphasis of multicultural migrants, their educational aspirations and their multiple cultural orientations increasingly as an important individual resource and societal potential. However, both these views have their basis a view of culture that does not emphasize the individual actions of the persons concerned but it instead entails a stereotypical and sometimes racist schemes of perception or description. These allegations present hurdles for processes and communication and education. Within these. 政 治 大 thus important aspects of the relationship between migration and education. 立 Economic theories of the relationship between education and out-migration are some. surface historically and culturally conditioned mechanisms of discrimination. They are 10. ‧ 國. 學. of the oldest in the field. Both of the neo-classical and new economics of migration theories conceptualize educational attainment as a form of human capital that leads an. ‧. individual to expect better outcomes from migration.11 The knowledge and skills gained. y. Nat. from school may also increase the ability of an individual to complete a journey and cope. sit. with in a new place, thereby decreasing the costs and risks of migration.12 Through these. al. er. io. mechanisms, economic theories generally predict that educational attainment is positively. n. v i n current schooling; it can interruptCtheir and in many cases precludes them from h estudies, ngchi U re-enrolling. There may also be opportunity costs for parents who have already invested. related to migration. However, the process of migration forces a student to quit their. in their children’s education. Thus, the neo-classical and new economic theories of migration would lead us to predict the enrolment in school would decrease the likelihood of migration, independent of the effects of educational attainment.13. 9. Williams Nathalie, “Education, Gender and Migration,” Paper presented at the Annual Meetings of the Population Association of America, Los Angeles, California (March, 2006). 10 International Conference: Migration, Education and Social Change, Institute for Regional and Migration research (IRM), Trier, Germany (July, 2006). 11 John R., Harris & Michael P. Todaro, “Migration, Unemployment, and Development: A Two-Sector Analysis,” American Economic Review, (1970):126-142. 12 O. Stark & D. E. Bloom, “The New Economics of Labor Migration,” American Economic Review 75:2 (1985):173–178. 13 See note 9 above.. 11.
(12) Other theories linking education to out-migration through social mechanisms do not have the historical legacy of economic theories, but have received strong support in the past decades. Social networks theory14 adapts Bourdieu’s concept of social concept of social capital to migration, arguing that social contacts with individuals who have migrated, or are currently resident at a destination, provide information and assistance to the new migrant, thereby decreasing the costs and risks of migration. Thus social networks may increase the probability of out-migration. Empirical research has consistently found social contacts to be a strong determinant of out-migration.15 Education enters this causal relationship through expanding social networks. Participation in formal education increases the number of non-family social relationships. 政 治 大 credentials from school. Additionally, social networks may in fact relate synergistically 立 with economic theory. Not only does formal schooling provide an individual with wider of an individual, regardless of whether they have gained any knowledge, skills, or. ‧ 國. 學. social networks are selectively comprised of educated individuals who may be more likely to migrate themselves. Thus, we would expect educational attainment, or more. ‧. years spent in formal schooling, to increase an individual’s social network and thereby. n. al. Character education is. er. io. 2.2 Character and Education. sit. y. Nat. increase the likelihood that they will migrate.16. i n C “broadhin scope and difficult engchi U. v. to define”17 and character. education is as old as education itself. The two broad proposes of education in virtually every society are to “help people become smart, and help them become good.”18 From the earliest days of Western civilization, character education took the form of stories and mentorship. Plato learned from Socrates not only through their engaging. 14. 15. 16 17. 18. Douglas S. Massey, “The Ethno-Survey in Theory and Practice,” International Migration Review 21(1987):1498-1522. K. M. Donato, “Current Trends and Patterns in Female Migration: Evidence from Mexico,” International Migration Review 27:4(1993):748–771. ; H. Zlotnik, “The South-to-North Migration of Women,” International Migration Review 29:1(1995):229–254. See note 9 above. Evelyn, Holt Otten, “Character Education,” September 2000, available at: http://www.indiana.edu/~ssdc/chardig.htm Thomas Lickona,“The Return of Character Education,” Educational Leadership. ASCD 11(1993):6-11.. 12.
(13) conversations, but also by traveling and living with Socrates and embracing the qualities he observed in his teacher. Previously, stories have formed the bases of transmitting culture and history (for example, Aesop’s fables, and a variety of fairy tales). Today, while stories are still powerful vehicles for character education, the process is intensified in schools, where the majority of children spend the greater part of their days.19 In the early part of the 20th century, both Dewey and Whitehead argued for the education of the “whole person”, 20 and for education to be useful. 21 Thorndike, a behaviorist, presented the classic Stimulus-Response framework. He noted that learning results from the associations formed between stimuli and responses. In 1926, Thorndike conducted a five-year character education inquiry to evaluate moral education and. 政 治 大 Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget is most notable for posing cognitive, intellectual, and 立 moral development in stages. Moreover, he believed that “schema” was necessary for construct an inventory of useful values.. ‧ 國. 學. cognitive development, and that those structures changed over time through the processes of assimilation (i.e. interpreting events in light of existing schema) and accommodation. ‧. (constructing new schema to make sense of the environment).22 Kohlberg’s theory of. y. Nat. moral development also posed stages through which children must pass in order to move. sit. to a “higher stage” of development. He also popularized the use of “moral dilemmas” as. er. io. one method for fostering increasingly higher levels of moral development.23. al. n. v i n and Clearning, their relation h e n gand chi U. Current theory and recent research has led to new understandings about moral development, knowledge,. to the teaching of. values/character education. Stage theories of development have yielded to theories that acknowledge the multifaceted nature of human development and learning. Howard Gardner and Robert Sternberg have gained notoriety with their notions of multiple intelligences and the nature of the mind respectively. Gardner’s work identifies several distinct. forms. of. intelligence,. including. ‘inter-personal”. (social. skills). and. “intra-personal” (insight, meta-cognition) intelligence, both of which are central aspects 19 20 21 22 23. Kathleen Shea, Making the Case for Value/Character Education, (2003) Dewey J, Democracy and Education, New York: Macmillan, (1916) A. N. Whitehead, The Aims of Education and other Essays. New York: Macmillan,(1929) Jean Piaget, The Moral Development of the Child, New York: Collier, (1932/1965) Lawrence Kohlberg, The Psychology of Moral Development. San Francisco, CA: Harper & Row (1969/1984). 13.
(14) of values/character education.24 Sternberg’s work brings to light several information processing sub-processes which interact to determine behavior, particularly the ability to adapt to and shape the present environment, an important consideration for creating a values-based atmosphere in society.25 Vigotsky highlighted the importance of social interaction in learning. According to Vigotsky26, every function in the child’ cultural development appears twice: first on the social level, and later, on the individual level. His notion of the “zone of proximal leaning” is another of his contributions, explaining the importance of a certain time span during which learning can occur. The social skills children need to function effectively are often developed and refined within the context of a character education program.. 政 治 大 2.3 Competitiveness and Education 立. ‧ 國. 學. As the World Economic Forum underlined in its Global Competitiveness Report, “Education and training have emerged as key drivers of competitiveness, ensuring that. ‧. the labor force has access to new knowledge and is trained in new processes and the latest. y. Nat. technologies......A country’s ability to absorb new technologies, to produce goods and. sit. services that can reach standards of quality and performance acceptable in international. n. al. er. io. markets, to engage with the rest of the world in ways that are value-creating, is intimately. iv n specialized U. linked to the quality of its schools, to the priority given to training in mathematics and. Ch. engchi. science, and to the existence and accessibility of centers.”. 27. research and training. The Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) is a system of international assessments that focus on 15-year-olds' capabilities in reading literacy, mathematics literacy, and science literacy. PISA also includes measures of general or cross-curricular competencies such as learning strategies. PISA emphasizes functional skills that students have acquired as they near the end of mandatory schooling. PISA is 24. 25. 26 27. H. Gardner, Frames of Mind: the Theory of Multiple Intelligences, New York: Basic Books, 10th. Ed, (1993) R. Sternberg, The Triarchic Mind: A New Theory of Human Intelligence, New York: Viking Press, (1988) L. Vigotsky, Mind in Society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, (1978) World Economic Forum, Global Competitiveness Report, (2006-7). 14.
(15) organized by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), an intergovernmental organization of industrialized countries. Begun in 2000, PISA is administered every 3 years. Each administration includes assessments of all three subjects, but assesses one of the subjects in depth. The most recent administration was in 2006 and focused on science literacy. PISA 2009 data collection will take place from September to November 2009 and will focus on reading literacy. The PISA 2009 National Report will be released in December 2010.28 In the PISA 2009 data collection, Shanghai-China will be included. As we read the data of year 2006, we find out the good performance in mathematical of Taipei, but we still can predict the brilliant outcome of Shanghai-China in many aspects of observation.. 政 治 大 2.4 Prospects for the Future of China and Taiwan 立. ‧ 國. 學. China’s high rates of growth over the past quarter of a century and over the past decade in particular were the result of a rapid expansion of the key ingredients of. ‧. economic growth everywhere in the world. These ingredients included a rapid increase in. y. Nat. the capital stock particularly in the modern industrial and service sectors together with an. sit. equally if not more impressive expansion in human capital through the growth of student. al. er. io. enrollment particularly at the secondary and university levels. Primary level enrollment. n. v i n Increased inputs of physical C capital human capital, however, were not the main h e and ngchi U story of growth during the reform period that began in 1978. There were also major was effectively universal by the 1990s so expansion there was much less rapid.. productivity spurts caused by the steady dismantling of many barriers to independent enterprise followed in the 1990s by the gradual creation of some of the institutional structures needed particularly by foreign investors.29 International competitiveness in global economy is evaluated by two international organizations: the World Economic Forum (WEF) and the International Institute for Management Development (IMD). WEF defines national competitiveness as the 28. 29. PISA, Science Competencies for Tomorrow’s World Executive Summary, (2006) Dwight H. Perkins, “China’s Recent Economic Performance and Future Prospects,” Asian Economic Policy Review, Tokyo, (2006):16-41.. 15.
(16) capability of maintaining high economic growth rate of a nation for the coming five to ten years. Geography and history determine the economy and politics, and politics and economics are closely interwoven. Examples are trade frictions, tariff negotiations, regulations on inward and outward foreign investments, or even the gunboat diplomacy of yesteryears. For the future of the Taiwanese economy, however, the most urgent problem it faces today is, unfortunately, the basic problem of nation-building, which other countries already experienced a long time ago, and the ensuing military threat from China for “unification.” We have seen the tremendous growth of Taiwan’s trade and outward investment in China in the 1990s. Taiwanese firms are the second largest foreign. 政 治 大 investors throughout the 1990s if Taiwanese indirect investment through Hong Kong is 立 considered. The growth and magnitude up to now probably indicate complementarities of investors in China, next to Hong Kong, in the early 1990s, and are probably the largest. ‧ 國. 學. economic relations between the two countries. As the world competitiveness indice have shown, while the future prospects of Taiwan in the global economy have been excellent. ‧. and bright, they hinge greatly, if not crucially, on Taiwan’s political relations with China.. y. Nat. Any discussions of Taiwan in the global economy in the future cannot, and should not,. sit. avoid its problem with China. The basic problem is China’s territorial claim on Taiwan. n. al. er. io. and the threat of the use of military forces. But China’s territorial claim is tenuous at best,. i n U. v. and that both countries would be benefited by a peaceful resolution of the dispute in a 30. civilized manner.. 30. Ch. engchi. Frank S.T. Hsiao& Mei-Chu W., Hsiao, “Taiwan in the Global Economy: Past, Present and Future”, in Chow, Peter C.Y. (edited) “Taiwan in the Global Economy: From an Agrarian Economy to and Exporter of High-Tech Products”, Pranger Publisher(2002). 16.
(17) Chapter3. Analysis of Competitiveness Concern. This and next chapters will observe the two main factors---competitiveness and character, from the perspectives of family, school, society, higher education and job opportunities, to examine how competitiveness and character affects Taiwanese parents in China to decide up their children’s study plan. Since reform and opening up, not only a large number of Taiwanese businesspeople have invested or worked in China but also many of them are intended footing locally. Therefore, the condition of bringing their children with to China becomes normally seen. As far as the Taiwanese parents concerned, their children’s education is the most. 政 治 大 moral personality. However, the education system has many differences between China 立 and Taiwan, along with Taiwanese parents’ concerns, there comes with the following. significant as education is a considerable course to shape children’s competitiveness and. ‧ 國. 學. choices. If their children might go back to Taiwan to continue their education in the near future, the parents would choose Taiwanese Businessmen’s school that is determined to. ‧. put an end to the problem of schooling of the children of Taiwanese businessmen, and in. y. Nat. turn promotes familial union and harmony so that Taiwanese businessmen at hand. io. sit. without looking back. Or some parents who think over their children’s local networking. er. and even to continue higher education in China, they would select local schools for their. al. n. v i n C h schools so U might send their children to international e n g c h i as to do helping for applying for. kids to attend. Also there are some parents consider letting their kids study abroad, they. colleges in the foreign countries. Others leave their children in Taiwan to continue education. Here the fieldwork for this research is primarily conducted in Taipei and Shanghai, the in-depth interview with 20 Taiwanese businesspeople, parents and people who on the spot. have. understanding. about. cross-Strait. education. conditions.. Through. depth-interview with the above-mentioned people, this research will make out and explain how family, school education, social impact, advancement to a higher school and future job to have influence on the Taiwanese parents in China to decide up their children’s study plan.. 17.
(18) This and the fourth chapter will generalize the elements mainly influence the children’s competitiveness and character. Based on the qualitative information collected by in-depth interviews, this paper will further analyze the parents’ deep concern behind all educational choices.. 3.1 School Education. Parents select the school type for their children therefore the curriculum, teacher quality, peer group and school culture are selected outcomes for their kids’ study. The choice reflects the educational aspects that parents put more emphasis. As a result this. 政 治 大 life. This section by means of school education is to discuss how parents draw the outline 立 of children’s competitiveness through school selection. This helps us to understand the paper will observe if the children are influenced by their parents’ school choice in daily. ‧ 國. 學. decisive factors of children’s study plan by parents. Here The section will divide four parts to examine the effect on children’s competitiveness---curriculum, teacher quality,. sit. y. Nat. 3.1.1 Curriculum. ‧. peer group, and school culture：. al. er. io. After the enrolment in China, many parents apparently feel the learning materials. n. v i n C they consider theirUkids would learn more： phenomenon are mostly positive thath engchi. are much more challenging than Taiwan. However their viewpoints toward the. My little daughter studies in China and I find her not only the basic traditional Chinese culture is better but her math and English are better. She can be trained up with more abilities here. (interview2009072903). Actually the foundation of learning is different across the Strait that we Taiwanese do not read enough books. On the contrary, the English textbooks are harder and harder in China. (interview2009072901). 18.
(19) Here in China the curriculum is substantial in content. Though there are many reciting materials, I feel that’s okay. When I was in my childhood, I was asked to memorize the ancient poetry but it helps my literature attainment today actually. (interview2009072801). I feel my son’s groundwork is better in China than in Taiwan. The local learning foundation is firm and I find Taiwanese curriculum is too easy. Even the textbooks are simplified and curriculum contents in Taiwan are too simple to enhance children’s abilities. (interview2009072902). 政 治 大 his level. He had to write English compositions in his 1 year in junior 立 high school. The ancient writings and math are more difficult and deeper.. When we arrived in China, my little son was asked to take an exam to know st. ‧ 國. 學. In China, ancient writings have specific weight that the kids are asked to write the ancient writings from memory. The ancient writings culture is. ‧. preserved totally. (interview2009073102). y. Nat. sit. One student recalled that in her fourth grade in elementary school, she transferred. al. n. math textbooks：. er. io. from Taiwan to Ningbo in China, she was astonished to find the difficulty of the local. Ch. engchi. i n U. v. At that time when I transferred, in Taiwan the math course was about two digits multiply two digits. However in Ningbo, I found it was the four fundamental operations of arithmetical decimal fractions. I was so astonished that I couldn’t believe. I was good at math in Taiwan actually but I knew nothing about decimal fractions then. (interview2008072905). On the contrary to most people’s opinion toward China, they mainly feel the learning materials and courses are more plentiful. There are still parts of interviewees presenting different viewpoints：. 19.
(20) The schoolwork in the international branch is not heavy but I feel the courses of the international branch are not well-organized, in great confusion. The curriculum is quite scattered. Comparatively, education system in Taiwan is more organized and extensive. (interview2009072904). English in China is not at an advantageous position. The students are afraid of speaking English. They are learning deaf-mute English and their listening and speaking in English is bad. (2009072905). Here English is deaf-mute English. They teach in English by writing or. 政 治 大. playing the cassette. The teachers don’t speak English in class. (interview2009072906). 立. ‧ 國. 學. From the above, parents mainly consider the children’s fundamental abilities such as ancient writings and math are established more stably in China than in Taiwan and. ‧. apparently find the challenging materials affect the children’s ability to some extent.. y. Nat. However in the aspect of English, parents find that the listening and speaking abilities are. sit. not as good as in Taiwan. Next this paper will observe the quality of teachers in school. n. al. er. io. education to examine whether the parents identify the teachers’ quality. Through. i n U. v. understanding the parents’ identification of teachers’ quality, we can discuss the. Ch. children’s competitiveness cultivation.. engchi. 3.1.2 Teacher quality Many parents can feel that teachers in China are not inferior to teachers in Taiwan after letting their children attend school locally. Even the parents approve of those teachers’ emphasis on their children’s learning and giving them possibilities to achieve success：. The teachers are good, conscientious and responsible. I have participated in the parents’ forum, in the meeting, the teachers say if parents need any. 20.
(21) help, feel free to talk to them. The homeroom teacher leaves each subject teacher’s phone number for parents. (interview2009072801). I feel the process of my little son’s learning in China is very smoothly going. I also find the teachers are concerned with my son’s studies, life style and lessons. The teachers don’t use physical punishment, they are caring. (interview2009072902). My child studies in the local school. The teachers he meets are all nice. His teacher gave him recommendation letter for Olympics math competition. 政 治 大 to get this recommendation letter. Though my child is a Taiwanese, the 立 teacher still approves of him and gives him the chances to perform. when he studied in the elementary school. Later on I found it was not easy. ‧ 國. 學. (interview2009073101). ‧. From this point of view, basically the Taiwanese parents in China trust and approve. y. Nat. of the local teachers. Especially one Taima mentioned good opportunities are. al. er. io. possibly have stages to perform：. sit. occupied by few people in Taiwan but in China once the kids have potential then they. n. v i n C h were taken away Formerly in Taiwan, good chances e n g c h i U by school teachers’. children. For instance, the teachers’ children are sent to participate in all kinds of competition. My son was indifferent in Taiwan but when he came to China, the teacher found every single student’s personality to give. him/her a stage to perform. Like my little son, he is assigned to be a group leader. He also determines to study harder when he get the progress honor. (interview2009072804). Another example is about the inspiration of foreign teachers. Some kids study in schools with affiliated international branch. Since the children can see foreign teachers in the campus, they are encouraged to learn English somehow：. 21.
(22) Like my daughter’s’ school, there is an international branch, when my daughter sees her classmates to talk with foreign teachers and my daughter thinks that she also wants to be so, to be able to talk in English. Previously in Taiwan, I don’t find her to have this motivation. My daughter would prefer playing rather to studying so as she has less competitiveness then. (interview2009072903). From this section, we can observe that the courses and teachers can influence not only the kids’ learning motivation but also the parents’ positive affirmation. Besides, the. 政 治 大 important role in building up the children’s competitiveness. Therefore, next section we 立 will observe the invisible factors to examine if these factors push the kids to pursue potential curriculum including peer group and school culture influence also plays an. ‧ 國. 學. advancement, even in order to win over the local students, they would make more efforts to achieve success. In addition, since the kids have the experience of living in Taiwan,. ‧. under the above mentioned factors and cross-strait comparison, to understand more if. io. al. y. sit. discuss more in the next section.. er. Nat. those will affect the children to strive for themselves, to step up competitiveness. We will. n. v i n C h attending school With regard to Taiwanese students’ e n g c h i U in China, as the children leave. 3.1.3 Peer group and school culture. their own comfortable environment in Taiwan but to a unfamiliar place, they become more mature to face challenges they haven’t encountered before. Chairman Wang has a point toward this argument, he mentions：. As far as I know, these Taiwanese students who attend school in China might be discriminated or treated unfairly locally so they have to become early-maturing. They will decide which major they will take in the college carefully. They deliberately consider the decision. (interview2009072702). Chairman Wang remembered once he chatted with a Taiwanese high school student,. 22.
(23) and he found in Taiwan most students rarely think over the relationship of future job and majors they take in college. They seem to be muddled. On the contrary, since Taiwanese students in China have to face the adaptation in daily life and they discover the strive upward atmosphere locally, they are more aware of competitiveness cultivation. Furthermore, Chairman Wang presented the following viewpoints：. For Taiwanese students, it is relaxing to grow up in Taiwan. When they have to grow up in China, to study locally, I don’t dare it’s always the best for the kids but I am sure the kids ponder on their future more seriously. (interview2009072702). 政 治 大 On the other hand, local students in China, their talking topics focus a lot on 立 knowledge issues. For Taiwanese students, in order to integrate with peer group’s. ‧ 國. 學. topics, they start to absorb related knowledge contents：. ‧. I find students in China pay attention to the global current issues but in. sit. y. Nat. Taiwan most students just watch cartoon, soap opera or entertainment programs. The children in China care about knowledge or current events,. io. n. al. er. for instance, the annular total eclipse happened in Shanghai, all the local. i n U. v. news reported annular total eclipse so that people were forced to. Ch. engchi. understand. My daughters had to understand to have conversation topics with her classmates. Therefore I find there is a big difference for my daughter here and Taiwan, she would naturally get in touch with profound information to have talking topics with her peer group. From the aspect of competitiveness, I find this condition is beneficial. (interview2009072903). Moreover, because China is populous, the local students in order to lift their heads, they strive to seize all the chances to show. This condition is also a new stimulus to Taiwanese students：. 23.
(24) The children in China are good at showing themselves. For example, they desperately raise their hand to express their opinions. Because of the one-child policy, the local children try their best to learn and they do learn more than Taiwanese kids. (interview2009072903). It is a good point that China is so populous that the local children intensively fight for their rights/speaking rights. They raise their hands and shout “me, me, me” to strive for expression chances. Unlike Taiwanese kids lower their head silently. (interview2009072901). 政 治 大 attend courses after school. The peer group learning fashions reflect on the children’s 立 studying situations： Besides, the local students except for lift their heads at school, they also have to. ‧ 國. 學. Among my daughter’s classmates, they all learn how to play the piano at. ‧. least since they are all well-off. They go study in tour in summer time.. y. Nat. When my daughter’s classmates return back from the study in tour, their. al. er. io. going studying in tour. (interview2009072903). sit. English would advance by leaps and bounds. My daughter would ask for. n. v i n C U have the concepts that Because of the one-child policy,hmany e nChinese g c h iparents. learning is the noblest thing of human pursuits. This idea reveals in the details of daily life. One Taiwanese student who studies in the local high school mentioned：. The thinking pattern here in China is that all kids’ mission is nothing but studying. For example, my classmate never folds his blanket but their parents or aunts do the chores. Once in summer vacation my classmate went to help in his mother’s store but was scolded angrily. His mother said: why don’t you use the summer vacation time to do what you are supposed to do---nothing but studying!(interview2009072905). 24.
(25) Local parents in China have great expectation on their children. They spare no efforts for upbringing their one child. Moreover, the whole school culture also manifests the examination-oriented aroma：. In learning aspect, I feel my child learn more in China than in Taiwan. In China my child is more hard-working because they keep on writing test papers. Especially in her third year in junior high school, she took exams everyday. (interview2009072906). The school is very pushy. In the beginning of the semester, the school calls. 政 治 大 meeting again. In the meeting, the school will divide parents into groups 立 according to their kids’ grades. (interview2009072901) parents’ meeting; after midterm holds meeting and after the final exam has. ‧ 國. 學. In China the education system encourages students to present their. ‧. opinions, to express very actively, to train children’s power of expression.. sit. y. Nat. (interview2009072804). al. er. io. Before the senior high school entrance examination, all the 3rd grade junior high. n. v i n C h to prepare forUthe exam students engchi. school students can’t never be slack to prepare for the exam. The whole school builds the supportive environment for. wholeheartedly. One. Taiwanese student recalled her days of preparing for senior high school entrance exam：. We didn’t have class in the 3rd year of junior high school. The teacher came in the classroom with a load of test papers then sent out to us. The students kept on writing the test papers. Then the next teacher came in, he still gave us many examination papers. We just wrote all the papers desperately. (interview2009072905). At that time when we prepared for the senior high school entrance exam, the construction of number 9 subway was surrounded our school, then it. 25.
(26) was regulated to pulse the construction work to avoid the disturbance of students’ preparation for exam. Before the entrance exam, it is regulated that no construction around the school was allowed because the entrance exam determines one’s future fate. If you enter a very bad senior high school, the game is over to you. The competitiveness in China is very serious. Everyone strives for winning. (interview2009072905). In Taiwan, when it is reported that 18 points can enter a college, many people think over what’s wrong with the education system. At this time, education in China progresses gradually. One educator said with sigh：. 政 治 大 Cross the Strait, the students are very diligent in learning. The condition 立 shocks us. The willpower of their young people to strive for turning upward. ‧ 國. 學. is similar to the situation happened in Taiwan 20 years ago. Their young people have strong enthusiasm. (interview2009080302). ‧. n. al. er. io. sit. he felt that we in Taiwan need a lot of reflection on education：. y. Nat. Furthermore, when the educator visited China to see the great number of disciples,. i n U. v. In China, young people’s upward attitude, parents’ emphasis on education,. Ch. engchi. educators’ practicable ways of running school and a more comprehensive development in education, for sure they have great pressure but the quality and structure of education worth of our pondering. (interview2009080302). On the whole education in China, in basis, they emphasize the promotion of students’ quality, the advancement of teaching quality. Moreover, the development of administrative affairs of school, there are three domains---firstly, walk out, walk to the international; secondly, walk to the space, astronomy science and the third, walk to the future. Every single target impresses us. They are looking for the promotion of quality and their. 26.
(27) students have great competitiveness definitely. But their three main shafts of education are worthy of our respect. (interview2009080302). In April 2009, Education Parenting Family Lifestyle magazine, one column focused on discussing the competition of the cross-strait education. From the angle of teachers’ quality, it was reported：in one basket of plans of the 8-percent protection policy, President Wen Jia-bao particularly emphasizes to construct the education system facing to the future, face to the world and face to the modernization which is a long-range program in China. In the education long-range development from now to 2020, to strengthen the teachers’ quality is viewed as the key point. Wen Jia-bao announced that. 政 治 大 treatment, to practice incentive payment system, to promote teachers training and flow. 立 The promotion of teachers’ quality at the meanwhile will promote the curriculum design, the central government will invest 120 hundred millions RMB to enhance the teachers’. ‧ 國. 學. teaching methods, class management to create a better studying fashions even the school culture.31 However in Taiwan, globalization, low-birth rate and the crash of knowledge. ‧. renew the old ones, the teachers in Taiwan are in condition of utter helplessness. We. y. sit. io. al. er. gradually.. Nat. can’t help worrying the crash on Taiwan’s winning at the starting line but left behind. n. v i n C respect. When I turn that makes me astonished and h e n g c h i U my head back to my. Especially I run a school in China now. I observe their progress is so fast. birthplace, Taiwan, I am a little sorrowful. I really miss my hometown, the place I feel as my root. However in the comparison of China’s progress and Taiwan’s unstableness, what Taiwanese educators fight for is nothing but the adults’ rights and interests on the contrary what China cares about is the kids’ development and future. That’s total different in the cross-strait. (interview2009080302). Education environment and children’s competitiveness is closely related. From the 31. “Liang An Jiao Yu Jing Jhu, Tsung Jiao Shih Su Jhih Kai Shih,” (Cross Strait Education Competition Starts from Teachers’ Quality), Education Parenting Family Lifestyle magazine, no.5 (April, 2009): 72-84. 27.
(28) above, the contents show the competitiveness advantages in China, for sure, there are many drawbacks in character education locally that this paper will discuss next chapter. Next section will from the basis of society to probe into parents’ consideration of their children’s competitiveness in China.. 3.2 Social Impact. Taiwanese parents in China consider except for family, school influence, social impact is also a main concern. Taiwanese business people’s children in China are affected by social folkways, living environment and mass media to cultivate their abilities. 政 治 大 networking in China and in Taiwan, to understand how they get touched in various 立 society to form the pull or push forces for their parents.. of competitiveness. Therefore, this section will observe the differences between social. ‧ 國. 學. 3.2.1 Social Convention and Living Conditions. ‧. For Taiwanese students who transfer their study to China, they have left their. y. Nat. comfortable circle to an unfamiliar environment. Because of the difference of formerly. al. er. io. sit. surroundings, the children can practice and experience more to come to maturity：. n. v i n C h in Taiwan easyUand comfortable. on others’ turf. They formerly stay engchi. In China, Taiwanese students become more mature it is because they stand. (interview2009073102). Children are still in the process of growth and adaptation. In China the parents can let kids get used to the new environment, find good schools for kids (that’s why support fee exists), find good teachers for kids (like East China Normal University students). (interview2009072902). As a mother, she can pay more attention to their kids in China. Because in China the price of commodities is lower compared with Taiwan, so as parents can hire aunts to help household duties, parents can accompany with their kids more：. 28.
(29) Here in China we can hire people to do the cleaning chores. For example my colleague in Xiamen, he hires 5 aunts to do the household duties. One is to systematize kids’ work and rest time. One is to take care of kids. One is to cook. One is to clean the house. The wife just needs to give orders. (interview2009072702). From the aspect of consumption level, in 1994, to work in China is double pay than in Taiwan. The income increases suddenly and the expenditure is lower than in Taiwan. So as parents can accumulate more fortunes for kids. 政 治 大. to have a good starting. (interview2009072702). 立. In Taiwan I let my kids attend all kinds of courses but the expenditure is. ‧ 國. 學. more expensive than in China. Here in Shanghai I still let my kid learn computer class, comics and animation, English and etc but they cost me. Nat. y. ‧. fair price. (interview2009073101). sit. My kid has carefree personality so is will to participate in many learning. al. er. io. groups such as gobang, karate class. The mixed-the-age courses can help. n. v i n C hwith my kid and the China I have more time to spend e n g c h i U class price is fair for my kid to resist compression. Take gobang class for instance, it is free. In. me to have multiple choices. (interview2009073101). Some parents find the progress of Chinese society, diversification and globalization in China that makes them to approve of letting their children study in China：. Around Hongqiao area in Shanghai, there are many financial organizations such as Korean firms or in Gu Bei district, there are many Taiwanese, Japanese and Korean businesspeople. In this big city we have diversification of lifestyles and the people we contact are more international. We have chances to get in touch with Russian, Japanese and. 29.
(30) other foreigners. Compared with the hometown in Taichung, we can’t be able to get touch with different things. Moreover Shanghai is not only competitive but with many financial opportunities here. (interview2009073102). In Shanghai, the facilities are more international, and easy to contact with foreigners. Like World Expo, we all need to use English and the whole Shanghai emphasizes on English and internationalization. (interview2009073102). 政 治 大 many family members migrate to Shanghai continually, Mrs. Wu furthermore says： 立 Mrs. Wu, her husband is working in traditional industry in China and there are. ‧ 國. 學. I had heard of various life experiences to kids is good but only when you can get involved in. In Shanghai, my kids can see more, know more and. ‧. widen their knowledge, like Shanghai World Expo, Beijing Olympics, these. sit. y. Nat. international activities. (interview2009073001). n. al. er. io. It’s good to come to feel China, to put an end of prejudice, to see various. i n C competitive and active thinking.h (interview2009073001) engchi U. v. experiences with an open mind, to blend the eyeshot, to be more. And then many Taiwanese businesspeople feel the emergence of Chinese economics to give them reflections of planning for their children’s study：. When everyone has no opportunity, it is imperative to go to Shanghai. For instance, the world is affected by financial tsunami but China still has 8 percent economic growth rate. (interview2009073001). In 1997, Mrs. Kao built up electrical machinery industry factory in Shenzhen. At first he had a LED industry company in Taiwan but he considered the interest of. 30.
(31) supply chain so he decided to go to Shenzhen. In 2002 the whole family moved together to Shenzhen. Mr. Kao mentioned：. The progress is very fast and the large market in China is very attractive. I am sure that in the near future, many Taiwanese need to find a position in China, especially the ones who major in electrical machinery. Since many factories including foreign company set up bases in China, many electrical machinery talents have to flow to China. But medical treatment, bio-technology, environmental protection and green technology are still potential in Taiwan. But the growth in China is with leaps and especially. 政 治 大 quickly. (interview2010012801) 立. China has great capital and think tank, easily they will chase up with ours. ‧ 國. 學. Mrs. Yang opens an artist’s studio in Shanghai, after she brought her child to study in China, she found the progress of China and considers that joining in the. Nat. sit. y. ‧. advancement process is a way to cultivate the child’s prospect：. We adults bring kids with us to China where it is not developed as well as. io. n. al. er. Taiwan, we have to give kids the prospects to look forward. Because China. i n U. v. has the potential and we can witness and learn the procedure. It is a good. Ch. engchi. thing for kids. If we want to go forward, there is much space to improve; if we have to go backward, we can still go back to Taiwan. China has progressed with leaps and bounds. (interview2009072901). Though China looks for new and quick as a whole atmosphere in social culture and living environment, there is some opposite points argued by a student who studies in international branch of Shanghai High School：. I want to go back to Taiwan. Though I find the progress in China, I am afraid I will become stiff if I study university here. Moreover I want to study design field, comparatively Taiwan is much better than China in this. 31.
(32) field. The thought and originality in Taiwan are more creative but in China it is stiff. (interview2009072904). From the above we could understand that it seems that study locally can sense the feeling of looking forward and striving upward aroma from the aspect of the emergence of China, it is just like Taiwan twenty years ago. However, in some other aspects, as the interviewee mentioned law, creativity and art still await for progress in China. Generally speaking the society in China offers much advantages for children’s competitiveness cultivation. Next section will explore the social mass media to know more if the media networking influences parents’ decision over their children’s study plan.. 3.2.2 Mass media. 立. 政 治 大. Mass media has influence on children’s growth to some extent. On one hand, the. ‧ 國. 學. news reports are always topics of peer group; on the other hand, many students watch TV in their leisure time：. ‧ y. Nat. Actually when you stay in China for a while, you find local students have. sit. quite good groundwork, like they can express their opinion well. The local. n. al. i n U. children’s groundwork in China is better than Taiwan. (interview2009072901). Ch. engchi. er. io. TV programs present many quizzes even an adult doesn’t know. The. v. In Taiwan, my daughter often watches entertainment programs, like cartoon or soap dramas. But in China, when you turn on the TV, you can see many programs related to knowledge. I find the local children can talk about current events. My daughter wants to have topic with the local students hence she forces herself to understand more knowledgeable issues. From the aspect of competitiveness, I find it is better. (interview2009072903). Some parents have observed that news in China is more international, covers the. 32.
(33) current issues globally. To compare with Taiwan’s news, there is a big difference. Furthermore, the situation reflects on children’s contact with international news：. Taiwan is an island country and the news rarely includes global news. However in China, the news channels like CCTV9 or ICS, they broadcast global news in English and Chinese all day. There is more foreign news. As a mother, I find this is good for kids since the condition provides children broaden horizons. (interview2009073102). From the angle of children’s social networks, Taiwanese parents mostly approve. 政 治 大 more international and competitive. However when they take future higher education or 立 job market into consideration, what attitude will these Taiwanese parents hold is the point of their children’s learning drive positively. They consider their children would become. ‧. ‧ 國. 學. of next section.. 3.3 Higher education and job obtainment. y. Nat. sit. When the market in China is bigger and bigger, one chairman of an advertisement. al. n. account：. er. io. company points out that for children’s job market, local networking is meant to take into. Ch. engchi. i n U. v. Take Master Kong for instance, in a very short time, the market share increases sharply. Take children’s education or adaptation ability into account, good educational environment surely consists of networking. Let kids study in China, once they have one classmate to become a president of State Council in China and that will be more helpful than in Taiwan. Children’s prospects need to be thought over. (interview2009072702). To combine the cross strait experiences of family, school and society, Taiwanese parents’ plan of letting children study further or seek jobs in China weighs high. Mrs. Chen’s husband was dispatched to work in Shanghai, she personally indicated：. 33.
(34) My husband and I both take a liking in big market and job opportunities in China. If my child studies here to have better networking and he understand local consumption style and living types, he will have beneficial assets for his future career. (interview2009072804). Mother Wu said that she just bought a house in Shanghai recently and it seemed to have no road back. They have family business in Shanghai and their family members have migrated to China. When she mentioned about her kids’ study plan：. 政 治 大. We have stayed in China for 9 years and we plan to stay here in the future. (interview2009073001). 立. ‧ 國. 學. Having real estate is the key reason to transfer children’s study to China. Except for real estate, future career prospects also take into consideration. Mrs. Hsu’s husband. ‧. works as an travel study consultant in Shanghai. Mrs. Hsu presented her opinion. io. sit. y. Nat. toward her kids’ study plan：. n. al. er. The kids’ father’s working prospect is in China so do the kids’. We have. i n U. v. bought a house in Chang-Ning district in Shanghai and plan to stay here.. Ch. engchi. We will let our kids grow up and be educated in China. (interview2009073101). Mrs. Sun’s two sons enter local colleges smoothly in China. One son majors in electrical machinery in Tong Ji University. Another one majors in oral surgery medical in Wu-Han University. Mrs. Sun’s idea is as followed：. There is no much room for progress in Taiwan but there is a wide space in China. Mr. Reboot said Taiwan is superior to China but last no more than one year. I find it is a pity for Taiwan. I will let my children know market. 34.
(35) locates in China and if they have the ability, just keep on studying. (interview2009073102). Another real concern is military service problem. When Taiwanese parents’ kids have the condition for military service, go back to Taiwan or not will become a no turn round decision：. I have asked my child whether he wants to go back to Taiwan or stay in China to continue his college education. In the end we decide to stay in China. My child has local friends and if he stays in China he can do. 政 治 大 years old, he can’t go back to Taiwan anymore. (interview2009073102) 立. nothing but do his best. Since the military service problem, when he is 19. ‧ 國. 學. My child is going to be the 2nd year student in senior high school. I haven’t considered something far away but my child has the military service. ‧. problem. If he goes abroad to study, I wish he can complete college in. y. Nat. China, in order to make sure he has learnt more firmly.. al. er. io. sit. (interview2009072801). n. v i n C hstudying in ChinaUor Taiwan. The decision mixes their children study abroad, except for engchi. As the above two cases, for Taiwanese parents in China, they have the choice to let. the concerns of dislike to stay in China or advantage to study abroad, that is the mixture of emotion and reality concerns：. I wish to let my two daughters study in China, not to give up the Hong Kong-Macao-Taiwan examination. I hope she can complete her college education in China. After that I hope she can study abroad. (interview2009072903). I plan to let my daughter study college in China. There are many colleges having cooperative relation with foreign colleges. Even the branches of. 35.
(36) those international colleges have built up in China. There is one new system called 2-2 system, that is, you can study in China for two years and study abroad for two years. I find that is good. (interview2009072901). I will try to let my son study senior high school courses locally and then let a foreign teacher to teach him the 3rd year curriculum in senior high school. I wish he can study college in foreign countries since I hope he can have a colorful university life. And we husband and wife plan to move back to Taiwan after finishing our work. (interview20090072902). 政 治 大 Shenzhen, his idea of their children’s future plan, he and his wife hold an open attitude, 立 just depends on their kids’ development： However for Chairman Kao who has an electrical machinery company in. ‧ 國. 學. We feel us as nomadic people. We came to Shenzhen just for work. In the. ‧. future, if our children have chances to study abroad, we will sell 60% of. y. Nat. shares to go to foreign countries with our kids. If our children want to. sit. study college in Taiwan, we will move back to Taiwan altogether. If they. n. al. to be independent. (interview2010012801). Ch. engchi. er. io. study college in China, we will keep staying in China till our kids are able. i n U. v. As for these Taiwanese parents in China, what course to follow depends on the advantageous position of their children. Parents emotionally want to give their kids the best but have the various mixed rational concerns. For them, except for going back to Taiwan, let their kids study abroad is also a choice. What if their kids don’t reject the environment in China, they will let their kids study locally. Therefore, from the aspect of children’s study plan, we have found every parent has different inclination. In general, they mostly are willing to stay in China.. 36.
(37) 3.4 Family Influence. Most Taiwanese businesspeople have to work in China all the year round and they wish to have family reunion so that bring their kids to China. As a result, the Taiwanese parents let their kids study in China and anticipate that their local personal network as social assets can enhance their kids’ competitiveness： The reason that my son can attend the key elementary school is because of my husband’s local relationship. He has relation with a high school principal that the principal helps my son to enter this key elementary school. (interview2009072902). 政 治 大 My husband’s company has cooperative relationship with Shanghai Jiao 立 Tong University affiliated elementary school so we let our kids come to. ‧ 國. 學. China. (interview2009073001). ‧. At that time the teacher knew that our kid could enter the key school on. y. Nat. account of relationship so the teacher especially paid attention to my son.. sit. The head-teacher of the class asked the homeroom teacher and other. n. al. er. io. teachers to reinforce my kid’s study. In the class break time and lunch. i n U. v. break, the teachers would ask my kid to the office to tutor in the materials. Ch. engchi. he had left behind. (interview2009072902). From this section we can observe that under some conditions, children are brought with to China. Since their parents have networks locally that provides the kids a favorable studying environment. Though children stay in Taiwan or go to China mainly depends on parents’ comprehensive arrangement, parents still try their best to select a better studying surroundings for the children, no matter in Taiwan or China. They arrange the educational environment seeking to secure a good future for their children, also intend ensuring their children’s good competitiveness.. 37.