A Preliminary Study on Taiwan's Forest Reserves in the Japanese Colonial Period: A Legacy of Environmental Conservation

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A Preliminary Study on Taiwan’s Forest Reserves in the

Japanese Colonial Period:

A Legacy of Environment Conservation*

Ts’ui-jung Liu and Shi-yung Liu**

This article was originally published in Taiwan Historical Research, Vol. 6, No. 1 (June 1999; issued in September 2000), pp. 1-34.

Abstract

This paper’s focal point traces the establishment and growth of Taiwan’s forest reserves (保安林, pronounced as hoanrin in Japanese and pao-an-lin in Chinese) during the Japanese colonial period (1895-1945). The first forest reserve was set up in 1900 with an area of 26.07 chia 甲 (1 chia is approximately 0.97 hectares) in a village around Erhlin 二林. In 1942, the acreage of forest reserves totaled 373,694 chia and accounted for 15 percent of Taiwan’s total area of woodlands and forests. Analyzing the available statistics, we find that the growth of forest reserves appeared in different patterns with 1927-1928 as a turning point. The growth rate was higher in the first phase than in the second, however, the growth momentum appeared to decrease in the first phase while increase in the second. This paper concludes that although the office in charge of forest affairs did change hands several times, the succeeding offices carried on most of the policies. Moreover, new programs were added up until 1942. These policies reflected that the colonial authority not only paid attention to the investigation and management of forests and woodlands as well as the disposition of forest products, but also made many efforts to do research and experiment. More important, the colonial authority initiated the establishment of forest reserves in Taiwan where natural geographical conditions made such a measure indispensable for territory security and public benefit. As the areas of forest reserves recovered to the pre-war level shortly after the World War II, it certainly can be considered as a legacy from the colonial period.

Keywords: forestry affairs, forest reserves, territory security.

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* The first draft of this paper entitled “Nature conservation in Taiwan under Japanese Colonial Rule” was delivered at the 51st Annual Meeting of the Association of Asian Studies held in Boston, March 11-14, 1999. It is well acknowledged that the National Science Council of the Republic of China provided a grant for one of the authors, Shi-yung Liu, to participate in the AAS Meeting. The authors would also like to thank two anonymous referees for their suggestions. Throughout this paper, the place names of Taiwan are pronounced in Chinese instead of in Japanese.

** The authors are respectively a Research Fellow and a Research Assistant, Institute of Taiwan History, Preparatory Office, Academia Sinica.

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INTRODUCTION

In 1895 Taiwan was ceded to Japan by the Ch’ing government as a result of China’s defeat in the first Sino-Japanese War. Before Japan took over Taiwan, the Han Chinese immigrants gradually opened up the island from the seventeenth century onwards consecutively through the Dutch (1624-62), the Cheng (1661-83), and the Ch’ing (1683-1894) periods. By 1895, the plains, the uplands, and the hillsides in the west and northeast parts of the island were almost all cultivated, and the opening up of the eastern longitudinal valley was already initiated. Available estimation showed that the total population, consisting mostly of Han Chinese, was 2,546,000 persons and total cultivated acreage was 600,000 hectares, or less than 17 percent of the island’s total land area.1

Throughout the Ch’ing period, tree harvesting activities were only limited to lower altitudes on the island. On the one hand, the government adopted a policy to prohibit the Han Chinese from going into the mountains beyond a boundary line designated to separate the Han Chinese from the aborigines. On the other hand, transportation into the high mountains was not so easy. Thus, in the high mountains where aborigines kept their settlements, forests still covered the land.

After taking over Taiwan, the Japanese colonial authority initiated systematic investigations into the farmland and the woodland. It was ascertained that in 1934 forests covered 2,444,236.26 hectares and counted for 67.97 percent of the island’s total land area. Of the forestland, 2,182,863.73 hectares, or 89 percent, were owned by the state. The colonial government was also involved in the lumber industry by setting up four lumbering grounds in the mountains: A-li-shan 阿里山, T’ai-p’ing-shan 太 平山, Pa-hsien-shan 八仙山, and Lin-t’ien-shan 林田山. During 1912-1945, the wood harvest from A-li-shan was 3,469,830 cubic meters, while from T’ai-p’ing-shan it was 2,009,979 cubic meters. During 1915-1945, the Pa-hsien-shan lumbering ground produced 1,150,233 cubic meters and during 1937-1945, Lin-t’ien-shan produced 127,927 cubic meters. The total wood production of these four lumbering grounds was 6,757,969 cubic meters during 1912-1945, or roughly 198,764 cubic meters per year. During the entire colonial period from 1895 to 1945, the total area lumbered was 19,225 hectares, the total area replanted was 6,712 hectares, and thus the total area deforested was 12,513 hectares, which accounted for only 0.51 percent of Taiwan’s woodland or 0.36 percent of the island’s total land area. In other words,

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Ts’ui-jung Liu, “Han Migration and the Settlement of Taiwan: The Onset of Environmental Change,” in Mark Elvin and Liu Ts’ui-jung (eds.), Sediment of Time: Environment and Society in Chinese History (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998), pp. 165-199.

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deforestation was not serious during the Japanese colonial period.2 This brief note may provide a background for the study below.

Since forests are one of Taiwan’s most valuable natural resources, it is rational for any government ruling over the island to try to utilize as well as to conserve this treasure. Instead of dealing with the lumber industry as Ch’en Kuo-tung had done, this paper attempts to focus on policies related to forest conservation and management in Taiwan during the Japanese colonial period with a stress on the establishment and growth of forest reserves (保安林, pronounced hoanrin in Japanese; pao-an-lin in Chinese with the same characters). Throughout the Japanese colonial period, the office in charge of forestry affairs changed frequently and thus the first section will trace these changes. The second section will discuss forestry policies undertaken by the succeeding offices. The third section will present a study of forest reserves. The final section will sum up the findings and give a remark on questions that require further studies.

1. OFFICES IN CHARGE OF FORESTRY AFFAIRS

During the Japanese colonial period, the office in charge of forestry affairs changed several times. The first office in charge of forestry affairs was the Forestry Management Section (Rimmuka 林務課) established in 1895 below the Production Division (Shokusanbu 殖產部) of the Civil Administrative Bureau (Minseikyoku 民 政局) under the Office of Taiwan Government-General (Taiwan Sōtokufu 臺灣總督 府). Throughout the Japanese colonial period, the level of the office in charge of forestry affairs was downgraded once and sometimes divided; however, its business was expanded all the time. A brief note of terminology related to Japanese official system may be helpful here for tracing the changes. A division (bu 部) was a higher level office above a section (ka 課) which in turn was higher than a department (kei 係). As for a bureau (kyoku 局), it was an office with special administrative task and posted directly under the Sōtokufu.3

In addition, an institute (sho 所) was sometimes set up for a special mission, such as research and technological innovation. With these terms in mind, we may trace changes of the office in charge of forestry affairs by the

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Kuo-tung Ch’en, “Nonreclamation Deforestation in Taiwan, c. 1600-1976,” in Mark Elvin and Liu Ts’ui-jung (eds.), Sediment of Time: Environment and Society in Chinese History (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998), pp. 694-721.

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Huang Ching-chia, “Jih-chu hsia chih Taiwan chih-min fa-chih yu chih-min tung-chih [Colonial rule and colonial laws in Taiwan under Japanese occupation],” Taiwan wen-hsien, 10:1 (1959), pp. 67-138; Huang You-hsing, “Jih-chu shih-ch’i Taiwan k’ao-ch’uan chih-tu shu-lueh [A discourse on the merit system under Japanese rule],” Taiwan wen-hsien, 34.4 (1984), pp. 15-32.

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4 following chronology.4

1895: Under the Production Division, a Forestry Management Section was established and its duties included managing woodlands and forests and to promote investment in private forests.

1896-1897: Under the Production Division, a Colonization Section (Takushokuka 拓殖課) was established apart from the Forestry Management Section to take care of aboriginal affairs and manufacturing camphor in the mountain area. 1898-1900: The Production Division was downgraded to a Production Section (Shokusanka 殖 產 課 ) and the Forestry Management Section to a Forestry Management Department (Rimmukei 林 務 係 ). The Colonization Section was abolished; its business of aboriginal affairs was handed over to the Forestry Management Department and camphor manufacturing was given to six Bureaus of Camphor set up in Taipei 臺北, Hsinchu 新竹, Maioli 苗栗, Taichung 臺中, Chushan 竹山, and Luotung 羅東 in 1899. The program of forest investigation began during this period.

1901-1904: The Production Section was reorganized as a Production Bureau (Shokusankyoku 殖產局) and under it the Colonization Section was reestablished to handle forestry affairs, while the Forestry Management Department was abolished. In this period, two institutes for forestry experiment were established: one was the Tropical Plants Cultivation Station (Nettai Shokubutsu Shokuikujō 熱帶植物殖育場) set up at Hengch’un 恆春 in 1902 and the other was the Institute for Growing Sapling (Jubyō Yōseijo 樹苗養成所) set up in Tainan 臺南 in 1903. From this time onwards, the task of camphor manufacturing was given to the Monopoly Bureau (Sembaikyoku 專賣局), however, camphor reforestation remained a task of the Colonization Section. 1905-1909: The Colonization Section was abolished and the Forestry Management Section was reestablished under the Production Bureau to handle all forestry affairs. During this period policies related to the investigation and afforestation of forest reserves were initiated. For the purpose of forestry experiment, a nursery for growing rubber was set up in Chiayi 嘉義.

1910-1914: In addition to the Forestry Management Section, the Production Bureau was expanded by adding three subordinate offices: the Woodland Investigation Section (Linya chōsaka 林野調查課), the Forestry Experiment Station (Lingyō shikenjō 林業試驗場), and the A-li-shan Operational Station (Sagyōjō 作業 場 ). The Woodland Investigation Section was responsible for conducting investigations into the distinction between government-owned (kanyū 官有) and

4 Taiwan Sōtokufu Shokusankyoku, Taiwan ringyō shi [History of Taiwan’s forestry], Vol. 2 (1929), pp.

13-17. Yao He-nien, Taiwan-sheng lin-wu-chu chih [An official gazetteer of Taiwan provincial forestry bureau], (Taipei: Taiwan Provincial Forestry Bureau, 1997), pp. 14-16.

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private-owned (minyū 民有) woodlands. The Forestry Experiment Station was set up in 1911 with two branches at Hengch’un and Chiayi.

1915-1918: Parallel to the Production Bureau, a Forestry Bureau (Eirinkyoku 營林局) was established. This new Forestry Bureau actually took over the business of the A-li-shan Operation Station and was responsible for the official lumbering and reforestation as well as disposal of wood products. In 1916, three branch offices were established at A-li-shan, Pa-hsien-shan and Ilan 宜蘭 under the Enterprise Section (Jigyōka 事 業 課 ) of the Forestry Bureau. The Production Bureau kept three subordinate offices: the Forestry Management Section, the Woodland Arrangement Section (Linya seirika 林 野 整 理 課 , which was originally, the Woodland Investigation Section), and the Forestry Experiment Station. The rewording in nomenclature reflected that the business of the Woodland Arrangement Section was to classify state-owned (kokuyū 國有) woodlands into categories to be preserved or to be released for private use.

1919: The Forestry Bureau replaced the Production Bureau to take charge over all forestry affairs with the division of works in five offices: the Forestry Experiment Station, the Forestry Management Section, the Operation Section (Sagyōka 作業課), the Afforestation Section (Shokurinka 植林課) and the General Affairs Section (Shomuka 庶務課). In addition, a Topography Section (Chirika 地理課) was set up under the Interior Affairs Bureau (Naimukyoku 內務局) to take care of woodland investigation and land disposition. It may be noted here that the Topography Section was renamed a Local Section (Chihōka 地方課) in 1924 and it was responsible for investigating, measuring, and disposing cultivated land in the government woodland. 1920-1923: The Production Bureau again replaced the Forestry Bureau and was responsible for forestry affairs with the works divided into three subordinate offices: the Forestry Experiment Station, the Forestry Institute (Eirinsho 營林所), and the Forestry Management Section. In 1921, the first office was reorganized as a Forestry Division (Lingyōbu 林業部) under the Central Research Institute (Chūō Kenkyūjo 中央研究所), which was set up in 1902 with a mission to carry out research and technical innovation for industrial enterprises.5 The second office retained the tasks of official lumbering and reforestation as well as selling forest products, while the first one was responsible for the other forestry affairs.

1924-1939: In 1924 the Forestry Management Section was reorganized as a Mountain Forest Section (Sanrinka 山林課). The Forestry Institute was kept intact, but it was also responsible for the reforestation of designated state-owned woodland, management of wood products, as well as railroads and roads for the transportation of

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1940-1942: In 1940 the Forestry Institute was separated from the Production Bureau and the two became parallel entities under the Sōtokufu.

1943: The Forestry Institute was abolished again and the Production Bureau resumed responsibilities of both forest management and disposal of forest products. 1944-1945: The Production Bureau was reorganized into a Bureau of Agriculture and Commerce (Nōshōkyoku 農商局) while affiliated offices concerning forestry affairs remained unchanged.

The above chronology reveals that except for a short-term from 1898 to 1900 when the Forestry Management Section was downgraded to a Department, from 1901 onwards the office in charge of forestry affairs actually expanded regardless of changes in the office title and the division of works among affiliated offices. It is clear that camphor manufacturing and reforestation was the task of the Monopoly Bureau from 1901 and forestry experiments were the task of the Central Research Institute from 1921. Aside from these two special businesses, other forestry affairs were related to two major aspects: forestry management and disposal of forest products. Sometimes two bureaus divided the works, such as in 1915-1918 and 1940-1942, but most of the time one bureau with subordinate offices handled all businesses. In practice, various policies related to forest affairs were implemented across time when offices changed hands; this will be discussed further in the next section.

2. POLICIES RELATED TO FORESTRY AFFAIRS

In a study on Taiwan’s forestry policy, Wang Tzu-ting has contended that there was no consistent forestry policy during the Japanese colonial period, for the office in charge of forestry affairs changed hands frequently. He considered what the colonial authority had done as merely “guiding principles” (shih-cheng fang-chen施政方針) rather than “policies” (cheng-ts’e政策).6 In order to see when a policy was initiated and whether there was continuity in implementation, we try to rearrange the data as shown in Table 1 with a reference to the chronology presented above. The succeeding offices in charge of forestry affairs, i.e., the Production Bureau and the Forestry Bureau with their subordinate offices, executed at least 32 policies in different sub-periods. The information is arranged in Table 1 by marking an X under each item of the policy and each sub-period.

the Central Research Institute], (Taipei: Taiwan Sōtokufu, 1922), pp. 1-3.

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Wang Tzu-ting, “Taiwan chih lin-yey cheng-ts’e [The forestry policy in Taiwan],” in Economic Research Division of the Bank of Taiwan, ed., Taiwan chih lin-yeh ching-ying [Taiwan’s forest management], (Taipei: Bank of Taiwan, 1968), pp. 1-5.

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Table 1: Polices related to Forestry in Taiwan during the Japanese Colonial Period

Items of policy Shokusan Bu Shoku san Ka Shokusan kyoku *Two offices Eirin

Kyoku Shokusan kyoku

*Two offices Shoku san kyoku Nōshō kyoku 1895 1896-1897 1898-1900 1901-1904 1905-1909 1910-1914 1915-1918 1919 1920-1923 1924-1925 1926-1939 1940-1942 1943 1944-1945 (1) X X X X X X X X X X X X X X (2) X X X X X X X X X X X X (3) X X X X X X X X X X (4) X X X X X (5) X (6) X X X X X (7) X X X (8) X X (9) X (10) X (11) X X X (12) X X (13) X X X (14) X X X X X X X (15) X X (16) X X X X X X X X X X (17) X X X X X X (18) X X X X (19) X X X X (20) X (21) X X X (22) X X (23) X X X (24) X X (25) X X X (26) X (27) X X (28) X X (29) X X X X X X X (30) X X X X (31) X X (32) X X Total 2 3 4 6 8 10 10 12 12 12 12 15 12 11

* “Two offices” indicates that Shokusankyoku and Eirinkyoku were concurrently in charge, but Eirinkyoku was changed to Eirinsho in 1940.

Source: Taiwan Sōtokufu Shokusankyoku, Taiwan ringyō shi (History of Taiwan’s forestry), Vol. II, pp. 13-17. Wang Tzu-ting, “Taiwan chih lin-yeh cheng-ts’e (The forestry policy in Taiwan),” in Economic Research Division of the Bank of Taiwan (ed.), Taiwan chi lin-yeh ching-ying [The management of Taiwan’s forestry] (Taipei: The Bank of Taiwan, 1968), pp. 3-5.

The 32 policies listed in Table 1 may be given short titles as follows: (1) Promote private forest management,

(2) Improve disposal of forest products, (3) Conduct forest investigations,

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8 (5) Manage abandoned woodland,

(6) Woodland protection, (7) Woodland control, (8) Woodland inspection,

(9) Classification of government- and private-owned woodland,

(10) Classification of government-owned woodland into categories to be preserved or to be released for private usage,

(11) Disposal of forest products from designated state-owned woodland, (12) Promotion of camphor manufacturing in the mountains,

(13) Expansion of camphor reforestation, (14) Enhancement of forestry experiment,

(15) Enhancement of tree planting, utilization and experimentation, (16) Investigation of forest reserves,

(17) Afforestation of forest reserves,

(18) Subsidy to forest reserve afforestation,

(19) Enlistment and cancellation of forest reserves,

(20) Management in A-li-shan lumbering grounds and disposal of forest products with the railroad,

(21) Management of the state lumbering industry, (22) Reforestation of lumbered areas,

(23) Afforestation of useful tropical trees, (24) Expansion of general afforestation,

(25) Implement the plan to plant trees along the coast, (26) Handling the problem of forest flood control, (27) Afforestation for flood control,

(28) Creation of economic forests by the state, (29) Management of forest railroads,

(30) Building roads for transporting forest products, (31) Rationing of forest products,

(32) Rationing of fiber products.

Table 1 shows that the items of policies executed increased steadily from 2 in 1895 to 10 in 1910-1918; from 1919 to 1939 the items remained at 12, but with different emphases in the sub-periods. A peak was reached in 1940-1942 when 15 items were carried out; this was apparently in response to wartime demand. With the war lingering on, the executed items reduced to 12 in 1943, and finally to 11 in 1944-1945.

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First, from the very beginning, the Japanese colonial government tried to promote private forest management as this policy (item 1) was executed throughout the entire colonial period. The policy’s goal was to encourage Japanese and Taiwanese capitalists to invest in forest management. For instance, a Japanese commercial group, Fujita Gumi 藤田組, was authorized to explore the forests of A-li-shan Mountain in 1906; a financial group, Mitsubishi 三菱, signed a contract with the Sōtokufu to utilize Taiwan’s woodland in 1908.7

Taiwanese capitalists of that time followed suit. For instance, Lin Sung-shou 林嵩壽of the Lin Family from Pan-ch’iao板橋 obtained rights of forest management in 1908 and 1909.8 Available statistics show that private investment in planting camphor trees by some Japanese capitalists reached 50,000 chia 甲 (1 chia is approximately 0.97 hectares) in 1906. During 1906-1942, the area under private forestation totaled 249,918 hectares, which accounted for 70.8 percent of the total afforestation area.9

At the same time, a policy to improve the disposal of forest products was carried out until 1945 (item 2). The colonial government also initiated a policy to enhance the management of woodland as early as 1895 (item 4). From 1919 to 1942, the policy regarding woodland was tightened by adding measures in terms of protection, control and inspection (items 6 to 8). It is notable that the Sōtokufu issued its first law regarding forestry soon after it took control over Taiwan in October 1895. This law was known as “Control Regulations for the Government-owned Forest and Woodland” (Kanyu rinya torishima kisoku 官有林野取締規則) and intended to bring every piece of woodland without a document to ascertain its ownership into the category of government-owned. According to this regulation, no one could enter a government-owned woodland area to cut trees or to open up the land for cultivation without first getting a certificate.10

Investigations to classify the woodland into categories of government- and private-owned were conducted in 1910-1914 (item 9).11 Following the farmland

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Kuo-tung Ch’en, “Nonreclamation Deforestation in Taiwan,” p. 716; Li Wen-liang, “Jih-chih shih-ch’i Taiwan lin-yeh cheng-li shih-yeh chih yen-chiu—yi Taoyuan Ta-ch’i ti-ch’u wei chung-hsin [A study on the management of woodland in Taiwan under Japanese rule—the case of Ta-ch’i area in Taoyuan],” MA thesis of the Graduate Institute of History, National Taiwan University (1996), p. 9.

8

Li Wen-liang, “Jih-chih shih-ch’i Taiwan lin-yeh,” p. 126.

9

Yao He-nien, Taiwan-sheng lin-wu-chu chih, p. 19.

10

Ts’ai Pi-hsun, “Taiwan chih lin-yeh fa-ling [Taiwan’s forest laws],” in the Economic Research Division of the Bank of Taiwan (ed.), Taiwan chih lin-yeh ching-ying, p. 197. Taiwan Sōtokufu Reiki Reishō [A compilation of laws and regulations established by Taiwan Government-general], (Tokyo: Kinsei shoin, 1896), pp. 221-230. Taiwan Sōtokufu Shokusankyoku, Taiwan ringyō shi, Vol. II, pp. 20-21. From 1895 to 1909, the colonial authority issued 27 laws and regulations related to Taiwan’s forest and woodland. See Taiwan ringyō shi, Vol. I, pp. 44-46.

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investigations conducted during 1898-1902 to verify land ownership, these investigations into forests and woodlands in the hills and lower mountains indicated that the colonial government went one-step forward in its control over the island. As a result, from 12 administrative districts at that time there were 167,054 cases of notification submitted during 1910-1914 and 753,091 chia (or 77 percent) of the total area investigated (973,736 chia) were classified as government-owned.12

In 1916 a policy was adopted to distinguish state-owned woodland into two categories: to be preserved or to be released for private use (item 10). The latter category was counted for 398,541 chia or 53 percent of the total state-owned woodland. From 1916 to 1925, some 267,627 chia, or 37 percent of state-owned woodland (67 percent of the abandoned woodland), were released to private usage.13 As mentioned above, in 1919 the investigation and management of government-owned woodland and its products were given to the Topography Section, later the Local Section, under the Bureau of Internal Affairs. Thus, the continuation of this policy (item 10) was cut short in Table 1; however, it was actually implemented up until 1945 by a different office. From 1924 onwards, the Forestry Institute handled the management of some designated state-owned woodland and the disposal of its wood products (items 11).

Aside from the woodland in lower altitudes, the colonial government also paid much attention to forests in the high mountains. As shown in Table 1, investigations of forests (item 3) began in 1898 and lasted until 1942. In 1902 the policy to enhance forestry experiments (item 14) was undertaken and this was implemented until 1921 when the task was given to a division under the Central Research Institute. Moreover, from 1919 to 1923 another policy to enhance tree planting, utilization and experiment (item 15) was carried out.

In November 1919 the “Taiwan Forest Law” (Taiwan shinrin ryō 臺灣森林令) was issued to bring over all matters related to forests, woodlands, and forest reserves under regulation and control.14 Moreover, as mentioned above, the Forest Section was renamed as the Mountain Forest Section in 1924; this also indicated that the authority was now turning its attention to higher mountain areas.

under the rule of Governor-General Daendels in 1808-1811 in Java, a system of state forest

management was initiated and this was an important step to influence later development. See Nancy Lee Peluso, Rich Forests, Poor People (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992), pp. 45-47. 12 Taiwan Sōtokufu Shokusankyoku, Taiwan ringyō shi (Taipei, 1929), Vol. I, p. 92. Li Wen-liang,

“Jih-chih shih-ch’i Taiwan lin-yeh,” p. 80. 13

Li Wen-liang, “Jih-chih shih-ch’i Taiwan lin-yeh,” p. 111.

14 For details of the law and related regulations see Taiwan Sōtokufu Shokusankyoku, Taiwan ringyō shi, Vol. II, pp. 26-33. Taiwan Shiryō Kōhon: Taishō hachi nen (3) [Manuscripts of Taiwan historical records, No. 3, 1919], (Taipei: the Institute of Taiwan History, Preparatory Office, Academia Sinica, xerox copy), Code No. 10. Also see Ts’ai Pi-hsun, “Taiwan chih lin-yeh fa-ling,” p. 197, for a discussion of this law.

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The policy to promote camphor manufacturing in the mountain area (item 12), was implemented from 1896 to 1900 before this business was taken over by the Monopoly Bureau. Similarly, the policy of expanding reforestation of camphor (item 13) was conducted during 1901-1909 before it was taken over by the Monopoly Bureau. This task shifted back to the Bureau of Production only shortly in 1924-1925. Camphor manufacturing was developed in Taiwan at early as the mid- eighteenth century. Available statistics showed that during 1856-1895, on the average, Taiwan exported 10,857 piculs (1 picul is 0.06 metric ton) of camphor per year. By 1877, Taiwan was the world’s leading exporter of camphor and tis role was replaced by Japan in the next year. During 1883-1892, Japan exported 47,417 piculs of camphor per year on average. As a consequence, camphor trees in Japan were quickly used up and the export from Japan reduced to a level of 22,000 piculs. Thus, by 1895, the leading role shifted back to Taiwan, which exported 29,557 piculs annually on average in 1893-1895.15

After Japan took over Taiwan, it was quite reasonable that the colonial authority took further steps to explore this valuable natural resource.16 During 1906-1915, some 21,663,886 camphor trees were planted on 8,802 chia of government-owned land. By the end of 1915, private land planted with camphor trees had reached 11,527 chia.17 It has been pointed out that during the Japanese colonial period, the production of camphor and camphor oil reached a level of 30,000 piculs per year, and camphor deforestation was greatly augmented.18

Item 20 relates to the lumber industry and railroad management on A-li-shan Mountain and item 21 relates to other official lumbering grounds. Since the topic of the lumber industry has been treated in details elsewhere,19 it is just mentioned in passing here.

Items 22 to 28 are policies related to afforestation and reforestation. The policy to replant lumbered areas (item 22) was adopted in 1919 and lasted only until 1923. The area replanted was about 6,712 hectares, or 35 percent of the total lumbered area at the four official lumbering grounds as mentioned in the beginning of this paper. In addition to reforestation of the lumbered area, the authority tried to promote general afforestation (item 24) in 1920-1925. It also made efforts to plant trees along

15

Lin Man-hong, Ch’a t’ang chang-nao-yeh yu Taiwan chih she-hui ching-chi pien-ch’ien [Tea, sugar, and camphor manufacturing and Taiwan’s social and economic changes, 1860-1895], (Taipei: Lien-ching Publishing Co., 1997), pp. 33-36, 63-67.

16

A parallel of the colonial authority to exploit a particular forest of its colony could be found in the case of Java’s teak forests, see Nancy Lee Peluso, Rich Forests, Poor People, ch. 3. However, a meaningful comparison between the case of Java and that of Taiwan still require further study. . 17 Taiwan Sōtokufu Shokusankyoku, Taiwan ringyō shi, Vol. I, pp. 100-101.

18

Kuo-tung Ch’en, “Nonreclamation Deforestation in Taiwan,” p. 714. 19

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the coast (item 25) and for flood control (items 26 and 27), as well as for producing economic forest goods (items 23 and 28). However, these policies were adopted comparatively late in time, only in 1940-1945. In addition to the planting of camphor trees as mentioned above, some 33,645,226 trees of other kinds were planted on 4,019 chia of land by the government during 1906-1915. By the end of 1915, the area under private forestation reached 9,423 chia.20

Items 29 and 30 are policies related to transportation of forest products. With the construction of the A-li-shan railroad completed in 1910, the authority gave much effort to manage the forest railroad since then. It is notable that to meet wartime demands, roads were constructed to transport forestry products in addition to the railroad. Finally, the last two items, 31 and 32, relate to the rationing of forest products and fiber products to meet the situation of severe scarcity as the war lingered on. As for the policy relating to forest reserves listed as items 16 to 19 in Table 1, this will be a subject of the next section.

3. FOREST RESERVES

Taiwan’s geographical conditions, featuring high mountains, short rivers and rapid flows, make it much more immediate to establish forest reserves for territory security and public benefit. We are not able to find the term “pao-an-lin” in the Chinese records of Taiwan during the Ch’ing period.21 However, this should not be taken to imply that there was no such idea of forest reserves among Taiwanese people. According to Japanese investigation, Taiwanese (i.e., Han Chinese) used to preserve trees for the purposes of breaking up strong winds, protecting water sources and preventing bandits. Aborigines used to protect forests for the purposes of hunting, keeping cultivated lands and defending enemies. Moreover, both Taiwanese and aborigines had a custom of preserving trees and forests for the sake of superstition.22 It was the Japanese colonial government that initiated an institutionalization of the forest reserves.

There were different definitions of the forest reserves, however, the one most appropriate to the situation of Taiwan was: “To use standing trees for the maintenance of territory security and public welfare by applying a special law to manage the forests.”23 In September 1901 the Japanese government issued the “Regulations of

20 Taiwan Sōtokufu Shokusankyoku, Taiwan ringyō shi, Vol. I, p. 101. 21

This result is obtained by using the four sets of Taiwan history database now available over the Internet from the home page of Academia Sinica.

22 Taiwan Sōtokufu Shokusankyoku, Taiwan ringyō shi, Vol. I, pp. 8-9.

23 Taiwan Sōtokufu Shokusankyoku, Taiwan hoanrin shigyō hō [The management method of Taiwan’s forest reserves], (Taipei: Taiwan Sōtokufu Shokusankyoku, 1917), p. 13.

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Taiwan’s Forest Reserves” (Taiwan hoanrin kisoku 臺灣保安林規則) and this was the colonial government’s second law related to Taiwan’s forestry.24

The first item of the “Regulations of Taiwan’s Forest Reserves” stated that Taiwan Sōtokufu had the authority to designate forest reserves in localities indispensable for preventive purposes. According to their functions, the forest reserves were classified into eight categories: (1) to prevent mudslides and falling stones, (2) to break flying sand, (3) to prevent flooding, to break up wind, and to reduce tidewater damage, (4) to conserve water sources, (5) to provide shadow for fish culture, (6) to meet the necessity of public health, (7) to meet the necessity of navigation, and (8) to provide beautiful landscape. Following the law issued by the Japanese government, Taiwan Sōtokufu issued the “Implementing Regulations” for forest reserves in 1905 and revised it in 1907 to detail about the designation and cancellation of forest reserves at the local level.25 Moreover, in 1907 the “Instructions for Handling the Forest Reserves” was announced in regard to the investigation, operation and registration of forest reserves.26 In 1919 when the “Taiwan Forest Law” was issued, regulations related to forest reserves were incorporated in the first part of the new law. 27 There is a slight difference in the classification of forest reserves in these regulations; they were classified into eight, nine or eleven types.28 Regardless of this difference, it is certain that sites for establishing forest reserves were not limited to the mountain areas.

Although item 16 in Table 1 indicates that the first investigation of forest reserves was conducted during 1905-1909, the practice of setting up forest reserves took place actually before the issue of the “Regulations of Taiwan’s Forest Reserves.” In 1898, a severe flooding along the Cho-shui-ch’i 濁水溪 brought a large amount of sand deposition at the river bed and sand dunes were formed along the banks. When the river dried up in winter, the sand was blown away by strong winds, covering paddies and fields of 37 villages around Erhlin 二林. This disaster prompted the local authority of Taichung Ting 臺中廳 to provide 3,000 yen in 1900 for creating a forest reserve by planting miscanthus reed and hamabōfū (Phellopterus littoralis) to break

24 Taiwan Rinya Hōki [Regulations regarding Taiwan’s forests and woodlands], (Taipei: Taiwan Sōtokufu, 1912), pp. 217-218. Taiwan Sōtokufu Shokusankyoku, Taiwan ringyō shi, Vol. II, pp. 21-22. Hsieh Wen-chao, “Taiwan chih pao-an-lin ching-ying [The management of Taiwan’s forest reserves],” in Taiwan chih lin-yeh ching-ying, p. 227.

25 Taiwan Sōtokufu Shokusankyoku, Taiwan ringyō shi, Vol. II, pp. 22-23. 26

Ibid., pp. 24-25. 27

In China, the Forest Law was first issued on September 15, 1932. The ninth item of this law was related to forest reserves with seven categories covering almost the same aspects of the Japanese version of the Taiwan Forest Law, except that categories related to landslide, falling stone, and flying sand were all put into one category. See Kuo-ming-cheng-fu kung-pao, Luo-tzu No. 20, p. 2. 28

The 1901 regulations listed 8 types, the 1907 instructions listed 11 types, and the 1917 forest law listed 9 types.

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up the sandy wind. This first piece of forest reserve covered an area of 26.07 chia in one village. In the following years, the planted areas were extended to other villages. From 1900 to 1909, some 2,648 chia were planted at 26 villages around Erhlin as forest reserves to break up flying sand (see Table 2).

Table 2: The forest reserves to break up flying sand in the Erhlin area, 1900-1909 Year No. of Village Planted Area (chia) Cost (yen)

Meiji 33 (1900) 1 26.07 3,000.00 Meiji 34 (1901) 2 102.35 5,000.00 Meiji 35 (1902) 4 160.00 3,000.00 Meiji 36 (1903) 4 530.00 3,000.00 Meiji 37 (1904) 4 400.00 3,000.00 Meiji 38 (1905) 3 320.00 3,000.00 Meiji 39 (1906) 2 160.00 2,500.00 Meiji 40 (1907) 3 105.00 3,000.00 Meiji 41 (1908) 1 185.00 3,000.00 Meiji 42 (1909) 2 659.20 4,290.42 Total 26 2,647.61 32,790.42

Source: Taiwan Sōtokufu Minseibu Shokusan Kyoku, Taiwan no rinya [Taiwan’s forest and woodland], (Taipei: Taiwan Daily News Company, 1911), pp. 28-29.

The second piece of forest reserve was created in 1902 at Nuan-nuan 暖暖 where it was found the source of a waterway supplying the drinking water for Keelung, a harbor city in northern Taiwan. The water works were under the direct control of the Production Bureau, and thus it initiated planting trees at the water source in order to secure water supply during the dry season. Table 3 shows the expansion of these forest reserves for water source conservation from 1902 to 1909.

The following cases of forest reserves were created at the early stage of development. (1) A forest reserve to break up flying sand was initiated with 500 yen at Tu-ts’o-ts’o 塗厝厝 along the Ta-tu-ch’i 大肚溪 river in 1907, while a 200-chia site forest was planted in 1908. (2) A forest reserve to break up flying sand at Hou-lung後壟, Miaoli 苗栗, was initiated in 1909. (3) A forest reserve to conserve a water source was created in 1908 in Takow 打狗 (today’s Kaohsiung 高雄), a harbor city in southern Taiwan.29 (4) A forest reserve was initiated in 1908 with 1,700 yen at the water source of an irrigation system supplying water for the Hengch’un plain in the southernmost part of Taiwan. (5) A forest reserve of 154 chia in Changhua 彰化 to conserve a water source was initiated by the agricultural association with cooperation from local people under the encouragement of the district government. (6)

29

In 1915 students of a Fukien provincial agricultural school visited Taiwan and in their journeys they mentioned the forest reserves newly established in the mountain near the Kaohsiung harbor. See Taiwan lu-hsing-chi (2) [A journey to Taiwan] (Taipei: The Bank of Taiwan, 1965), pp. 48, 52-53.

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In Tainan ting 臺南廳, two forest reserves to conserve water sources were created by the local agricultural associations at Hu-t’ou-shan 虎頭山 and Tsou-ma-lai 走馬瀨. The former had a planted area of 240.837 chia and the latter, 195.45 chia.30 It is notable that these pioneering efforts were not only made by the local government, but also by the local agricultural associations and the people. It is also notable that in Taipei City, the first piece of forest reserve was created in 1907 at Yuan-shan 圓山for landscape around the Shinto shrine.31

Table 3: The forest reserves to conserve water source at Nuan-nuan, Keelung, 1902-1909

Year Planted Area

(chia)

Kinds of Tree Planted No. of Trees Cost

(yen) Meiji 35 (1902) 9.9114 Cryptomeria Cypress 28,000 2,000 441.50 Meiji 36 (1903) 26.9816 Cryptomeria Cypress 80,000 15,000 840.00 Meiji 37 (1904) 59.7021 Cryptomeria 213,154 2,176.33 Meiji 38 (1905) 21.6910 Cryptomeria 125,000 1,152.93 Meiji 39 (1906) 54.5927 Cryptomeria Camphor Cypress 88,820 104,000 22,450 1,192.00 Meiji 40 (1907) 44.0000 Cryptomeria Cypress 160,200 33,800 996.76 Meiji 41 (1908) 59.5000 Cryptomeria Cypress 210,050 13,400 1,007.09 Meiji 42 (1909) 54.5000 Cryptomeria Cypress 197,800 15,800 949.56 Total 330.8788 Cryptomeria Cypress Camphor 892,974 102,450 104,000 8,726.17 Source: Taiwan Sōtokufu Minseibu Shokusan Kyoku, Taiwan no rinya, pp. 30-31.

The first investigation into Taiwan’s forest reserves was carried out in 1906 and the result is summarized in Table 4. Of the 145 forest reserves already established, eight types were in function and the most important one was to conserve a water source (52 sites). Next in the line was the type to break up flying sand (47 sites). The third one was the type that restrained mudslide (25 sites). The other types were for landscape (9 sites), windbreak (6 sites), fishing (4 sites), to prevent flooding and to prevent falling stones (each had one site). The emphasis of forest reserves in different districts varied with local conditions.

30 Taiwan Sōtokufu Naimubu Shokusankyoku, Taiwan no rinya [The forest and woodland in Taiwan], (Taipei: Taiwan Daily News Co., 1911), pp. 29-33.

31 Taiwan Sōtokufu Shokusankyoku, Taiwan ringyō shi, Vol. I, p.95; Chuang Chih-tsung, “Taipei-shih pao-an-lin cheng-li yien-chiu [A study on the arrangement of forest reserves in Taipei City],” Taiwan lin-yeh, Vol. 15, No. 2 (1989), p. 32.

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Table 4: Taiwan’s forest reserves established by 1906

Districts (Ting) No. of Sites Types (No. of Sites) Area (chia) Taipei 臺北

18

To restrain mudslide (7) Landscape (5)

To conserve water source (3) To break up flying sand (3)

508.6596

Taoyuan 桃園

4

To restrain mudslide (2) To break up flying sand (1) Landscape (1)

180.3830

Hsinchu 新竹

19

To conserve water source (6) Windbreak (5)

To restrain mudslide (3) To break up flying sand (3) Landscape (2)

1,148.6150

Taichung 台中

16

To break up flying sand (8) To conserve water source (6) To prevent flooding (1) To restrain mudslide (1)

4,666.5000

Nantou 南投 3 To conserve water source (2)

To prevent falling stones(1) 678.5000 Chiayi 嘉義

42

To break up flying sand (32) To conserve water source (8) To restrain mudslide (2)

7,837.4965

Ahou 阿緱

24

To conserve water source (18) Fishing (4)

Landscape (1) Windbreak (1)

1,865.0501

Tainan 台南 19 To restrain mudslide (10)

To conserve water source (9) 1,395.8771

Total

145

To conserve water source (52) To break up flying sand (47) To restrain mudslide (25) Landscape (9)

Windbreak (6) Fishing (4)

To prevent flooding (1) To prevent falling stones (1)

18,281.0813

Source: Taiwan Sōtokufu Minseibu Shokusankyoku, Taiwan no rinya, pp. 26-27. The colonial government paid much attention to forest reserves as the policies related to investigation, afforestation, and subsidies were carried on until the end of the colonial period. Available statistics of forest reserves are listed in Table 5 in two parts: (1) the number of sites and (2) the land area. It should be first noted that the numbers for 1907 listed in Table 5 were certainly under-recorded as Table 4 shows that there were already 145 sites in 1906.

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Table 5: Taiwan’s Forest Reserves, 1907-1942

(1) Number of Sites Year Conserve Water Source Restrain Mudslide Break up Flying Sand Fishing Land- scape Wind- Break Prevent Flood- ing Prevent Tide- Water Prevent Falling Stones Total 1907 8 6 .. 3 1 1 3 .. 1 23 1908 41 18 16 4 7 7 3 .. 1 97 1909 45 19 21 4 7 7 4 .. 1 108 1910 45 19 21 4 7 7 4 .. 1 108 1911 50 36 35 17 11 13 4 1 1 168 1912 67 52 40 22 15 16 5 1 1 219 1913 71 59 49 25 16 16 5 1 1 243 1914 74 63 50 26 20 16 5 1 1 256 1915 74 66 50 28 21 19 5 1 1 265 1916 77 73 41 28 23 16 6 1 1 266 1917 87 86 45 31 25 16 6 1 3 300 1918 90 90 50 33 25 14 6 1 3 312 1919 90 92 51 34 25 14 6 1 3 316 1920 93 98 51 34 25 14 6 1 3 325 1921 100 103 52 36 27 14 5 1 3 341 1922 106 105 51 35 27 14 5 1 3 347 1923 109 110 55 35 28 14 4 1 3 359 1924 113 121 64 35 28 13 4 1 3 382 1925 110 125 65 30 39 13 4 1 4 391 1926 110 130 65 30 40 13 4 1 4 397 1927 113 130 61 27 33 12 5 1 4 386 1928 121 138 72 28 34 12 5 1 4 415 1929 115 136 73 26 34 11 5 1 4 405 1930 116 136 74 26 34 11 5 1 4 407 1931 117 135 75 26 34 11 5 1 4 408 1932 115 137 75 26 34 11 6 1 4 409 1933 117 146 75 26 34 11 5 1 4 419 1934 119 146 75 26 26 11 5 1 4 413 1935 120 150 77 26 26 11 5 1 4 420 1936 122 158 80 26 26 10 5 1 4 432 1937 122 158 86 27 26 24 5 7 4 459 1938 123 160 86 27 26 30 5 8 4 469 1939 123 164 86 27 28 29 5 8 3 473 1940 127 164 87 27 30 29 5 8 3 480 1941 129 167 87 27 32 28 5 8 3 486 1942 129 170 87 27 32 28 5 8 3 489

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18 Table 5 (continued)

(2) Land Area (chia) Year Total Growth

Rate Conserve Water Source Restrain Mudslide Break up Flying Sand Fishing Land- scape Wind- break Prevent Flood- ing Prevent Tide- Water Prevent Falling Stones 1907 2,068 -- 1,632 140 -- 71 9 30 92 -- 94 1908 17,627 214.28 13,671 1,677 1,822 89 120 62 92 -- 94 1909 18,278 3.63 13,845 1,766 2,037 89 120 62 265 -- 94 1910 18,278 0.00 13,845 1,766 2,037 89 120 62 265 -- 94 1911 24,089 27.61 14,335 3,784 3,729 571 270 952 265 89 94 1912 41,921 55.40 23,041 8,101 5,936 1,581 998 1,766 315 89 94 1913 53,021 23.49 28,411 12,637 6,208 1,987 1,514 1,766 315 89 94 1914 71,127 29.38 33,523 24,601 6,443 2,337 1,959 1,766 315 89 94 1915 74,237 4.28 34,757 25,504 6,683 2,455 2,743 1,597 315 89 94 1916 79,524 6.88 35,809 29,812 6,443 2,453 2,770 1,706 348 89 94 1917 87,954 10.08 39,798 31,568 8,557 2,925 2,775 1,763 348 89 131 1918 93,372 5.98 41,153 32,225 10,672 4,256 3,161 1,337 348 89 131 1919 104,518 11.28 52,267 32,261 10,852 4,421 2,812 1,337 348 89 131 1920 108,665 3.89 54,264 34,443 10,835 4,406 2,812 1,337 348 89 131 1921 121,687 11.32 66,474 35,036 10,865 4,557 2,871 1,337 327 89 131 1922 125,541 3.12 69,623 35,876 10,741 4,546 2,871 1,337 327 89 131 1923 130,836 4.13 73,055 36,245 11,269 4,546 3,837 1,337 327 89 131 1924 133,541 2.05 74,548 37,564 11,259 4,545 3,827 1,251 327 89 131 1925 136,970 2.54 77,827 39,051 9,758 4,097 4,539 1,146 327 89 136 1926 136,874 -0.07 77,762 39,032 9,678 4,097 4,591 1,146 343 89 136 1927 146,492 6.79 79,032 47,678 9,768 4,264 4,046 1,138 345 89 132 1928 202,595 32.42 126,872 55,046 10,553 4,267 4,153 1,138 345 89 132 1929 207,786 2.53 132,284 54,923 10,568 4,267 4,146 1,032 345 89 132 1930 207,560 -0.11 132,290 54,924 10,340 4,267 4,141 1,032 345 89 132 1931 236,774 13.17 160,842 54,884 10,625 4,267 4,562 1,028 345 89 132 1932 240,180 1.43 160,710 58,535 10,519 4,250 4,559 1,027 359 89 132 1933 245,302 2.11 164,855 59,791 10,332 4,236 4,509 1,027 331 89 132 1934 251,063 2.32 169,431 60,913 10,372 4,234 4,538 1,024 330 89 132 1935 255,463 1.74 173,381 61,293 10,492 4,234 4,538 1,023 280 89 133 1936 269,106 5.20 181,619 66,859 10,445 4,234 4,508 939 280 89 133 1937 273,499 1.62 184,591 66,837 11,139 4,301 4,508 1,508 280 202 133 1938 289,577 5.71 185,127 82,083 11,112 4,301 4,510 1,779 280 252 133 1939 310,978 7.13 205,814 82,780 11,112 4,301 4,548 1,775 280 252 116 1940 322,960 3.78 217,457 83,362 11,083 4,301 4,334 1,775 280 252 116 1941 365,998 12.51 259,586 84,819 11,011 4,458 4,366 1,110 280 252 116 1942 373,694 2.08 261,582 90,487 11,047 4,456 4,364 1,110 280 252 116 Average share 60.44% 25.93% 7.38% Growth Rate 1909-1942 1909-1926 1927-1942 8.98 11.14 6.28 -- No figures available.

Source: Taiwan Sōtokufu Shokusankyoku, Taiwan ringyō shi, Vol. I, p. 102; Vol. II, appendix Table II; Taiwan Sōtokufu Shokusankyoku Sanrinka, Taiwan ringyō tōkei (1930), pp. 8-11; (1931), pp. 8-9; Wang Tzu-ting, "Taiwan chih pao-an-lin," pp. 61-62, 64.

Note:

1. Taiwan-sheng Hsing-cheng-chang-kuan kung-shu T’ung-chi-shih, Taiwan-sheng wu-shih-yi-nien-lai t’ung-chi-t’i-yao (Taipei: Taiwan Provincial Governor Office, 1946), p. 603, listed land area in hectare and entries for breakdowns are not available before 1928. Wang Tzu-ting, listed land area in hectare, however, his figures are taken directly from Taiwan ringyō tōkei which showed area in chia.

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19 Table 5 (continued)

2. In addition to the nine types listed above, the tenth type was for providing a target for navigation; one site of this type was set up in 1924 with an area of 0.1015 chia and this remained unchanged until 1940.

Due to a lack of information, it is difficult to figure out discrepancies that existed between two sets of the data, therefore, the numbers for 1907 may be just left out here. From 1908 to 1942, the number of forest reserves increased from 97 to 489 sites and the area increased from 17,627 chia to 373,694 chia. With breakdowns into nine types, it is clear that the first three types have larger shares than others. On the average, the forest reserve for conserving water sources accounted for 60.4 percent, those to restrain mudslides shared 25.9 percent, and those to break up flying sand had 7.4 percent; together these three types made up 93.7 percent.

Figure 1 shows the curves of the total area, the area for conserving water sources, and the area to restrain mudslides. It is clear that the two curves of the total area and the water sources parallel quite well to each other, reflecting that the water source forest reserve was the most important type.

Figure 1: Taiwan’s Forest Reserves in 1908-1942 Source: Table 5.

Figure 2 shows the percentage of these three types in 1908-1942. These three curves have different momentums. The share of the forest reserves to conserve water sources was the largest; it declined from 78 percent in 1908 to 44 percent in 1918 and then increased to 70 percent in 1942. The share of the forest reserves to restrain mudslides increased from 9 percent in 1908 to 37 percent in 1916 and then declined to 24 percent in 1942. The share of the forest reserves for breaking up flying sand

Figure 1. Taiwan's Forest Reserves in 1908-1942

0 100,000 200,000 300,000 400,000 1908 1911 1914 1917 1920 1923 1926 1929 1932 1935 1938 1941 Year A rea ( ch ia)

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increased from 10 percent in 1908 to 15 percent in 1911 and then decreased to 3 percent in 1942.

Figure 2: The Shares of the First Three Types of Forest Reserves in Taiwan, 1908-1942

Source: Table 5.

As for the growth rate of the area of forest reserves, it is calculated with an exponential formula here. The average annual growth rate from 1909 to 1942 was 8.98 per cent. Figure 3 shows that there are two peaks; the first one around 1912 and the second one around 1928. These two peaks are explainable. The former reflects the first drive to create forest reserves as the program began in 1905-1909 and the expenditure for investigation increased steadily from 2,500 yen in 1907 to 8,030 yen in 1913.32 The latter was apparently a result of the subsidy policy started in 1928.

The fluctuations in the growth rate indicate that the forest reserves were not growing in a linear form. It can be seen more clearly with the curve of the moving average. When the entire period is divided into two phases, a simple calculation for the average growth rate shows that it was 11.39 percent in 1909-1926 and 6.28 percent in 1927-1942. Apparently, the first phase was growing faster than the second.

32 Taiwan Sōtokufu Shokusankyoku, Taiwan ringyō shi, Vol. I, p. 107.

Figure 2. The Shares of the First Three Types of Forest Reserves in Taiwan, 1908-1942

0 20 40 60 80 100 1908 1911 1914 1917 1920 1923 1926 1929 1932 1935 1938 1941 Year P er cen tag e

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Figure 3: Growth Rate of Taiwan’s Forest Reserve Area. 1909-1942 Source: Table 5.

Further analysis on the growth rate reveals that the two phases are quite different. In the first phase the growth rate declined while in the second it increased. When the peaks around 1912 and 1928 are excluded for the time being, regression analyses for 1915-1926 and 1932-1942 produce different results as follows:

(1) 1915-1926: y = -0.5924x + 9.3056 (R2 = 0.3267), (2) 1932-1942: y = 0.5503x + 0.8465 (R2 = 0.2925),

or y = 1.5607e0.1216x (R2 = 0.3224).

These are the best regression analyses that can be obtained and they confirm that the growth patterns in the two phases are different. The T-test also confirms this result. The value of the T-test under the confidence level of 90 percent calculated for 1908-1926 and 1926-1942 is 0.184 and that for 1915-1926 and 1932-1942 is 0.390, implying that the two stages are quite different.

As for regional variations of the forest reserves, Table 6 shows the number of sites and shares of area by regions during 1932-1952. The number of sites reveals that about half of the forest reserves were located in the North region. A simple calculation of percentage gives the following results. In 1942 the North region had 47 percent, the Central had 16 percent, the South had 25 percent, the East had 9 percent, and Penghu had 3 percent. In 1952 the North region had 44 percent, the South had 28 percent and the percentages of other three regions remained the same.

Figure 3. Growth Rate of Taiwan's Forest Reserve Area, 1909-1942 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 1909 1911 1913 1915 1917 1919 1921 1923 1925 1927 1929 1931 1933 1935 1937 1939 1941 Year P er cen tag e

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Table 6: Taiwan’s forest reserves by regions, 1932-1952 (1) Number of Sites

Year North Central South East Penghu Total Area

1932 189 71 110 27 13 410 1933 201 70 110 26 13 420 1934 203 72 102 26 13 416 1935 207 72 103 26 13 421 1936 212 71 112 25 13 433 1937 224 72 118 33 13 460 1938 224 72 120 41 13 470 1939 226 73 121 41 13 474 1940 228 74 121 45 13 481 1941 231 76 121 45 13 486 1942 232 76 122 46 13 489 1948 222 79 143 47 13 504 1949 222 79 143 47 13 504 1951 233 80 147 47 13 520 1952 233 82 149 48 13 525

(2) Shares of the area

Year North Central South East Penghu Total Area

% % % % % Hectare* 1932 34.72 39.74 19.11 6.35 0.08 240,182 1933 36.46 38.77 18.59 6.10 0.08 245,303 1934 36.08 38.20 19.69 5.96 0.07 251,062 1935 37.19 37.54 19.34 5.85 0.07 255,463 1936 35.88 35.52 23.00 5.53 0.07 269,107 1937 36.66 34.97 22.73 5.57 0.07 273,499 1938 34.63 32.99 21.68 10.64 0.06 289,578 1939 32.27 30.85 26.91 9.90 0.06 310,977 1940 31.25 29.72 28.99 9.99 0.06 322,964 1941 30.89 34.59 25.60 8.86 0.05 365,998 1942 30.27 33.88 26.59 9.21 0.05 373,698 1947 30.70 33.93 25.74 9.58 0.05 362,767 1948 30.09 33.23 27.25 9.38 0.05 370,420 1949 30.19 33.34 27.01 9.41 0.05 369,265 1950 29.75 33.54 27.19 9.46 0.05 367,068 1951 29.83 33.47 27.19 9.45 0.05 367,798 1952 29.77 33.43 27.18 9.57 0.05 368,520 * The Area for 1932-1942 should be chia.

Source: Wang Tzu-ting, “Taiwan chih pao-an-lin,” pp. 60-61, 63. Original notes:

1. North region includes Keelung City, Taipei City, Taipei County, Ilan County, Taoyuan County, Hsinchu County, and Miaoli County. (This comprised Taipei Chou and Hsinchu Chou by the end of the Japanese colonial period.)

2. Central region includes Taichung City, Taichung County, Changhua County, and Nantou County. (Taichung Chou.)

3. South region includes Tainan City, Kaohsiung City, Yunlin County, Chiayi County, Tainan County, Kaohsiung County, and Pingtung County. (Tainan Chou and Kaohsiung Chou.)

4. East region includes Hualien County and Taitung County. (Huanlien-kang Ting and Taitung Ting.) 5. Penghu: Penghu County. (Penghu Ting.)

Original source: 1932-1942 from Taiwan lingyō tōkei 臺灣林業統計; 1948-1952 from the data kept by Lin-ch’an kuan-li-chu 林產管理局.

However, in terms of land area shared by regions, Figure 4 shows that the Central region had the largest share most of the time except during 1936-1940. In

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1942 the North region shared 30 percent, the Central region shared 34 percent, the South region shared 27 percent, and the East region shared 9 percent. The regional shares were not much different in 1952. These statistics indicate clearly that forest reserves were, indeed, a legacy of the Japanese colonial period, even though some of them were destroyed during the wartime. For instance, it was said that forest reserves to prevent flying sand along the coastal areas at Lu-chu蘆竹, Ta-yuan大園, Kuan-yin 觀音 and Hsin-wu新屋 in today’s Taoyuan County were destroyed during the wartime by Japanese army and local villains.33

Figure 4: The Area of Forest Reserves shared by Regions in Taiwan, 1932-1952

Source: Table 6.

In terms of type, available statistics for comparison are shown in Table 7. The governmental statistics became unreliable after the outbreak of the Pacific War in December 1941. Important statistics afterwards were classified for some military reasons, among them were those related to forest and lumber. The last trustworthy statistics of forest reserves about the year 1942 were published in 1943. According to that record, there were altogether 446 sites of forest reserves in Taiwan. A comparison may be made with the record of 1948, three years after Taiwan was returned to the government of the Republic of China. Table 7 shows there are two sets of statistics available for the year 1942. The second set shows larger differences between itself and that of 1948, while the first set shows only a big change from 142 to 164 in the

33

Yang Juei-feng, “Ching-kuan Taoyuan hai-an pao-an-lin chih hui-ku yu chan-wang [A retrospect and prospect on the management of forest reserves along the coastal area in Taoyuan],” Taiwan Lin-yeh [Taiwan Forestry Journal], 18.4 (April 1992), p. 37.

Figure 4. The Area of Forest Reserves Shared by Regions in Taiwan, 1932-1952 0 10 20 30 40 50 1932 1934 1936 1938 1940 1942 1948 1950 1952 Year P er cen tag e

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number of forest reserves to restrain mudslide. Nevertheless, this comparison serves again as a reference for the legacy left by the colonial period.

Table 7: Numbers of Taiwan’s forest reserves in 1942 and 1948

Types

In 1942 In 1948

(1) (2)

To restrain mudslides 142 170 164

To conserve water sources 125 129 123

To break up flying sand 96 87 97

Windbreak 42 28 42

Landscape 31 32 31

Fishing 31 27 31

To reduce tidewater 8 8 8

To prevent flooding 5 5 5

To prevent falling stones 3 3 3

Total 446 489 504

Source: 1942 (1): Taiwan Ringyō Nempō (1943), p. 19.

1942 (2): Wang Tzu-ting, “Taiwan chih pao-an-lin,” p. 62.

1948: Hsieh Wen-chao, “Taiwan chih pao-an-lin ching-ying Taiwan’s forest reserves,” in Economic Research Division of the Bank of Taiwan (ed.), Taiwan chih lin-yeh ching-ying (Taipei: The Bank of Taiwan, 1968), p. 229; Wang Tzu-ting, “Taiwan chih pao-an-lin,” p. 62, has the same numbers.

Finally, it may be mentioned in passing that in December 1937, the colonial government established three national parks in Taiwan: Ta-t’un-shan 大屯山 (8.265 hectares), Tz’u-kao T’ai-lu-ke 次 高 太 魯 閣 (272.590 hectares) and Hsin-kao A-li-shan 新高阿 里 山 (185.980 hectares). In addition to those forest reserves designated for the purpose of preserving landscape, these national parks demonstrated that Taiwan was not only strategically important for Japan’s movement southwards, but also valuable for the exploration of tourist resources.34 Although the Japanese plan to establish more national parks in Taiwan was interrupted by the war, it also laid a foundation for later development.35

CONCLUDING REMARKS

Scholars who have studied Taiwan’s forest reserve in the post-war period often trace its origin to the Japanese colonial period, however, they tended to say that there

34

Nagasaki Kō, Taiwan kokulitsu kōen shashin shū [An album of national parks in Taiwan], (Taipei: Taiwan Association of National Parks, 1939).

35

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was no consistency in the policies and division of works concerning forestry affairs as the office in charge changed hands frequently.36 This paper finds that, indeed, the office in charge did change hands several times, but most policies were carried on by the succeeding offices rather than discarded. Moreover, new programs were added up until 1942. These policies reflected that the colonial authority not only paid attention to the investigation and management of forests and woodlands as well as the disposition of forest products, but also made many efforts to do research and experiment. More important, the colonial authority initiated the establishment of Taiwan’s forest reserves where natural geographical conditions made such a measure indispensable for territory security and public benefit.

In 1945 when Taiwan returned to the Republic of China, a Forestry Bureau (Lin-wu-chu 林務局) was set up below the Agriculture and Forestry Division (Nung-lin-ch’u 農林 處 ) under the Taiwan Provincial Governor Office (Chang- kuan-kung-shu 長官公署). In 1937 the Taiwan Provincial Governor Office was reorganized as the Taiwan Provincial Government and the Forestry Bureau was reorganized as the Taiwan Forestry Administration (Lin-ch’an kuan-li-chu 林產管理 局). In regard to forest reserves, it was recognized that an emergent work was to recover those destroyed during the war. The Forestry Administration was responsible to carry out four categories of reforestation: the economic forests, the coastal forests, the forest reserves, and the flood-control forests.

The new Forestry Administration had taken over from the Japanese colonial authority 366,800 hectares of forest reserves, which consisted of 15 percent of Taiwan’s woodlands and forests totaled in 2.5 million hectares. Of these forest reserves, the new administration decided to designate 13,800 hectares as coastal forests and 179,300 hectares as local forests to be subjected to the program of economic forests. As for the rest of the 147,900 hectares of forest reserves located in the lowland and scattered among villages and cities, they were to be reforested as soon as possible.37 This new categorization reflected continuation as well as shifts in emphases. For example, a program to be conducted in 1948-1950 showed that 48,267 hectares would be planted for economic forests, 14,758 hectares for flood-control forests, 8,500 hectares for forest reserves, and 116 hectares of trees and 5,836 hectares of grass for coastal forests.38 It is understandable that during the period of post-war reconstruction, an emphasis was put on economic forests. However, it should be noted

36

Liu Sheng-hsiao, “Taiwan chih sen-lin ching-ying [The management of forest in Taiwan],” in Taiwan chih lin-yeh ching-ying, pp. 39-128; Wang Ziding, “Taiwan chih lin-yeh cheng-ts’e,” pp. 1-38.

37

Taiwan-sheng cheng-fu nung-lin ch’u, Taiwan lin-ch’an kuan-li kai-k’uan [General situation of the management of Taiwan’s forest products], Taipei (1938), p 4, pp. 135-139.

38

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that between 1954 and 1972, Taiwan encountered a great loss of forests. During the eighteen years, the area deforested reached 104,800 hectares. This lost of forests consisted of 3 percent of Taiwan’s total land area, or 5.3 percent of where the forests stood in 1954.39 Fortunately, the principle of forestry management was shifted back to stress the forest reserves again in 1975 with a forestry reform program, and the area was increased to 408,555 hectares in 1981.40

It should also be noted that this paper is only a preliminary study of the history of environment conservation regarding Taiwan’s forest reserves. It has not been attempted to look into the benefit of the forest reserves in Taiwan’s economic development. For instance, some reports said that rice product per unit of cultivated land increased 30-40 percent in the area along the coast with windbreaks; sugar products increased 80 percent.41 To what extent was this benefit realized? What was the cost? Moreover, what is the comparative advantage of keeping or canceling forest reserves when a decision should be made for a change in land utilization?42 In recent years, serious landslides and mudslides occurred frequently in Taiwan, particularly after the 1999 September 21 earthquake, a retrospect of the history of forest reserves might provide some lights in the consideration of reconstruction. Further studies are undoubtedly required not only for other aspects related to the forest, but also for those related to ecological and environmental changes in Taiwan.

REFERENCES (Author unknown)

1896 Taiwan Sōtokufu Reiki Reishō 《臺灣總督府例規類鈔》 [A compilation of rules established by Taiwan Government-general], Tokyo: Kinsei shoin 金 城書院.

Ch’en, Fan-shou 陳繁首

1982 “Chia-ch’iang pao-an-lin ching-ying kuan-li〈加強保安林經營管理〉 [Strengthening the management of the forest reserves],” Feng-nien 豐年, 32 (5): 23-25.

Ch’en, Kuo-tung

1998 “Nonreclamation Deforestation in Taiwan, c. 1600-1976,” in Mark Elvin and Liu Ts’ui-jung (eds.), Sediment of Time: Environment and Society in Chinese History, pp. 693-727, Cambridge and New York: Cambridge

39

Kuo-tung Ch’en, “Nonreclamation Deforestation in Taiwan, c. 1600-1976,” pp. 726. 40

Ch’en Fan-shou, “Chia-ch’iang pao-an-lin ching-ying kuan-li [Strengthening the management of the forest reserves],” Feng-nien, Vol. 32, No. 5 (1982), pp. 23-24.

41

Hsieh Wen-chao, “Taiwan chi pao-an-lin ching-ying,”, pp.240-241. 42

See James Kahn, The Economic Approach to Environmental and Natural Resources (Orlando: The Dryden Press, 1995), pp. 320-321, for a discussion of multiple use of forestland.

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27 University Press.

Chu Chia 諸家 (Ch’iu Wen-luan 邱文鸞 , Liu Fan-cheng 劉範徵 , and Hsieh Ming-k’e 謝鳴珂)

1965 Taiwan lu-hsing-chi《臺灣旅行記》[A journey to Taiwan, 1915], Taipei: The Bank of Taiwan.

Chuang, Chih-tsung 莊治宗

1989 “Taipei-shih pao-an-lin cheng-li yien-chiu〈臺北市保安林整理之研究〉 [A study on the arrangement of forest reserves in Taipei City],” Taiwan lin-yeh 《臺灣林業》[Taiwan Forestry Journal], 15 (2): 31-44. Hsieh, Wen-chao 謝文昭

1968 “Taiwan chih pao-an-lin ching-ying 〈 臺 灣 之 保 安 林 經 營 〉 [The management of Taiwan’s forest reserves],” in Economic Research Division of the Bank of Taiwan (ed.), Taiwan chih lin-yeh ching-ying《臺 灣之林業經營》[Taiwan’s forestry management], pp. 227-257, Taipei: The Bank of Taiwan.

Huang, Ching-chia 黃靜嘉

1959 “Jih-chu hsia chih Taiwan chih-min fa-chih yu chih-min tung-chih〈日據 下之台灣殖民法制與殖民統制〉[Colonial law and colonial rule in Taiwan under the Japanese occupation],” Taiwan Wenxizn 《台灣文獻》 10 (1): 67-138.

Huang ,You-hsing 黃有興

1984 “Jih-chu shih-ch’i Taiwan k’ao-chuan chih-tu shu-lueh〈日據時期台灣考 詮制度述略〉[A discourse on the merit system under the Japanese occupation],” Taiwan Wenxian 《台灣文獻》34 (4): 15-32.

Kahn, James

1995 The Economic Approach to Environmental and Natural Resources Orlando: The Dryden Press.

Kuo-min-cheng-fu wen-kuan-ch’u 國民政府文官處

1932 Kuo-min-cheng-fu kung-pao《國民政府公報》[The Nationalist Government Bulletin] Luo-tzu 洛字 No. 20.

Li, Wen-liang 李文良

1996 “Jih-chih shih-ch’i Taiwan lin-ye cheng-li shih-yeh chih yenchiu—yi Taoyuan Ta-ch’i ti-ch’u wei chung-hsin〈日治時期臺灣林野整理事業 之研究—以桃園大溪地區為中心〉[A study on the management of Taiwan’s woodland under Japanese rule—the case of the Ta-ch’i area in Taoyuan],” MA thesis, Graduate Institute of History, National Taiwan University.

Lin-ch’an kuan-li chu ch’u-pan wei-yuan-hui 林產管理局出版委員會(comp.)

數據

Table 1: Polices related to Forestry in Taiwan during the Japanese Colonial Period

Table 1:

Polices related to Forestry in Taiwan during the Japanese Colonial Period p.7
Table 2: The forest reserves to break up flying sand in the Erhlin area, 1900-1909  Year  No

Table 2:

The forest reserves to break up flying sand in the Erhlin area, 1900-1909 Year No p.14
Table 3: The forest reserves to conserve water source at Nuan-nuan, Keelung,  1902-1909

Table 3:

The forest reserves to conserve water source at Nuan-nuan, Keelung, 1902-1909 p.15
Table 4: Taiwan’s forest reserves established by 1906

Table 4:

Taiwan’s forest reserves established by 1906 p.16
Table 5: Taiwan’s Forest Reserves, 1907-1942

Table 5:

Taiwan’s Forest Reserves, 1907-1942 p.17
Figure 1 shows the curves of the total area, the area for conserving water  sources, and the area to restrain mudslides

Figure 1

shows the curves of the total area, the area for conserving water sources, and the area to restrain mudslides p.19
Figure 2. The Shares of the First Three Types of                 Forest Reserves in Taiwan, 1908-1942

Figure 2.

The Shares of the First Three Types of Forest Reserves in Taiwan, 1908-1942 p.20
Figure 3: Growth Rate of Taiwan’s Forest Reserve Area. 1909-1942          Source: Table 5

Figure 3:

Growth Rate of Taiwan’s Forest Reserve Area. 1909-1942 Source: Table 5 p.21
Table 6: Taiwan’s forest reserves by regions, 1932-1952  (1) Number of Sites

Table 6:

Taiwan’s forest reserves by regions, 1932-1952 (1) Number of Sites p.22
Figure 4: The Area of Forest Reserves shared by Regions  in Taiwan, 1932-1952

Figure 4:

The Area of Forest Reserves shared by Regions in Taiwan, 1932-1952 p.23
Table 7: Numbers of Taiwan’s forest reserves in 1942 and 1948

Table 7:

Numbers of Taiwan’s forest reserves in 1942 and 1948 p.24

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