Prepared by the Curriculum Development Council

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Secondary School Curriculum Guide

Personal, Social & Humanities Education Key Learning Area

History Curriculum Guide

( Secondary 1-3)

Prepared by the Curriculum Development Council

Recommended for use in schools by the Education Bureau, HKSARG

2019

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The History Curriculum Guide (Secondary 1-3) is one of the series prepared by the Curriculum Development Council, Hong Kong for use in junior secondary schools.

The Curriculum Development Council is an advisory body giving recommendations to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government on all matters relating to curriculum development for the school system from kindergarten to sixth form. Its membership includes heads of schools, practicing teachers, parents, employers, academics from tertiary institutions, professionals from related fields or related bodies, representatives from the Hong Kong Examinations and Assessment Authority and the Vocational Training Council, as well as officers from the Education Bureau.

In order to help students achieve the aims of this Curriculum Guide, schools are encouraged to consider sufficiently their contexts, strengths and needs of students in adapting the recommendations of this Curriculum Guide. Curriculum development involves a process of collaboration and constant implementation. The Curriculum Development Council will review the curriculum from time to time in the light of classroom experiences and the changing needs of students and society. Schools are welcome to send comments and suggestions on the History Curriculum Guide (Secondary 1-3) to:

Personal, Social and Humanities Education Section Curriculum Development Institute

Education Bureau

Rm 1319, 13/F, Wu Chung House 213 Queen’s Road East, Wanchai Hong Kong

or

Fax: 2673 5299 / 2575 4318 Email: info_pshe@edb.gov.hk

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Page

Preamble

i

Chapter 1 Introduction

1

1.1 The importance of History as a school subject in school curriculum 1

1.2 Curriculum Aims 2

1.3 Learning Objectives 3

Chapter 2 Curriculum Framework

4

2.1 Background 4

2.2 Design Principles 5

2.3 Curriculum Structure 6

2.4 Content Outline 10

2.5 Time Allocation 34

Chapter 3 Curriculum Planning

35

3.1 Guiding Principles 35

3.2 Curriculum Planning Strategies 36

3.2.1 Interface with primary and senior secondary education 36

3.2.2 Catering for learner diversity 37

3.2.3 Integrating assessment with learning 38

3.2.4 Linking with other learning experiences and life-wide learning

opportunities 38

3.2.5 History and Values Education 39

3.3 Curriculum Organisation 40

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3.3.1 Progression 41 3.3.2 Tailoring for school-based integrated curriculum 42

3.4 Curriculum Management 43

3.4.1 Understanding the curriculum and learning context 43

3.4.2 Planning the curriculum 43

3.4.3 Building capacity 43

3.4.4 Cross-curriculum collaboration 44

Chapter 4 Learning and Teaching

45

4.1 Guiding Principles 45

4.2 Approaches and Strategies 47

4.2.1 Enquiry learning and Self-directed learning 47

4.2.2 Source-based learning in history 50

4.2.3 E-learning 51

4.2.4 Learning history outside the classroom 54

4.2.5 Learning through historical empathy 56

4.2.6 Reading to learn history 57

4.3 Catering for learner diversity 58

4.3.1 Understanding students 59

4.3.2 Assessing students’ progress 63

4.3.3 Differentiated instructional strategies 65

Chapter 5 Assessment

69

5.1 Guiding Principles 69

5.2 Aims of assessment 70

5.2.1 Assessment of Learning 70

5.2.2 Assessment for Learning 70

5.2.3 Assessment as Learning 71

5.3 Assessment Strategies and Practices 71

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5.3.3 Self-assessment and peer assessment 75

5.3.4 Written tests and Examinations 78

Chapter 6 Learning and Teaching Resources

82

6.1 Function of Learning and Teaching Resources 82

6.2 Guiding Principles 82

6.3 Commonly Used Learning and Teaching Resources 83

6.3.1 Textbooks 83

6.3.2 Books 84

6.3.3 Learning and Teaching Resources provided by the EDB 84

6.3.4 Community Resources 85

6.3.5 Technology and web-based resources 86

6.3.6 Developing School-based Learning and Teaching Resources 87

6.4 Resources Management 87

6.4.1 Sharing of learning and teaching resources 87

6.4.2 Resources Management of a school 87

Appendices

89

1 The expected learning contents of topic 1-12 89

2 Nurturing students’ writing skills and self-directed learning through writing learning journals in history lesson

112 3 Teaching “Outbreak and Impact of the First World War – Paris Peace

Conference and the Treaty of Versailles” through an enquiry approach

113

4 Promoting history learning and cultivating historical literacy through school campus facilities

114

5 Transforming community resources into valuable learning and teaching resources

115

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6 Catering for learner diversity in a Secondary 1 History lesson using the Frayer Model

116

7 Catering for learner diversity in a Secondary 3 History lesson using RAFT 117

References

118

Membership of the Ad Hoc Committee and the Working Group for Revising Junior Secondary Chinese History and History Curricula (Secondary 1-3) 122

Membership of the Ad Hoc Committee for the Implementation of Junior Secondary Chinese History and History Curricula (Secondary 1-3) 124

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Chapter 1 Introduction

1.1 The importance of History as a school subject in school curriculum

History is a discipline of enquiry and analysis. Studying history engages students in an active learning process of asking meaningful questions about the past, collecting and analysing sources, and drawing conclusions supported by evidence. In the past 20- 30 years, history education has been undergoing tremendous changes in different countries and regions. Other than stressing the transmission of facts and hard data, as well as the authoritative views of teachers or textbooks to students, today’s history education emphasises the construction of knowledge and the process of historical enquiry and investigation, through which students construct their own historical knowledge by understanding, analysing and interpreting primary sources, consider events from multiple perspectives, and understand the relationship between using historical evidence and providing historical explanations.

The development of human history forms the world today: likewise, important concepts which shape the modern world such as nationalism, democracy, and revolution also have their historical origins. Thus, the study of history helps students understand the human world by exploring into its origins in the past. Furthermore, in order to make sense of current affairs, it is also important to study the past as everything which is happening around us has been influenced by, or is a result of, the things that preceded it.

Another key role of history as a school subject is to equip students with historical enquiry skills. Historical enquiry develops students’ historical knowledge and understanding by posing questions about the past, and applying skills associated with locating, analysing, evaluating and using sources as evidence to develop an informed argument or interpretation. Such knowledge and skills are essential for developing an understanding of the changing relationships of people, locations and events in the past and how they impact on the human society today and in the future. Therefore, learning history helps students understand the current situation of contemporary society in a more objective and comprehensive way. In summary, it provides the essential learning experiences that students need for the future.

Moreover, the History Curriculum can also make several unique contributions to the general education of young people. Not only does it contribute to the development

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of students’ generic skills involved in the study of humanities subjects, such as critical thinking skills and problem solving skills, but it also develops students’ ability of empathetic understanding, cultural awareness, and global perspective through the study of history of different countries and cultures. In the process of historical enquiry, students can acquire an understanding of how historical incidents took place, or what and why certain peoples acted the way they did in history. This helps students master the ability to think in context. Furthermore, history teaches students about cultures around the world. Students may discover similarities and differences between various nations and their own. Students can learn to appreciate and accept how others' lives differ from their way of life. Lastly, it is equally important for students to learn about modern and contemporary history as well as institutions and customs of thousands years ago because it allows them to understand the evolution of human civilisation.

Last but not least, the study of history is necessary for students to be nationals of our own country as well as valuable citizens on a macro/ trans-national level. On one hand, studying history enables students to understand the close historical and cultural ties between Hong Kong and the Mainland and contributes to a better understanding of the country. On the other hand, as the study of history develops students’ ability to evaluate evidence and information, so that they can carry out enquiries by using a range of sources that are subject to evaluation and analysis, this equips them with a number of critical skills, open-mindedness and independence of mind, which are all vital to the construction of modern citizenship. Therefore, with the ability to comprehend the past and make sense of it, students who have studied history are better able to understand the present situation without bias and take informed and responsible action.

1.2 Curriculum Aims

The aims of Secondary 1-3 History curriculum are:

(a) to enhance and develop students’ interest in studying history;

(b) to help students understand the present in the context of the past;

(c) to enrich students’ knowledge of their own community and culture, as well as other major cultures of the world;

(d) to develop students’ historical skills and generic skills for further studies and life situations;

(e) to nurture students to become citizens who have global perspectives, knowledge and sense of responsibility.

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In relation to the above aims, after completion of the junior secondary History curriculum, students should be able to:

(a) Knowledge and Understanding

i understand and comprehend from a variety of perspectives (political, economic, technological and scientific, social, religious, aesthetic, etc.), the main

characteristics of world civilisations in different periods;

ii understand and comprehend the main characteristics of the development of Hong Kong and to relate them to the national and world development;

iii comprehend basic historical concepts and terms;

iv understand the relationship between cause and consequence of historical events;

v comprehend change and continuity in major historical issues and developments;

vi understand that the past may be interpreted in different ways;

(b) Skills

i use historical terminology in an appropriate way;

ii present historical events accurately in chronological order;

iii describe characteristics of historical maps, models, diagrams, charts, pictures, tables and cartoons;

iv make deductions and inferences from historical sources;

v identify different interpretations of major historical events and personalities;

vi distinguish the differences between historical facts and opinions;

vii comprehend the implication of sources, question and explore the accuracy and reliability, and then construct fair and impartial personal views;

viii make an imaginative reconstruction of past events;

ix select, organise and deploy sources, and express in a well-structured way;

(c) Attitudes and Values

i develop an interest in the past and an appreciation of human achievements and aspirations;

ii relate the study of history to contemporary life;

iii understand views, beliefs and values of different societies at different times so as to develop positive values and attitudes;

iv be willing to take up the responsibility of preserving antiquities and monuments, conserving cultural heritage and promoting history and culture.

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Chapter 2 Curriculum Framework

2.1 Background

As an indispensable part of the Personal, Social and Humanities Education Key Learning Area (PSHE KLA), History takes up an important task of developing students’

basic understanding of world history including the development of Hong Kong and various cultures in the world; facilitating their construction of a global perspective; and enhancing their analytical abilities and thinking skills. One should be fully aware of the fact that not all junior secondary students take History when they are promoted to the senior secondary level. Therefore, to many students, junior secondary History is most likely the only chance for them to receive basic history education, especially world history. In view of this, it is necessary for schools to provide junior secondary students a History curriculum with comprehensive coverage of major historical periods and patterns of changes in world history which equips students with an essential understanding of the key characteristics of world history, basic historical literacy and competency, and helps them develop basic historical skills and attitude.

In view of the latest development of history education and the school curriculum, since 2014, the Curriculum Development Council (CDC) had been revising the History Syllabus (Secondary 1-3) introduced in 1996 with an aim to enhancing students’ interest in history learning and equipping them with basic knowledge and skills to meet challenges brought about by the ever-changing society and the world. In addition, the revised curriculum framework also equips students who will study History, Liberal Studies, or other senior secondary subjects in Personal, Social and Humanities Education Key Learning Area with basic knowledge related to world history and the development of Hong Kong.

In order to broaden students’ global perspectives and enhance their understanding of other major cultures in the world, new topics such as the civilisation and historical development of other regions including the rise of Islamic civilisation, and the founding and development of the United States, have been added to the revised curriculum.

Another prime focus of the curriculum design is to increase students’ interest in studying history. Different from focusing on political history, the curriculum takes new perspectives to form a connection between history learning and students’ real-life experience by embedding some new elements into various conventional topics such as

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culture through studying intangible cultural heritage in Hong Kong (well-known local customs and festivals).

Recent educational research provides clear evidence that in order to enhance students’ learning interest in history and build up their historical literacy, teachers need a paradigm shift in learning and teaching from “teacher-centered” approaches to

“student-centred” approaches, and encourage students to conduct historical enquiry learning, such as “doing history”. “Doing history” is not passively memorizing and sequencing facts. It is an active enquiry learning process which encourages students to develop their skills in using historical methods as well as to construct their evidence- based historical understanding. In order to help teachers engage students in enquiry learning, this curriculum provides suggested guiding questions for each topic which demonstrate some possible ways of structuring the enquiry of the topic.

Furthermore, to cater for the needs of different schools, especially those which adopt diversified modes of curriculum planning to implement the junior secondary PSHE curriculum (e.g. integrated and mixed modes), the revised curriculum offers a flexible and diversified framework which can facilitate schools to adapt to this curriculum according to their school contexts and students’ diversity in abilities and interests.

2.2 Design Principles

This curriculum aligns with the following guides prepared by the Curriculum Development Council, namely the Basic Education Curriculum Guide-To Sustain, Deepen and Focus on Learning to Learn (Primary 1-6) (2014), Secondary Education Curriculum Guide (Draft, May 2017), General Studies for Primary Schools Curriculum Guide (Primary 1- Primary 6)(2017) and the Personal, Social & Humanities Education Key Learning Area Curriculum Guide (Primary 1-Secondary 6) (2017). Its designing principles are to:

(a) provide a three-year curriculum which focuses on introducing the trend and development of world history and how they affect our world today;

(b) broaden students’ global perspectives so as to enhance their understanding of cultures and history of different regions in the world and how their interactions constructed our world today;

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(c) emphasise students’ understanding and application of different historical concepts and skills, and develop their positive values and attitudes;

(d) cater for students’ diverse interest and connect them with their daily lives and experiences;

(e) provide a flexible framework for schools to make adaptation to the curriculum according to their school contexts and students’ diversity in abilities and interests.

(f) develop students’ abilities in self-directed learning and life-long learning which align with the enquiry learning approach;

2.3 Curriculum Structure

The History curriculum (S1-S3) is designed in chronological order, offering a theme for each school year. The three-year curriculum helps students understand historical development trend of the world and its impact on today, and enables them to master the basic concepts and skills to study history.

(a) Theme for Secondary 1: The ancient world (From pre-historic period to the 14th century): The birth and interactions of regional civilisations

(b) Theme for Secondary 2: The modern world (From 15th to 19th centuries):

The growth and expansion of the West

(c) Theme for Secondary 3: The contemporary world (From the 20th century to the present): Moving towards a multi-polar and interdependent world

The History curriculum (S1-S3) is composed of 12 topics about learning world history and the development of Hong Kong, i.e. four topics in each school year. (Please refer to Figure 2.1).

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The birth and interactions of regional civilisations

Topic 1: Human Needs: Past and

Present

Topic 2: The Development of European Civilisation

Topic 3: The Rise of Islamic Civilisation

and cultural interactions between

Europe and Asia in medieval times

Topic 4: History, culture and heritage of

early Hong Kong region

S2 The modern world (From 15th to 19th centuries):

The growth and expansion of the West

Topic 5: The Rise of

modern Europe Topic 6: European colonial expansion

Topic 7: The founding and development of the

United States

Topic 8: Growth and development of Hong

Kong up to the late 19th century

S3 The contemporary world (From the 20th century to the present):

Moving towards a multi-polar and interdependent world

Topic 9: International conflicts and crises in the 20th century (I) – The two World Wars

Topic 10:

International conflicts and crises in the 20th

century (II) – the Cold War and the Post-Cold War period

Topic 11:

International cooperation since the

20th century

Topic 12: The growth and transformation of Hong Kong in the

20th century

Figure 2.1 Curriculum structure of the junior secondary History curriculum

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As an indispensable part of the PSHE KLA, the History curriculum (S1-S3) is closely related to Strand 2 (time, continuity and change) and 3 (culture and heritage) of junior secondary PSHE KLA. The learning objectives of these two strands can be achieved through the learning and teaching of this curriculum and the Chinese History curriculum (S1-S3). In planning the implementation of this curriculum, schools and teachers should also refer to the relevant parts of the Personal, Social & Humanities Education Key Learning Area Curriculum Guide (Primary 1-Secondary 6) (2017), such as parts about learning objectives of Strand 2 and 3 as well as core elements / essential content for learning in these two strands.

In order to provide a flexible framework for schools to make adaptation to the curriculum according to their school contexts and students’ diversity in abilities and interests, there are foundation parts and extended parts in all topics. The foundation parts provide students with basic knowledge of the topics while the extended parts are designed for the more able or interested students to explore deeper on the topics.

(Please refer to Figure 2.2).

Figure 2.2 Composition of each topic

Extended Part

Foundation Part

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question gives the direction for studying the given topic while the suggested guiding questions provide teachers with ideas to help students study history using the enquiry approach. Teachers are reminded that there could be alternative ways of structuring the enquiry of each particular topic, and they should always exercise their professional judgement in designing the flow of their lessons with reference to the interests, abilities and needs of their students. (Please refer to Figure 2.3).

Enquiry Question

Suggested Guiding Question

Suggested Guiding Question

Suggested Guiding Question

Topic

Figure 2.3 Using enquiry approach to study history

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2.4 Content Outline

The 12 suggested topics of the History Curriculum (S1-S3) are as follows. An introduction is provided in each topic to illustrate the background and rationale of the topic and show how to manage its foundation part and extended part. Besides, the “Expected learning contents” in the Appendix 1 on pp. 89-111 illustrates the depth and foci of each topic.

S1 The ancient world (From pre-historic period to the 14th century): The birth and interactions of regional civilisations

Topic 1: Human needs: past and present

Human activities originate from people’s different basic needs, which culminated as civilisation. This topic enables students to have a basic understanding of the origin of civilisation and the major ancient civilisations. After studying this topic, students will be able to know briefly the basic concept and division of historical periods, the classification of sources, and then use these concepts to understand:

a) how human beings developed from the Stone Age to ancient civilisations: progressed from the use of fire and making simple stone tools, from hunting wild animals and picking wild fruits to the production of foods, agriculture and domestication of animals (using recent major archaeological discoveries of different places including Hong Kong as examples);

b) the main characteristics of ancient civilisations: students may choose one out of the four ancient civilisations and carry out case study in terms of the following five aspects (writings, government and governance, cities, religion and belief, architecture and science).

More able students or those interested in this topic may study more than one ancient civilisation and compare the similarities and differences of ancient civilisations in different regions.

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and present

— What basic human needs led to the emergence of early civilisations? What are the main characteristics of early civilisations?

Age: from nomadism to agriculture (using recent major archaeological discoveries of different places including Hong Kong as examples).

 Rise of ancient civilisations, and the distribution and characteristics of the major world civilisations

 Case study: the Fertile Crescent / the Nile Valley / the Indus Valley/ the Huanghe Valley (Choose 1 out of 4, study one more case for the extended part*)

start? How early can we trace back the history of Hong Kong region?

 How can we know about the survival and

livelihood of human beings at that time?

 What is civilisation?

Does the satisfaction of basic needs mean that there is civilisation?

 What factors foster the development of

civilisations?

 What are common in ancient civilisations of different regions?

 What are the similarities and differences of human needs between the past and the present?

division of historical periods (pre-historic times, historic times)

 Distinguish the types of sources in studying history (primary sources, secondary sources,

archaeological findings, non-written and written sources)

 Describe the characteristics

 Connect the past with the present, compare similarities and differences

* The extended part

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Topic 2: The development of European civilisation

If we are observant and trace the origins, we may discover that many things in our daily lives, such as people’s names, architecture, stories of myth, etc., are related to European classical and medieval civilisations. Students are expected to understand the emergence of European civilisation and its impact on our society today. After studying this topic, students will be able to understand the division of historical periods (e.g. ancient times, Medieval Times, modern times, contemporary times, etc.) and to know:

a) the overview of European classical civilisation and its significance today, including ancient Greco-Roman forms of governance (e.g.

democracy in Athens and timarchy in Sparta; governance of the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire) and creation of culture (e.g.

concept of ancient law and Roman law and order; myth and thoughts; achievement in law, art and architecture) and their impacts on our society;

b) the main characteristics of European feudalism in Medieval Times and the role of Christianity and the Church in Europe.

More able students or those interested in this topic may further study the lifestyles of different classes in medieval Europe.

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2. The development of European

civilisation

a. Overview of ancient Greek and ancient Roman civilisation

- What legacy has the classical European civilisation left to us?

b. Medieval Europe and the making of

Christendom

- What were the characteristics of medieval Europe?

 Introduction of classical civilisation

 Legacy of classical civilisation and its meaning for today

 Characteristics of feudal society

 The making of Christendom and the Church in the Medieval Times

 Civilisation and living:

life in the European Medieval Times*

 How do we distinguish ancient times and Medieval Times?

When and how did European classical civilisation emerge?

 Why were there different political systems in ancient Greece and ancient Rome?

 What has the ancient Greek and ancient Roman civilisations left to us today?

 What are the characteristics of medieval feudal society?

 What functions did Christianity and the Church perform in medieval Europe?

 How did castles, manors,

churches and markets reflect the lives of different classes in medieval Europe?*

 Understand the historical periodisation (ancient times, Medieval Times, modern times and

contemporary times)

 Connect the past with the present, compare

similarities and differences,

 Analyse change and continuity

 Induce and summarise the characteristics

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* The extended part

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Topic 3: The rise of Islamic civilisation and cultural interactions between Europe and Asia in Medieval Times

Apart from European civilisation, the Islamic civilisation has also made significant contributions to the history of civilisation. Though communication and transportation in the past were not as advanced as those in our times, different regional civilisations in ancient and medieval worlds did have frequent interactions with one another. After studying this topic, students will be able to:

a) understand the founding of Islam, its basic beliefs and dissemination;

b) understand interactions of different forms between Europe and Asia in Medieval Times, including wars (e.g. the expansion of Islamic Empire, the Crusades), trade and commerce (e.g. Arabic merchants’ commercial activities and their role as business middlemen, the Maritime Silk Road) and how these interactions fostered the cultural interactions between Europe and Asia in Medieval Times;

c) understand the achievements of the Islamic civilisation in the fields of culture, art, scientific technology, and analyse the results and impact of the cultural interactions between Europe and Asia (e.g. the spread of Greco-Roman civilisations and the widening of European horizons by Islamic civilisation in the late Medieval Times).

More able students or those interested in this topic may further trace the condition of cultural interactions in the ancient world, including how the Greco-Roman civilisations spread through military expansion (the conquest of Persia and Afghanistan by Alexander the Great and territorial expansion of the Roman Empire) and trade and commerce (e.g. The ancient Silk Road) facilitated the expansion of Greco- Roman civilisations.

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3. The rise of Islamic civilisation and cultural interactions between Europe and Asia in Medieval Times

- How related were the achievements of the Islamic civilisation and cultural

interactions between Europe and Asia in Medieval Times?

 The origins, teachings and development of Islam

 Cultural contacts between Europe and Asia and spread of Islam in Medieval Times

 Results and impact of the cultural interactions between Europe and Asia

 Cultural interactions between Europe and Asia before Medieval Times *

 How was Islam founded and spread?

 Why did different peoples in the past interact with one another? How did different forms of interactions foster the cultural interactions between Europe and Asia?

 What were the achievements of the Islamic civilisation?

 What were the results and impact of the cultural interactions between Europe and Asia?

 How was the Greco- Roman civilisation widely spread through wars, trade and commerce? *

 Trace historical background

 Analyse causes, results and impacts

 Understand major historical

development and trends

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* The extended part

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Topic 4: History, culture and heritage of early Hong Kong region

As learnt from Topic 1, students understand that the history of Hong Kong region may be traced back as early as the New Stone Age and that the early residents in the Hong Kong region (including the Five clans in the New Territories and other major groups such as Tanka people, Hoklo people and Hakka people) began to move to Hong Kong from mainland about the period of the Song and Yuan dynasties.

They have different backgrounds and lifestyles, which lead to different customs and beliefs and develop the multi-cultural tradition in Hong Kong. After studying this topic, students will be able to further understand the concepts learnt in Topic 1 (pre-historic and historic times, classification of sources: primary sources such as archaeological findings, monuments, etc.), and:

a) know the different lifestyles of the early residents in Hong Kong region;

b) understand the tradition of local residents and develop the concern of conserving and caring about local cultural heritage by choosing one of the four case studies of the local intangible cultural heritage.

More able students or those interested in this topic may study more than one case, and compare their similarities and differences.

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4. History, culture and heritage of early Hong Kong region

- How do we find the imprints related to the historical development of Hong Kong region?

 The major groups and the great clans

 Case study: Getting to know the lives of local residents through intangible cultural heritage (local customs and festivals).

(Choose one of the following and study one more case for the extended part*):

- Chiu Chow Hungry Ghost Festival

- Cheung Chau Jiao Festival - Tai Hang Fire Dragon

Dance

- Tai O Traditional Dragon Boat Parade

 Who made up the early residents in Hong Kong region? How did they make a living?

 What are the traditional festivals in Hong Kong?

How are they related to us?

 Understand the division of historical periods (ancient times, Medieval Times, modern times and contemporary times)

 Distinguish types of sources for studying history (primary sources, secondary sources/

archaeological findings, non-written and written sources)

 Conduct oral history

 Analyse change and continuity

 Connect history with daily lives

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* The extended part

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S2 The modern world (From the 15th to the 19th centuries): The growth and expansion of the West

Topic 5: The rise of modern Europe

The rise of modern Europe and the subsequent western expansion had great impact on the development of modern history. From the 15th to the 18th centuries, Europe had experienced various revolutionary movements, the emergence of new ideas, and the progress in science and technology. After studying this topic, students will be able to understand:

a) how the Renaissance and the Reformation enabled Europe to move from God-centred to human-centred, leading to the rise of humanism and significant changes in thoughts at that time;

b) how the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment upheld reason, leading to the rise of modern science and new political ideas;

c) how the Industrial Revolution brought about technological breakthroughs, leading to the rise of modern capitalism;

d) how the French Revolution challenged the old political system, and how its pursuit of freedom and democracy changed the outlook of Europe as well as that of the world.

More able students or those interested in this topic may further study the condition of Mughal Empire in India and the Ottoman Empire in Turkey which are important centres of Asian civilisations during the rise of the West

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5. The rise of modern Europe

- How did new ideas and progress in science and technology foster significant

development in the west?

 From God-centred to human- centred: the Renaissance and the Reformation

 The Age of Reason: The Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment

 Technological advancement: The Industrial Revolution

 Pursuit of freedom and

democracy: the French Revolution and its historical significance

 The condition of Asian

civilisations from the 15th to the 19th centuries (using the Mughal Empire in India and the Ottoman Empire in Turkey as examples)*

 What changes did the

Renaissance and the Reformation make to the thoughts at that time?

 How did the Scientific Revolution and the

Enlightenment change the understanding of Europeans towards the world?

 What is revolution? How did the Industrial Revolution and the French Revolution change the outlook of Europe, and that of the world?

 During the rise of the West, what was the development of the Mughal Empire in India and the Ottoman Empire in Turkey which had been important centres of civilisations in Asia?

Why did they gradually decline after the 18th century?*

 Analyse causes, results and impact

 Analyse the turning point of history

 Analyse the importance of historical figures (e.g. Leonardo da Vinci) or

understand different

interpretations of historical figures (e.g. Napoleon Bonaparte)

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* The extended part

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Topic 6: European colonial expansion

From the 16th to the 19th centuries, building on their economic, political and technological strengths, the European countries expanded to the Americas, Africa and Asia, etc., and had brought tremendous changes. After studying this topic, students will be able to:

a) analyse the factors for European expansion, including the impact of early exploration and expansion (e.g. the voyages of discovery in the 15th and 16th centuries), the demand of European countries for markets and resources and the rise of European nationalism in the 19th century, etc.;

b) analyse the making of European colonial policy and its impact of colonial expansion on the Americas, Africa and Asia.

More able students or those interested in this topic may further study how the Asian regions (using China and Japan as examples) responded to European colonial expansion, and point out the similarities and differences of their responses.

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6. European colonial expansion

- What impact did European colonial expansion have on the peoples in the Americas, Africa and Asia?

 Reasons for the European colonial expansion

 The making of European colonial policy and its impact of colonial expansion on the Americas, Africa and Asia

 East Asia during the European expansion (using China and Japan as examples)*

 What were the aims of the European countries for colonial expansion?

 How did European countries colonise the Americas, Africa and Asia and what impact did it have on these regions?

 How did the countries in East Asia respond to the expansion of European countries? *

 Induce and infer

 Analyse the causes, results and impacts

 Understand different interpretations of historical issues

10

* The extended part

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Topic 7: The founding and development of the United States (US)

The American Revolution was inspired by the Enlightenment ideas in Europe and the success of the American independence in turn had brought impact on the development of history in Europe and the world. Through the study of American independence and the development of the US, this topic enables students to understand:

a) internal and external factors that led to the American Revolution, including Enlightenment ideas in Europe and taxation policies of Britain, and how the Revolution shaped major events in Europe and the world, including the French Revolution and the Latin American independence movements in the 19th century;

b) how the development of the US in the 19th century laid the foundation for its subsequent development, including territory expansion and the Westward Movement, “Monroe Doctrine” and the American Civil War, etc.

More able students or those interested in this topic may further study the reasons for the migration of the early Chinese to the US and their experiences there in order to know more about the history of the US as a migrant country.

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7. The founding and development of the United States (US)

- How was the United States founded? What were the major internal and external developments of the country after its

independence?

 The internal and external factors and impact of the American Revolution

 Territorial expansion, Westward Movement, and “Monroe Doctrine” in the 19th century

 The US before and after the American Civil War

 Formation of different social migrant communities in the 19th century: using the experience of the Chinese

labourers as example*

 How did different ideas from Europe bring about the American

Revolution?

 How did the US extend its territory during the 19th century?

 What factors led to the outbreak of the

American Civil War?

What was the impact of the American Civil War?

 Why did the Chinese migrate to the US since the early 19th century?

What happened to them in the US?*

 Trace historical background and

development

 Analyse the turning point of history

 Analyse causes and impacts

10

* The extended part

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Topic 8: Growth and development of Hong Kong up to the late 19th century

After the Opium War, Britain occupied Hong Kong and began its colonial administration. Hong Kong has also developed into an important commercial and trading port. In a society where Chinese and foreigners live together, different local organisations have emerged, and different ethnic minorities from Asia, Americas and Europe have also established their communities. They have all played a key role in the development of Hong Kong. After studying this topic, students will be able to:

a) have general understanding of the British administrative measures in Hong Kong up to the late 19th century, including free port policy, establishment of the rule of law and systems of decrees and regulations as well as economic (e.g. free port and early development of early entrepot trade), social, (e.g. social structure, rise of local Chinese leaders and the racial policy), law and order and hygienic condition in Hong Kong during that time;

b) analyse how different local organisations, including local Chinese organisations (using the Tung Wah Group of Hospitals and Po Leung Kuk as examples) , foreign missionaries and the Christian Church have made contributions to Hong Kong.

More able students or those interested in this topic may further study the contributions of Europeans, Americans and other ethnic minorities to Hong Kong (e.g. Jews, Parsees, Armenians and Eurasians) in order to understand the diversification and internationalisation of Hong Kong in the past.

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8. Growth and development of Hong Kong up to the late 19th century:

- What impact did the British colonial rule and different local

organisations have on the development of Hong Kong?

 Establishment of British colonial rule

 Economic condition and livelihood

 Contributions of various local organisations to Hong Kong

 Contributions of Europeans, Americans and other ethnic minorities to Hong Kong*

 How did Britain establish her rule in Hong Kong? How did the British systems and policies affect the subsequent

development of Hong Kong?

 What were the social and

economic establishments in Hong Kong by the end of the 19th

century? In the meantime, what were the major social and hygienic issues?

 What contributions did local organisations make to Hong Kong in the mid and late 19th century?

 What contributions did

Europeans, Americans and other ethnic minorities make to Hong Kong?*

 Trace the historical development

 Analyse causes, results and impacts

 Analyse the importance of historical figures or organisations

8

* The extended part

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S3 The contemporary world (from the 20th century to the present): moving towards a multi-polar and interdependent world

Topic 9: International conflicts and crises in the 20th century (I) – the two world wars

In the 20th century, the two world wars and the Cold War had great impact on the shaping of the present world. This topic focuses on the discussion of the origin and impact of the two world wars. After studying this topic, students will be able to analyse:

a) the fundamental causes of the two world wars, including the conflicts among the powers at the beginning of the 20th century and the outbreak of World War I; economic depression after World War I, the rise of totalitarianism and the outbreak of World War II; the cause-and-effect relationship between the two world wars, etc;

b) how the two world wars changed the world order such as the decolonisation in Asia and Africa, and the rise of the “Third World”;

and through case study (choose one of the two):

i) understand that the two world wars brought changes in war tactics and improvement in armaments, and how military innovations were used in our daily lives in post-war years; or

ii) know that genocide was a repeated historical phenomenon in the 20th century. The Holocaust is used as an example for students to understand the background and the miserable experiences of the Jews during the war and the reflections made by the Germans after the war.

More able students or those interested in this topic may choose more than one case study.

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* The extended part

9. International conflicts and crises in the 20th century (I) – the two world wars

- What did people learn from the two world wars?

 Relations among countries in Europe, America and Asia and reasons for their conflicts before the two world wars

 Decolonisation of Asia and Africa, and the rise of the “Third World” in the post-war period

 Case study (Choose 1 out of 2, study one more case for the extended part*):

- Wars and inventions: the total war, new military warfare, and other

inventions (e.g. medicine and daily necessities, etc.) - Genocide: using the

Holocaust as an example

 What were the causes for the outbreak of the two world wars?

 Was the Second World War a continuation of the First World War?

 How did the two world wars change the international situation?

 How did the two world wars change the mode of wars?

What are the wartime inventions that have subsequently become our daily necessities?

What is Genocide? Why were the Jews massacred by the Nazi? What reflections did the Germans have in the post-war period? How can we avoid making the same mistake?

 Analyse change and continuity

 Analyse the turning point of history

 Induce the characteristics

 Understand different interpretations of major historical issues

 Analyse how historical events

connects with daily lives

18

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Topic 10: International conflicts and crises in the 20th century (II) –the Cold War and the post-Cold War period

Following Topic 9, this topic focuses on the international situation during the Cold War and the post-Cold War era. After studying this topic, students will be able to analyse:

a) the fundamental causes of the Cold War, e.g. the international situation after World War II, the causes for the confrontation between the US and the Soviet Union (USSR) and the major developments of the Cold War;

b) how the Cold War finally came to an end and the major characteristics of the international situation in the post-Cold War period, such as the rise of different regional forces, and the emerging economies (e.g. the European Union, China, India, etc.), regional crises and conflicts, and the threat of terrorism, etc.

More able students or those interested in this topic may further understand the qualities of leaders by studying one of the historical figures during the Cold War.

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10. International

conflicts and crises in the 20th century (II) – the Cold War and the post-Cold War period

- What were the major conflicts during the Cold War? What were the changes in the international situation after the end of the Cold War?

 Causes and major developments of the Cold War

 The end of the Cold War and the international situation in the post-Cold War period

 Case study*: Historical figures representing different stages in the Cold War (choose 1 out of 5)

- Winston Churchill (1874- 1965)

- Ho Chi Minh (1890-1969)

- Mao Zedong (1893-1976)

- J.F. Kennedy (1917-1963)

- Mikhail Gorbachev (1931- )

 What were the factors leading to the emergence and the end of Cold War?

 How was the international situation in the post-Cold War period?

 What are the qualities of leaders? How did the historical figures during the Cold War demonstrate these qualities? *

 Analyse change and continuity

 Analyse the turning point of history

 Induce the characteristics

 Analyse the importance of historical figures or understand different interpretations towards historical figures

16

* The extended part

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Topic 11: International cooperation since the 20th century

The 20th century experienced not only various conflicts during the two world wars, the Cold War and the post-Cold War period, but also witnessed the determination and efforts of the international community in promoting world peace and international cooperation. After studying this topic, students will be able to:

a) understand that international cooperation originates from general challenges for humanity that require people to work and solve them collaboratively, including conflicts and cooperation, poverty and development, utilisation and destruction of the environment, as well as illness and medical care;

b) trace the background and the process of the founding of the United Nations, understand and discuss the efforts of the United Nations in maintaining world peace as well as contributing to the areas of economy, culture and technology.

More able students or those interested in this topic may further study what other regional organisations (e.g. the European Union, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, etc.) and international non-governmental organisations (e.g. International Committee of the Red Cross, Oxfam, Greenpeace, Medecins Sans Frontieres, etc.) do in various aspects and how they promote international cooperation.

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11. International

cooperation since the 20th century

- How did international cooperation in the 20th century work for peace?

 Background of international cooperation: general challenges for humanity since the 20th century

 Establishment of the United Nations and its work

 Work of other regional

organisations and international non-governmental organisations

*

 How did the United Nations promote peace through

international cooperation in the 20th century? How effective was it?

 Apart from the United Nations, are there any other regional organisations and international non-governmental

organisations that also promote international cooperation?*

 Induce the characteristics

 Analyse the significance of different organisations

6

* The extended part

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Topic 12: The growth and transformation of Hong Kong in the 20th century

In the 20th century, Hong Kong experienced industrial development in the inter-war period and the subsequent social changes, and faced the challenges from Japanese invasion and occupation during the Second World War. In response to the changes in the international situation after the Second World War, Hong Kong eventually developed into a modern city today. After studying this topic, students will be able to understand

a) the conditions and changes in Hong Kong before and after the Second World War, including the pre-war industrial development and the rise of local Chinese (e.g. Ho Kai, Boshan Wei-Yuk, Ho Tung’s family and Shou-son Chow);

b) invasion by the Japanese and life under the Japanese occupation;

c) the internal and external factors that facilitated the post-war growth of Hong Kong, including favourable international circumstances, linkage with the mainland and Hong Kong’s advantages;

d) the transformation of post-WWII Hong Kong, including economic transformation, e.g. from entrepot to industrial centre (the 1950s to the 1970s), from industrial centre to international financial centre (the 1970s to the present) and the government’s measures in

housing, education, livelihood and the development of political institutions;

e) the return of Hong Kong to the motherland.

More able students or those interested in this topic may further study the development of popular culture (pop music, cartoons, movies, television, etc.) in post-war Hong Kong to understand the diversified local culture.

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12. The growth and transformation of Hong Kong in the 20th century

- What are the factors that enable

modernisation in Hong Kong in the 20th

century?

 Hong Kong between the two world wars

 Hong Kong during the Japanese occupation

 Transformation of Hong Kong in the post-WWII era and the return of Hong Kong to the motherland

 Development of popular culture in post-WWII Hong Kong*

 What types of industries were there in early Hong Kong? What roles did local Chinese play in political, economic and social aspects in pre-war Hong Kong?

 What were the changes in livelihood under the Japanese occupation?

 How did the post-WWII world affect Hong Kong?

 What were the developments in politics, economy, society and livelihood in post-WWII Hong Kong?

 How did the popular culture in post-WWII Hong Kong reflect the diversified local culture?*

 Trace and classify

 Analyse causes, results and impacts

 Analyse the turning point of history

 Trace the historical development

10

* The extended part

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2.5 Time Allocation

The total time allocation for this curriculum will be approximately 33 hours of lesson time (approximately 50 teaching periods of 40 minutes lesson time) each year.

In order to better address the needs of different school contexts, the revised curriculum provides flexibility for teachers to allocate all suggested time to the foundation parts only or allocate about 20% of the suggested time (i.e. approximately 7 hours or 10 periods) to extended parts according to the abilities and interests of their students.

Topic Time Allocation

Option 1 Option 2

Foundation Parts 100% 80%

Extended Parts 0% 20%

Schools are reminded that the total time allocation for this curriculum should be comparable to other junior secondary PSHE subjects, namely Chinese History, Geography and Life and Society at S1-3. Schools should also refer to the the Personal, Social & Humanities Education Key Learning Area Curriculum Guide (Primary 1- Secondary 6) (2017) in planning the lesson time allocated to different PSHE subject curricula. In brief, at the junior secondary level, other than 25% of the total lesson time for PSHE allocated to the learning and teaching of Chinese History, the remaining 75%

of the total lesson time should be allocated to the learning and teaching of other core elements / essential content for learning in the junior secondary PSHE KLA curriculum.

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Chapter 3 Curriculum Planning

3.1 Guiding Principles

Teachers should plan and develop a balanced and coherent History curriculum (S1- S3) which enables students to acquire basic knowledge of the human past and skills of investigating the past, and cultivate positive values and attitudes. The guiding principles are as follows:

(a) Curriculum planning should be accompanied by consideration of the rationale and design principles of this curriculum and the PSHE KLA Guide, students’ needs and the schools context, as well as the characteristics of the discipline of history.

(b) Curriculum planning should take into account students’ learning experiences gained at primary level especially the prior knowledge acquired in General Studies, and the foundation knowledge and basic skills required by senior secondary History, Liberal Studies, and other PSHE subjects.

(c) Curriculum planning is important to help students master the fundamental historical concepts (such as time and chronology) and skills (such as distinguishing different types of historical sources) in the first months of the junior secondary education. They are essential for understanding other more advanced concepts and ideas in the later learning stage.

(d) Allowance should be made for students’ diverse needs, interests, abilities and learning styles.

(e) An ideal course design should provide sufficient challenges for students of different abilities.

(f) It is crucial for the curriculum to provide a coherent learning experience of History for students who will continue to study the subject at senior secondary level as well as those who will not take History in S4-6.

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3.2 Curriculum Planning Strategies

Based on the above guiding principles, when planning the implementation of History (S1-S3), schools should focus on (a) developing the junior history curriculum with a balanced and sufficient coverage of major historical periods and patterns of changes in world history so as to ensure a smooth interface between primary, junior secondary and senior secondary education, (b) catering for students’ learning needs and embracing learner diversity, (c) integrating learning with assessment, and (d) linking with other learning experiences and life-wide learning opportunities.

3.2.1 Interface with primary and senior secondary education

History may not be a new subject to most students first entering the junior secondary level as they may have acquired some basic knowledge related to the development of Hong Kong or some major historical events that have great impact on today’s world in their primary education, in particular the study of General Studies, for example, knowing Chinese history and culture through monuments in Hong Kong, the preservation and inheritance of cultural heritage and important historical events that influence global development (e.g. war and peace). However, the core disciplinary concepts of History such as time and chronology, cause and effect may still be unfamiliar to the secondary school newcomers. Therefore, to ensure continuity in the learning experiences of the students, schools and teachers are advised:

 to gain an understanding of the curriculum contents of General Studies for primary schools and how this subject is taught and learnt in schools.

 to obtain knowledge about S1 students’ prior learning experiences through class sharing, students’ reflection of their learning experiences in General Studies and/or providing pre-class activities or tasks to review students’ related learning experiences. With this information, teachers can plan appropriate learning experiences to help students manage learning in S1.

 to cover fundamental historical concepts (such as time and chronology) and skills (such as distinguishing different types of historical sources) in the first two topics to be taught in S1 so as to build up a solid foundation students’ future learning of history.

On the other hand, History (S1-3) also shares the responsibility of preparing students to study History, Liberal Studies as well as other subjects in the senior secondary level. As the senior secondary History curriculum focuses on the major

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historical development of 20 century world, it is crucial to provide students with an all-round world history background in their junior secondary education so that they can have a general understanding of the human past and the major background forces that have shaped the 20th century world which facilitate them to study the senior secondary History. Furthermore, junior secondary History also provides students with the required foundation knowledge to study the senior secondary Liberal Studies, which is a core subject. Through studying junior secondary History, students can acquire essential background knowledge and skills which equip them for studying several modules of the senior secondary Liberal Studies, such as Hong Kong Today, Modern China, and Globalisation. Schools and teachers should plan their junior secondary History curriculum with sufficient coverage of different historical periods and key events to help students acquire the necessary foundation knowledge and skills and better prepare them to study Liberal Studies and other senior secondary PSHE subjects.

3.2.2 Catering for learner diversity

Learner diversity can be expressed diversely in personal interests, cultural background, learning styles and abilities. Catering for learner diversity is possible by curriculum planning and diversifying teaching strategies (learning and teaching strategies will be further elaborated in Chapter 4). The design of the revised curriculum provides flexibility for schools, teachers and students with choices, as one way to embrace learner diversity. In the curriculum, there are foundation parts and extended parts in all 12 topics. The foundation parts provide students with basic knowledge of the topics while the extended parts are designed for the more capable or interested students to explore deeper on the topics. In the perspective of curriculum planning, teachers may spend all lesson time (the total time allocation for this curriculum will be approximately 33 hours of lesson time, which is approximately 50 teaching periods of 40 minutes lesson time each year) on the foundation parts of 12 topics, or may also allocate about 20% of the suggested time (i.e. approximately 7 hours or 10 periods) to extended parts according to the abilities and interests of their students. Teachers may also spend more time on the foundation parts and/or provide extra support to consolidate students’ learning. In this case, the curriculum content can be reduced to cover only the foundation parts of 12 topics. For students who have stronger motivation to learn and higher ability, teachers can make use of the remaining 20% of the total curriculum time to teach the extended parts of some topics/all 12 topics so as to deepen or broaden students’ understanding on the selected topics.

Schools and teachers are encouraged to adopt the extended parts of the curriculum

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to enhance students’ historical understanding as well as their learning interests in history.

Teachers may make reference to the interests, abilities and needs of students and adopt the extended parts of some topics/all 12 topics. Besides, in view of the limited lesson times to some schools, after introducing related foundation knowledge in classes, teachers may consider encouraging more capable or interested students to explore the extended parts on their own so as to develop their self-directed learning skills.

3.2.3 Integrating assessment with learning

Assessment is an important integral part of the learning and teaching process. It promotes learning by providing evidence relevant to students’ learning outcomes, giving feedback to teachers and informing them to revise their teaching strategies.

Curriculum and assessment planning should be carried out simultaneously and aligned with each other, so that assessment may promote learning. Teachers are advised to refer to Chapter 5 of this document for the assessment strategies suggested in History Curriculum (S1-3).

3.2.4 Linking with other learning experiences and life-wide learning opportunities

Life-wide learning generally refers to the learning experiences that take place beyond the classroom. Teachers may make good use of resources and facilities at their schools and in the communities to create suitable learning environments (combinations of time, place and people) for particular educational purposes. Such experiential learning in authentic environments enables students to achieve certain learning goals that are difficult to attain through classroom learning.

Nowadays, it is a usual practice for schools to frequently provide students with various life-wide learning activities outside the classroom to enhance student’s learning interest in history, such as museum visits, heritage visits, historical field studies, mainland study tours, and attending seminars conducted by academics or experts, etc.

From the curriculum planning perspective, teachers should consider the followings before organising these activities:

 How can the objectives of the curriculum be fulfilled by organising these activities?

 How much lesson time would it take? Will it be organised during or outside normal lesson time?

 How can we integrate learning from outside the classroom with what is learnt in the classroom?

Figure

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References

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