成就動機研究的回顧與反思

全文

(1)

ԙ൷ଢ଼ᐠंـޟӱ៫ᇄІࡦ!

Ӡ!ߎ!߇!

ᇃѕѿҳఀىσᏰЖ౩ᇄᒚ୦Ᏸف୙ఀ௲!

ࠉِ!

! ! ԙ൷ଢ଼ᐠ࡞Ԟ൷ԙ࣏ՙПЖ౩Ᏸড়ޟ ंـ१ᘈȄ1930 ԑф໠ۖȂMurrayȞ1938ȟ ॶӑоᆠડϷݙ፣࣏அᙃȂඪюԙ൷ሯؑ Ȟneed for achievement, n-Achȟޟ྅܈ȄՄ ࡣȂᇯޣЖ౩Ᏸড়᝷៉ᘗшԪΙंـкᚠȄ ᇃᢊޟЖ౩ᏰࣨȂଶΟЕ໌ࣺᜰ౩፣ᇄก໔ ώڎϞѴȂζკၐ௃ҏπЖ౩ᏰޟຜُȂ࡚ ᄺ๼Ρޟԙ൷ଢ଼ᐠ౩፣Ȅᄇ๼ΡՄِȂԙ൷ ଢ଼ᐠޟཎဎϚ༉ӵܻଡؑՌϏޟђԙӪ ൷Ȃܖޱள๝ড়ΡᇄԤᄸౙޟӎிȄ؁१ौ ޟ࢐ȂଡؑᏰཾԙ൷Ν࢐ڋ็ܖߧЍԑ࣏Ο ๡ᅾڏُՓဎ୛Ȃܚߒ౪ޟڎᡝ՗࣏Ȅ࿋ר ঈ؁఼ཿӴ౩၌ԙ൷ӵ๼Ρޥོޟ१ौُ ՓȂᔖ࿋ԤօܻϽ၌ఀىࢇ๊ᇄᄂ୛ܚ७ᖝ ޟΙٲᜲᚠȄ ! ! ҏМॶӑӱ៫ՙПЖ౩ᏰԤᜰԙ൷ଢ଼ ᐠޟंـԙݎȂٮи௃ҏπЖ౩Ᏸُ࡙௤ଆ ڏીѶȄڏԩȂհޱ஠ϭಝ๼ΡҏπЖ౩Ᏸ ޟࣺᜰंـȂЎڏ࢐ԙ൷ଢ଼ᐠᇄُՓဎ୛ޟ ᜰᖒȄ

ՙПԙ൷ଢ଼ᐠ౩፣ޟӱ៫!

! ! MurrayȞ1938ȟॶӑඪюԙ൷ሯؑޟ྅ ܈Ȅт஠ԙ൷ሯ࣏ؑࣨۡএΡȶׇ࣏ԙ֨ᜲ ޟώհȇ࣏ᐇיȃ௡ڙܖಢᙑٱސȃΡސܖ ࡦདȇ࣏ᅾפиᐿҳӴୈԁȇ࣏պ݈ራᛤи ႀڗଽޟ኿ྥȇ຺ູ࣏ՌϏȇ຺ູ࣏иഽႆ տΡȇоЅ࣏ٺுএΡϗ૖ആႆԙϴޟᏰಬ Մቨ໌Ռר൵१ȷޟΙᆍናఖȄᙏ൐پᇳȂ ԙ൷ሯؑ൷࢐এΡདौᅾפՄиᅾ໔װٱ ௑ୈԁޟናఖȄ ! ! McClelland ้ΡȞ1953ȟζк஻Ȃԙ൷ ଢ଼ᐠ࢐ࡾএΡ௃ٱܻтᇯ࣏१ौޟܖԤቋ ঄ޟώհȂٮиΨؑႀڗׇछЫྥޟΙᆍϱ ӵᗍΨȂџоຜ࣏ࣺ࿋ࡻδՄᛧۡޟΡਿ੫ ኉Ȅԙ൷ଢ଼ᐠϚ༉ؚۡএΡԙ൷Ϟ৯౴Ȃζ ࢐кඡޥོငᔼԙߝޟӌཾี৤ޟଢ଼ΨȄਲ਼ ᐃ McClelland ޟ౩፣Ȃଽԙ൷ଢ଼ᐠޱڎԤ ήӖ੫ՓȈଽԙ൷ଢ଼ᐠޱ༊өܻ೩ۡϛ้ᜲ ࡙ޟҬ኿Ȃהఖுڗڎᡝޟӱ㕞ଉ਀Ȅଽԙ ൷ଢ଼ᐠޱׇछӴႀԙ࢚ӇٱϞࡣȂܚ૖ᕕு ޟϱӵᅖٗഽႆܻѴӵӱ㕞ȄӵΡሬᜰ߽ ΰȂଽԙ൷ଢ଼ᐠޱၶ१ຜᄇڏٱཾܖώհԤ օઉޟΡȄ

! ! Atkinson ڷ Feather Ȟ1966ȟ၄ш Murray ڷ McClleand ޟԙ൷ଢ଼ᐠ྅܈Ȃඪюȶ෈ ఖ—ቋ঄ȷԙ൷ଢ଼ᐠ౩፣ȄAtkinsonȞ1983ȟ ᇯ࣏Ȃ࿋এΡӵ௃ٱܖᒵᐅ࢚໶ώհਢȂོ ӣਢю౪ڍᆍЖ౩༊өȂϷտ࢐ଡؑԙђ Ȟtendency to achieve successȂᙏᆎ Tsȟڷ

(2)

ᗗջѶఁȞtendency to avoid failureȂᙏᆎ TafȟȂڍޱޟПө࡬ԁࣺІȄࠉޱࣺ࿋ܻ Murray ޟԙ൷ሯؑܖ McClelland ޟԙ൷ଢ଼ ᐠȄএΡശࡣޟ՗࣏ߒ౪ڥؚܻ঺Ιᆍ༊ө ၶ஼ȄԃݎএΡᗗջѶఁޟଢ଼ᐠଽܻଡؑԙ ђޟଢ଼ᐠȞTaf>TsȟȂ࿋ᎏႄѶఁਢȂֆΨ แོ࡙෵ЍȂԙ൷ଢ଼ᐠζོ෵৵ȇ࿋ଡؑԙ ђޟଢ଼ᐠଽܻଠᗗѶఁޟଢ଼ᐠȞTs>TafȟȂ ։ٺᎏڧᎌ࿋ѶఁȂএΡϫོ؁ֆΨଡؑԙ ђȂԙ൷ଢ଼ᐠ஠ቨ஼ȄᖂՄِϞȂӵ Atkinson ޟ౩፣ϛȂԙ൷ሯؑܖԙ൷ଢ଼ᐠѫ࢐ኇ៪ԙ ൷՗࣏ޟӰશϞΙȂ፝ԃ෈࡟ЅᇶӰ้నӇ ζ҆໸ՃኌӵϱȄџَᇯޣӰશζ࢐၌ភЅ Ⴑกԙ൷՗࣏ޟ१ौᡐ໶Ȅ ! ! Ռ 1970 ԑф໠ۖȂᇯޣڥөޟԙ൷ଢ଼ ᐠंـ໠ۖᑹଔȄ௴ڥᇯޣڥөޟंـޱᇯ ࣏ȂΡ࢐кଢ଼ȃڎԤϷݙ૖ΨޟԤᐠᡝȇΡ ོкଢ଼ཪ൶ȃಢᙑȃ೎౩ଉ਀ȄԪਢȂԙ൷ ଢ଼ᐠϚӔ჋Ԟ෈ंـΙኺȂೝຜ࣏Ιᆍ൐સ ޟଢ଼ᐠȂՄ࢐ፒᚕޟᇯޣࣀଢ଼ܖᐣแȄٽ ԃȂWeinerȞ1972ȟ஼፡এΡᄇԙఁޟᘪӰ ᐣแȂΝ࢐ኇ៪এΡԙ൷՗࣏ޟശ१ौӰ શȄ඲ِϞȂԙђҐ҆ඪଽԙ൷ଢ଼ᐠȂѶఁ ζҐ҆ᡱΡ६ճԙ൷ଢ଼ᐠȂڏᜰᗤӵܻ၌ភ ԙఁޟনӰȄԙђޱषᘪӰܻՌϏၼ੉ԁȂ ڏԙ൷ଢ଼ᐠζϚོඪଽȇࣺІӴȂѶఁޱष ᘪ፝ՌϏֆΨϚஊȂІՄџо᝷៉஀ࡻଡؑ ԙ൷ȄWeinerȞ1979ȟਲ਼ᐃέএө࡙پϷݙ ԙఁޟᘪӰȈ ȞΙȟϱѴө࡙ȈཎࡾএΡܚޣឈڗޟՌϏ ԙђܖѶఁনӰȂྛՌܻڏҏ٘ܖѴ ӵᕗცȄٽԃ૖ΨڷֆΨ឴ܻএΡҏ ٘ޟϱӵӰશȇ፞ཾᜲ࡙ڷၼ੉ࠌ࣏ ѴӵᕗცޟӰશȄ ȞΠȟᛧۡܒө࡙ȈཎࡾԙఁনӰ࢐֏ᓍਢ ໢Մᡐଢ଼ȄٽԃֆΨڷၼ੉࢐឴ܻᡐ ଢ଼ȃϚᛧۡޟӰશȇՄ૖ΨЅ፞ཾᜲ ࡙࢐឴ܻШၶᛧۡиϚৠܾ׽ᡐޟ ӰશȄ Ȟέȟ௡ڙܒө࡙ȈཎࡾԙఁনӰ૖֏࣏এ Ρཎөܚ௡ڙՄِȄٽԃֆΨӰશ࢐ এΡཎөџо௡ڙޟȂএΡџоؚۡ ڏֆΨޟแ࡙ȇՄ૖Ψȃၼ੉Ӱશ ้Ȃࠌ࢐এΡཎөܚฒݲ௡ڙޟȄ ! ! ౩፣ΰȂέএө࡙ӓџୢϷΤᆍԙఁᘪ ӰȂծ࢐૖ΨȃֆΨȃώհᜲܾ࡙оЅၼ੉ ࢐এΡᘪઽՌϏޟ՗ଢ଼࢐ԙђܖѶఁޟѲ σкौӰશȄ ! ! Weiner ᇯ࣏Ȃԙ൷ଢ଼ᐠޟଽճӵܻএ ΡᄇԙђܖѶఁޟ၌᠞ПԒԤܚ৯౴Ȅଽԙ ൷ଢ଼ᐠޱ೽ல஠ѶఁᘪӰ࣏ֆΨӰશȂҥܻ ՌרֆΨϚٗཐڗನཛྷȂՄ෈࡟஠پ૖ஊ᝷ ៉ֆΨȂӰԪᏭีөΰȄԙ൷ଢ଼ᐠၶճޱࠌ ஠ѶఁᘪӰ࣏૖ΨӰશȄ೻࢐ᛧۡՄиϚџ ௡ڙޟনӰȂߒҰҐپԙђޟႱ෈ၶճȂӰ ԪᏲमএΡৠܾܹణֆΨȄ

ԙ൷ଢ଼ᐠޟМϽཎొ!

! ! ฒ፣௃ Murray ܖ McClelland ޟԙ൷ଢ଼ ᐠᢎȂܖޱ Weiner ޟԙ൷ᇯޣᐣแᢎȂ഍ ҐញЅМϽ૕๜ޟដᚠȄ඲ِϞȂΰक़ंـ ޱޟ౩፣Ȃࣼپխнܹ፝Ѳ੕ࣱྥȂ։ٺӵ ๼ΡМϽϛȂζџоᎌҢȄ ! ! ณՄȂрಠቷຜ๼ΡᏰҡޟԙ൷՗࣏Ȃ

(3)

ࠓ ᡗ Ұ ю Ϛ ӣ ܻ ՙ П Ᏸ ҡ ޟ ੫ Փ Ȅ Stevenson ڷ StiglerȞ1992ȟӵȮᏰಬᘄྜȯ ȞThe Learning GapȟΙਪϛࡾюȂछ୽Ᏸ ҡȃՂৱڷড়ߝ༊өܻ௴ڥ૖Ψ዁ԒȞability modelȟȂ஠ԙђᘪܻЈϷȇՄٳࢸ୽ড়ޟ ᏰҡȃՂৱڷড়ߝȂࠌ༊өܻ௴ڥֆΨ዁Ԓ Ȟeffort modelȟȂᇯ࣏এΡџоᙤҥֆΨՄ ቨ໌ڏ૖ΨȄCheng ڷ WongȞ1996ȟζࡾ юȂӵ๼Ρޥོϛȶ༕૖၄ܭȷޟᢎ܈ਲ਼౏ ࢬھȂ๼Ρσӻኵࣺ߬ֆΨ૖ஊ၄ٗӑЈ૖ ΨޟϚٗȄ ! ! TIMSS ᐠᄺȞ1999ȟжࣨ 38 এ୽ড়ȃ МϽधශϣ౴ޟᏰҡ࣏ᄇຫȂବᄇтঈޟኵ ᏰᇄऋᏰԙ൷Ȃ໌՗ၮ୽፡ࢥޟၥਟȄChen et al. Ȟ2009ȟਲ਼ᐃΰक़ၥਟ৲Ȃ؁໌Ι؏ ёоϷݙȂ஠έএٳࢸ୽ড়ȞᇃᢊȃРҏȃ ࠒᗺȟຜ࣏ڧᏐড়МϽኇ៪ޟတᡝȂ஠ѪѴ έএՙП୽ড়Ȟछ୽ȃ़୽ȃё਌σȟຜ࣏ ڧএΡкဎМϽኇ៪ޟတᡝȄڏ๖ݎᡗҰȈ ᄇՙПᏰҡՄِȂኵ౩ுڗଽϷ࢐Ӱ࣏ЈϷ ܚमȂՄ਌ճϷࠌ࢐Ӱ࣏ЈϷϚٗȄՄϚӣ ޟ࢐ȂݍПᏰҡϛȂኵ౩਌ଽϷޟᏰҡٮϚ Ιۡ஠ڏଽϷᘪӰܻЈϷȄѪΙП७Ȃᄇٳ ࢸᏰҡՄِȂኵ౩਌ଽϷ࢐Ӱ࣏ֆΨܚमȂ ਌ճϷࠌ࢐Ӱ࣏ֆΨϚٗȄ ! ! ӵ୽ϱंـ࿋ϛȂдؾᅀȞWang, 2003ȟ ζี౪ȂᇃᢊᏰҡӵᄇՌϏޟԙ൷ᘪӰਢȂ ༊өܻ஠Ᏸཾԙ൷ᘪђܻֆΨᇄϗ૖Ȅಒᆆ ઍȞ2002ȟࡾюȂᐌᡝՄِȂᄇܻ๼ΡᏰҡ پᇳȂཕ༊өᇯ࣏૖Ψџо׽ᡐޱȂࠌཕџ ૖஠Ᏸऋߒ౪ԁᘪӰܻֆΨȇՄཕ༊өᇯ࣏ ૖ΨϚџо׽ᡐޱȂࠌཕџ૖ᇯ࣏Ᏸऋߒ౪ ԁ࢐Ꭼᖑ݂Ȅങ๳МȞ2005ȟζඪюȂڧၐ ޱӵȶޥོԙ൷Ҭ኿ȷѶఁਢȂ༊өܻȶֆ Ψ዁ԒȷޟᘪӰȂζ൷࢐ᘪڽܻȶֆΨϚ ஊȷȄࣺᄇՄِȂӵȶএΡԙ൷Ҭ኿ȷѶఁ ਢȂࠌ༊өᘪڽܻѴӵӰશȂՄԙђਢ༊ө ᘪӰ࣏ϱӵӰશȄ ! ! Ж౩Ᏸড় DweckȞ1986ȟඪюȶසΨ ϱᗴ౩፣ȷȞimplicit theory of intelligenceȟȄ Ԃᇯ࣏ԤٲᏰҡᄇܻ૖Ψޟ߬܈឴ܻȶසΨ ᄂᡝ፣ȷȞentity theory of intelligenceȟȄт ঈᇯ࣏૖Ψ࢐ھۡϚᡐޟ੫፴Ȃฒ፣এΡԃ դֆΨȂ഍ฒݲ׽ᡐনԤޟසΨҏ፴ȄࣺІ ޟȂȶසΨቨ໌፣ȷȞincremental theory of intelligenceȟࠌ࢐ࡾএΡࣺ߬૖Ψ࢐џ༭ ޟȂֆΨܖޱ࢐ѴӵӰશџ૖׽ᡐনԤޟස Ψҏ፴Ȅܲࡻᄂᡝ፣ڷቨ໌፣ޱϷտ೩ۡڍ ᆍ Ϛ ӣ ޟ ԙ ൷ Ҭ ኿ Ȃ һ ։ ߒ ౪ Ҭ ኿ Ȟperformance goalȟڷᏰಬҬ኿Ȟlearning goalȟȄߒ౪Ҭ኿ཎࡾএΡᜰϸுڗ૖Ψޟ ԤցրᘞȂᏰಬҬ኿ࠌߒҰএΡᜰϸ૖Ψޟ ᆠ໌Ȅ ! ! ߖԑپȂElliot ᇄ HarackiewiczȞ1996ȟ ؁໌Ι؏஠ԙ൷Ҭ኿ୢϷ࣏ȶᏰಬҬ኿ȷ Ȟlearning goalȟȃȶᗍߖޟߒ౪Ҭ኿ȷ Ȟperformance approach goalȟЅȶଠᗗޟߒ ౪Ҭ኿ȷȞperformance avoid goalȟέᆍ᜸ ࠮Ȅ೩ۡȶᗍߖޟߒ౪Ҭ኿ȷޱᑖྃӴଡؑ ԙђȇ೩ۡȶଠᗗޟߒ౪Ҭ኿ȷޱࠌᏑ໔ᗗ ջѶఁȄܲࡻසΨᄂᡝᢎޟΡԃݎ߬Жแ࡙ ճȂӵѶఁࡣོᘪӰ࣏ՌϏ૖ΨϚٗȄтঈ ོӰ࣏དौଠᗗՄՌר೩३Ȃฒ፣ӵԙђܖ Ѷఁࡣ഍Ϛོ᝷៉ֆΨȄ࿋ࣺ߬සΨᄂᡝ፣

(4)

ޟΡᄇܻܚଡؑޟҬ኿Ԥଽ࡙߬ЖਢȂࠌᡗ ౪юᆠዣڥөޟ՗࣏዁ԒȂ௴ڥᗍߖޟߒ౪ Ҭ኿Ȃฒ፣ԙђܖѶఁਢ഍ོ᝷៉ֆΨȄᄇ ܻܲࡻසΨቨ໌፣ޟΡՄِȂтঈޟҬ኿഍ ӵܻቨ໌૖ΨȂՄи഍ߒ౪юᆠዣڥөޟ՗ ࣏዁ԒȄԃݎѶఁȂܲࡻසΨቨ໌፣ޟΡོ ᘪӰܻՌϏֆΨϚٗȄ ߒΙ! Dweck ϞᏰಬଢ଼ᐠ዁Ԓ ϱᗴසΨ౩፣ Ҭ኿ڥө ७ᖝࢅᏽϞ ՗࣏዁Ԓ ७ᄇѶఁޟ ᘪӰ዁Ԓ සΨᄂᡝ፣ ߬Жแ࡙ଽȈ ᗍߖޟߒ౪Ҭ኿ ᆠዣڥө ߬Жแ࡙ճȈ ଠᗗޟߒ౪Ҭ኿ ಬுฒօȃ Ռר೩३ ૖ΨϚٗ සΨቨ໌፣ ߬Жแ࡙ଽȈ ᏰಬҬ኿ ᆠዣڥө ߬Жแ࡙ճȈ ᏰಬҬ኿ ᆠዣڥө ֆΨϚٗ

ၥਟپྛȈDweck & LeggettȞ1988ȟ

! ! KimȃGtant ڷ DweckȞ1999ȟࡾюȂ ٳ၂Ᏸ็ฒ፣ܲࡻසΨᄂᡝ፣ܖසΨቨ໌ ፣Ȃσӻ഍ོ೩ۡȶߒ౪Ҭ኿ȷȂՄиӵѶ ఁਢ༊өܻֆΨᘪӰȄಒᆆઍȞ2002ȟоᇃ ѕᑪѿ࣏ޟଽϛڷ୽ϛҡ࣏ᄇຫȂौؑтঈ ຟۡᄇܻኵᏰȃ़МڷᐣѬᏰऋ૖Ψޟ߬ ܈ȂоЅ೻ٲऋҬޟԙ൷ᘪӰȄڏ๖ݎี ౪Ȃ୽ȃଽϛҡཕ࢐ᇯ࣏ኵᏰȃ़МڷᐣѬ ૖Ψ࢐Ϛџ׽ᡐޟȂζ൷ཕӣཎ೻ٲऋҬޟ ԁԙᕼौᎬᖑ݂ȇՄтঈཕ࢐ᇯ࣏ኵᏰڷᐣ Ѭ૖ΨϚџ׽ᡐȂζ൷ཕӣཎԁԙᕼၭֆΨ ԤᜰȄ ! ! ௃ΰक़๖ݎپࣼȂᄇܻ૖Ψޟϱᗴ߬܈Ȃ խнџо၌ភԙ൷ᘪӰ࠮ᄘޟМϽ৯౴Ȅծ࢐ רঈϫौ໌Ι؏ଡ୰Ȃ೻ᆍ஼፡ֆΨޟᘪӰ዁ ԒȂӵ๼ΡМϽϛـതԤդཎဎȉᗙԤȂרঈ ࢐֏џоӵӨᆍሴ୿ޟԙ൷՗࣏ϛȂ഍ี౪१ ຜֆΨޟᘪӰ࠮ᄘȉ؁१ौޟ࢐ȂֆΨޟቋ঄ ༉༉࢐Ӱ࣏ѺԤօܻቨ໌এΡޟߒ౪༝ȉ࿋ এΡҢᅾΨȂࠓҐளپՌרቨ໌ޟ๖ݎਢȂֆ Ψ࢐֏ϚӔڧڗ१ຜȉᜲၾԪਢএΡོᙽՄ ວ፝૖Ψޟ३ڙ༝ȉ

ݍՙМϽޟᄇШ!

! ! Maehr ᇄ NichollsȞ1980ȟෆငࡾюȂ ԙ൷ଢ଼ᐠޟϱొᇄҏ፴҆໸௃এΡܚ೎Ϟ ޥོ૕๜ϛў௤ષȂϗ૖ጂϸӴёоඡණȄ յԊ٤Ȟ2005ȟζᇯ࣏ौ௃ϛ୽༈ಛМϽޟ

(5)

౏ቹ૕๜ϛў௤ષȂϗ૖఼ཿᕣ၌๼Ρԙ൷ ଢ଼ᐠޟҏ፴ᇄϱొȂоЅѺܚង֤ޟޥོМ ϽཎဎȄ ! ! ҥܻএΡкဎМϽ஼፡এΡޟՌҥȃ᠌ ցᇄᒵᐅȂӰԪӵଡؑԙ൷ਢȂਿѴ१ຜՌ кܒᇄՌרؚۡޟᐣแȄЖ౩Ᏸড় Deci ᇄ RyanȞ1985, 1987, 1992, 2000ȇ Ryan & Connell, 1989 ȟ ඪ ю ȶ Ռ ר ؚ ۡ ౩ ፣ ȷ Ȟself-determinationȟȂ஼፡ϱӵଢ଼ᐠᄇܻ ଡؑҬ኿ޟ१ौܒȄDeci ᇄ RyanȞ1987ȟ ᇯ࣏ȂΡ᜸ЈҡڎԤ࣏ᅖٗᑹ፸Մ՗ଢ଼ޟϱ ӵЖ౩ଢ଼ᐠȄஅܻϱӵଢ଼ᐠՄ௃ٱޟ՗ଢ଼Ȃ ڏႆแҏ٘൷࢐՗ଢ଼ޟҬޟȄՄএᡝ࣏ΟѴ ӵ፬ᆴȃ३ڙȃޥོ෈೨ܖौ้ؑӰશՄ௃ ٱϞ՗࣏Ȃࠌ࢐அܻѴӵଢ଼ᐠȄDeci ᇄ Ryan Ȟ2000ȟᇯ࣏ȂȶՌרؚۡ౩፣ȷޟϱӵଢ଼ ᐠྛՌܻΡ᜸ЈҡԤΙٲЖ౩ሯؑሯौᅖ ٗȄӵၶԞ෈ޟȶՌרؚۡ౩፣ȷϛȂDeci ᇄ Ryan ࡾюȂᇄϱӵଢ଼ᐠԤᜰޟڍ໶१ौ Ж౩ሯؑ࢐ՌкܒȞautonomyȟᇄ૖Ψཐ ȞcompetenceȟȄࠉޱཎࡾএΡџоՌҥՌ кӴհؚۡޟငᡛཐڧȂࡣޱࠌ࢐ࡾএΡᄇ ඡ௡ϱӵᇄѴӵжࣨޟՌרਝ૖߬܈ȄՌк ܒ࢐ϱӵଢ଼ᐠޟॶौԙϷȂ୲ԤആႆՌкՌ ؚȂϗџ૖ᅖٗՌкሯؑȄष࢐ӰѴӵଢ଼ᐠ Մ՗ଢ଼ȂࠌϚџ૖ׇӒᅖٗՌкሯؑȄ ! ! ณՄȂՌרؚۡ౩፣ζฒџᗗջӴю౪ ՙПԙ൷ଢ଼ᐠ౩፣ޟીѶȂζ൷࢐ᗴ֤МϽ ϛ஼፡এΡ᠌ցޟቋ঄ᢎȞMiller, 1997ȟȄ Miller ᇯ࣏Ȃӵ࢚ٲ१ຜޥོ෈೨ᇄُՓဎ ୛ޟМϽϛȂΡঈଡؑԙ൷ޟ՗࣏ᇄี৤ᐣ แȂ࡞џ૖ᇄՙПМϽԤܚϚӣȄӵ೻ٲޥ ོ࿋ϛȂΡঈޟԙ൷ଡؑ՗࣏ٮߨѫݧ१এ Ρϱӵଢ଼ᐠᑹ፸Ȃᗙ१ຜϱღᡝޟ෈೨ڷौ ؑȂՄϱღᡝ෈࡟܁܁ᇄޥོМϽලႇᇯۡ ޟԙ൷Ҭ኿ԤᜰȄ ! ! յԊ٤ᇄ྆୽ኾȞ1987,1991ȇյԊ٤, 1990ȇYu, 1996ȇYu & Yang, 1994ȟඪюȶޥ ོ ڥ ө ԙ ൷ ଢ଼ ᐠ ȷ Ȟ social-oriented achievement motivationȟȂᇄՙПএΡкဎ М Ͻ ޟ ȶ এ ר ڥ ө ԙ ൷ ଢ଼ ᐠ ȷ Ȟindividual-oriented achievement motivationȟ ϣࣺᄇШȂၐყᇳ݂ԙ൷ଢ଼ᐠޟМϽ৯౴Ȅ յԊ٤ᇄ྆୽ኾȞ1991ȟ׳րႆўՙПԙ൷ ሯؑܖଢ଼ᐠޟंـȂڏஅҏႱ೩ӵܻȈӈդ МϽޥོϛȂএΡޟԙ൷ଢ଼ᐠܖሯؑ഍ڎԤ ࣺӣޟלᇼȄ೻ٲ౩፣஼፡এΡᄇԙ൷ޟࣼ ݲȃএΡᄇԙ൷Ҭ኿ܚࡻޟቋ঄ȂоЅএΡ ЖҬϛᄇԙ൷Ҭ኿ޟ೩้ۡӰશȂڏᄂង֤ এΡкဎМϽޟቋ঄ᢎȂζ൷࢐஠ՙПޥོ ϛޟԙ൷ሯؑܖଢ଼ᐠϞҏ፴ȃϱొܖ੫኉Ȃ ຜ࣏ලႇᎌҢܻܚԤМϽȄ ! ! յԊ٤ᇄ྆୽ኾȞ1987, 1991ȟ஠ԙ൷ ଢ଼ᐠ१ཱི࣏ࣨۡȶএΡདौ຺ູ࢚ᆍѴӵؚ ۡܖϱӵؚۡޟҬ኿ܖᓺؾ኿ྥޟଢ଼ᄘЖ ౩༊өȇՄ၎Ҭ኿ܖᓺؾ኿ྥޟᒵᐅ࢐ҥޥ ོܖএΡܚؚۡȷȄтঈᇯ࣏Ȃषौొᇐ๼ Ρԙ൷ଢ଼ᐠޟҏ፴ᇄϱొȂଶΟႆўՙПЖ ౩Ᏸޟএרڥөԙ൷ଢ଼ᐠϞѴȂᗙᔖ၎ёΣ ޥོڥөޟԙ൷ଢ଼ᐠȄ೻ڍᆍԙ൷ଢ଼ᐠӵ ȶԙ൷Ҭ኿ȷȃȶ๖ݎຟቋȷȃȶԙ൷՗࣏ȷȃ ȶശࡣ๖ݎȷоЅȶᐌᡝ՗࣏ȷ้ቹ७ΰӨ ԤϚӣޟ੫኉ȄߒΠ։࢐এרڥөԙ൷ଢ଼ᐠ ڷޥོڥөԙ൷ଢ଼ᐠޟШၶȄ

(6)

ߒΠȈএרڥөԙ൷ଢ଼ᐠᇄޥོڥөԙଢ଼ᐠޟШၶ এרڥөԙ൷ଢ଼ᐠ ޥོڥөԙ൷ଢ଼ᐠ ԙ൷Ҭ኿ ҥএΡՌϏܚؚۡ ҥтΡܖܚ឴ღᡝؚۡ ๖ݎຟቋ ໸ႀڗܖ຺ູҥএΡ೩ۡޟ኿ྥȂϗ ᆗԙђ ໸ႀڗܖ຺ູҥтΡ೩ۡޟ኿ྥȂϗ ᆗԙђ ԙ൷՗࣏ ՗࣏ߒ౪кौҥՌϏؚۡ кौ࢐ҥтΡܖܚ឴ღᡝޟؚۡپ Еี՗࣏ ᐌᡝ՗࣏ এΡϚᘞӴᄇՌϏޟ՗࣏ୈюրᘞᇄ ᔮଆȂӰԪ՗࣏ၶڎԤᡐ೽ᇄᐠଢ଼ܒ ШၶٷᒦтΡܖܚ឴ღᡝޟڞօ՗ ࣏Ȃиၶીмᡐ೽ᇄᐠଢ଼ܒ پྛȈյԊ٤ȃ྆୽ኾȞ1987ȟ ! ! յԊ٤Ȟ1990ȟࡾюȂҥܻ༈ಛϛ୽ড় ৳ӵఀᎴυτਢ஼፡ٷᒦଋጛȂᎴԙυτޟ ٷᒦܒਿȄএΡᄇԙ൷Ҭ኿ޟᒵᐅᇄଡؑȂ ༊өܻٷᒦЮҔܖтΡޟؚۡȄ࣏ΟଡؑЮ Ҕȃড়ఊܖޥོܚ෈࡟ޟҬ኿ȂԙΡོᝒ቗ ौؑυτौ༕᠞ၑਪȂֆΨؑڥђӪȄӈդ ฒઉܻԙ൷Ϟᕕுޟࣀଢ଼ܖ՗࣏ȂЮҔࣱོ ёоᆓڙᇄ࿱ХȄএΡಬᄛܻտΡȞЎڏ࢐ ЮҔȟ֙ວт၎ࡩቄୈȃԃդୈȂՄՌϏ೽ லϚමհюႂधЮҔཎࡦޟ՗࣏ȇୈӈդٱ ௑Ȃ؁ϚමሆܾՌרк஻ȄҥԪџޣȂএΡ ӵଡؑԙ൷ޟႆแϛȂོࣺ࿋ٷᒦЮҔޟڞ օᇄ࿜ߴȄ ! ! ᐌᡝՄِȂյԊ٤ᇄ྆୽ኾȞ1987, 1991ȟᇯ࣏Ȉޥོڥөԙ൷ଢ଼ᐠԤڍএ੫ ኉Ȅ಑Ιএ੫኉࢐ȈএΡᄇԙ൷ޟቋ঄ᢎ܈ ϱϽၶ৵ȂএΡܚᇯۡޟቋ঄кौپՌтΡ ܖܚ឴ღᡝޟቋ঄ȂۦҐϱϽԙ࣏এΡቋ঄ فಛޟΙഋϷȄࣺᄇӴȂএרڥөԙ൷ଢ଼ᐠ ࠌ࢐এΡᄇԙ൷ޟቋ঄ᢎ܈ϱϽၶ஼Ȃԙ൷ ޟቋ঄ϐငԙ࣏এΡቋ঄فಛޟΙഋϷȄޥ ོڥөԙ൷ଢ଼ᐠ಑Πএ੫኉࢐Ȉ՗࣏ޟώڎ ܒၶ஼Ȅζ൷࢐ᇳୈԁٱ௑кौ࢐࣏Οႀڗ ڏтҬޟȂٽԃώհൢႍȃღᡝᄸៗܖᗗջ ڧڗ೎ᆴ้ȂՄߨ࣏Οٱ௑ҏ٘ȇࣺᄇӴȂ এרڥөԙ൷ଢ଼ᐠޟђ૖Ռкܒौ஼Ȃׇԙ ΙӇٱޟҬޟ൷࢐װٱ௑ୈԁȂՄߨ࣏ΟѴ ӵҬޟȄ ! ! ޥོڥөԙ൷ଢ଼ᐠޟ྅܈Ȃ၄шΟ๼Ρ ԙ൷՗࣏࿋ϛ१ຜޥོ෈೨ޟ੫ՓȄณՄȂ ೻ڍᆍԙ൷ଢ଼ᐠޟᄇШȂٮϚ૖шϷ၌ភӵ ԙ൷ᘪӰ࿋ϛܚᡗҰޟֆΨ዁ԒȄᖞٽپ ᇳȂھณ๼Ρଡؑԙ൷ਢலོՃኌ१ौтΡ ޟ෈࡟Ȃծ࢐ٮϚߒҰׇӒؠԤՌкܒޟ৤ ౪ȄଶԪϞѴȂյԊ٤ᇄ྆୽ኾ஠ԙ൷ଢ଼ᐠ ຜ࣏Ρਿ੫፴Ȃࠓ܇౱ΟএΡӵଡؑϚӣҬ ኿ਢȂڏԙ൷ଢ଼ᐠҐࣺ҆ӣȄ௥ήپȂհޱ ஠ϭಝᏐড়ޥོޟԙ൷ଢ଼ᐠ዁ԒȂᙤоϷݙ ԙ൷՗࣏ᇄُՓဎ୛ޟᜰᖒȄ

(7)

๼Ρޟԙ൷՗࣏ᇄُՓဎ୛!

! ! ༁ӎ୽Ȟ2009ȟоȶᏐড়ᜰ߽кဎȷ࣏ அᙃȂ࡚ᄺюᏐড়ޥོϛޟԙ൷ଢ଼ᐠ዁࠮ Ȟ፜୤َߒέȟȄ༁ӎ୽஠Ꮠড়ޥོϛޟԙ ൷Ҭ኿Ϸ࣏ȶᖃөറюȷȞvertical goalsȟȃ ȶএΡҬ኿ȷȞpersonal goalsȟڷȶᐗөറ юȷȞhorizontal goalsȟέσ᜸Ȅܚᒝȶᖃ өറюȷ࢐Ꮠড়МϽϛޥོ፭Ϡଽ࡙ቋ঄ޟ ҡࣀҬ኿ȄႀԙԪᆍҬ኿೽லߒҰӵᐭ੨ᝯ ތ࿋ϛᕕுഽցȂӣਢڧڗޥོޟଽ࡙ᢚ ፬ȂٽԃᏰཾΰޟԙ൷ȄȶএΡҬ኿ȷ࢐ю ܻՌ٘ᑹ፸ՄؚЖདौଡؑޟҬ኿ȄএΡϞ ܚоଡؑԪᆍҬ኿ȂસᆞюՌϱӵଢ଼ᐠȂၭ Ѵӵႍ፬ٮฒᜰᖒȄՍܻȶᐗөറюȷࠌϭ ܻڍޱϞ໢ȂѺង֤๿ႀԙএΡܚଡؑޟ࢚ ᆍҬ኿Ȃ೻ᆍԙђڧڗএΡܚᇯӣޟЍኵတ ᡝܚᢚ೨ȂณՄࠓϚ჋ȶᖃөറюȷ٥ኺȂ ࢐ᐌএޥོܚჂᓾޟԙ൷Ȅ ߒέȈᏐড়ޥོϛޟҡࣀҬ኿ ҡࣀҬ኿ ᖃөറю এΡҬ኿ ᐗөറю ֆΨछኈᢎ ଽ ଽ ճ ଽ ޣឈڗޟ հཾ૖Ψ ଽ ճ ଽ ଽ ֆΨώڎᢎ ଽ ȞසΨቨ໌ᢎȟ ଽ ȞසΨҏ፴ᢎȟ ճ ଽ ϱӵଢ଼ᐠ ȞᏰಬҬ኿ȟ ዁ጙ ዁ጙ ᏰಬҬ኿Ȉ ቨ໌૖Ψ ᏰಬҬ኿Ȉ ቨ໌૖Ψ Ѵӵଢ଼ᐠ Ȟߒ౪Ҭ኿ȟ ߒ౪ᗍߖҬ኿ɵ ߒ౪ଠᗗҬ኿ ߒ౪ᗍߖҬ኿ɴ ߒ౪ଠᗗҬ኿ ߒ౪ᗍߖҬ኿Ȉ ᕕுרတғөຟቋ ՗࣏዁Ԓ ᆠዣڥө Ȟߔ௥ࢅᏽȃ ଽ஀ࡻȟ ฒօཐ Ȟߔ௥ࢅᏽȃ ଽ஀ࡻȟ Ȟߔ௥ࢅᏽȃ ଽ஀ࡻȟ ၥਟپྛȈ༁ӎ୽Ȟ2009ȟ ! ! ങ๳Мᇯ࣏ȂӵᏐড়ᜰ߽кဎޟኇ៪Ϟ ήȂ๼Ρᜰ߽ᆩ๜ϛޟ१ौтΡȂџ૖Ӱ࣏ এΡܚ׸ᅋޟޥُོՓȂՄ෈೨тႀԙ੫ۡ ԙ൷Ҭ኿Ȅт஠೻ٲҬ኿ᆎ࣏ᖃөҬ኿ Ȟvertical goalsȟȄᖃөҬ኿೽லڎԤၶଽ ޟޥོቋ঄ȂଡؑᖃөҬ኿܁܁ೝຜ࣏࢐এ ΡᔖᅾޟُՓဎ୛Ȅ඲ِϞȂᖃөҬ኿ޟϱ ৠڷ኿ྥкौҥѴӵޥོܚᒵᐅᇄࣨۡȄᗶ ณএΡԤဎ୛҆໸ֆΨӴଡؑԪ᜸ԙ൷Ҭ ኿ȂծࠓϚΙོۡᄇ೻ٲҬ኿ܲԤϱӵᑹ ፸ȄՄӵᏐড়ޥོϛଡؑᖃөԙ൷ȂڎԤΪ Ϸᐿ੫ޟМϽཎొȄӵᏐড়ޥོϛȂЮҔ෈

(8)

ఖυτװଡؑᖃөԙ൷࿋հՌϏޟُՓဎ ୛ȂֆΨӴଡؑᖃөറюȄ ! ! дؾᅀȞWang, 2002ȟ௤ଆٳࢸᏰҡᇄ ՙПᏰҡᄇܻᖃөҬ኿Ϟԙ൷ޟᇯޣȄԂζ ี౪ȈٳࢸᏰҡᄇܻଡؑᖃөറюޟҬ኿Ȃ ፭ᇄྃଽቋ঄Ȃᇯ࣏ֆΨଡؑᖃөറю࢐এ ΡᔖᅾޟُՓဎ୛ȄдؾᅀȞWang, 2003ȟ ζ௤ଆᖃөറюڷᐗөറюϞ໢ޟ৯౴ȄԂ ี౪ȈӵଡؑᖃөറюਢȂ๼ΡᏰҡШၶৠ ܾཐڧڗپՌЮҔᇄৱߝޟ෈࡟ȂЅӣᏔޟ ᔆΨȂٮиོՃ໔Ᏸཾԙ൷ᄇҐپҬ኿ޟኇ ៪Ȅങ๳МȞ2005ȟᇯ࣏ȂоޥོМϽቹԩ ՄِȂ๼ΡМϽޟޥོ෈೨ڎԤড়ఊڥөȃ ᖃөቨ໌ᇄΡሬဎ୛Шၶ้੫ՓȄᏐড়ࡦད ஼፡Ϥগᜰ߽ȂϷտࣨۡӨᆍُՓᜰ߽࿋ϛ ᔖᅾޟဎ୛ȄএΡ՗ଢ଼ਢȂՃኌޟϚ༉࢐Ռ ϏܚଡؑޟҬ኿Ȃᗙሯौ௃ՌϏ׸ᅋޟޥོ ُՓՃኌՌϏᄇтΡᔖᅾޟဎ୛Ȅ඲ِϞȂ ๼ΡϞޥོҬ኿܁܁ᗴُ֤Փဎ୛ȄӰԪޥ ོ෈೨এΡႀԙϞԙ൷Ҭ኿Ȃငலԙ࣏এΡ ܚ׸ᅋϞُՓᔖᅾޟ೰ӈȄ ! ! ༁ӎ୽Ȟ2009ȟᇯ࣏ȂᏐড়ޥོ१ຜఀ ىȂ஼፡ȶ࿲ૡࣱήࠢȂ୲Ԥ᠞ਪଽȷȂᙤ ҥ᠞ਪپؑڥђӪ࢐ޥོΰσӻኵΡଡؑ ޟӓӣҬ኿ȄЮҔ࣏ΟυτޟҐپȂӵఀى υτޟႆแϛȂჂᓾυτֆΨҢђ᠞ਪȂ֙ ᇰтঈȈԤԁޟᏰཾԙ൷ߒ౪Ȃ஠پӵᙛൟ ΰϗ૖юΡᓞӴȂլԤШၶᓺູޟޥོӴ ՝ȂඡණၶӻޟޥོၥྛȄѪΙП७Ȃυτ ᇄЮҔڷড়Ρ໢Ԥӄ௝ᇄӓޟᜰ߽Ȃԃݎυ τԤറюޟߒ౪ȂЮҔᇄড়Ρ഍஠Ео࣏ ᄸȂᇯ࣏тޟԙ൷џоӎ᝺ߞྎȄӰԪЮҔ ᒑ೽ல഍ོौؑυτҢђ᠞ਪȂଡؑԁԙ ᕼȂυτζོ᠙ЮҔᒑޟၗȂᑖྃֆΨȂо ᅾ׃ၾȄ ! ! ࿋๼ΡଡؑᖃөҬ኿ਢȂζӣਢӵᄂ፺ ُՓဎ୛ȄࣺၶܻଡؑএΡҬ኿Ȃଡؑᖃө Ҭ኿؁ৠܾுڗড়ΡޟЛࡻᇄ௥ڧȂζ؁џ ૖ᡱড়ΡཐڗԤ७υȂӰ࣏ଡؑᖃөҬ኿ಒ ӫড়Ρ෈࡟ȄоᏰҡޟᏰཾԙ൷ՄِȂଡؑ ԁԙᕼȃՃΰԁᏰਮྃԤџ૖࢐౏ڧЮҔᇄ ৱߝ෈೨ޟᖃөҬ኿ȂӰԪႀԙΰक़Ҭ኿๘ Ϛѫ࢐ᄂ౪ՌϏޟዖ૖ՄϐȂζӣਢᄂ፺Ռ Ϗ࣏٘υτޟُՓဎ୛Ȃ࢐ᅾ׃ၾޟڎᡝߒ ౪Ȅ ! ! ӰԪȂֆΨޟઍғཎဎϚ༉࢐ଡؑԙ൷ ޟഊ৷ȂֆΨҏ٘൷ᡗ౪юএΡкଢ଼ᅾဎ୛ ޟଢ଼ᐠȂӣਢڎԤၾኈܒቋ঄Ȅಒᆆઍ Ȟ2003ȟо୽ȃଽϛҡ࣏ᄇຫ໌՗፡ࢥȂौ ؑ୤ᇄޱᄇȶଽֆΨ—ߒ౪ԁȷȃȶଽֆΨ— ߒ౪৯ȷȃȶճֆΨ—ߒ౪ԁȷЅȶճֆΨ— ߒ౪৯ȷ้Ѳᆍ᜸࠮ޟᏰҡ໌՗ຟեȄଽֆ ΨಢϚ፣ԙᕼԁᚽȂ഍ШճֆΨಢၶೝຜ࣏ ࢐ԁᏰҡȇІϞȂճֆΨಢϚ፣ԙᕼԁᚽȂ ֯ШճֆΨಢϚೝຜ࣏ԁᏰҡȄ඲ِϞȂҏ ंـޟ୤ᇄޱᄇȶֆΨȷᇄ֏፭Ϡၾኈΰޟ ғ࿋ܒȄγ࢐ȶֆΨȷޟᏰҡȂϚ፣ԙᕼߒ ౪ԁᚽȂ഍ϐငᅾΟҏӋȂ഍࢐ԁᏰҡȄࣺ ІӴȂȶϚֆΨȷՄᕕுԁԙᕼޟᏰҡȂζ Ϛ૖ᆗ࢐๡ᅾڏҏϷȄ༁ӎ୽Ȟ2004ȟᇯ࣏Ȃ ଽֆΨޟᏰҡϚ፣ߒ౪ԁᚽȂҐپ഍ᗙོ᝷ ៉ֆΨȂڏনӰџ૖࢐ֆΨೝຜ࣏ᅾҏϷȃ ԁᏰҡޟߒ኉Ȅтঈ࣏ΟᆰࡻȶԁᏰҡȷޟ ғ७לຫȂҐپᗙོ᝷៉ֆΨȄѪѴȂҥܻ

(9)

ճֆΨޟᏰҡᄇܻᐇϞӵרȃᔖ၎ᑖྃֆΨ ўୈޟٱȂٮҐᅾΨȂӰԪϚ፣ߒ౪ԁᚽȂ ഍ོೝຜ࣏ҐᅾҏϷȃϚ࢐ԁᏰҡȃֆΨᗙ ϚஊȄҥԪרঈџоுޣȂᄇܻ๼ΡᏰҡՄ ِȂӵᏰཾΰֆΨ࢐឴ܻհ࣏ᏰҡޟҏϷȂ ՄиԤڏၾኈܒޟဎొȄ ! ! ጾּۣȞ2004ȟࡾюȂ๼ΡᄇᏰಬޟད ݲѓ֤೨ӻՙПޥོܚϚ१ຜޟϱొȄٽԃ ȶ༕૖၄ܭȷȃȶ༕ࠌϚეȷ้ԙᇭȂϚᘞ ֙ᇰΡঈֆΨޟᄂҢܒȄȶЈ՗୊Ȃ֗υо Ռ஼Ϛ਀ȷߒҰএΡџоആႆֆΨٺՌϏᆰ ࡻ໌؏ȂϚᘞᗚө؁ଽޟცࣨȄՄȶও٘ȃ ቆড়ȃݽ୽ȃҁЈήȷȃȶও٘໌ኈȷ้ད ݲȂࠌ஠ֆΨޟҡࣀಬᄛᇄछኈࣺ๖ӫȄӰ ԪȂֆΨᏰಬӵ๼ΡޥོϛȂϚӔ࢐ငҥএ Ρཎסپᒵᐅܖڥ௻ޟ՗࣏ȂՄ࢐ΡΡ҆໸ ڎരޟࠢኈȄ ! ! Lay ᇄ TsengȞ2003ȟี౪Ȉ೎ӵৱߝ ϚᘞौؑᇯޣֆΨޟᏰಬᕗცϛȂؐ࿋Ᏸҡ ฒݲႀڗৱߝޟ኿ྥܖឈுՌϏֆΨϚஊ ޟӣਢȂџ૖բᓍဌඌཐȃཛྷޞȃϚ൉᠍Ռ Ϗ้॒ө௑ᆱȂծ࢐ڏՌרਝ૖ࠓϚོӰԪ Մ६ճȄႪ۸࣡Ȟ2003ȟζࡾюȂσᏰҡܛ ᇯՌϏϚֆΨਢၶৠܾЕีဌඌཐ้॒७ ௑ᆱȄӰԪȂᄇܻ๼ΡᏰҡՄِȂϚֆΨ࢐ ΙᆍϚၾኈиᡱΡཐڗဌඌޟ՗࣏Ȅ ! ! ᆣӫΰक़МᝦȂֆΨΙП७࢐ቨ໌૖Ψ ޟഊ৷Ȃάӣਢঙڎᄂ፺ُՓဎ୛ޟђ૖Ȃ оЅΨؑ໌؏ޟछኈȄ࣏ΟᗗջϚஊֆΨܚ ளپޟဌඌཐȂএΡலӵଡؑᖃөҬ኿ᎏڧ ਙఁਢȂࠎᓾՌϏ᝷៉ֆΨȂհ࣏ՌϏ๡ᅾ ҏϷޟᜌ݂ȄՄֆΨଡؑޥོᆎ೨ȃড়ߝ෈ ࡟ޟᖃөҬ኿ȂЎڏ࢐Ᏸཾԙ൷Ȃζ൷ԙ࣏ Ᏸҡᅾ׃ၾޟശٹഊ৷Ȅ

๖ᇭ!

! ! ԙ൷ଢ଼ᐠޟंـᗶณܻۖՙПޥོȂณ ՄȂԙ൷ଢ଼ᐠӵ๼ΡޥོϛޟཎဎȂࠓ࢐঄ ுఀىᄂ୛ώհޱᇄंـޱ౏ࡦޟដᚠȄ௃ Ꮠড়МϽپࣼȂᏰҡଡؑᏰཾԙ൷Ȃٮߨ༉ ࢐჋ՙПЖ౩Ᏸড়ܚᒝޟଡؑՌרᄂ౪Ȅӵ १ຜُՓᜰ߽ȃΡሬڷᒙޟ๼Ρޥོ၇ȂᏰ ཾԙ൷ӣਢζᅖٗড়৳ϱޟ१ौђ૖ȄѺᏗ ᆹΟᒑυϞ໢ޟӓӣཎסȂζளپড়ఊᄸ᝺ ޟᄔᡗȄӵᚄ఼Ᏸཾԙ൷ᇄُՓဎ୛ޟᜰᖒ ϞࡣȂԙ൷ଢ଼ᐠޟΡሬቹ७Ȃܖ೨஠ԙ࣏Ґ پंـޟ१ौПөȄ

୤ՃМᝦ!

յԊ٤Ȟ1990ȟȄԙ൷ଢ଼ᐠޟ࡚ᄺਝ࡙ंـȄ ୽ҳᇃᢊσᏰЖ౩Ᏸंـܚിρ፣ МȂҐюގȂᇃѕѿȄ յԊ٤Ȟ2005ȟȄԙ൷ଢ଼ᐠᇄԙ൷ᢎ܈Ȉ๼ ΡМϽЖ౩ޟ௤ષȄၷܻ྆୽ኾȃ༁ӎ ୽ȃ྆ϛ޿кጡȂ๼ΡҏπЖ౩ᏰȞήȟ [ߑގΠڕ]Ȃ665-711ȄᇃѕȈሉࢺюގ ϴѧȄ յԊ٤ȃ྆୽ኾȞ1987ȟȄޥོڥөԙ൷ଢ଼ ᐠᇄএרڥөԙ൷ଢ଼ᐠȈ྅܈Ϸݙᇄᄂ ኉ंـȄϛѵंـ଱ҕఊᏰंـܚ໱ ѐȂ64Ȃ51-98Ȅ յԊ٤ȃ྆୽ኾȞ1991ȟȄԙ൷ଢ଼ᐠҏπϽ ޟࣸࡦȄၷܻ྆ϛ޿ȃଽۦϦкጡȂϛ

(10)

୽ Ρ Ʉ ϛ ୽ Ж Ȉ Ρ ਿ ᇄ ޥ ོ ጕ Ȃ 201-290ȄᇃѕȈሉࢺюގϴѧȄ ಒᆆઍȞ2002ȟȄᏰҡᄇֆΨӵᖃөᇄߨᖃ өᏰऋᏰಬޣឈϞंـȄၷܻ๼Ρҏπ Ж ౩ Ᏸ ं ـ ଡ ؑ ڟ ູ ॎ ห ᒲ ϴ ࡉ ȞጡȟȂ๼ΡҏπЖ౩Ᏸंـଡؑڟູ ॎห-91 ԑ࡙ॎหஈ՗ൢ֙ਪȄᇃѕȈ ๼ΡҏπЖ౩ᏰंـଡؑॎหᒲϴࡉȄ ಒᆆઍȞ2003ȟȄᏰҡᄇᏰಬޟၾኈܒቋ঄ ϞंـȄၷܻ๼ΡҏπЖ౩Ᏸंـଡؑ ڟູॎหᒲϴࡉȞጡȟȂ๼ΡҏπЖ౩ Ᏸंـଡؑڟູॎห-92 ԑ࡙ॎหஈ՗ ൢ֙ਪȄᇃѕȈ๼ΡҏπЖ౩Ᏸंـଡ ؑॎหᒲϴࡉȄ ങ๳МȞ2005ȟȄ๼ΡޟޥོҬ኿ᇄԙ൷ଢ଼ ᐠȈоᇃᢊσᏰҡ࣏ٽȄ୽ҳᇃᢊσᏰ Ж౩Ᏸंـܚിρ፣МȂҐюގȂᇃѕ ѿȄ ༁ӎ୽Ȟ2004ȟȄᏐড়ޥོϛޟޥོҬ኿ᇄ ُՓဎ୛ȄҏπЖ౩ᏰंـȂ22Ȃ 121-194Ȅ ༁ӎ୽Ȟ2009ȟȄᏐড়ᜰ߽кဎȈ঱ᏰІࡦȃ ౩፣࡚ᄺᇄᄂ኉ंـȄᇃѕȈЖ౩юގ ޥȄ Ⴊ۸࣡Ȟ2003ȟȄ๼ΡֆΨᘪӰधࡣޟཎဎ فಛȄၷܻ๼ΡҏπЖ౩Ᏸंـଡؑڟ ູॎหᒲϴࡉȞጡȟȂ๼ΡҏπЖ౩Ᏸ ंـଡؑڟູॎห-92 ԑ࡙ॎหஈ՗ൢ ֙ਪȄᇃѕȈ๼ΡҏπЖ౩Ᏸंـଡؑ ॎหᒲϴࡉȄ ጾּۣȞ2003ȟȄԙ൷ଢ଼ᐠޟМϽ੫኉Ȉᇃ ᢊӴୢߧЍԑޟֆΨ߬܈Ȅ୽ҳᇃᢊσ ᏰЖ౩Ᏸंـܚᆈρ፣МȂҐюގȂᇃ ѕѿȄ

Atkinson, J. W., and Feather, N. T. (Eds.) (1966). A theory of achievement

motivation. New York: John Wiley &

Sons.

Atkinson, J. W. (Ed.) (1983). Personality,

motivation, and action. New York:

Praeger Publishers.

Chen, S. W., Wang, H. H., Wei, C. F., Fwu, B. J., & Hwang, K. K. (2009). Taiwanese students’ self-attributions for two types of achievement goals. Journal of Social

Psychology, 149(2), 179-193.

Cheng, K. M., & Wong, K. C. (1996). School effectiveness in East Asia: Concepts, origins and implications. Journal of

Educational Administration, 34 (5),

32-49.

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic

motivation and self-determination in Human Behavior. New York: Plenum.

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1987). The support of autonomy and the control of behavior. Journal of Personality and

Social Psychology, 53, 1024-1037.

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1992). The initiation and regulation of intrinsically motivated learning and achievement. In A. K. Boggiano & T. S. Pittman (Eds.),

Achievement and motivation: A social-developmental perspective (pp.

(11)

9-36). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The "what" and "why" of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268.

Dweck, C. S. (1986). Motivational processes affecting learning. American

Psychologist, 41, 1040-1048.

Dweck, C. S., & Leggett, E. L.(1988). A social cognitive approach to motivation and personality. Psychological Review,

95(2), 256-273.

Elliot, A. J., & Harackiewicz, J. M. (1996). Approach and avoidance achievement goals and intrinsic motivation: A mediational analysis. Journal of

Personality and Social Psychology, 70,

968-980.

Kim, N. M., Grant, H., & Dweck, C. S. (1999). Views of intelligence: A

comparative study of effort and ability viewpoints in Korean and American students’ constructs of intelligence.

Unpublished manuscript, Columbia University.

Lay, K. L. & Tseng, H. Y. (2003). The effect of verbal disciplines in the context of school failure: Relationship-specific or content-specific Society for Research in

Child Development, Tampa, Florida.

Maehr, M. L., & Nicholls, J. G. (1980). Culture and achievement motivation: A second look. In N. Warren (Ed.), Studies

in cross-cultural psychology (Vol. 3).

New York: Academic Press.

McClelland, D. C., Atkinson, J. W., Clark, R. A., & Lowell, E. L. (1953). The

achievement motive. New York:

Applenton-Century-Crofts.

Miller, J. G. (1997). Cultural conceptions of duty: Implications for motivation and morality. In D. Munro, J. E. Shumaker, & S. C. Carr (Eds.), Motivation and

culture (pp. 178-193). New York:

Routledge.

Murray, H. A. (1938). Explorations in

personality. New York: Oxford

University Press.

Ryan, R. M., & Connell, J. P. (1989). Perceived locus of causality and internalization: Examining reasons for acting in two domains. Journal of

Personality and Social Psychology, 57,

749-761.

Stevenson, H. W., & Stigler, J. W. (1992).

The learning gap. New York: Simon &

Schuster.

Wang, H. H. (2002). Vertical vs. non-vertical pursuit of success: Students’ perceptions, beliefs and attribution patterns in academic achievement and talent performance. ၷܻ๼ΡҏπЖ౩Ᏸं

(12)

ـଡؑڟູॎหᒲϴࡉȞጡȟȂ๼Ρҏ πЖ౩Ᏸंـଡؑڟູॎห-91 ԑ࡙ॎ หஈ՗ൢ֙ਪȄᇃѕȈ๼ΡҏπЖ౩Ᏸ ंـଡؑॎหᒲϴࡉȄ

Wang, H. H. (2003). The Learning gap

between the East and the West: A cross-cultural study on student perceptions of learning and academic achievement based on TIMSS1999 Dataset. Paper presented at the 5th

Biannual Conference on Asian Association of Social Psychology, Manila, Philippine.

Weiner, B. (1972). Theories of motivation:

From mechanism to cognition. Chicago:

Rand McNally.

Weiner, B. (1979). A theory of motivation for some classroom experiences. Journal of

Personality and Social Psychology, 71(1),

3-25.

Yu, A. B. (1996). Ultimate life concerns, self, and Chinese achievement motivation. In M. H. Bond (Ed.), The handbook of

Chinese psychology (pp. 227-246). Hong

Kong: Oxford University Press. Yu, A. B., & Yang, K. S. (1994). The nature

of achievement motivation in

collectivistic societies. In U. Kim, H. C. Triandis, C. Kagitcibasi, S. C. Choi, & G. Yoon (Eds.), Individualism and

collectivism: Theory, method, and applications (pp. 239-250). Thousand

Oaks, CA: Sage.

數據

Updating...

參考文獻

Updating...