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Education System in Hong Kong Curriculum design

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(1)

Organizing Field Trips in Geography

Chan Lung Sang

Department of Earth Sciences University of Hong Kong

assisted by

Connie Wu Geography Curriculum, EMB

Leung Pik Sai St Mary’s Church College EMB Geography Enhancement Course

(2)

Reform Proposal for

Education System in Hong Kong Curriculum design

• To encourage cross-curricular

and inquiry-based approaches to learning to help students

develop self-learning and life- long learning attitude.

[EMB, Review of Academic Structure of Senior Secondary Education, Executive Summary, 2004]

(3)

Workshop on Field Studies

• The Essence and Modes of Field Studies

• Facilitating Field Studies in Hong Kong

• PBL – A New Mode of Field Studies

• The St Mary Church School Experience

(4)

Balancing the Triangle

Logistics and Resources

Liability and Risk

Academic Merits

Field

Studies

(5)

Why taking students to the field?

• Illustrate taught concepts with real samples

• Enable students to attain a more complete picture

• Develop an appreciation of the complexities of real- life cases

cross-disciplinary nature lack of definitive solutions

• Best venue to train observing and describing skills

• Students enjoy more, learn better

• Teachers enjoy more, teach better

(6)

The intangible merits

• To be challenged physically

• Opportunity to work and live collaboratively

• Learn to appreciation of nature and cultural heritage

• Learn to become a responsible member or a team and of Society

(7)

Some Fieldwork Approaches

Emphasis on Quantification (analytical approach)

Emphasis on Affective Learning (systems approach) Student-centredTeacher-led

Discovery fieldwork

(teacher functions as animateur)

Hypothesis Testing

Enquiry Fieldwork

(teacher functions as resource provider)

Earth Education

Field excursion

(teacher functions as guide and interpreter)

After Lambert & Balderstone (2000) Learning to Teach Geography in the Secondary School, London: Routledge Falmer

(8)

A comparison of two approaches

(after Principia Cybernetica Project)

leads to multidisciplinary education leads to discipline-specific education

integrates duration of time and irreversibility

independent of duration of time;

phenomena considered reversible.

modifies groups of variables simultaneously

modifies one variable at a time

emphasizes global perception; fuzzy details

emphasizes the precision of details;

avoids overall perspective

studies the effects of interactions studies the nature of interaction

concentrates on the interaction amount elements

concentrates on the values of individual elements

Systems approach Analytical approach

*Field studies must essentially employ the systems approach.

(9)

Modes of Field Studies

• Teacher-centered, using field as classroom (no prior lecturing)

• Teacher-centered, integrate field learning into classroom teaching

• Teacher-centered, conducting canned exercises in field

• Student-centered, undertaking field project prescribed by teacher

• Student-centered, undertaking field project designed by themselves

Increasing involvement of students Subject expertise of teacher Easiest

More DifficultMore Difficult

(10)

Workshop on Field Studies

• The Essence and Modes of Field Studies

• Facilitating Field Studies in Hong Kong

• PBL – A new mode of field studies

• The St Mary Church School Experience

(11)

Field Excursions for Geography

• Slopes, Weathering & Badlands

• Faults & Folds

• River Features

• Beaches, Coastal Landforms

• Rocks & Minerals

• Urban and rural development

• Environment, resources and social issues

(12)

Slopes and highland streams:

Nam Chung, Luk Keng, Wu Kau Teng area

Ping Fung Shan (escarpment) Nam Chung (wetland habitat)

Hok Dau (entrenched meander) Wu Kau Teng (raised terrace)

(13)

Faults & Folds: Ma Shi Chau, Lai Chi Chong

(14)

Rocks: Central, Lamma, North

Lantau, Shing Mun River

(15)
(16)

Field Excursions in HK

• Slopes and highland streams: Lantau, Nam Chung

• Faults & Folds: Ma Shi Chau, Lai Chi Chong

• River features: No good natural river systems, much to see about river training

• Beach & coast: numerous, Sai Kung, Long Ke, raised beach

• Rocks: Central, Lamma Is, North Lantau, Shing Mun River

• Weathering: Cheung Chau, Lamma Is., Ninepins

(17)

Modes of Field Studies

• Teacher-centered, using field as classroom (no prior lecturing)

• Teacher-centered, integrate field learning into classroom teaching

• Teacher-centered, conducting canned exercises in field

• Student-centered, undertaking field project prescribed by teacher

• Student-centered, undertaking field project designed by themselves

(18)

Common Field Problems

• Variation in students’ level and ability

• Dominance by few bright students

• Lack of interaction among students

• Constrained thinking in set exercises

• Lack of opportunities to observe and reason

• Solution-driven (analytical approach)

*Advantages of field teaching not fully utilised

(19)

Example: Description of Rocks

How do we normally do it?

• What are the major minerals in the rock?

• What kind of rock is it, igneous, sedimentary or metamorphic?

• What is the name of the rock?

(20)

How do we normally do it?

• What do you call this kind of weathering feature?

• How does it happen?

• What kind of weathering is it? Chemical or physical?

Example: Weathering

(21)

What are in the student’s mind?

Did I learning about it in class?

What‘s the answer?

What’s the answer?

What‘s the answer?

I think I should know…

I know I know…

Darn! I am just a pig!

(22)

Can these practices be enhanced in the field exercise?

• Observe

• Describe

• Infer

• Hypothesize

• Propose investigation methods

(23)

Redesigning the questions!!

What are the major minerals in the rock?

WHAT can you describe about the rock? For example, colour is obviously one. WHAT

ELSE?

What kind of rock is it, igneous, sedimentary or metamorphic?

How may you measure these properties?

What is the name of the rock?

What does each of the properties tell you about the rock?

(24)

Composition? Minerals? Freshness?

Eye-ball Colour

What does it say about the rock How to measure

Property

WHAT can you describe about the properties of the rocks? For example, colour is obviously one. WHAT ELSE? CAN YOU LIST AT LEAST 9

OTHERS readily determined properties? What does each of the properties tell us about the rock? (Group)

(25)

What do we call this kind of weathering feature?

Describe this exposure. What are the most remarkable characteristics?

How does it happen?

What caused the distinctly different colours in the rock?

What kind of weathering is it? Chemical or physical?

Why did oxidation occur at those particular locations?

*Technical terms vs. Generic terms

(26)

How did rectangular joint intersections produce rounded core stone?

Nature of weathering process

Conditions for weathering

How can reaction be sped up?

Gibbs free energy

(surface area/volume ratio)

Weathering spheroids

*Guided thinking vs. Constrained thinking

(27)

A comparison of two approaches

(after Principia Cybernetica Project)

leads to multidisciplinary education leads to discipline-specific education

integrates duration of time and irreversibility

independent of duration of time;

phenomena considered reversible.

modifies groups of variables simultaneously

modifies one variable at a time

emphasizes global perception; fuzzy details

emphasizes the precision of details;

avoids overall perspective

studies the effects of interactions studies the nature of interaction

concentrates on the interaction amount elements

concentrates on the values of individual elements

Systems approach Analytical approach

*Field studies must essentially employ the systems approach.

(28)

How did the wave-cut platform form?

• Erosion

• Hydraulic action by waves

• Abrasion by sediments

• …..

The analytical approach

(29)

Considering the coastal landform as an open system, use a system diagram to depict the processes and elements of this system

The systems approach

input output

Subsystems Processes Components

(30)

INPUT Energy:

Solar energy Wave energy

Gravity Matter:

Rain Seawater Ground water

Sediment debris

OUTPUT Water Sediment

Energy Organics

Atmosphere systemocean subsystem

Subsurface subsystem

PHYSIOGRAPHY SUBSYSTEM

BIOLOGY SUBSYSTEM COASTAL SYSTEM

EROSION

MASS WASTING

WEATHERING

CLIFF RETREAT

WAVE CUT PLATFORM

Rock pool Rocky shore

(31)

Workshop on Field Studies

• The Essence and Modes of Field Studies

• Leading Field Studies in Hong Kong

• PBL – A new mode of field studies

• The St Mary’s Church School Experience

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