HOUSEHOLD BUDGET SURVEY 2002/2003

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HOUSEHOLD BUDGET SURVEY 2002/2003

Further information can be obtained from Documentation and Information Centre of Statistics and Census Service

17

th

Floor “Dynasty Plaza” Bldg.,

411-417 Alameda Dr. Carlos d’ Assumpção, Macao Telephone: 3995311

Fax: 307825

E-Mail : info@dsec.gov.mo Homepage : http://www.dsec.gov.mo

Official Statistics

Reproduction of these data is allowed provided the source is quoted

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Published by: DSEC

Macao, April 2004

Design : DSEC

Printed by: DSEC

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Preface

Statistic and Census Service conducted the 2002/03 Household Budget Survey (02/03 HBS) from 29 September 2002 to 27 September 2003. Information was collected from a total of 5,070 living quarters in various districts in Macao. Household Budget Survey is a sampling survey carried out once every five years; consequently, the 02/03 HBS was the first household budget survey conducted after Macao’s Handover to the People’s Republic of China.

This report is a compilation of the data collected from the 02/03 HBS, it provides the up-to-date information on the consumption expenditure and income of households in Macao;

for instance, types of expenses, consumption patterns and structures. In addition, this report includes statistical indicators on the income distribution of households. Taking into consideration that household consumption patterns are influenced by the overall economic conditions; they are also affected by the levels of household income as well as other socio-demographic factors, for example, household size and household composition. As a result, results of the 02/03 HBS can provide important reference to research studies carried out by members of the public and the government.

We would like to express our gratitude to the co-operative households for their participation in this survey; moreover, we are glad to provide necessary assistance to data users and all suggestions that will help to improve the quality of our work are most welcome.

Acting Director

Mok Iun Lei

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Content

M ETHODOLOGY

Scope and coverage ... 7

Statistical unit... 7

Data collection method... 7

Type of questionnaires ... 8

List of classifications... 9

S AMPLING P LAN Sample design and sample size ... 11

Formulae of estimation... 12

Estimation of sampling errors... 13

Response rate of household ... 14

Standard deviation of principal indicators... 15

G LOSSARY ... 17

A NALYSIS OF RESULTS General analysis ... 21

Socio-demographic characteristics... 23

Household consumption expenditure ... 25

Total income of household ... 31

S YMBOLS ... 37

T ABLES ... 39

O THER AVAILABLE INFORMATION ... 75

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Methodology

Scope and coverage

Scope and coverage of the 2002/03 Household Budget Survey (02/03 HBS) included all households living in Macao Peninsula and Islands. However, it excluded marine population residing in boats as well as persons in collective quarters, for example, hotels and hospitals. Regarding to the type of housing, this survey covered private housing, economic housing as well as social housing.

Statistical unit

The principal statistical unit of 02/03 HBS was household, defined as persons that make common provision for food and other essentials for living, they need not all to be related to one another. A household may occupy part or all of a living quarter. In addition, resident domestic helper was included. Furthermore, anyone that satisfied the above definition and stayed for 8 days or more was considered as a member of the household. Excluded were those who were away from the surveyed household for 1 week or more.

The fundamental statistical units of HBS comprised the living quarters, households as well as individuals. Therefore, information on demographic and socio-economic aspects of individual household member would be collected, together with characteristics of the living quarter.

Data collection method

Data collection period for the 02/03 HBS lasted for one whole year that was divided into 26 cycles of 195 living quarters each. Hence, it helped to collect and monitor respective changes of the consumption pattern in different seasons.

In general, data collection method for this survey was similar to the previous HBS conducted in 1998/99. It was a combination of direct interview in gathering information on designated income and expenditure items, together with an Expenses Diary to be completed by respondents for a two-week recording period.

In order to facilitate respondents in providing accurate information, several reference

schedules were established accordingly, as follows:

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a) Daily spending, during the 2-week recording period, on goods and services bought, place of purchase, amount spent and quantity acquired;

b) Monthly, quarterly, half-yearly and annual spending on regular and infrequent purchases, amount spent and the frequency of purchase;

c) Possession of durable goods and purchases of durable goods during the reference year;

d) Annual household income, monetary transfer receipts, income in-kind as well as non-monetary transfer receipts during the reference year.

Type of questionnaires

The main objective of the HBS is to collect information on the total expenditure of households on goods and services as well as the level of household income. Owing to the complexity of the survey that requires households to provide large quantity of data, to ensure smooth collection of the information needed, the questionnaire design has considered factors such as feasibility of the forms used and convenience of reporting of the respondents.

The questionnaires adopted were grouped into 3 principal types, as follows:

a) Questionnaire on living quarter and household – used to record characteristics of the living quarter as well as socio-demographic information of individual member of the household;

b) Expenses Diary – a copy of the Diary was given to every household member aged 14 and above, which was used to record all items of goods and services purchased during the two-week reference period;

c) Supplementary questionnaires – in addition to record household expenses paid

in different reference schedules, the questionnaires also collected information

on possession and purchase of durable goods, regular and other expenditure as

well as annual household income.

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List of classifications

Occupation of an individual, which refers to the set of tasks or duties performed during the reference period, is classified according to the “Classification of Occupations of Macao”.

An economic activity carried out by an individual, an establishment or an enterprise during the reference period is classified according to the “Classification of Economic Activities in Macao – Revision 1”.

Household consumption expenditure on goods and services is classified based on the

“Classification of Individual Consumption According to Purpose” of the United Nations Statistics

Division (UNSD). Consequently, data of the 98/99 HBS were re-grouped and re-compiled to

facilitate statistical analysis and comparison.

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Sampling Plan Sample design and sample size

The sampling unit for 02/03 HBS was the living quarter and the observation unit was the household(s). The sampling frame is based on the “Building & Unit Frame” maintained by the Statistics and Census Service. Information of the Frame is updated regularly and every living quarter is identified with a unique “geocode”.

A stratified proportional systematic sample selection was applied for this survey; altogether 5,070 living quarters were selected, which were divided into 26 cycles with 195 housing units each.

Living quarters in the universe were grouped into 14 homogeneous strata based on parish, number of floors of the building and type of building (i.e. private housing and public housing);

description of the stratum was listed as follows:

Stratum Description 01 Living quarters in public housing, Santo António parish

02 Living quarters in public housing, N. S. de Fátima parish 03 Living quarters in public housing, Taipa Island

04 Living quarters in private housing in buildings with 9 or more floors, Santo António parish 05 Living quarters in private housing in buildings with 9 or more floors, São Lázaro parish 06 Living quarters in private housing in buildings with 9 or more floors, São Lourenço parish 07 Living quarters in private housing in buildings with 9 or more floors, Sé parish

08 Living quarters in private housing in buildings with 9 or more floors, N. S. de Fátima parish 09 Living quarters in private housing in buildings with less than 9 floors, Santo António parish 10 Living quarters in private housing in buildings with less than 9 floors, São Lázaro parish 11 Living quarters in private housing in buildings with less than 9 floors, São Lourenço parish 12 Living quarters in private housing in buildings with less than 9 floors, Sé parish

13 Living quarters in private housing in buildings with less than 9 floors, N. S. de Fátima parish

14 Living quarters in private housing, Taipa Island

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Formulae of estimation

Estimation of the results is based on the information on “number of household by household size”, maintained by Statistics and Census Service, as control total.

Formulae 1 – 3 were applied in the biweekly tabulation

1. Total expenditure of all households on goods & services item s in k

th

cycle

×

=

i ik

iks ik

ks

p

M x

Y ˆ ˆ

Where:

ik

=

Estimated number of household in household size i in k

th

cycle

iks

=

x Total expenditure of all households in household i on goods & services item s in k

th

cycle (observed value)

ik

=

p Total number of households in household size i in k

th

cycle (observed value)

2. Total expenditure of all households on all goods & services in k

th

cycle

=

=

13

1

ˆ ˆ

s ks

k

Y

Y

3. Average expenditure of all households on all goods & services in k

th

cycle

k k

k

M

Y Y ˆ

ˆ = ˆ ,where =

i ik

k

M

M ˆ ˆ

Formulae 4 – 8 were applied in the annual tabulation

4. Total annual expenditure of all households on goods & services item s

=

=

26

1

'

ˆ

ˆ

k ks

s

Y

Y

5. Average biweekly expenditure of all households on goods & services item s

ˆ

'

26 ˆ 1

s

s

Y

Y = ×

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6. Total biweekly expenditure of all households on all goods & services

=

=

13

1

ˆ ˆ

i

Y

s

Y

7. Average biweekly expenditure of a household on goods & services item s

a s

s

M

Y Y ˆ

ˆ = ˆ , where ∑

=

×

=

26

1

ˆ 26

ˆ 1

k k

a

M

M

8. Average biweekly expenditure of a household on all goods & services

M

a

Y Y ˆ ˆ = ˆ

Estimation of sampling errors

The “Jackknife Repeated Replications (JRR)” method is adopted for the estimation of variance of the parameters for the survey. Hence, the samples are divided into four groups based on the following criteria:

a. Living quarters in private housing, Taipa Island b. Living quarters in public housing

c. Living quarters in private housing in buildings with 9 or more floors, Macao Peninsula d. Living quarters in private housing in buildings with less than 9 floors, Macao Peninsula

Secondly, each group is subdivided into 2 subgroups of equal sizes, a sample replicate is formed in turn by discarding one subgroup and duplicating its complement, altogether 8 sample replicates were formed in the following manner:

- Subdivision of groups

1

]

1

01

[ = A + B

2

]

2

02

[ = A + B

3

]

3

03

[ = A + B

4

]

4

04

[ = A + B

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- Composition of sample replicate

Replicate Composition Estimator of X

1 1 A

1

, A

1

, A

2

, B

2

, A

3

, B

3

, A

4

, B

4

ˆ

1

X 2 [1] B

1

, B

1

, A

2

, B

2

, A

3

, B

3

, A

4

, B

4

X ˆ

[1]

3 2 A

1

, B

1

, A

2

, A

2

, A

3

, B

3

, A

4

, B

4

ˆ

2

X 4 [2] A

1

, B

1

, B

2

, B

2

, A

3

, B

3

, A

4

, B

4

X ˆ

[2]

5 3 A

1

, B

1

, A

2

, B

2

, A

3

, A

3

, A

4

, B

4

ˆ

3

X 6 [3] A

1

, B

1

, A

2

, B

2

, B

3

, B

3

, A

4

, B

4

X ˆ

[3]

7 4 A

1

, B

1

, A

2

, B

2

, A

3

, B

3

, A

4

, A

4

ˆ

4

X 8 [4] A

1

, B

1

, A

2

, B

2

, A

3

, B

3

, B

4

, B

4

X ˆ

[4]

Estimation of variance is calculated with the following formula:

2

} ˆ ) ( ˆ

ˆ ) {( ˆ ˆ )

ˆ (

4

1

2 ] [

2

=

− +

=

i i i

X X X

X X

V ,

Where:

) ˆ X (

V = Estimator of the variance of parameter X = An estimator of parameter X

Response rate of households

Response rate of the 2002/03 Household Budget Survey No. of household % Total no. of households surveyed 5 246 100.0

Co-operative households 4 324 82.4

Non-contacts 363 6.9

Refusals 33 0.6

Incomplete cases 156 3.0

Other situations 370 7.1

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Standard deviation of principal indicators

I. Standard deviation of household characteristics

No. %

Average number of household per housing unit 0.003 0.30 Average number of member per household 0.003 0.10

II. Standard deviation of consumption expenditure and receipts

MOP %

Average two-week household consumption expenditure 53 1.05 Average monthly household consumption expenditure 116 1.05 Average two-week per-capita consumption expenditure 17 1.05 Average monthly per-capita consumption expenditure 36 1.05 Average monthly household receipts 224 1.47 Average monthly per-capita receipts 71 1.48

III. Standard deviation of household consumption expenditure by section

Section of goods and services MOP %

Total 7 164 276 1.05

Food & non-alcoholic beverages 1 957 069 1.04

Alcoholic beverages & tobacco 223 143 3.34

Clothing & footwear 1 238 910 4.11

Housing, water, electricity, gas and other fuels 2 238 865 1.60 Furnishings, household equipment & routine household maintenance 422 958 2.22

Health 1 809 244 9.05

Transport 3 168 251 7.00

Communication 756 111 2.49

Recreation & culture 2 714 855 6.23

Education 545 825 0.84

Miscellaneous goods & services 1 742 325 3.19

Consumption expenses outside Macao 1 664 325 4.20

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Glossary

Household

Persons that make common provision for food and other essentials for living, they need not all to be related to one another. A person living alone is considered as a household. A household may occupy part or all of a living quarter.

Head of household

Person aged 16 and above and acknowledged by other member(s) in the same household as the representative.

Relationship with Head of household

Relationship of each household member to the household head, which is classified into the following categories:

- Spouse

- Son or daughter, including adopted son or daughter - Son- or daughter-in-law

- Grandchild or great grandchild - Parents or in-laws

- Brother or sister - Other relative - Non-relative

Educational attainment

The highest level of education successfully completed in formal education during the reference period.

Living quarter

An area that is structurally separated with independent entrance for the purpose of human habitation, including quarter that is built or converted for human habitation and, during the reference period, not used entirely for other purposes. It also includes quarter that is not designated for habitation, but during the reference period, is used for human habitation. Living quarter is classified into the following categories:

- Domestic living quarter.

- Collective living quarter.

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Tenure of the living quarter

Status of a living quarter held by a household, which is classified into the following categories:

- Owner-occupier (owner of living quarter) - Provided by employer

- Sole tenant - Main tenant - Sub-tenant - Co-tenant - Rent-free

Owner of living quarter

Person who owns the living quarter his or her household occupies.

Tenant

Person who rents the living quarter, under a contractual agreement, in which his or her household occupies.

It includes the following types:

Sole tenant – person who rents the whole living quarter, under a contractual agreement, in which his or her household occupies.

Main-tenant – household member that rents the living quarter, under a contractual agreement, from the owner. However, this household does not occupy the entire unit and sub-leases part of the living quarter to another household(s).

Sub-tenant – person who rents part of the quarter living from the main-tenant who also lives in the same unit.

Co-tenant – at least two households that rent the same living quarter by sharing the rent payment. In this case, there is no main-tenant.

Living quarter provided by employer

Refers to housing services provided by employer to his or her employee, whether it is rent-free or charged with a symbolic rent.

Rent-free

Person or household that resides in a living quarter free of charge; however, the living quarter is neither

owner-occupied dwelling nor provided by employer.

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Economic activity status

The relationship between an individual and an economic activity he or she involved. It is divided into two groups, namely, economically active population and economically inactive population.

Economically active population

Total number of people aged 14 and above who are available to participate in the production of goods and services during the reference period. It comprises employed population and unemployed population.

Number of earner in the household

Household member that satisfied the criteria of being economically active and worked for pay, in cash or in kind during the reference period; irrespective his or her status in employment.

Status in employment

Status of a working individual in his or her occupation during the reference period, which is classified into these categories: employer, own-account worker, employee and unpaid family worker.

Employer

Individual who, during the reference period, is self-employed or working in partnership and engages in only one single economic activity with at least one employee.

Employee

Individual who is supervised to work under a formal or informal contractual agreement for remuneration, of which the amount is not pegged to the business of the establishment.

Own-account worker

Individual who, during the reference period, is self-employed or working in partnership and engages in only one single economic activity without any employee.

Household income

Sum of the income, in cash and in kind, received by household member(s) during the reference period.

Household income comprises these components: wages and salaries, gratuities, commissions, bonuses,

overtime compensations, cash allowances, dividends from investment, interest receipts, rent receipts

(including imputed rent for owner-occupier dwellings), retirement pensions, subsidies from social security

fund or charities, remittance from abroad, regular contributions from household members as well as

scholarships received.

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Income in kind

Sum of all benefits (goods and services) provided by employer to his or her employee(s). These benefits include housing, transport, food and meals, clothing, uniforms as well as other goods and services.

Monetary transfer receipt

Income received in cash from government, institutions or persons. It includes pensions, social security subsidies, charities, remittance from abroad, scholarship, etc.

Non-monetary transfer receipt

Goods received from institutions or persons, valued at market prices.

Disposable income

Total income less direct taxes, social security contributions, government fees, fines as well as inter-household transfers paid.

Household consumption expenditure

Total value of consumer goods and services acquired by a household irrespective of the method of payment.

Including income in kind received from work; transfers received in cash or in kind, as well as own production of goods and services for own consumption, which were valued at market prices.

Rent

The monthly amount paid by a household for occupying a part or whole of a living quarter.

Non-consumption expenditure of household

Expenditure incurred by the household that includes government taxes and fines, transfer payments,

acquisition of capital goods and repayment of debts, etc.

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Analysis of results 1. General analysis

The 02/03 HBS was a sample survey to collect information from all households residing in the living quarters selected. During the one-year reference period, a total of 5,070 living quarters were selected; consequently, 4,304 living quarters were successfully interviewed, corresponding to 4,457 households.

Table 1 General information on household and living quarter

Total no. of person

a

Total no. of households

Average no. of economically active person per household*

Average no. of household per living quarter*

Average household size Parish

02/03 98/99 02/03 98/99 02/03 98/99 02/03

Macao & Islands 427 474 134 332 1.55 1.65 1.07 1.04 3.03 3.18 Santo António 111 821 33 803 1.57 1.70 1.06 1.03 3.11 3.31 São Lázaro 24 705 8 555 1.50 1.52 1.02 1.03 2.88 2.89 São Lourenço 39 007 12 932 1.55 1.63 1.01 1.02 3.07 3.02

Sé 25 747 8 297 1.68 1.60 1.02 1.00 3.12 3.10

N. S. de Fátima 190 200 58 718 1.51 1.63 1.12 1.05 3.01 3.24 Islands 35 993 12 027 1.59 1.74 1.01 1.02 2.81 2.99

* Referred to information of interviewed households only.

In comparison with the 98/99 HBS, the followings were some of the more significant changes:

1) Average number of household per living quarter dropped from 1.07 households in 98/99 to 1.04 households in 02/03. The N. S. de Fátima parish had the highest average, with 1.05 households per living quarter, while the Sé parish had the lowest average, with only 1.00 household.

2) In general, average household size increased from 3.03 persons in 98/99 to 3.18 persons in 02/03.

3) Information on average household size indicated that the N. S. de Fátima parish had the highest average, followed by the Santo António parish, with 3.24 persons and 3.31 persons per household respectively.

a This figure did not represent the resident population of Macao, it referred to the average population during the reference period.

Therefore, it would be inappropriate to compare directly with the Estimates of Macao resident population compiled by DSEC.

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4) Average number of economically active person (labour force) per household rose from 1.55 persons in 98/99 to 1.65 persons in 02/03. Among which the Island and the Santo António parish had the highest average, with 1.74 persons and 1.70 persons per household respectively.

In terms of the distributions of household by parish, the majority of the households (58,700) in Macao lived in the N. S. de Fátima parish, sharing 43.7% of the total; followed by Santo António parish, with 33,800 households (25.2%). On the contrary, the Sé parish had the least number (8,300) of households, which accounted for just 6.2% of the total.

Graph 1 Distribution of household by parish

1998/99 2002/03

Besides, the total number of households residing in the two islands surged from 9,400 in 98/99 to approximately 12,000 households in 02/03, a notable increase of 28.0% over 98/99.

6.2%

São Lázaro 6.4%

Santo António 25.2%

Islands 9.0%

N.S. de Fátima 43.7%

São Lourenço 9.6%

N.S. de Fátima

41.4%

7.8%

Islands 7.3%

Santo António 25.5%

São Lázaro 7.2%

São Lourenço 10.7%

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2. Socio-demographic characteristics

An analysis by household size showed that four-person households took up the largest share (28.8%), up 4.8 percentage points compared with 98/99. On the contrary, the proportion of one-person households dropped 6.7 percentage points over 98/99. In general, the percentage of households with less than five persons was similar to the results of 98/99, with 84.7%

Table 2 Distribution of household by parish and household size

% Parish (02/03)

Household size Total

(98/99) Total Santo António

São Lázaro

São

Lourenço Sé N. S. de

Fátima Islands

Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1 person 20.5 13.8 11.6 16.7 14.8 15.5 13.2 18.6

2 persons 19.0 19.7 19.0 24.5 24.6 21.6 17.9 20.6 3 persons 21.2 22.4 22.3 26.1 22.8 18.8 22.3 22.3 4 persons 24.0 28.8 30.9 22.1 25.0 28.1 30.5 23.6 5 persons 9.9 10.5 9.1 8.4 9.5 13.1 11.3 11.7

≥ 6 persons 5.5 4.8 7.1 2.2 3.3 2.9 4.7 3.2

Taking into account the economic activity status of household members, the proportion of households with “Only household head or spouse was working” took the largest share (38.0%), yet fell 4.5 percentage points compared with 98/99.

Table3 Distribution of household by economic activity status of members

% Economic activity status of members 98/99 02/03

Total 100.0 100.0

Only household head or spouse was working 42.5 38.0 Only household head and spouse were working 24.5 24.5 Household head or spouse and other member(s) were working 10.2 11.2 Household head , spouse and other member(s) were working 5.9 5.5

Only other members were working 4.7 5.9

Other situations* 12.2 14.9

* Including households with no member working.

Regarding to the distribution of household by type of housing, 106,781 households (79.5%)

were living in private housing. In addition, 21,958 households were living in economic housing,

while 5,593 household were living in social housing. Among which the proportion of households

living in economic housing up 2.0 percentage points compared with 98/99.

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Graph 2 Distribution of household by type of housing

In terms of the tenure of living quarter, more than 104,000 households (77.7% of total) were owners of the living quarter, up 9.0 percentage point over 98/99. Combined with the status in employment of household head, 94.4% of the employers and 88.1% of the owner-account workers were residing in owner-occupier quarters. For the employees, 77.3% were living in own property.

Table 4 Distribution of household by status in employment of household head and tenure of living quarter

% Status in employment of household head (02/03) Tenure

of living quarter

Total

(98/99) Total Employer Own-account

worker Employee Others Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Owner 68.8 77.7 94.4 88.1 77.3 73.7

Tenant 16.6 13.2 2.6 6.1 13.3 16.3

Provided by employer 2.1 0.8 0.4 - 1.2 -

Others 12.5 8.3 2.6 5.8 8.2 10.0

Economic housing 21,958 households

16.3%

Private housing 106,781 households

79.5%

Social housing 5,593 households

4.2%

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3. Household consumption expenditure

Apart from the influences brought about by the overall economic conditions, household consumption pattern and changes in the pattern were also affected by level of household income and other socio-demographic factors, for instance, household size and household composition.

Monthly consumption expenditure of all households in Macao amounted to MOP 1.48 billion in 02/03, up 1.0% compared with 98/99. When converted the currency value of the 98/99 period to 02/03-currency

b

, monthly household consumption expenditure grew 8.8% in real terms.

Average monthly consumption expenditure per household was MOP 11,026, dropped 3.9%

compared with 98/99, but increased 3.6% in real terms. On a per-capita basis, monthly consumption expenditure fell 1.4% in real terms, with MOP 3,465.

Table 5 Monthly consumption expenditure

98/99* Change

Current prices 02/03 prices

02/03

Nominal Real

MOP %

Monthly household consumption expenditure

(‘000 MOP) 1 466 605 1 360 904 1 481 116 1.0 8.8

Average monthly household consumption

expenditure 11 471 10 644 11 026 -3.9 3.6

Average monthly per-capita consumption

expenditure 3 787 3 514 3 465 -8.5 -1.4

* Data of the 98/99 HBS had been re-grouped according to the “Classification of Individual Consumption According to Purpose” of the United Nations Statistics Division, which differed marginally compared with information published in the 98/99 HBS report.

Regarding consumption expenditure by section of goods and services, “Food & non-alcoholic beverages” and “Housing, water, electricity, gas & other fuels” comprised the two largest portions of household consumption expenditure, sharing 27.5% and 20.5% respectively; altogether, they accounted for 48.0% of the total, whilst the remaining sections shared less than 10% each.

Household consumption pattern has changed over the past five years, of which “Food &

non-alcoholic beverages” and “Housing, water, electricity, gas & other fuels” decreased 5.9 percentage points and 0.9 percentage point compared with 98/99. On the contrary, respective shares of “Education”, “Recreation & culture” and “Transport” showed increases of 2.2 percentage points, 1.7 percentage points and 1.3 percentage points over 98/99.

b To facilitate statistical comparison in real terms, currency value of the 98/99 HBS is converted to 02/03-currency, by multiplying value of the 98/99 HBS with the cumulative inflation rate during the two survey periods (-7.2072%), i.e.

02/03-currency = 98/99-currency x (1 - 7.2072%).

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Graph 3 Comparison of biweekly household consumption pattern by section

Table 6 Average biweekly household consumption expenditure by section of goods & services

1998/99 2002/03 Difference

Section of goods and services

02/03 prices

(MOP) % 02/03 prices

(MOP) % (Percentage

point)

Total 4 900 100.0 5 075 100.0 -

Food & non-alcoholic beverages 1 393 28.4 1 396 27.5 -0.9

Alcoholic beverages & tobacco 54 1.1 50 1.0 -0.1

Clothing & footwear 234 4.8 224 4.4 -0.4

Housing, water, electricity, gas and other fuels 1 294 26.4 1 042 20.5 -5.9 Furnishings, household equipment & routine

household maintenance 146 3.0 142 2.8 -0.2

Health 102 2.1 149 2.9 0.8

Transport 258 5.3 337 6.6 1.3

Communication 217 4.4 226 4.5 0.1

Recreation & culture 230 4.7 324 6.4 1.7

Education 357 7.3 483 9.5 2.2

Miscellaneous goods & services 351 7.2 407 8.0 0.8 Consumption expenses outside Macao 261 5.3 295 5.8 0.5

Food &

non alcoholic beverages

Alcoholic beverages

&

tobacco

Clothing &

footwear

Housing, water, electricity,

gas &

other fuels

Furnishings, household equipment

& routine household maintenance

Health Transport Communi- cation

Recreation

&

culture

Education

Miscellan- eous goods

& services

Consump- tion expenses

outside Macao 1 .1

4 .8

2 6 .4

3 .0 2 .1

6 .6 6 .4

9 .5

5 .3 5 .8

4 .4 4 .7

7 .3 7 .2

5 .3 2 8 .4

2 7 .5

1 .0

4 .4

2 0 .5

2 .8 2 .9

4 .5

8 .0

0 1 0 2 0 3 0

9 8 /9 9

0 2 /0 3

%

%

%

%

(27)

On average, monthly consumption expenses spent outside Macao totalled at MOP 86 million, which corresponded to approximately MOP 640 per household or MOP 201 on a per-capita basis.

The more popular destinations were Mainland China (70.1% of the total), followed by Hong Kong (17.0%), thus reflecting the fact that household consumption expenditure outside Macao was more concentrated in the neighbouring places of Macao.

Chart 4 Distribution of consumption expenditure outside Macao by destination

Analyzed by monthly income, the proportions of consumption expenditure in Mainland China and in Hong Kong were 87.8% and 9.3% for households with an average monthly income less than MOP 4,000. However, for households with an average monthly income of MOP 20,000 or above, the corresponding shares were 57.3% and 21.0% respectively.

Table 7 Consumption expenditure outside Macao by destination and monthly household income

MOP Monthly household

income Total Mainland China Hong Kong Europe &

America Others Total 39 623 585 27 777 492 6 729 697 1 108 009 4 008 386

< 4,000 1 849 640 1 623 855 171 492 1 323 52 970 4,000 – 9,999 6 902 284 6 172 869 458 765 18 973 251 677 10,000 – 19,999 11 774 200 9 034 5241 2 091 477 59 943 588 256

≥ 20,000 19 097 461 10 946 244 4 007 963 1 027 770 3 115 484

3.1 Consumption pattern by monthly household income

Table 8 revealed that household consumption pattern varied among different income groups. A

Mainland China 70.1%

Others 10.1%

Europe & America 2.8%

Hong K ong 17.0%

(28)

major portion of the expenditure of households with an average monthly income less than MOP 4,000 was spent on living essential such as “Housing, water, electricity, gas & other fuels” (30.6%) and “Food & non-alcoholic beverages” (30.5%); altogether, these two sections accounted for 61.1%

of the total. For the households with an average monthly income of MOP 20,000 or above, the respective total was merely 42.6%, i.e. a notable difference of 18.5 percentage points between the two groups.

Among all income groups, households with an average monthly income ranging from MOP 4,000 to MOP 9,999 had the highest proportion of consumption expenditure on “Education”, with 12.2%.

Table 8 Household consumption expenditure by section and monthly income

Monthly household income (MOP)

< 4,000 4,000 – 9,999 10,000 – 19,999 ≥ 20,000 Section of

goods and services

‘000 MOP % ‘000 MOP % ‘000 MOP % ‘000 MOP %

Total 28 022

100.0

144 061

100.0

215 091

100.0

294 582

100.0

Food & non-alcoholic beverages 8 560

30.5

42 607

29.6

63 844

29.7

72 493

24.6

Alcoholic beverages & tobacco 353

1.3

1 813

1.3

2 341

1.1

2 175

0.7

Clothing & footwear 841

3.0

4 467

3.1

9 700

4.5

15 142

5.1

Housing, water, electricity, gas and

other fuels 8 563

30.6

34 162

23.7

44 288

20.6

53 027

18.0

Furnishings, household equipment &

routine household maintenance 517

1.8

2 064

1.4

4 272

2.0

12 181

4.1

Health 928

3.3

5 642

3.9

6 107

2.8

7 316

2.5

Transport 990

3.5

5 855

4.1

11 993

5.6

26 408

9.0

Communication 1 140

4.1

6 298

4.4

10 148

4.7

12 827

4.4

Recreation & culture 1 068

3.8

8 808

6.1

12 763

5.9

20 921

7.1

Education 2 099

7.5

17 527

12.2

22 352

10.4

22 877

7.8

Miscellaneous goods & services 1 114

4.0

7 916

5.5

15 509

7.2

30 117

10.2

Consumption expenses outside Macao 1 850

6.6

6 902

4.8

11 774

5.5

19 097

6.5

3.2 Consumption pattern by household size

Household consumption pattern links closely to household size. For one-person households,

the proportion of expenditure on “Housing, water, electricity, gas & other fuels” exceeded the

corresponding share of “Food & non-alcoholic beverages” by 2.7 percentage points. As household

size increased, expenditure on “Housing, water, electricity, gas & other fuels” and “Consumption

(29)

“Education” increased.

Table 9 Household consumption expenditure by section and household size

Household size

1 person 2 persons 3 persons 4 persons ≥ 5 persons Section of

goods and services

‘000

MOP % ‘000

MOP % ‘000

MOP % ‘000

MOP % ‘000

MOP %

Total 49 356

100.0

114 049

100.0

160 270

100.0

220 744

100.0

137 338

100.0

Food & non-alcoholic beverages 11 894

24.1

30 427

26.7

44 723

27.9

62 849

28.5

37 611

27.4

Alcoholic beverages & tobacco 560

1.1

1 019

0.9

1 636

1.0

2 130

1.0

1 336

1.0

Clothing & footwear 2 233

4.5

5 166

4.5

6 830

4.3

9 896

4.5

6 025

4.4

Housing, water, electricity, gas

and other fuels 13 250

26.8

25 980

22.8

31 903

19.9

43 214

19.6

25 692

18.7

Furnishings, household equipment

& routine household maintenance 1 080

2.2

3 352

2.9

4 436

2.8

6 276

2.8

3 890

2.8

Health 1 204

2.4

4 226

3.7

5 788

3.6

5 683

2.6

3 090

2.2

Transport 2 861

5.8

7 931

7.0

11 423

7.1

14 527

6.6

8 504

6.2

Communication 2 341

4.7

5 232

4.6

7 117

4.4

9 438

4.3

6 285

4.6

Recreation & culture 3 582

7.3

5 318

4.7

9 766

6.1

15 331

6.9

9 564

7.0

Education 1 878

3.8

7 713

6.8

13 734

8.6

23 562

10.7

17 967

13.1

Miscellaneous goods & services 3 009

6.1

9 061

7.9

13 613

8.5

18 081

8.2

10 891

7.9

Consumption expenses outside

Macao 5 463

11.1

8 622

7.6

9 300

5.8

9 757

4.4

6 482

4.7

3.3 Consumption pattern by type of housing

Table 10 indicated that irrespective of the type of housing where households lived, i.e. private housing, economic housing and social housing, “Food & non-alcoholic beverages” comprised the largest percentage of household consumption expenditure, sharing 26.9%, 30.3% and 35.9%

respectively. Moreover, expenditure proportion of “Housing, water, electricity, gas & other fuels”

also exceeded 20.0% for those households living in private housing and economic housing, whereas

households living in social housing spent 17.8% on “Education”. The above information implicated

that, in Macao, a substantial portion of household consumption expenditure was spent on living

essentials such as food, housing and education.

(30)

Table 10 Household consumption expenditure by section and type of housing

Type of housing

Private living quarter Economic housing Social housing Section of

goods and services

‘000 MOP % ‘000 MOP % ‘000 MOP %

Total 589 750

100.0

79 350

100.0

12 656

100.0

Food & non-alcoholic beverages 158 916

26.9

24 049

30.3

4 539

35.9

Alcoholic beverages & tobacco 5 295

0.9

1 167

1.5

220

1.7

Clothing & footwear 27 006

4.6

2 719

3.4

426

3.4

Housing, water, electricity, gas and

other fuels 122 231

20.7

16 166

20.4

1 642

13.0

Furnishings, household equipment

& routine household maintenance 17 811

3.0

1 063

1.3

160

1.3

Health 17 042

2.9

2 526

3.2

424

3.3

Transport 41 173

7.0

3 581

4.5

493

3.9

Communication 26 170

4.4

3 798

4.8

445

3.5

Recreation & culture 37 794

6.4

4 894

6.2

873

6.9

Education 53 405

9.1

9 193

11.6

2 256

17.8

Miscellaneous goods & services 49 240

8.3

4 929

6.2

488

3.9

Consumption expenses outside

Macao 33 668

5.7

5 265

6.6

690

5.5

(31)

4. Total income of household

In 02/03, total monthly income of all households in Macao amounted to MOP 2.06 billion and average monthly income per household was MOP 15,304, up 6.1% and 1.0% respectively over 98/99 in nominal term, which corresponded to 14.3% and 8.8% growth in real term. In addition, average monthly per-capita income increased 3.6% in real term over 98/99, with MOP 4,809.

Table 11 Total income of household

98/99 Change

Current prices 02/03 prices

02/03

Nominal Real

MOP %

Total monthly household income (‘000 MOP) 1 937 894 1 798 227 2 055 860 6.1 14.3

Average monthly household income 15 157 14 065 15 304 1.0 8.8 Average monthly per-capita income 5 004 4 643 4 809 -3.9 3.6

In comparison with 98/99, the proportion of households with an annual income of MOP 240,000 or above increased 2.2 percentage points, sharing 23.1% of total number of households in Macao. Meanwhile, respective share of households with an annual income of less than MOP 48,000 was 12.2%, up 1.4 percentage points over 98/99. This phenomenon revealed the tendency of polarization of household income in Macao.

Graph 5 Distribution of household by annual income

4.1 Principal sources of household income

Sources of household income comprise “income from employment”, “property income”,

“monetary transfer receipts” as well as “non-monetary transfer receipts”. The principal source of household income in Macao was largely originated from “income from employment”, sharing 69.8% of the total. By detailed components, “income from employment” included “employee

2002/03

120,000 - 239,999 31.7%

48,000 - 119,999 33.0%

< 48,000 12.2%

≥ 240,000 23.1%

1998/99

120,000 - 239,999 34.2%

48,000 - 119,999 34.1%

< 48,000 10.8%

≥ 240,000 20.9%

(32)

income”, “employer income” as well as “self-employment income”, which accounted for 61.9%, 4.5% and 3.5% respectively of total household income. In addition, “monetary transfer receipts”

constituted the second principal source of household income, with 21.8%.

Graph 6 Distribution of monthly household income by sources of income

Regarding the principal source of income by household size, “income from employment” still took a predominant position, which constituted 76.2% of the total household income in one-person households.

Table 12 Monthly household income by household size and sources of income

Household size

Total 1 person 2 persons 3 persons 4 persons ≥ 5 persons Source of income

‘000 MOP % ‘000 MOP % ‘000 MOP % ‘000 MOP % ‘000 MOP % ‘000 MOP % Total 2 055 860 100.0 140 200 100.0 346 996 100.0 506 361 100.0 665 132 100.0 397 170 100.0 Income from employment 1 435 341 69.8 106 877 76.2 244 976 70.6 362 681 71.6 454 679 68.4 266 127 67.0 Employee income 1 271 645 61.9 100 491 71.7 226 770 65.4 319 045 63.0 406 931 61.2 218 402 55.0

Employer income 71 751 3.5 3 445 2.5 10 587 3.1 27 745 5.5 28 805 4.3 21 363 5.4

Self-employment income 91 945 4.5 2 942 2.1 7 619 2.2 15 891 3.1 18 943 2.8 26 356 6.6

Property income 169 917 8.3 14 886 10.6 33 875 9.8 39 643 7.8 51 498 7.7 30 016 7.6 Monetary transfer receipts 448 572 21.8 18 241 13.0 67 402 19.4 103 456 20.4 158 665 23.9 100 808 25.4 Non-monetary transfer

receipts 2 029 0.1 196 0.1 742 0.2 581 0.1 291 o 220 0.1

On average, “Income from employment” and “monetary transfer receipts” accounted for over 90.0% of total household income in Macao. In terms of the distribution by type of housing, these two sources shared 99.7% of the total income of the households living in social housing.

No n-mo netary trans fer receip ts

0.1%

P ro p erty inco me 8.3%

Mo netary trans fer receip ts 21.8%

Inc o me fro m emp lo yment

69.8%

Emp lo yee inc o me 61.9%

Emp lo yer inc o me 3.5%

S elf-emp lo yment inc o me 4.5%

(33)

Graph 7 Distribution of monthly income by type of housing and sources of income

4.2 Average monthly disposable income of household

Average monthly disposable income amounted to MOP 14,834 per household, among which households living in private housing had an average of MOP 16,447, whereas households living in economic housing and social housing had an average monthly disposable income of MOP 9,485 and MOP 5,045 respectively.

Graph 8 Average monthly household disposable income by type of housing

14,834

16,447

9,485

5,045

0 5000 10000 15000 20000

Total Private housing Economic housing Social housing 69.8%

8.3 % 21.8%

0. 1%

70.4%

8.4 % 21.1%

0. 1%

67 .3%

7.9%

24 .7%

0.1%

53. 7%

0. 2%

46. 0%

0.1 %

0%

2 0%

4 0%

6 0%

8 0%

1 0 0%

Total P rivate housing Eco no mic ho using S o cial housing

In c om e from e m ploy me n t P rope rty inc om e M o ne ta ry tra ns fe r re c e ipts N on -m one ta ry tra ns fe r re c e ip ts

(34)

4.3 Income distribution of household

In the analysis of income distribution of household, some the more popular indicators used included Gini coefficient

c

, 80/20 ratio

d

as well as Kuznet’s ratio

e

.

Gini coefficient is used to evaluate the level of income concentration of household;

consequently, value of the Gini coefficient compiled for the 02/03 HBS equaled 0.45, increased marginally from 0.43 in 98/99. The Lorenz curve in Graph 9 depicted distribution of household income in Macao.

Graph 9 Distribution of monthly household income

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

% of monthly household income

Analyzed by quintile income group

f

, monthly income for the lowest 20% households amounted to MOP 89 million (4.3% of total household income); furthermore, monthly income per household in this quintile income group fell 1.6%, in real term, over 98/99, with MOP 3,316. In this quintile income group, 0.83% belong to zero income households.

Meanwhile, monthly income for the highest 20% households accounted for 49.4% of the total household income, with MOP 1.02 billion. On average, monthly income amounted to MOP37,792 per household, surged 9.5 % in real term compared with 98/99.

c Gini coefficient that calculated from the Lorenz curve reflects the level of equality in income distribution. Value of the coefficient lies between 0 to 1, this value is close to “0” when income is equally distributed and level of income concentration is low; on the contrary, the value is close to “1” when income is unequally distributed and level of income concentration is high.

d 80/20 ratio refers to the share of the lowest 20% of households in the income quintile to the highest 20% of households. The smallest value is “1”, representing income is equally distributed. A high ratio signifies that income is unequally distributed.

e Kuznet’s ratio is the sum of the absolute values derived from the difference between the percentile share of each quintile income group and the share of income to the total income. The higher the ratio means a higher level of inequality in income distribution.

% of households

(35)

Table 13 Income distribution of household by quintile income group Quintile income group Total The lowest

20%

The second 20%

The third 20%

The fourth 20%

The highest 20%

Total monthly household income (‘000 MOP)

1998/1999 (at current prices) 1 937 894 92 844 194 412 283 283 415 955 951 400 (at 02/03 prices) 1 798 227 86 153 180 400 262 866 385 976 882 831 2002/2003 2 055 860 89 091 193 972 297 516 459 957 1 015 324

Nominal change (%) 6.1 -4.0 -0.2 5.0 10.6 6.7

Real change (%) 14.3 3.4 7.5 13.2 19.2 15.0

Monthly income per household (MOP)

1998/1999 (at current prices) 15 157 3 631 7 603 11 078 16 267 37 206 (at 02/03 prices) 14 065 3 369 7 055 10 280 15 095 34 524

2002/2003 15 304 3 316 7 220 11 074 17 120 37 792

Nominal change (%) 1.0 -8.7 -5.0 0 5.2 1.6

Real change (%) 8.8 -1.6 2.3 7.7 13.4 9.5

Share of each quintile group in total income (%)

1998/1999 100.0 4.8 10.0 14.6 21.5 49.1

2002/2003 100.0 4.3 9.4 14.5 22.4 49.4

Difference (percentage point) - -0.5 -0.6 -0.1 0.9 0.3

80/20 ratio

1998/1999 10.3

2002/2003 11.4

Kuznet’s ratio

1998/1999 61.1 15.2 10.0 5.4 1.5 29.1

2002/2003 63.6 15.7 10.6 5.5 2.4 29.4

80/20 ratio is one of the indicators used to reflect level of income distribution of households.

For the 02/03 HBS, value of the 80/20 ratio was 11.4, up slightly compared with 10.3 in the 98/99 HBS.

Another indicator derived from quintile income group, Kuznet’s ratio, is also used to reflect

income distribution of households. Value of Kuznet’s ratio increased from 61.1 in 98/99 to 63.6 in

02/03.

(36)

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Symbols

Household Budget Survey HBS

Absolute value equals zero -

Macao Pataca MOP

Number No.

Percentage %

Less than half of the unit employed o

(38)

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(39)

Tables

1 Principal indicators of 2002/2003 Household Budget Survey...41 2 Number of households by expenditure range and socio-demographic characteristics ...42 3 Biweekly household consumption expenditure by expenditure range and section of

goods and services...43 4 Biweekly household consumption expenditure by expenditure range, section of goods

and services and parish ...44 5 Biweekly household consumption expenditure by expenditure range, section of goods

and services and household size...46 6 Biweekly household consumption expenditure by expenditure range, section of goods

and services and type of housing ...48 7 Biweekly household consumption expenditure by expenditure range, section of goods

and services and tenure of living quarter...50 8 Biweekly household consumption expenditure by expenditure range, section of goods

and services and household composition...53 9 Average biweekly consumption expenditure per household by expenditure range and

section of goods and services...57 10 Average biweekly consumption expenditure per household by quintile expenditure

group and section of goods and services ...58 11 Biweekly household consumption expenditure by expenditure range, by section and

group of goods and services...59 12 Number of households by income range and socio-demographic characteristics ...62 13 Biweekly household consumption expenditure by income range and section of goods

and services...64 14 Monthly household income by income range and source of income ...65 15 Monthly household income by quintile income group and source of income ...66 16 Average monthly income per household by quintile income group and source of income...67 17 Average monthly income per household by quintile income group, type of housing and

household size ...68 18 Average monthly income per household by quintile income group, type of housing and

household composition ...69

(40)

19 Average monthly income per household by quintile income group, type of housing and economic activity status of household members...70 20 Median monthly income per household by quintile income group, type of housing and

household size ...71 21 Median monthly income per household by quintile income group, type of housing and

household composition ...72 22 Median monthly income per household by quintile income group, type of housing and

economic activity status of household members...73

Note: The totals may not add up to the value as stated due to rounding.

(41)

1. PRINCIPAL INDICATORS OF 2002/2003 HOUSEHOLD BUDGET SURVEY

Indicators Unit Total Private

housing Economic

housing Social housing

1 2 3 4 5 6

Total number of households 134,332 106,781 21,958 5,593

Average number of household per living quarter 1.0353 1.0358 1.0423 1.0000

Average household size 3.1822 3.1836 3.1958 3.1019

Average biweekly household expenditure 6,460 7,082 4,408 2,642

Average biweekly household consumption

expenditure 5,075 5,523 3,614 2,263

Average monthly household expenditure 14,034 15,385 9,576 5,741

Average monthly household consumption

expenditure 11,026 11,999 7,851 4,916

Per-capita biweekly expenditure 2,030 2,224 1,379 852

Per-capita biweekly consumption expenditure 1,595 1,735 1,131 730

Per-capita monthly expenditure 4,410 4,832 2,996 1,851

Per-capita monthly consumption expenditure 3,465 3,769 2,457 1,585

Average monthly household income 15,304 16,990 9,693 5,158

Per-capita monthly income 4,809 5,337 3,033 1,663

Average monthly household disposable income 14,834 16,447 9,485 5,045

Per-capita monthly disposable income 4,662 5,166 2,968 1,626

MOP

No.

(42)

2.

No.

0 - 1,299 1,300 - 2,999 3,000 - 5,999 6,000 - 9,599 ≧ 9,600

2 3 4 5 6 7

Total no. of household 134,332 10,636 32,546 55,668 22,353 13,129

Parish

33,803 2,476 8,296 14,618 5,747 2,666

8,555 270 1,827 3,082 1,808 1,568

12,932 922 3,230 5,275 2,324 1,181

8,297 301 1,007 2,682 2,209 2,098

58,718 6,411 17,272 27,119 6,141 1,775

12,027 256 914 2,892 4,124 3,841

Household size

1 person

18,540 7,023 6,758 3,344 959 456

2 persons

26,498 3,055 9,607 8,311 3,598 1,927

3 persons

30,080 456 8,160 13,429 4,982 3,053

4 persons

38,656 60 6,245 20,317 7,645 4,389

5 persons

14,140 42 1,263 7,336 3,556 1,943

≧ 6 persons

6,418 - 513 2,931 1,613 1,361

Household composition

Single person - male

8,530 2,490 3,572 1,841 461 166

Single person - female

10,010 4,533 3,186 1,503 498 290

Head and spouse

14,456 1,608 5,010 4,285 2,059 1,494

Head and 1 son/daughter

5,579 553 2,473 1,776 554 223

Head and 2 sons/daughters

4,787 98 1,650 2,349 543 147

Head and 3 or more sons/daughters

2,068 - 412 1,071 333 252

Head, spouse and 1 son/daughter

20,105 218 4,602 9,209 3,651 2,425

Head, spouse and 2 sons/daughters

32,000 60 4,665 17,644 6,534 3,097

Head, spouse and 3 or more sons/daughters

10,273 - 758 6,048 2,554 913

Head, spouse, son(s)/daughter(s) and others

10,493 42 1,243 3,913 2,738 2,557

Head, spouse and others

2,176 - 543 894 190 549

Head, son(s)/daughter(s) and others

2,881 26 794 1,279 493 289

Head and others

10,974 1,008 3,638 3,856 1,745 727

Type of housing unit

Private housing

106,781 6,886 22,402 44,159 20,546 12,788

Economic housing

21,958 2,113 7,654 10,072 1,778 341

Social housing

5,593 1,637 2,490 1,437 29 -

Tenure of accommodation

Owner-occupier

104,382 2,768 21,852 47,825 20,167 11,770

Sole tenant

17,727 3,619 6,733 5,263 1,209 903

Main tenant

214 77 85 52 - -

Sub-tenant

151 115 36 - - -

Co-tenant

3,315 2,515 775 25 - -

Provided by employer

1,023 260 257 311 98 97

Rent-free

7,520 1,282 2,808 2,192 879 359

NUMBER OF HOUSEHOLD BY EXPENDITURE RANGE AND SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS

1

Socio-demographic characteristics Expenditure range (MOP)

Total

N.S. de Fátima Islands

Santo António São Lázaro São Lourenço Sé

數據

Updating...

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