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國立高雄大學西洋語文學系

碩士論文

英文原住民族繪本在文化及語言融合教育之運用

Integration of Culture and Language Learning

through English Indigenous Picture Books

研究生:郭學優 撰

指導教授:傅鈺雯 博士

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Without the assistance and encouragement from the following people, it would be impossible for me to accomplish this thesis. First of all, I would like to express sincere gratitude toward my advisor, Dr. Fu, Yu-wen, who gave me her patient guidance, inspiring suggestions, and maternal caring. Dr. Fu, having expertise in Cultural Studies and New Literature in English has been my teacher and friend for four years. Her professional instruction and practical consideration were significant to the accomplishment of the thesis. In particular, she always brought me hope and encouragement whenever I made things complex.

Second, special thanks are extended to Dr. Lin, Ya-Huei and Dr. Li, Cui-Yu, the committee members of my oral defense. I was fortunate to have Dr. Lin to see me grow up since my college studies. Her consideration and encouragement accompanied me to walk through my self-doubt period. Dr. Li gave me valuable and constructive suggestions. Her profound knowledge of English teaching helped me to reorganize this academic thesis.

Third, I am grateful to my parents. Their transformation in attitude toward my thesis topic always affects my confidence. Without their support, I could not dedicate myself fully to my graduate study. In the world, only my family could tolerate my strange characteristics and thoughts again and again.

Finally, I want to dedicate this thesis to my boyfriend. With his love, company, and caring supervision, I overcame the most difficult time of writing my thesis. As he says, ‘Once you could teach “Tumurin” English successfully, you could teach anyone English.’ Thanks for giving me a new meaning of life. With gratitude, I dedicate this thesis to him.

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英文原住民族繪本在文化及語言融合教育之運用

指導教授:傅鈺雯 博士 國立高雄大學西洋語文學系 學生:郭學優 國立高雄大學西洋語文學系碩士班文學與教學實務學程

摘要

本研究探討英文原住民族繪本在文化和語言融合教學上之運用。原住民族繪 本能為原住民族的適性教育而努力,其世界充滿珍貴的文化資產,若結合孩童的 族語及英語教育,能使其認識自身語言文化的寶貴,並且快樂學習英語。 本研究觀察國際上文化和語言整合教學的趨勢,然後聚焦在台灣的民族教育, 可以發現英文這個科目,近年來開始以文化回應教學的角度重新檢視和修改。屏 東縣政府原住民處伍麗華處長以民族文化為根基邁向國際的願景啟發研究者在 本論文中提出「民族英語教師」這個新角色,並界定其在「民族英語教育」的定 位,進而由這個視角觀察英文原住民族繪本在民族教育上的重要性,包括英文學 習,文化保存與文化傳承,及以英文為媒介向外推廣文化進行文化交流。秉持民 族教育為本的文化回應理念,本論文為民族英語教師設計出融合現代英文教育和 傳統部落學習的教學流程---LVDS (Listening, Vocabulary, Discussion/ Drawing, Speaking),並運用在兩個行動研究案例--數位學伴計畫和推廣教育—以探討英文 原住民族繪本在文化及語言融合教育上可能的貢獻與意義,希望本論文研究成果 能貢獻民族英語教育之教學實務。

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關鍵字: 文化回應教學、英文原住民族繪本、民族教育、民族英語教師、文化及 語言融合教育

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Integration of Culture and Language Learning

through English Indigenous Picture Books

Advisor: Dr. Fu, Yu-Wen

Department of Western Languages and Literature National University of Kaohsiung

Student: Guo, Xue-You

Department of Western Languages and Literature National University of Kaohsiung

Abstract

This thesis aims to explore how to use English indigenous picture books for the integration of culture and English teaching. Indigenous picture books are full of valuable culture inheritance, allowing both pre-school and school-age children to learn and identify with. Applied to language learning, English indigenous picture books could benefit children’s understanding of their culture and learning of English as an International Language.

This research observed the integration of culture and English Teaching with a focus on the current situation of ethnic education in Taiwan. In recent years, English as a subject of learning has started to be examined and modified based on the concept of culturally relevant teaching. The vision to internationalize ethnic education proposed by Director Wu, Li-Hua1 inspires the researcher to invent and propose the role, “Ethnic

English teacher.” From Ethnic English teachers’ perspective, this thesis analyzed how

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English indigenous picture books can contribute to teaching languages and culture. Based on the concept of culturally relevant teaching, the researcher designed a LVDS (Listening, Vocabulary, Discussion/ Drawing, Speaking) teaching method for Ethnic English teachers. The LVDS method combines modern English teaching and traditional tribal learning essence. This thesis applied the LVDS method to two action research cases: Digital Tutoring Companion Program and Continuing Education, in order to analyze how English indigenous picture books can be used effectively for the integration of culture and language learning. This research hopes to dedicate itself to Ethnic English Education.

Keywords: Culturally Relevant Teaching, English Indigenous Picture Books, Ethnic

Education, Ethnic English Teachers, Integration of Culture and English Teaching

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Table of Contents

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ... i 摘要 ii Abstract ... iv Table of Contents ... vi

List of Tables ...vii

List of Figures ...vii

Chapter One: Introduction ... 1

I. Background and Motivation ... 1

II. Research Purposes and Questions ... 3

III. Significance of the Research ... 3

IV. Definition of Terms ... 4

Chapter Two: Literature Review ... 7

I. Integration of Culture and English Teaching ... 7

II. Possibility of an Ethnic English Teacher ... 11

III. Indigenous Picture Books ... 14

Teaching Strategy, LVDS, for Indigenous Picture Books ... 22

Chapter Three: Methodology ... 27

I. The Method of Action Research ... 27

II. Programs and Participants ... 29

III. Teaching Materials ... 31

IV. Evaluation ... 32

Chapter Four: Results and Discussions ... 34

I. Digital Tutoring Companion Program ... 34

II. Continuing Education Program ... 56

Chapter Five: Conclusion ... 78

References ... 82

原住民族繪本 ... 82

中文文獻 ... 82

English References ... 88

Appendix A: Observation of Ethno-Education in Taiwan ... 90

Appendix B: Pretest and Posttest of Digital Tutoring Program ... 93

Appendix C: Journal of Digital Tutoring Program ... 97

Establishment of Responsibility for Indigenous Cultural Inheritance ... 97

Reflection for Action Research ... 99

Appendix D: Journal of Continuing Education ... 103

Establishment of Responsibility for Indigenous Culture Promotion ... 103

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List of Tables

Table 1. The development of Indigenous School-Based Curriculum in

Southern Taiwan ... 8

Table 2. Action Research Process ... 27

Table 3. Course Schedule for Digital Tutoring Companion Program ... 35

List of Figures

Figure 1. The course curriculum in Gu Shi Elementary School (Hsu, Shih-Han, 2016) ... 10

Figure 2. The Rainbow Bridge in the Dream (2011). ... 18

Figure 3. Where is Mom? (2016) ... 21

Figure 4. Teaching Strategies ... 23

Figure 5. Ethnic English Education for Non-Indigenous Peoples (Including foreign nationalities) ... 33

Figure 6. Ethnic English Education for Indigenous Children... 33

Figure 7. The story passage on 10.4. ... 38

Figure 8. The story passage on 10.11. ... 38

Figure 9. The story passage on 10.25. ... 39

Figure 10. The story passage on 11.15. ... 39

Figure 11. The story passage on 11.22. ... 40

Figure 12. The story passage on 11.29. ... 41

Figure 13. Phonics practice. ... 42

Figure 14. Matching English words with pictures. ... 43

Figure 15. The word card for “Talalibi” ... 43

Figure 16. The word card for “Baliu” ... 44

Figure 17. The “Rukai” in your mind. (The student’s drawing, 2016.10.4) 45 Figure 18. “The home” in your mind? (The student’s drawing (left) and the researcher’s drawing (right), 2016.10.11) ... 46

Figure 19. Super Wow, Book 3, Unit One. ... 47

Figure 20. Duona tribe hunting ground (Lisa, 2011) ... 48

Figure 21. Super Wow, Book 3, Unit Two and Adriu’s woodcarving (Pacake Taugadhu, 2016)... 49

Figure 22. Rukai’s head crown (The student’s drawing (up) and the researcher’s drawing (down), 2016.10.25) ... 49

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Figure 23. Super Wow, Book 3, Unit Three ... 50

Figure 24. Lily (The student’s drawing (left) and the researcher’s drawing (right), 2016.11.12) ... 50

Figure 25. Glass bead bracelet (the student’s drawing (up) and the researcher’s drawing (down), 2016.11.15) ... 52

Figure 26. Super Wow, Book 3, Unit Four ... 53

Figure 27. Clouded Leopard (The student’s drawing, 2016.11.29) ... 54

Figure 28. The Distribution of Paiwan People. ... 57

Figure 29. The Characteristics of Paiwan People’s costumes ... 58

Figure 30. Indigenous Legend Animation--Hundred pacer Snake (Chen, Mao-Sheng, 2014) ... 59

Figure 31. Word cards from “The Sun’s Precious Egg.” ... 65

Figure 32. Word cards from “The Sun’s Precious Egg.” ... 65

Figure 33. The word card from “The Hundred-Pacer Snake as Protectors.” ... 66

Figure 34. The word card from “The Hundred-Pacer Snake as Protectors.” ... 66

Figure 35. The word cards from “The Hundred-Pacer Snake as Protectors.” ... 67

Figure 36. The Word card from “The Magical Pot.” ... 68

Figure 37. Sotdae (Korean Mission in Taipei, 2012). ... 73

Figure 38. Paiwan ancient clay pots (left) (Museum of Institute of Ethnology). Modern clay pots at Adisi Pottery Workshop (right) (Taitung Manufacture) ... 76

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Chapter One: Introduction

I. Background and Motivation

TITV –Voices of the Tribes is a Taiwanese television program, which explores

many controversial issues related to history, politics, culture, economy, and education between the dominant Han Taiwanese and the minority indigenes. Experts and scholars are frequently invited to discuss and share their opinions on a range of topics. This program provides an important platform for indigenous peoples to make their voices heard, frankly speak out about what it is to be indigenous in Taiwan. Concerning Taiwan’s ethnic education, the 8th episode discussed the controversy involving indigenous rights to education as it relates to the 12-year basic education curricula. Savungaz Valincinan, a representative of the Indigenous Youth Front, stated:

When we discuss ethnic education, there should be no distinction between

groups; that is, you belong to one group, and therefore you should only learn

the content belonged to your group. We all live in Taiwan, so close to each other.

If the basic education curricula are established by those who do not understand

multi-culturalism in Taiwan, the errors of educational policy will be repeated.

(Gao, You-Jhih, 2014)

I agree with Savungaz Valincinan’s argument that obtaining ethnic education is considered to be the right of indigenous people in Taiwan; likewise, accepting ethnic education is also the obligation of non-indigenous youth.

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Taiwanese college students learning English will usually focus upon Western literature and remain woefully unfamiliar with the indigenous literature and culture of Taiwan. Taiwan's indigenous population has a long and rich heritage, which may be appreciated as a significant cultural legacy and inclusion into what it means to be truly Taiwanese. When students interact with indigenous friends, there is a gap between each other’s culture and probably a conflict, caused by a misunderstanding of indigenous culture on the part of the Taiwanese. From the angle of English-teaching, English language instruction has much to improve, regarding the promotion and portrayal of indigenous culture in the Taiwanese society.

The program of my graduate study allowed me to think from the teaching perspective about the relationship between language and culture, especially how this link might help both indigenous and non-indigenous students to learn English. Two important educational issues must be addressed, Ethnic Education and Integration of culture and English Teaching. In the process of reviewing literature, two significant reformists of Ethnic education inspired me to conceive a new role for English teachers and a teaching strategy for teaching indigenous picture books. Through action research, the new role, Ethnic English teachers, proposed in this thesis, practice the teaching strategy, LVDS (Listening, Vocabulary, Discussion/ Drawing, Speaking).

Action research includes two teaching projects: The first project was the Ministry of Education’s Digital Tutoring Companion program. The second project was a Continuing Education Course offered by the Office of International Affairs at National University of Kaohsiung.

Students in the first project are indigenous children. Through an understanding of their group’s mythologies, they are better able to enhance their sense of self-identity. Through teaching English vocabularies directly related to indigenous culture, they would be able to do cultural exchange in the future. In the second project, the subjects

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are non-indigenous, in this case Korean university students. The teaching goals of promotion and exchange of culture were achieved. Both Ethnic English teachers and students could expand the horizon of culture by learning indigenous mythologies while practicing English.

II. Research Purposes and Questions

Research Purposes: To research into whether English indigenous picture books are an effective medium for integrating indigenous culture and English learning in the field of Ethnic Education.

The following questions were formed for this research:

1. How to define the role, Ethnic English teachers, who want to devote themselves to the English field of ethnic education? (teaching both indigenes and non-indigenes)

2. How can “English Indigenous Picture Books” serve as an effective medium for the English field of ethnic education?

3. Can English indigenous picture books be applied through a proposed teaching strategy, LVDS (Listening, Vocabulary, Discussion/ Drawing, Speaking) for integrating indigenous culture and English learning?

4. Could Ethnic English teachers utilize the teaching strategy, LVDS, on the Digital Tutoring program and the continuing education platform?

5. Could this set of teaching design be utilized on both indigenous children and non-indigenes, including foreigners? And what are the results?

III. Significance of the Research

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Kaohsiung was established in 2014 and is divided into two groups, Literary and Cultural Teaching Program and Linguistics Teaching Program. The researcher studies at the Literary and Cultural Teaching Program, which offers students the possibility of developing their teaching skills through teaching practicum. Students have opportunities to develop teaching modes in both official and non-official education systems to maximize their career prospect.

The non-official teaching projects I participated in include Digital Tutoring Companion Program for indigenous children and Continuing Education Program. Through these educational implementation platforms I tested opportunities may be created for the preservation and promotion of indigenous peoples’ culture in Taiwan and internationally. I hope this research effort may provide useful references for people who want to engage in Ethnic English Education.

IV. Definition of Terms

Integration of Culture and English Teaching

In the era of the “global village,” multicultural consciousness became popular. English was perceived to be a medium for facilitating the exchange of thoughts and cultures. As Kramsch argues, “speakers of different languages think differently when speaking” (2004, p.244). If English education is limited to “language” and neglects cultural factors, there will be a misunderstanding in communication. Therefore, Bennett & Bennett point out, cultivating the ability of intercultural communicative competence (ICC) is important for English learners (2004).

Dr. Gloria Ladson­Billings proposed the pedagogy, “Culturally Relevant Teaching” in the early 1990s (1995). Geneva Gay (2000) further explained that teachers should

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consider their students’ backgrounds and learning patterns when designing courses. When students’ cultures are used as a bridge, disadvantaged students have a more equal opportunity to achieve excellent performance in the mixed-level classroom.

Ethno Education

Article 4, Paragraph 3 of the Indigenous Education Act defines Ethno-education as: “Ethno-education refers to the traditional culture education that is performed on indigenous students according to their cultural characteristics.” To be more specific about the educational content, Article 21 states, “Local governments at all levels should provide opportunities for indigenous students in preschool education and national education to learn their ethnic languages, history, and culture.” According to the above provision, Ethno-education is different from the general education practiced in the dominant society. It can allow the fundamental understanding of indigenous culture. Besides, aspects of their culture, languages, and history, are included.

Relevant theses have addressed the issue of Ethno-education, for example, Ku, Hung-Wei (2019), Liu, Tang-Yun (2018), and Yang, Tzu-Hao (2018). This research further discussed the integration of English learning and Ethnic Education. In this research, it was defined as “Ethnic English Education.”

Indigenous Picture Books

Currently, there is no singular definition of indigenous picture books in graduate thesis and journal articles. There are names, such as “aboriginal culture-themed children’s picture books” (Jheng, Syun-Fang, 2010), “aboriginal children’s picture books” (Jheng, Syun-Fang), “aboriginal picture books” (Lin, Wen-Bao, 2012), and “Taiwan indigenous peoples’ picture books” (Lin, Ting-Wei. 2016). The term “indigenous picture books,” is used in this study to emphasize that, although the content

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is about indigenous culture, the readership is not limited to specific age group, and can include indigenous and non-indigenous people. There are now indigenous picture books in Chinese, English, indigenous language versions, and even in all three languages simultaneously. Authors from multi-ethnic groups may employ various languages to create indigenous picture books.

According to Professor Pu, Zhong-Cheng’s classification of “Indigenous literature,” indigenous picture books could be classified into two major types, oral literature and invention literature. Oral literature includes mythology, legend, and folk-tales. At present, this type of indigenous picture books is more common (Jheng, Syun-Fang, 2010). The content of invention literature is not limited to traditional culture and stories, and it can “translate the marginal identity and the diaspora experience in the process of self-development and cultural interaction, as well as the transformation of recognition triggered by ambiguous contradiction, into works that exhibit individual subjectivity” (He, Yun-qi, 2007). This type of indigenous picture book is mostly created by the indigenes themselves. The common themes found in the invention literature include adaptations of mythology, remembrances of childhood, records of modern life, and even a combination of these three different times and spaces. Based on Jheng, Syun-Fang’s (2010) textual analysis, three major characteristics of indigenous picture books are: First, the content is primarily about the myths and legends of a tribe to emphasize the historical culture of a specific ethnic group. Second, indigenous picture books are intended to carry forward and highlight the beauty of ethnic culture, especially in the modern world. Third, they reflect ethnic and cultural identity in the most positive and subjective sense.

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Chapter Two: Literature Review

This chapter reviews the integration of culture and English teaching and indigenous picture books. Section One discusses the integration of culture and English teaching. Section Two proposes the possibility of an Ethnic English teacher. Section Three examines the role of indigenous picture books in ethnic education and proposes a strategy for teaching them.

I. Integration of Culture and English Teaching

English is an important communicating tool for people from different countries. However, academic circles have actively discussed the issue that English teaching material provides a unilateral source of culture, usually from an Anglo-centric perspective, as underlined by Prodromou (1988). The problem behind this issue is that the teaching materials’ content will influence students’ attitudes and behavior about themselves, others, and towards the entire society (Ndura, 2004) and therefore having the “alienating effects” on students (Prodromou, 1988). The cultural content of English textbooks they learned seldom explains who they are. English, instead, becomes the tool to disseminate Western mainstream culture.

From a perspective of international English education, Derrick M Nault (2006) pointed out that in this English globalization trend, ELT professionals must understand that the cultural transmission will have a significant impact on learners. The teaching objective and material need to be re-examined and undergo three changes. The notion that the US and Great Britain represent the sole “target cultures” of the English language should be discarded. English teachers should set goals of culture and language education to better meet their students' diverse needs. Besides, the design and selection of teaching materials should be international and inclusive in scope. Therefore, a

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growing trend is to add self-identity culture into ESL or EFL students’ textbooks, so that English could become a tool to promote the learner’s cultural identity.

Ethnic English Education in Taiwan

After understanding indigenes’ educational reform (see Appendix A), the researcher observed that the modification of English teaching materials progressed slower than other subjects’ in the development of School-Based Curriculum2

(SBC)(see Table 1) and much academic development in terms of the integration of culture and English teaching need to be developed.

Table 1. The development of Indigenous School-Based Curriculum in Southern Taiwan

Date The development of Indigenous School-Based Curriculum in

Southern Taiwan

2013.8 The Pingtung county was expected to complete Paiwan-based curriculum in five years.

2014.8 The Indigenous Curriculum Development Center in Pingtung County [Pingtung County ACDC] produced Math and Chinese textbooks for lower grade students and went into probation at the Taiwu Elementary School.

2015.8 The Math textbooks for the first and second graders would be on probation at 23 Key Indigenous Elementary Schools of Pingtung County.

2016.8 Timur Elementary School adopted the first “ethnicity-based

2 School-based curriculum (SBC) is defined (MOE, 2001) in the following way: To meet the

educational purpose (nurturing individual potential) and the societal demand (flipping education), a school should become “student-centered.” According to certain aspects of social resources, schooling conditions, parental expectations, students’ learning demands, and teachers’ and parents’ participation, construction and modification of creative curriculum may occur.

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teaching materials” in Taiwan, including Paiwan and Rukai Language, ethnic education and other subjects like arts & humanities, health education, and PE (Guo, Zhi- Xuan, 2016). However, Book 1, Unit 2 of Paiwan-based English course book entered into probation (Pingtung County ACDC, 2016).

2018.3 Pingtung County ACDC completed Paiwan-based textbooks,

including Chinese, Math, English, and Science, from first to fourth graders.

2018.10 Pingtung County ACDC completed Paiwan-based textbooks, including Chinese, Math, English, and Science, from first to sixth graders (Pingtung County, 2018).

Note: The development of integrating ethnic education and general education in recent years.

During Grade 1-9 Curriculum Guidelines period (2004-2014), to lower down the obstacle to change and assure parents of the level of children’s academic ability, Professor Zhou, Shui-Zhen (2007) suggested that for the preliminary development of ethnic education teaching material, schools could adjust the content of some subjects3

to focus on indigenous culture, however English and other main subjects4 are still

under the discipline of national curriculum.

In Lo, Shu-Hsin’s case study (2013) on ethnic education of Taiwu elementary school in Pingtung County, there was no English subject in the curriculum guidelines for first to six graders’ ethnic education. Hsu, Shih-Han’s case study (2016) on ethnic education of Gu Shi Elementary School in Pingtung County showed that English of

3 Social science, art, sports, comprehensive activities 4 Chinese, Math, Natural science

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general curriculum or extracurricular activities was divided with the school-based curriculum (see Figure 1). As late as October 2016, the Indigenous Curriculum Development Center posted on its fan page that Paiwan-based English textbooks for the first grader started to be on probation (Pingtung County ACDC, 2016).

The concept of SBC echoes the spirit of integrating learners’ culture and English learning. As Ping Yang mentioned the emergence of culture-based materials allowed students to learn knowledge about each subject immersed in their culture. Pupils’ interest in learning would improve in this way (Lin, He-Sheng, 2018).

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II. Possibility of an Ethnic English Teacher

Former teachers and Director Wu, Li-Hua5 thought: For ethnic education, “To set

deep roots” is important, while “to dream big” cannot be forgotten (Wu, Li-Hua, 2014). Living in a global setting, children must be required to cultivate a world vision beyond Taiwan. As she stated in her article, “Promoting Ethno-Based Education with the idea of International World”: The understanding towards the world is where children’s competitiveness and creativity come from; however, their own culture is the key connection to the world. Only when getting this powerful weapon, they can compete and cooperate with others (2014, p9). Both teaching ethos of localization and internalization are emphasized. The confidence to step into the world is built on indigenous culture.

The researcher thinks that English teachers in Taiwan have a significant role to connect these two mindsets, internalization and localization. English teachers may serve as the bridge between the preservation of indigenous culture and the development of multi-culturalism. Therefore, this research defines the role, Ethnic English teachers, as an English teacher who devoted to indigenous educational contents. In the practical classroom setting, prototypes of what I proposed as “Ethnic English teachers” already existed. For example, Associate Professor Huang, Tung-Chiou at Language Center of National Dong Hua University has been dedicated to advanced English in ethnic education since 2010. He required that students interview elderly people in tribes and use English to record ethnic-cultural knowledge (Shi, Ya-Lan, 2010). Another example

5 Director Wu, Li-Hua once served at Taiwu Elementary School in Pingtung County and Timur

Elementary School, has dedicated herself to ending stigmatization toward indigenous Ethnic Education. Director Wu received much opposition from numerous indigenous parents; for example, not to allow children to participate in indigenous education in case they could not blend into the dominant society (Lai, Yun-Chen, 2016).

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is Professor Huang, Huei-Ling of the Department of Applied Foreign Languages of National Yunlin University of Science and Technology. In 2016, she created English indigenous picture books with students at Xilin elementary school.

Principle Chen, Zai-Sing (2014) has made a long-term observation about the development of school-based curriculum and pointed out that “cultural literacy” and the “ability to communicate in the indigenous language” are the two main obstacles encountered by teachers in the field of ethnic education. He advised schools to establish a complete training system for ethnic teacher cultivation (2014). Resources for cultural cultivation are sufficiently provided for teachers already in service at schools. For example, teachers at Da-Tung Junior High School in Yilan County must participate in the indigenous competence workshop that requires them to visit tribes nearby and to communicate with the elders (Huang, Jian-Hao, 2014).

Po, Hong-Ming (2017) states that the ability to speak indigenous languages is beneficial in the learning of English. Indigenous languages6 have similar characteristics,

multi-syllables, as English. English teachers can eliminate the difficulty of locating into an indigenous education location. My conception is that: Teachers can learn the cultural vocabularies used in a teaching setting, become enriched with the cultural knowledge, and better prepare themselves to become Ethnic English teachers.

In recent years, the issue of remote-area education has been vigorously discussed. When an indigenous elementary school selects teachers, they usually give priority admission to indigenous people. The hope is that those teachers will be more likely to dedicate to indigenous education for a long-term period. In reality, whether indigenous or not, a teacher should choose a location where he or she is deeply rooted. In conceiving one’s teaching practice, Ethnic English Teachers could develop a

6 In 2005, the “uniform method” of using Roman letter calligraphy, was adopted to record the proper

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based classroom” concept, consistent with the local educational situation, to maintain a deeper understanding of indigenous culture and to bring the biggest benefit for indigenous culture’s preservation and promotion. The researcher would demonstrate the above idea in Chapter Four Action Research.

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III. Indigenous Picture Books

Most of the indigenes in Taiwan have no writing system to record their knowledge. They rely on the elder to pass down tribal wisdom and mythologies by words of mouth. However, the indigenous community has experienced enormous changes, including the high aging and fatality rate, the increasing employment in cities or grandparenting. These factors result in a knowledge gap. Indigenous education faces the serious crisis of language and cultural loss. The crisis of identity brings up the issue of “finding root” (Chen, Jian-Sian, 1994)7. Therefore, to preserve culture, construct knowledge system,

and establish indigenous cultural identification become priority targets for ethnic education.

To respond to Director Wu’s international vision for ethnic education, “Only when our teachers get used to decide their courses, ethnic education is likely to step into the final stage in my mind” (Wu, Li-Hua, 2016). Indigenous picture books, evidently representing cultural subjectivity, have drawn much attention in recent years. They provide a space for indigenous culture to be preserved and renewed within the broader context of mainstream national culture. The researcher assumed that Ethnic English teachers could select English indigenous picture books to teach English and indigenous culture at the same time. The following are going to analyze the importance of indigenous picture books in Ethnic Education.

Inheriting Culture and Ethnic Identification

Fung-Cin, Fu 8(2013) pointed out from the beginning of 21 century, picture books

7 Chen, Jian-Sian said, “One of the reasons for the trend that nowadays people are so involved in the

research for mythologies from ancient times is undoubtedly to find back their cultural root” (1994, p19). To research into mythologies is to revive collective memories and further retrieve cultural identification.

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has become a new channel for the preservation of indigenous oral mythologies’ essence. When myths are presented through “words” and “pictures,” lost collective memories are found. According to Liou, Yu-Ling (2007, p222), mythologies can record indigenes’ origin, which is rooted in the collective memory. They play a significant role for “ethnic group cohesion and continuation.” Besides, mythologies answer the question, “Who I am,” which provides a sense of identification and makes sense of community possible (Rollo May, 2003).

In the aspect of establishing the new generation’s ethnic identification, the key point is the inheritance of indigenous languages. Po, Hong-Ming (2017) observed the phenomenon in the teaching place: the new generation has lost the capability of speaking mother languages. He thought language is the identification card for an ethnicity. When the language becomes endangered, the unique culture is going to disappear. Through learning the mother language, indigenous children can establish self-cultural identification. Research has good results between these two elements: Language learning and cultural identification. For example, Wu, Shu-Huei, (2006) in her research found that after learning their mother language, children tend to give positive feedback for their ethnic group. As to the swinging attitude between traditional and modern society, they don’t discard traditional culture nor reject the dominant culture. When faced with the stigmatization from dominant values, they learn to reflect.

To solve the general problem of indigenous children’s lack of motive for learning indigenous languages, teachers can use picture books to raise their interest, enhance motivation. Through teaching theory and practice in Paiwan lower grade students, Yang, Mei-lian (2007) drew the conclusion that picture books benefit indigenous languages learning because they can provide the appropriate environment and social interaction required for language acquisition.

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In addition to learning indigenous languages to cultivate cultural identification, children could create their picture books. Sing, Man-Ling (1995) pointed out her opinion on picture books’ application on children’s education: picture book itself is a complete conveyance of experience, through which children can actively construct the knowledge in books and connect with their own lives to make living wisdom. If children themselves create picture books, mythologies are given the new value. Picture books provide the possibility of establishing ethnicity’s images based on the subjectivity, indigenous children. For instance, the government of Pingtung County helped with publication from the project, “Children’s hometown picture books.9” Children visited

their hometown and had an interview on people for both traditional and modern life stories. In this way, they participated in the preservation of culture.

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Promotion and Interaction of Culture

This part explains the important second purpose of indigenous picture books to ethnic education---cultural promotion and cultural exchange. Savungaz Valincinan’s opinion that “acceptance of Ethnic Education is not only the right for indigenes, but also an obligation for non-indigenes,” (Gao, You-Jhih, 2014) was well reflected in various public forums.Considering the public’s misunderstanding of indigenous culture, the function of Ethnic Education should include the enhancement of domestic cultural interaction. This corrective approach is needed in order to achieve a real multicultural society for Taiwan. Wu, Jin-Fa10criticized that both culture and ethnic multiculturalism

have been simply the appeals. Events of consumption of indigenous culture are targets of his strict criticism. For example, at the International Youth Ambassadors Exchange Program11in 2013, there appeared a false interpretation of indigenous culture.

Confusing clothes combination, which shows disrespect for the significant meaning behind indigenous clothes (Savungaz Valincinan, 2013).

Guo, You-Ci (2012) pointed out that “children’s literature” is undoubtedly a good channel to change the dominant society’s attitude towards other cultures. Indigenous picture books allow children, even adults, to actively search for cultural treasure in books. Based on Wu, Jin-Fa’s opinion, education is the method to truly implement culture and ethnic multiculturalism: Creating “picture books” will engage the next generation to actively start changes in their value system (gese paljaljuman, 2017). For instance, in 2011 the Indigenous Peoples Cultural Foundation provided a subsidy to publish the “Atayal Mythology (Squliq Atayal) Teaching Picture Book” (Wu, Jing-Yao, 2011). All six picture books were created by children or teenagers from the Han group,

10 He is Hakka, Director of Culture in Pingtung County Government. He led the trend of changing

mainstream Taiwanese values relevant to indigenes.

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aged 10 to 16 years old (One book is shown in Figure 2). In the following year after publication, the government of Xinbei City purchased the set for libraries particularly to establish children’s multicultural perspectives and to understand more about indigenous culture (Pan, Hong-Jhin, 2012). This example shows that indigenous picture books can build a cultural promotion bridge to connect mainstream society and indigenous people.

Figure 2. The Rainbow Bridge in the Dream (2011).

The reading of picture books has flourished in recent years and readers are from all ages. Picture books are not just for children to read. According to Liao, Jia-Yan (2007), picture books have been gradually separated from the category of “children’s literature,” and works for adults are published one after another. Picture books that were originally aimed at children have gradually integrated the artistic perspective and “Adult picture books” appeared. Indigenous picture books, presenting artistic style, could attract adults to read. For example, Du Han-Song’s Rukai picture books,

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including Macakiumu (2013), Lrikulau (2016), and Lalingedannivuvu (2018)12. They

belong to original picture books, which are uniquely artistic and well received by the public. The goal of publishing these three indigenous picture books was successfully achieved on a crowd-funding platform. Most importantly, the inclusion of English translation in these books allows the scope of cultural promotion to expand from Taiwan mainstream society to foreign countries.

Nowadays, English indigenous picture books have already contributed to cultural exchanges. The famous example was Former President of the Republic of China, Ma Ying-Jiou gave six picture books in Chinese and English to his old friend, Felipe VI (King of Spain)’s two daughters. The indigenous picture book, The Sun’ s Daughter, was included, and the content is ancestral stories collected by children from the Taiwu Elementary School in Pingtung County (Sie, Shuei-Neng, 2013). Foreign children are thus able to understand and appreciate indigenous legends in Taiwan. As the picture book’s introduction stated, “Hope in the future, we still have the opportunities of bringing the school’s feature and Paiwan culture to the outside world to enjoy and understand” (Taiwan Indigenous Peoples Resource Center, 2014). It shows this book has a significant meaning for Paiwan people. English plays a key role in cultural interaction with the international society.

Ethnic English Education

The researcher found that indigenous picture books have started to be adopted in some English teaching programs for children. For example, Professor Huang, Huei-Ling13 proposed the program, “Using Bilingual Picture Books to Flip Language

12Du Han-Song wanted to emphasize Rukai’s subjectivity; therefore, all these three books published in

Ngudradrekay (WutaiRukai language), Chinese, and English, juxtaposed from big to small.

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Education of Aboriginal Elementary Schools” on the crowd-funding platform, FlyingV (Huang, Huei-Ling, 2016). She cooperated with children at the Si-Lin Elementary School, Wanrong Township, Hualien County to design four picture books in English and Truku language, including “What’s This?” (Manu Ka Nii?), “To the City” (Lalaqialangmusaalangparu), “Where is Mom?” (Wada inu ka Bubu da?), and “A School in the Zoo” (Kingalptasanga ska qbliqanmlglugmeudus).

This set of picture books was designed with some features for English teaching. The first feature is English and Truku language juxtaposition. When children made these picture books, they could learn English, comparing different thinking patterns of languages between English and indigenous language at the same time. Second, the wide-ranged level of these four picture books is designed for all elementary school students, ranging from the lower grades (repeated, concise sentences and more dialogues) to the higher grades (more variable sentences and vocabularies). Third, these books are set to be transformed into digital learning materials, including recording bilingual CDs for preview and review. The cultural affairs bureau of Hualien County was authorized to digitalize A School in the Zoo (2016) on tablets and smartphones (Wang, Jyun-Ci, 2017). Forth, this set of “picture book materials” was scheduled to serve as textbooks or supplemental materials for an English classroom, a spontaneous book club, and for the Si-Lin Church’s Sunday School (Huang, Huei-Ling, 2016). Indigenous picture books have stated to be designed for Ethnic English Education.

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Figure 3. Where is Mom? (2016)

Professor Huang thinks the indigenous picture books’ stories should be mainly about children’s life experience and blends naturally with indigenous culture to attract both indigenous and non-indigenous children to read.

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Teaching Strategy, LVDS, for Indigenous Picture Books

Principal Hong-Zhi, Zhang14, who actively took part in the field of indigenous

experimental education, reminded that “Through what kind of new design can we retrieve the learning method of the tribe period?” Zhang reflected on how to combine ethnic culture and modern education courses (Indigenous Peoples Cultural Foundation, 2016) so that the new generation who is already acquainted with modernized learning methods could regain a sense of belonging and identification. Therefore the researcher designed a LVDS teaching strategy to demonstrate the significance of indigenous picture books in a classroom setting.

Ethnic English teachers adopt the concept of culturally relevant teaching, focusing on indigenous culture. Teaching with indigenous picture books could actualize this ideal and could help to return the familiar, closest way of tribal learning. Besides, teachers could use picture books for different learners and teaching occasions and adequately respond to their ethnic culture and learning motivation. Therefore, Ethnic English teachers could promote indigenous picture books and their espoused culture to the international world. Combining the teaching of literature, culture, and English, important goals, such as cultural preservation and identification, cultural promotion and interaction, could be achieved.

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The Introduction of Teaching Strategy, LVDS

The teaching strategy demonstrates two main lines: One is the four indicators of capabilities (i.e., listening, reading, writing, and speaking) in English learning and the other is the formulae of LVDS (i.e., Listening, Vocabulary, Discussion/ Drawing, Speaking), of how to use indigenous picture books in regular teaching. This

English Indigenous picture books

(L) Listen to the story

(V) Read the story

(D) Discussion/ Drawing

(S) Tell the story

Listen

Read

Write

Speak

Ethnic English Teacher

Reflection after courses

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combination allows Ethnic English teachers to efficiently manipulate all kinds of teaching settings, corresponding to different learners and teaching goals, and further design detailed teaching flowcharts as needed.

(L) Listen to the story and (V) read the story

These two steps respond to Professor Chen, Chao-Ming’s viewpoint related to English learning (2017): Through “reading” and “reading aloud” the story, children gradually cultivate the ability to listen and to read, which will prepare them for the next two steps, writing and speaking.

(L) Listen to the story

Professor Chen emphasizes how children’s English reading stories do not have the initial purpose of recognizing vocabularies but simply to enjoy listening to the story (Chen, Chao-Ming,2017). For children, teachers adopt the method of “telling” (performing) stories in a proper set of “oral and body” languages; in this way, children can deeply feel and think the meaning of stories and cultivate English intuition. For college students or adults, teachers tell stories in a spoken language, emphasizing listening attentively, appreciating words, pictures, and artistic conception in picture books.

In this step, teachers can pick up animations 15as listening practice, which are

relevant to the indigenous picture books used in the designed courses. Digital resources allow the transformation between modes of dynamic and static learning in any classroom setting.

(V) Read the story

In this step, students will read the story aloud, not just read visually; at the same time, teachers will explain the inherent cultural meaning of English and indigenous

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vocabularies. Chen considered that “reading” in foreign countries does not involve “to look at” or “to watch,” but “to read aloud” (Chen, Chao-Ming, 2017). Reading requires a kind of “recitation.” Chen encouraged students to learn vocabularies through an understanding and speaking-out process in real life.

In this step, my designed material will be word cards with QR codes to learn both English and indigenous languages. After scanning QR codes, students can look up the relative meaning in dictionaries to determine how to pronounce words in the target indigenous languages.

(D)Discussion/ Drawing and (S) tell the story

These two steps respond to Professor Zhaung, Kun-Liang’s statement regarding “Learning a language equals to learn a way of thinking, a culture, and a living method” (Zhaung, Kun-Liang, 2017). Learning English should not stop at the aspect of “language.” We should go deeper into the “culture” behind the language. Through these two activities and attached significance of indigenous picture books, ethnic English teacher could respond to indigenous culture and related issues.

(D)Drawing the story and Discussion

Based on teaching topics, teachers can design a drawing activity, which centers on students. Children are allowed to draw from their own subjective view. The purpose of this activity is to make students visualize the image of indigenous culture; and, at the same time, it can help to construct the indigenous knowledge system for new generations. For non-indigenous students, they are allowed to reflect on their own culture and present on the drawing. In this way, they achieve interaction with the indigenous culture. If the duration were long-term, the creation of picture books would be applicable; if limited to short-term, drawing activities can be designed as the production of a single image.

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Based on teaching topics, teachers can design the discussion activity, which allows students to form a higher level of understanding and cultivate indigenous cultural sensibility. Teachers should design different levels of questions for different levels of ability: For children, the purpose is to read and discuss; for college students and adults, the focus is more on picture composition and philosophical conceptualization.

(S)Tell the story

Finally, the activity is to make students share their creations. The important feature of picture books, storytelling, is similar to indigenous oral tradition--- the elder’s storytelling creates concrete images. In this way, the speaking activity achieves the effect of cultural responsiveness to the mode of indigenous oral education. Through a practicum of telling stories, indigenes or non-indigenes can internalize the valued knowledge.

To summarize this chapter’s observations and discussion, indigenous picture books benefit the construction of indigenous knowledge and the preservation of culture. In addition, they promote indigenous culture in mainstream society and have been applied to Ethnic English Education. In the next chapter, the researcher will illustrate how Ethnic English teachers can utilize indigenous picture books through action research.

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Chapter Three: Methodology

I. The Method of Action Research

The action research method is based upon the basic concept of “a teacher is a researcher” (Elliot, 1991; Ou, Yong-Sheng, 1996; Stenhouse, 1975). Although the researcher is a graduate student, not an official teacher, through this action research, I envisage and position myself as an “Ethnic English teacher,” reflecting upon how to contribute to indigenous English education.

The action research method aims to shorten the gap between theory and teaching practice. Through teaching, a researcher constantly reflects, discovers problems, and then learns how to solve the problems (Chen, Bo-Zhang, 2001). In the teaching practice, the researcher participated in two teaching programs, developed indigenous picture books as the main intra-curricular teaching material, analyzed teaching progress and solved problems, and explained research results. The detailed explanation of conducting action research is listed below.

Table 2. Action Research Process

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The action research targeted specifically at indigenes in Southern Taiwan, both Paiwan and Lukai groups. As an English teacher, also an indigenous culture learner, the researcher explores how to combine indigenous education and English teaching and how to apply designed courses to achieve cultural inheritance, promotion, and interaction.

Analyze teaching background and design topic courses

The researcher and the supervisor discussed the possibility of practicing course designs and clarified teaching purposes. At the same time, a literature review was still ongoing, permitting the researcher to collect and analyze information related to learners’ learning background to further clarify the teaching context and design topic courses (see Appendix C& D). The prototype of a thematic teaching course was designed by connecting cultural topics with indigenous picture books in a classroom setting.

Practice teaching designs

An emphasis was placed upon the teacher’s teaching situation and students’ learning situation in order to examine whether teaching attitudes and skills can meet the learning needs of students. Analysis of students’ learning situations and real reactions from the teaching site, such as students’ drawings, helps the researcher to clarify what still needs to be improved. After teaching practice, discussion with the supervisor and people related to ethnic education helped subsequent modification of the original design and gradual establishment of a complete course offering.

Reflect the teaching process and modify teaching designs

In Action Research, a teacher is expected to construct new teaching strategies and personal knowledge within a real teaching context. In the future, achievement can be shared with other teachers. In this study’s teaching practice, the researcher kept

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reflecting on what aspects of the conceived teaching strategy, LVDS, can be improved and advanced. Modifications can be applied to future teaching practice to enhance the teaching quality and increase professional confidence.

II. Programs and Participants

Since the researcher studies at the National University of Kaohsiung, I set myself for the position of an Ethnic English Teacher, teaching for and about Southern Taiwan Paiwan and Rukai indigenous groups. Living in Southern Taiwan, the researcher also had access to the resources from Kaohsiung Takao Community University to enrich the knowledge of the indigenous culture. The cases provided in this thesis are the Ministry of Education’s Digital Tutoring program and an Office of International Affairs’ continuing education in Chinese History and Culture.

Digital Tutoring Companion Program

On September 2016, the Ministry of Education progressed into the fourth phase of a “Digital Application Promotion Plan at Remote Areas,” 16which belonged to the Executive Yuan’s “Twelve Constructional Programs for Loving Taiwan.” This program is fondly addressed as “Digital Tutoring Companion Program.” The service is for junior and elementary school students in remote areas. The researcher’s teaching objective is the 4th-grade Lukai student from Kaohsiung City Maolin Elementary

School. This program lasted for one semester.

The purpose of this project is to overcome urban and rural barriers by providing course counseling for disadvantaged children in remote areas through the Internet and video equipment. Distance learning and teaching were carried out at an online learning platform.

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“Student-centered learning” is the core value. Digital Tutoring Companion

Program adopts the live version “Learning Companion System (LCV)”, and attends to

both purposes: “teaching” and “accompanying.” Instant online homework tutoring and companionship allow a volunteer college student to observe the special learning need of his or her primary school student to tailor-make the appropriate course content. College students would fill in the teaching log after each class to report to the homeroom teachers. Primary school students could share stories of their lives and problems encountered in school. Also, they can fill in the learning log after class to let homeroom teachers know their situation.

Under the discipline of the national curriculum, the courses designed by college students should conform to schools’ teaching materials and the arranged exam schedule so that the program can improve students’ academic performance. However, the program allowed the educational concepts outside of the official system to blend into the teaching. College students can design their materials from, for example, songs, video online, or extracurricular learning resource.

Continuing Education Program

The second project was a continuing education program offered by the Office of International Affairs Division at the University of Kaohsiung in December 2016 for Korean Language and Literature students from Kyung Hee University. This short-term winter camp program was called “Chinese History and Culture.” And the course segment I participated in lasted approximately three hours.

This project belongs to the continuing education program at National University of Kaohsiung. The center of continuing education maintains a belief that learning should be pleasant and sustainable even after graduation, with the good-quality teaching and providing locally oriented coursework. Its mission is to support individual colleges,

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departments, and all sort of teaching units to open courses so that the public may enhance their level of academic and cultural knowledge (Continuing Education Program of National University of Kaohsiung, 2016). The researcher found that it allows for the supply and demand for indigenous knowledge to meet efficiently, and it encourages teachers to design new courses and utilize their creativity. Therefore, the center of continuing education is the ideal place where the researcher can contribute to ethnic education for the public, including non-indigenous people and foreign nationalities.

III. Teaching Materials

The topics and languages of the indigenous picture books chosen as teaching materials should be relevant for cultural understanding. Firstly, themes related to traditional mythologies and tales of originality based on these mythologies are preferable because the pictures can demonstrate the indigenous subjectivity. Special attention is paid to stories containing originality, or those, which combine the creator’s interpretations and mythologies’ essence. Regarding the languages, the researcher utilized picture books with both indigenous languages and English, and any special arrangement of fonts demonstrating the importance of cultural preservation.

In the program of Digital Tutoring Companion, the Rukai creative picture book,

Lrikulau, is utilized. It brings together ancient mythologies and modern issues

concerning natural environment. It not only shares unique and creative pictures, but also possesses a sense of mission, being published in three languages, an indigenous Language, Chinese, and English (indigenous language printed in bigger size to express the significance of ethnic language for everyone). Significantly, the publication in English allows Rukai people to promote their culture to an international audience.

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Kingdom Under the Sun, as the teaching material. It was published by the National

Taiwan Museum, which held an exhibition in 2009 entitled Sons of the Sun-the Myths

and Legends of the Paiwan People. To promote Paiwan culture to the public and the

international world, the museum published a Chinese version and an English version separately.

IV. Evaluation

This research provided two cases of action research to practice Ethnic English education, which has two distinct teaching effects:

In terms of indigenous culture, Ethnic English teachers hold the concept of culturally relevant teaching to respond to indigenous and other ethnic group’s unique culture and learning purposes. To observe the gradual cultivation of cultural identification, indigenous students’ drawings and the level of students’ participation were utilized for analysis. For Korean students, their drawings could demonstrate whether the teaching goals are achieved: namely the enhancement of cultural awareness towards indigenous culture and the occurrence of cultural interaction between Korean and Indigenous culture. Teachers could respond to their culture at an appropriate time, such as in the drawing activity.

On the aspect of English, English plays different roles with the changing teaching locations and targets. The indigenous student of Duona Elementary School is at the enlightened step of English learning. Teachers would blend their culture into English teaching to raise the student’s interest in English. The goal of 12-Year Basic Education Curricula, adaptive teaching, may thus be achieved. To evaluate students’ improvement of English ability, there were pretest and posttest at the beginning of the semester and the end of the semester, respectively (see Appendix B). For Korean students, English will become the medium of communication and instruction. The process of using

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English, including telling stories, could present the enhancement of English ability.

Figure 5. Ethnic English Education for Non-Indigenous Peoples (Including foreign nationalities)

Figure 6. Ethnic English Education for Indigenous Children.

The Center of Continuing Education

Ethnic English Teacher

 Teaching indigenous literature, language, and culture

 English as a teaching language

Non-indigenes

 Learning demand of indigenous culture

Digital Tutoring Companion Program

Ethnic English Teacher

 Teaching English

 Indigenous literature, language, and culture as a teaching medium

Indigenous children

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Chapter Four: Results and Discussions

I. Digital Tutoring Companion Program

From the perspective of teaching, all projects are related to local context and a living knowledge (Sia, Lin-Cing, 2004). The engagement with the background before teaching, the interaction between teachers and learners, and reflection after teaching are all important. These three steps provide valuable input for action research. Details of the three steps for two action research cases were kept in the researcher’s journals, in Appendix C and D.

The first session of this chapter presents the results of Digital Tutoring Companion

Program. The main purpose of this action research is to enhance indigenous students’

learning motivation for English and to cultivate their cultural awareness.

Course Design Concept

After an analysis of students’ learning issues, the main problems were found: their low learning motivation and lack of a teacher who could give them continuing company (see Appendix C). The researcher thought of the Western Rukai, Du, Han-Song’s (Pacake Taugadhu) original picture book, Lrikulau, which was adapted from Wutai Township’s ancient mythology. The picture book is narrated from a third-person perspective about a story told by a modern day Rukai father to his son. There is a quite touching bonding between a sculptor, Adriu and a cloud leopard named Lrikulau. However, with Lrikulau’s help to hunt game, Adriu becomes lazy and no longer does his sculpting work (as the below picture). Lrikulau thinks if the lost glass bead necklace were found, Adriu would regain his previous hard-working spirits. The story ends with a sad conclusion; Lrikulau is swallowed by a big snake and disappears in the lake. After

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listening to the story, the son starts to sculpt diligently in the early morning, believing that one day Lrikulau would come back to the Rukai people.

The researcher hoped the story could inspire students to cultivate a diligent attitude towards learning. A life-education course theme was set up: “Diligent Learning and

Hard-work: Lrikulau, Come Back!” And the teaching goals are improvement of

students’ learning motivation and establishment of cultural identification.

Course Schedule

The duration is one semester (18 weeks, 9 courses in total). The time of instruction was after school on 19:00~20:30 every Tuesday. The course content was mainly based on the Lrikulau text and supplemented by textbooks from school. The English textbook from school was Super Wow, Book3 published by the Kang Shuan Educational Publishing Group. The learning objectives of each unit could be found on the Kang Shuan website17. The picture book story is divided into six parts. Every week’s course was progressed according to the ethnic English teacher’s LVDS teaching process.

Table 3. Course Schedule for Digital Tutoring Companion Program

Date & Passage of

Lrikulau

Questions & Drawing Super Wow Units&

Learning Objectives 10.4 Part One Question One & Rukai

Group

“Nice to Meet You. Are You a Student?” (First meeting Phrases) 10.11 Part Two Question Two & Home Unit 1: “Where’s My

Book?”

(Asking and answering

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items’ location) 10.25 Part Three Question Three & Crown Unit 2: “Is This Your

Watch?”

(Asking and confirming that items belong to whom)

11.15 Part Four Question Four & Lily Unit 3: “Are You Hungry?”

(Asking others’ feelings and addressing your own) 11.22 Part Five Question Five & Glass

Beads

Unit 4: “Is He at Home?” (Asking and confirming people’s location)

11.29 Part Six Question Six & Cloud Leopard

“What Can You Do?” (Asking ability and answering)

12.13 Post-test

Course Practice and Analysis

The following passages explain every week’s course progress according to the ethnic English teacher’s LVDS teaching process and the researcher’s observation on the student’s learning situation and performance.

(L) Listen to the Story

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only got 3 points for the pretest (see Appendix B). Through the first week’s getting along with her, the researcher understood that she had short term attentiveness and lacked patience for reading static text. The practical consideration was that the length of the picture book was too long to finish in one session. It was impossible to adopt a “performing” approach, utilizing both sound and body language to attract the student’s attention for the reason of limited classroom space and teaching through video. Therefore, adjustments were made to the content arrangement and the power-point design.

The story was divided into six passages in accordance with the story’s transition. Without using the lengthy English description found in the picture book, the plot was presented in the form of questions. The answers for the questions posed are “facts,” which could be obtained by reading the pictures. This way allows the student to learn and understand literature’s related elements in a short period of time, including the story’s context, main characters, characters’ personality, causes, process, and the result of the conflict. Before progressing to the weekly-scheduled portion of the class, a summary of previous week’s passage would be provided to help student to remember and to continue the story. The following represents each week’s passages:

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Figure 7. The story passage on 10.4.

The guiding questions on the fourth of October include, “What were the Rukai’s ancestors doing?” “What’s the purpose of doing it?” and “Guess what the boy saw?”

Figure 8. The story passage on 10.11.

The guiding questions on the eleventh of October include, “Guess Adriu’s profession.” “What was he doing?” “What does he carry on his back?” “Why did the little Likulau cry?” “What would Adriu do to the little Likulau?” “How did Adriu treat the little Likulau?” and “What did Adriu say to the little Likulau?”

數據

Table 1. The development of Indigenous School-Based Curriculum in Southern Taiwan
Figure 2. The Rainbow Bridge in the Dream (2011).
Figure 3. Where is Mom? (2016)
Figure 4. Teaching Strategies
+7

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