2 Curriculum Framework

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Preamble

A series of eight Key Learning Area (KLA) Curriculum Guides (Primary 1 to Secondary 3) has been developed by the Curriculum Development Council (CDC) to support the Basic Education Curriculum Guide - Building on Strengths (2002) and to help realise the recommendations made in the CDC Report on Learning to Learn - The Way Forward in Curriculum Development (2001) and in the Education Commission’s (EC’s) education reform final report, Learning for Life, Learning through Life (2000).

The CDC is an advisory body giving recommendations to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government on all matters relating to curriculum development for the school system from kindergarten to sixth form. Its membership includes heads of schools, practising teachers, parents, employers, academics from tertiary institutions, professionals from related fields or related bodies and representatives from the Hong Kong Examinations Authority, as well as officers from the Education Department.

The KLA Curriculum Guides are based on the consultation documents on Learning to Learn of the respective KLAs published in November 2000. Relevant KLA committees under CDC have taken into consideration the concerns, needs and interests of schools, teachers and students as well as societal expectations expressed during the consultation period when developing these Guides.

Each KLA Curriculum Guide aims to present a curriculum framework, specifying the KLA’s curriculum aims, learning targets and objectives, and providing suggestions regarding curriculum planning, learning and teaching strategies, assessment and resources. In addition, each KLA Guide provides exemplars of effective learning, teaching and assessment practices. Schools are expected to adopt the recommendations in the Guide and to achieve the learning goals of the school curriculum (CDC, 2001) and aims of education (EC, 2000), taking into consideration their contexts, needs and strengths.

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Cross-reference has to be made with the Basic Education Curriculum Guide - Building on Strengths (2002) and the related subject guides as often as possible.

This will ensure that there is a coherent understanding of the whole-school curriculum planning and the planning of student learning at KLA and subject levels.

As curriculum development is a collaborative and an on-going enhancement process, the KLA Curriculum Guides as well as their related subject guides will be updated and improved from time to time to meet new needs of students and society. Schools are always welcome to send in any ideas and suggestions on the development of the Arts Education Curriculum to:

Chief Curriculum Development Officer (Arts Education) Arts Education Section, Education Department

Room 407, 4 Pak Fuk Road North Point, Hong Kong arts@ed.gov.hk

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Key Messages

Arts Education (AE)

• Arts education contributes significantly to students’ aesthetic development, which is one of the five essential learning experiences for whole-person development.

Existing Strengths

• Arts education is well recognised as one of the most effective means to nurture creativity.

• There is a keener interest in arts education among the community than ever before and more community resources for arts education have been provided so as to nurture a positive environment for students’ development.

• Parents are beginning to value arts education as an important learning area for the development of all-round education of their children.

Entitlement of Students

• Arts Education is the entitlement of EVERY student.

• About 10-15% and 8-10% of lesson time are recommended to arts education in the formal curriculum at primary and junior secondary levels respectively. (Please see Section 1.2 for more details)

Overall Aims of Arts Curriculum

Arts Education helps students:

• To develop creativity and critical thinking, nurture aesthetic sensitivity, and build up cultural awareness and effective communication.

• To develop skills, knowledge and positive values and attitudes in the arts.

• To gain delight, enjoyment and satisfaction through participating in arts-making activities.

• To pursue a life-long interest in the arts.

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Central Arts Education Curriculum : An Open and Flexible Framework

The central curriculum, in the form of an open and flexible framework, sets out what schools are encouraged to help students develop:

• knowledge and skills of the arts embodied in the learning targets, i.e. Developing Creativity & Imagination, Developing Skills &

Processes, Cultivating Critical Responses and Understanding Arts in Context, as well as in the learning objectives. (Please see Section 2.2.1 for more details)

• creativity, critical thinking and communication in the process of arts making, and then gradually on the other generic skills as well.

• an understanding of how people express their personal beliefs, ideas and feelings about the world.

• positive values and attitudes.

Connecting School-based Curriculum Development with Central Curriculum

Because of its flexibility, the central curriculum allows much space and scope for school-based curriculum development. Following the general direction and recommendations provided in the central curriculum, schools are encouraged to:

• design their own school-based arts curriculum. (Please see Sections 3.1 to 3.3 for more details)

• re-structure and streamline the arts curriculum so as to allow arts learning to be achieved with greater flexibility and provision for creativity.

• diversify the arts curriculum so as to suit the interests and abilities of students.

Changes in Learning and Teaching

• Teachers should develop students’ creativity, critical thinking and communication skills as far as possible through a balanced arts curriculum.

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• Teachers should develop a range of approaches such as integrative learning in the arts, project learning and using IT for interactive learning. (Please see Section 4.2 for more details)

• Schools and teachers should put emphasis on the assessment for learning throughout the learning and teaching processes. (Please see Section 5.1.1 for more details)

Principles to Guide Action

• To build on existing strengths in the arts in the school according to their readiness and circumstances.

• To formulate a school arts education policy which provides students with more exposure to arts experiences in the formal, informal and non-formal curriculum. (Please see Section 3.1.1 for more details)

• To appoint an arts curriculum leader so as to coordinate and facilitate arts learning.

• To diversify the arts curriculum contents so that students are exposed to various arts experiences.

• To provide opportunities for developing student potentials in the arts.

(For more information on various curriculum matters, please refer to Basic Education Curriculum Guide - Building on Strengths (2002).)

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Contents

Preamble 1

Key Messages 3

Contents 6

1Introduction 9

1.1 What is a Key Learning Area (KLA)? 11

1.2 Position of Arts Education KLA in the School Curriculum 12

1.3 Rationale and Direction for Development 13

1.4 Strategies for Development 14

1.4.1 Short-term (2001-02 to 2005-06) 14

1.4.2 Medium-term (2006-07 to 2010-11) 16

1.4.3 Long-term (beyond 2011) 17

1.5 Building on Strengths 18

2 Curriculum Framework 21

2.1 Overall Aims of Arts Curriculum 23

2.2 The Curriculum Framework 24

2.2.1 Learning Targets and Learning Objectives 25

2.2.2 Generic Skills 43

2.2.3 Values and Attitudes 45

2.3 Curriculum and Subject Organisations 46

2.4 Chinese Culture in Arts Education 48

3 Curriculum Planning 49

3.1 A Balanced Curriculum 51

3.1.1 Formulation of School Arts Education Policy 51 3.1.2 A Balanced and Diversified Arts Curriculum 52 3.2 Central Curriculum and School-based Arts Curriculum

Development 53

3.3 Connections within Arts Education KLA and with other KLAs 54

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3.3.1 Learning Across the Arts 54

3.3.2 Learning Across KLAs 54

3.4 Time Allocation 56

3.4.1 Time Allocation in the Arts 56

3.4.2 The Use of Learning Time 56

4 Learning and Teaching 59

4.1 Principles to Guide Action 61

4.2 Approaches to Learning and Teaching 61

4.2.1 Integrative Learning in the Arts 61

4.2.2 Project Learning 62

4.2.3 Life-wide Learning 64

4.2.4 IT for Interactive Learning 65

4.2.5 Reading to Learn 66

4.2.6 Moral and Civic Education 67

4.3 Catering for Student Diversity 67

4.4 Homework 70

5 Assessment 71

5.1 Principles to Guide Action in Assessment 73 5.1.1 Conceptual Framework for Assessment in the Arts 75

5.2 Modes of Assessment 76

5.3 Formative Assessment 79

5.4 Summative Assessment 79

5.5 Reporting 80

6 Learning & Teaching Resources 81

6.1 Textbooks 83

6.2 Quality Learning and Teaching Resources 83

6.2.1 Human Resources 83

6.2.2 Financial Resources 84

6.2.3 Community and Other Resources 84

6.3 Resource Management in Schools 84

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Exemplars 86

Exemplar I : The Implementation of a Media Arts Curriculum 86 Exemplar II : The Implementation of a Drama Curriculum 87 Exemplar III : Life-wide Learning Activities & Timetable 88

Exemplar IV : Block Timetabling 91

Exemplar V : Campus TV Channel 93

Exemplar VI : Under the Same Sky 101

Exemplar VII : Mangrove 109

Exemplar VIII : Strategies on the Implementation of the

School-based Arts Curriculum 122

Exemplar IX : Self and Peer Assessment Forms 123

References 125

Membership of the Curriculum Development Council

Committee on Arts Education 134

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1 Introduction

1.1 What is a Key Learning Area (KLA)?

A Key Learning Area (KLA) is an important part of the school curriculum. It is founded on fundamental and connected concepts within major fields of knowledge which should be acquired by all students. A KLA provides a knowledge context for the development and application of generic skills (e.g.

creativity and skills of communication, critical thinking, collaboration and subject-specific skills), positive values and attitudes through appropriate use of learning / teaching activities and strategies. It serves as a context for the construction of new knowledge and the development of understanding. The studies offered in each KLA may have an academic, social or practical orientation, or a combination of these, depending on the particular purpose(s). The curriculum can also be organised into subjects, modules, units or other modes of learning. The following diagram shows the relationship between knowledge, generic skills and values and attitudes.

The Arts Education KLA consists of art forms such as Music, Visual Arts, Drama, Dance, Media Arts and other emerging art forms. They all have an open and adventurous nature and share common aesthetic values. Through arts activities, students are able to use different media, such as light, sound, body movements, etc., to express themselves and communicate with each other.

Knowledge

Generic Skills Values & Attitudes

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1.2 Position of Arts Education KLA in the School Curriculum

Schools need to develop a balanced school curriculum so as to provide an all- round education for their students. Arts education is one of the five essential areas in the overall aim of education set out by the Education Commission: “To enable every person to attain all-round development in the domains of ethics, intellect, physique, social skills and aesthetics according to his/her own attributes so that he/she is capable of life-long learning, critical and exploratory thinking, innovating and adapting to change.”1 Moreover, arts education helps students “to lead a healthy lifestyle, and develop an interest in, and appreciation of, aesthetic and physical activities”, which is one of the seven learning goals set out by the Curriculum Development Council (CDC)2.

Students are entitled to Arts Education at all levels. It contributes to students’

whole-person development by helping them to:

• develop creativity, imagination, flexibility, aesthetic sensitivity and critical responses to the world;

• nurture values and attitudes, and facilitate the learning of other Key Learning Areas (KLAs); and

• inherit, transmit and reflect upon their own and others’ cultural traditions and values.

In order to provide students with sufficient lesson time in the arts, about 10- 15% and 8-10% of lesson time is recommended to arts education in the formal curriculum at primary and junior secondary levels respectively.

2 Curriculum Development Councill, November 2001. Learning to Learn: The Way Forward in Curriculum Development, Consultation Document, p.18. Hong Kong: The Council.

1 Education Commission, September 2000. Learning for Life, Learning through Life - Reform Proposals for the Education System in Hong Kong, p.4. Hong Kong: Education & Manpower Bureau.

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1.3 Rationale and Direction for Development

• Arts education contributes significantly to the development of generic skills, values and attitudes. Basic attitudes, skills, knowledge and virtues for life-long learning can be facilitated through arts education by providing students with an all-round and balanced curriculum, and with enjoyable artistic experiences. Further development of the arts curriculum will provide students with a comprehensive and balanced learning experience.

• As arts education holds the key to the all-round development of the whole person, the significant role of arts education in the total development of the child should be heavily stressed. We need, therefore, to develop the mission and vision to uphold the status of arts education.

• There are, however, certain barriers to the development of a quality arts education. For instance, the examination-oriented culture results in a stronger emphasis on academic subjects, the lack of teachers trained in arts subjects, and the over-emphasis on skills acquisition in the teaching of the arts have all hampered the development of arts education. However, through concerted efforts, such hurdles can be overcome.

In the modern world, good education focuses less on knowledge transmission than on helping students to learn how to learn. To achieve this, a teacher-centred approach is no longer adequate. To motivate students to learn we must improve the design of the curriculum and introduce a range of diverse and appropriate learning and teaching strategies. However, curriculum development is at its most effective when it involves evolution rather than revolution.

In order to build on the strengths of existing practices, it is suggested that schools use the following aims for the development of their school-based arts curriculum:

• to nurture students’ creativity and flexibility;

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• to provide students with a balanced arts curriculum and diversified arts learning experiences. In addition to Music and Visual Arts, which exist in the current arts curriculum, other art forms such as Drama, Media Arts and Dance should be included to broaden the students

learning experience within the arts;

• to develop an approach which integrates students’ learning in the arts, so that they acquire a holistic and deeper understanding across the arts and other KLAs;

• to adopt a student-centred approach supporting students to construct knowledge and skills so as to apply them in authentic contexts;

• to widen students’ arts learning experiences through life-wide learning activities; and

• to foster learning to learn skills and life-long learning attitudes in the arts.

1.4 Strategies for Development

1.4.1 Short-term (2001-02 to 2005-06)

The Short-term Goals of Schools are:

• to formulate a school arts education policy which provides students with more exposure to arts experiences in the formal, informal and non-formal curriculum (Please refer to Section 3.1.1 for more details);

• to generate a coherent vision for the development of arts education.

Schools are advised to appoint an arts curriculum leader to coordinate and facilitate the formulation and implementation of the arts education policy;

• to build on existing strengths in the arts in the school according to their own readiness and circumstances;

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• to connect school-based curriculum development with the central curriculum, schools are advised to restructure the arts curriculum so as to create more space and flexibility to develop a balanced arts curriculum. Schools can start small and gradually introduce drama and other art forms into the formal and informal curriculum as resources allow;

• to start adapting and implementing the new arts curriculum by stages, as soon as possible, with reference to individual Curriculum Guides (Arts Education, Music, Visual Arts and Drama-in-Education), and to aim at full implementation in the period 2006-07 to 2010-11; and

• to develop and implement strategies for life-wide learning in arts education by using community resources, e.g. by organising an Artist-in-Schools programme, or by encouraging students to attend concerts and visit art galleries, museums and exhibitions.

The Short-term Goals of Teachers are:

• to develop a culture of learning to learn through self-evaluation and self-improvement, and to develop a research culture for improving the quality of learning and teaching through such activities as participating in collaborative lesson preparation, initiating school- based action research, or participating in the seed projects on the implementation of the arts curriculum organised by the Education Department;

• to be competent in adapting the Curriculum Guides for planning and implementing a school-based arts curriculum;

• to be equipped with knowledge and skills for quality learning and teaching in arts education, e.g. IT skills, assessment for learning, basic knowledge on other arts disciplines, etc.;

• to move from a teacher-centred to a student-centred approach in learning and teaching, and to adapt to the changing role of arts teachers as coaches and facilitators;

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• to provide an encouraging environment for studentsrisk-taking and trial-and-error learning in artistic exploration and creation; and

• to be lovers and practitioners of the arts as well as life-long learners and models for students’ learning in the arts.

The Short-term Goals of the Education Department are:

• to publish subject curriculum guides to support the design and implementation of school-based arts curricula. The Curriculum Guides for Music, Visual Arts, and Drama-in-Education will be published in 2002-03;

• to suggest strategies for implementing life-wide learning in the arts;

• to initiate seed projects in the arts for improving the quality of learning and teaching, e.g. integrative learning and assessment for learning in the arts; and

• to help schools and teachers to adapt to the paradigm shift in learning and teaching.

1.4.2 Medium-term (2006-07 to 2010-11)

The Medium-term Goals of Schools and/or Teachers are:

• to develop a balanced arts curriculum which caters for student diversity, character building and whole-person development;

• to develop different approaches to curriculum planning and implementation in the arts;

• to nurture a culture of sharing across schools and to build up networks of schools, teaching artists and arts teachers to support learning and teaching;

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• to seek parental support for the development of studentsinterests in arts learning; and

• to further enhance team-building, communication and the sharing of good practices amongst teachers.

The Medium-term Goals of the Education Department are:

• to consolidate and accumulate experiences and disseminate good practices in learning, teaching and assessment in the arts; and

• to further develop linkages between learning and teaching in the arts and in other KLAs.

1.4.3 Long-term (beyond 2011)

The Long-term Goals of Schools and/or Teachers are:

• to provide quality learning, teaching and assessment in the arts; and

• to further develop a wide network among schools for the sharing of resources and good practices.

The Long-term Goals of the Education Department are:

• to continue to update and improve the arts curriculum and its supporting materials in line with the needs of society and students;

• to work continuously in partnership with schools and other concerned parties to develop school-based arts curricula and appropriate modes of assessment; and

• to provide more space for the emergence of new art forms such as Media Arts, and allow opportunities for students to choose and pursue preferences amongst the arts.

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1.5 Building on Strengths

The strengths of the arts in schools which the current curriculum reform should build upon are:

Culture and Society

• Arts Education is well recognised as one of the most effective means to nurture creativity;

• There is a keener interest in arts education within the community than ever before and more community resources for arts education have been provided;

• Parents are beginning to value arts education as an effective means to the all-round development of their children; and

• Tremendous efforts have been put into the arts development in Hong Kong recently which help to nurture a positive environment for studentsdevelopment:

a) As a cosmopolitan city, abundant performances / exhibitions by outstanding and world renowned artists provide students with ample exposure to the arts;

b) A number of arts festivals in Hong Kong provide grounds for nourishing the culture of arts appreciation; and

c) Various scholarships help to nurture talents in the arts.

Schools, Teachers and Artists

• The curriculum time and resources offered by schools form a necessary basis of providing aesthetic experience to students;

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• Strengths of individual schools in different areas such as arts curriculum development and pedagogy;

• Arts teachers in Hong Kong work diligently to build up their capacity in arts teaching;

• Teachersmastery of the knowledge of arts subjects, which is favourable for the implementation of the new arts curriculum; and

• Teaching artists, whose number has been increasing steadily, have become important resources to provide students with first-hand arts experiences.

Students

• There are many outstanding students with high achievements in the arts; and

• Students in Hong Kong are willing to learn and are actively participating in arts activities.

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2 Curriculum Framework

2.1 Overall Aims of Arts Curriculum

Arts Education helps students:

• To develop creativity and critical thinking, nurture aesthetic sensitivity, and build up cultural awareness and effective communication.

• To develop skills, knowledge and positive values and attitudes in the arts.

• To gain delight, enjoyment and satisfaction through participating in arts-making activities.

• To pursue a life-long interest in the arts.

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Overall Aims of Arts Curriculum

Learning Objectives

Generic Skills

Values and Attitudes

2.2 The Curriculum Framework

The following curriculum framework provides a platform for different art forms to be included in the school curriculum:

*KS1 denotes Key Stage 1, Primary 1-3

*KS2 denotes Key Stage 2, Primary 4-6

*KS3 denotes Key Stage 3, Secondary 1-3

*KS4 denotes Key Stage 4, Secondary 4 and above

Learning Targets

Developing Creativity

& Imagination

Developing Skills & Processes

Cultivating Critical Responses

Understanding Arts in Context

Visual Arts Media Arts Dance Drama Music

Other Emerging Art

Forms Students develop skills, knowlege and

positive attitudes in the arts through Learning Activities

by means of

Effective Learning & Teaching and Assessment

*KS1

*KS2

*KS3

*KS4

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2.2.1 Learning Targets and Learning Objectives

In the learning of the arts, Learning Targets are set in order to achieve the overall aims of the arts curriculum. The four targets are inextricably intertwined and they form the core of the proposed arts curriculum. They are all important and should be developed concurrently. However, they do not necessarily bear the same weight in the process of learning and teaching. The emphasis placed on each target will be determined by the nature of the individual art form and students’ abilities.

• Developing Creativity and Imagination

Students should be able to generate ideas through imagination and creativity by participating in creative or performing arts activities;

• Developing Skills & Processes

Students should be able to use different materials, elements and resources to experience and express the arts. Exploration and experimentation in the creative process should also be treasured in arts education;

• Cultivating Critical Responses

Students should be able to appraise and respond to issues in the arts;

and

• Understanding Arts in Context

Students should be able to understand the cultural contexts in which the arts are placed and their relationship to people’s lives and societies at large.

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In order to devise an effective and progressive arts curriculum, teachers should base the learning objectives leading to the Four Learning Targets on students’

backgrounds, interests and needs. It should be noted that learning activities devised from these learning objectives may contribute to one or more Learning Targets, though the coverage or depth may vary. Students develop skills, knowledge and positive attitudes towards the arts if the learning, teaching and assessment are all effective. The following tables are the outline on designing learning objectives and learning activities in Music and Visual Arts. Detailed suggestions will be included in individual Curriculum Guides for Music or Visual Arts to be issued in 2002-03. Suggestions for Drama and Media Arts will be published in due course. For the learning of Dance, teachers are advised to refer to the Physical Education KLA Curriculum Guide.

Learning Targets

Developing Skills &

Processes Cultivating

Critical Responses

Developing Creativity &

Imagination

Understanding Arts in Context

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Learning Objectives Leading to the Four Learning Targets (Music & Visual Arts)

The tables of “Learning Objectives Leading to the Four Learning Targets” listed below are set out to provide a framework for the Music/Visual Arts curriculum.

The following are considerations to be observed in the course of using these tables for curriculum planning:

(a) The learning objectives leading to the Four Learning Targets should be carefully considered by teachers to ensure that they suit their students’ backgrounds, needs, music/art abilities and interests. The learning objectives listed in Key Stage 1 in the framework are intended for Primary 1 to 3, in Key Stage 2 for Primary 4 to 6, and in Key Stage 3 for Secondary 1 to 3. However, Music/Visual Arts teachers may select appropriate learning objectives from other key stages to suit the level of their students.

(b) Examples of learning activities geared towards individual learning objectives may contribute to one or more Learning Targets, though the coverage or depth may vary. For example, creating a piece of music or designing a video clip leads towards the Learning Target of

“Developing Creativity and Imagination” and the Learning Target of “Developing Skills and Processes”.

(c) Students should be provided with a wide range of music/arts learning experiences through composing/creating, performing/

presenting and listening/appraising activities. Learning can be further enhanced through the use of modes such as life-wide learning, project learning, integrative learning in the arts, and learning through the use of IT.

(d) The following examples of learning objectives and learning activities provide a conceptual framework for Music/Visual Arts teachers but are by no means exhaustive. More examples with teaching strategies will be given in the Music and Visual Arts Curriculum Guides, to be published in 2002-03.

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Learning Objectives leading to the Four Learning Targets in Music

Note: Teachers may select appropriate learning objectives from other key stages to suit their students’ standards.

Developing Creativity and Imagination (composing, performing and improvising in music)

Learning Objectives Examples of Learning Activities

KEY STAGE 1 Students will be able to

KEY STAGE 2 Students will be able to

KEY STAGE 3 Students will be able to

1. create/improvise music using basic skills, simple musical ideas and different sound sources.

2. create/improvise movements to reflect different qualities of music.

1. create/improvise music with structure and organisation.

1. create/improvise music for specific purposes to demonstrate the grasp of

compositional skills.

2. make use of IT to compose and record music.

• Improvising simple rhythmic and melodic ostinati for familiar songs using untuned/

tuned percussion instruments with given rhythmic patterns or notes.

• Creating sound effects for songs, stories and poems using symbols to record musical ideas.

• Expressing the pulse, strong and weak beats of music with body movements, e.g.

tapping, clapping and stepping.

• Improvising movements in response to high/low, loud/soft, short/long, slow/fast and melodic direction.

• Improvising or creating melodies for voice or tuned percussion instruments based on given notes or a pentatonic scale.

• Creating sound projects using different musical elements, e.g. tempo, texture, dynamics, tone colour through a wide range of means including the use of IT.

• Improvising melodies with simple structure based on primary chords.

• Creating a short piece for a video clip or visual image with appropriate use of musical elements and compositional devices.

• Using wave editing programme to create sound effects/sound projects.

• Arranging accompaniments for familiar songs through the application of

sequencing software.

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Note: Teachers may select appropriate learning objectives from other key stages to suit their students’ standards.

Developing Skills and Processes

(knowing and using music elements, materials and resources) Learning Objectives Examples of Learning Activities

KEY STAGE 1 Students will be able to

KEY STAGE 2KEY STAGE 3 Students will be able to

1. sing and play from memory or reading notation to

demonstrate the development of basic skills.

1. sing in unison and two parts with technical accuracy.

2. play on tuned and untuned instruments with technical

accuracy.

3. read and notate music using staff and other notations.

4. record music through the application of IT.

1. sing in unison and in parts with technical accuracy.

2. play on instruments in unison and in parts with increasing control of

techniques.

• Singing a variety of simple unison songs, e.g. nursery rhymes, action songs, dialogue songs, folk songs, singing games and dramatised songs, with basic singing skills.

• Accompanying familiar songs with given simple rhythmic or melodic ostinati.

• Singing a simple song according to given expressions.

• Singing simple 2-part songs, e.g. rounds and quodlibets, songs with descants, with pitch and rhythmic accuracy.

• Playing on a melodic instrument, e.g.

recorder, melodica or xylophone, with technical accuracy.

• Playing music in a small percussion ensemble with pitch and rhythmic accuracy.

• Reading staff notation in simple duple, triple and quadruple time.

• Notating a melodic line with appropriate musical signs and terms to indicate the expressions of the music heard.

• Notating a melodic phrase of a simple song using a notation software.

• Recording musical ideas with the support of IT.

• Singing songs to develop vocal techniques and musical expressions such as clear diction, good intonation and sense of phrasing.

• Singing in parts and listening for balance and intonation.

• Using a melodic instrument to play a counter-melody to a song sung by the class with awareness of its balance and role.

• Playing an instrumental piece which may include changes in musical elements such as tempo, dynamics and tone colour.

Students will be able to

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Note: Teachers may select appropriate learning objectives from other key stages to suit their students’ standards.

Cultivating Critical Responses (responding to and appraising music)

Learning Objectives Examples of Learning Activities

KEY STAGE 1 Students will be able to

KEY STAGE 2KEY STAGE 3 Students will be able to

1. express personal feelings in response to music.

2. identify the characteristics of sound/music and describe its general features using simple musical terms.

1. describe and analyse music of simple structures.

2. apply criteria to appraise

performances and compositions using appropriate musical terms.

1. describe and analyse music in chosen styles and genres.

2. develop a list of criteria to appraise performances and compositions.

• Talking about personal feelings with

reference to musical elements after listening to a piece of music.

• Drawing a picture to depict personal perception of a piece of music.

• Identifying patterns and phrases in familiar songs.

• Listening to and describing the

characteristics of a variety of music using simple musical terms.

• Identifying simple structures of short pieces of music, e.g. introduction, interlude, coda, binary form, ternary form or simple rondo form.

• Describing the relatinship between words and music, e.g. word painting, syllables in English and tones in Cantonese.

• Using appropriate criteria to evaluate jingles on TV commercials.

• Appraising peer performances using appropriate musical terms.

• Using appropriate musical terminology to describe and discuss performances and compositions to show an understanding of music, e.g. articulations and tone

production.

• Watching an excerpt of a Cantonese Opera and commenting on the music in relation to the text and acting.

• Using a list of self-developed criteria, e.g.

use of compositional devices, styles and genres to appraise critically the quality and effectiveness of own and others’

compositions.

• Writing a concert report and commenting on the performances with reference to a set of self-developed criteria, e.g. choice of repertoire, performing skills and interpretation.

Students will be able to

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Note: Teachers may select appropriate learning objectives from other key stages to suit their students’ standards.

Understanding Arts in Context

(understanding the relationship between music and culture) Learning Objectives Examples of Learning Activities

KEY STAGE 1 Students will be able to

1. demonstrate the understanding of the functions of music in daily life.

1. describe the ways the voice/

instruments is/are used in different contexts.

1. describe music from different styles/

cultures in relation to its contexts.

• Talking about the purposes of music heard in public areas, e.g. restaurants, lobbies, shops and lifts.

• Talking about the functions of different types of music, e.g. TV jingles, lullaby, march and wedding music.

• Identifying tone colours of both Chinese and Western instrumental categories, e.g.

strings, woodwind, brass and percussion;

chui (), tan (), la () and da ().

• Commenting on the voice production of different types of Chinese folk songs in relation to their social and geographical contexts.

• Discussing the effectiveness of some jingles from TV commercials in relation to daily life.

• Researching and discussing the cultural and historical contexts of a particular type of music, e.g. blues (), Cantonese pop songs, songs written for the War of

Resistance Against Japan ( !).

KEY STAGE 2 Students will be able to

KEY STAGE 3 Students will be able to

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Learning Objectives leading to the Four Learning Targets in Visual Arts

Developing Creativity and Imagination

(creating, performing and participating in Visual Arts) Learning Objectives Examples of Learning Activities

KEY STAGE 1 Students will be able to

KEY STAGE 2

1. record direct responses to art forms in nature and man-made

environments by verbal / non-verbal presentation;

2. develop ideas from observations, memories, imagination and experiences;

3. explore ideas with visual elements and design principles;

and

4. explore alternatives by using different materials and techniques.

1. seek, select and organise information for the purpose of art creation;

2. use direct observation and various experiences to explore ideas;

• Describing and illustrating the shapes and textures of objects in nature through rubbing.

• Recording the movements of racing athletes in gesture drawing.

• Combining the imageries in a dream with observation in daily life, using imagination to reconstruct the dream and express it in drawing.

• Sharing unforgettable experiences with classmates by expressing the imageries in drawing or collage.

• Using lines of different lengths and thicknesses and with contrast to express one’s feeling towards the rhythmic patterns of a piece of music.

• Observing and understanding the patterns of visual images in daily situations in order to stimulate ideas in creating patterns for bedroom wallpaper.

• Using appropriate empty bottles and

cartons to construct forms to express images such as insects or animals.

• Employing tools and techniques to show the form of objects for sketching.

• Collecting images from magazines and making selections to create a surrealistic poster.

• Collecting some special packaging designs and analysing the artistic features and

functions to explore ideas for a design project.

• Observing different facial expressions of oneself in a mirror to explore ideas for a self-portrait painting.

• Recording human movements in sketches and using various materials to construct forms of movement according to the sketches.

Students will be able to

Note: Teachers may select appropriate learning objectives from other key stages to suit their students’ standards.

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Developing Creativity and Imagination

(creating, performing and participating in Visual Arts) Learning Objectives Examples of Learning Activities

KEY STAGE 2KEY STAGE 3 Students will be able to

3. explore art elements and design

principles to express ideas and feelings;

4. explore alternatives by re-composing and by trying different combinations;

5. use sketching to explore a range of possibilities for finishing a piece of work; and

6. interact with others to develop artistic ideas.

1. record responses and conceptualise ideas, experiences and imagination by using verbal and non- verbal presentation;

2. use new / different perspectives to interpret / re- interpret concepts, reality and visions from;

• Bringing out the centre of interest of an artwork by using the principle of ‘contrast’.

• Observing several sculptures, paying special attention to the use of positive and negative spaces so as to stimulate ideas for creating a new sculpture on a theme such as ‘Merging’ or ‘Contrast’.

• Using images from magazines and reconstructing them in an order to form a storyline.

• Combining different geometrical figures to show human movements and comparing the visual results between different combinations.

• Using sketches to explore and develop ideas for creating a toy robot.

• Drawing sketches of puppets of fairy tale characters, considering the choice of materials and the linkages of joints of the puppets.

• Visiting an artist’s studio or an exhibition to inspire with ideas to create a new piece of artwork.

• Discussing with classmates to stimulate ideas for creating a piece of artwork on a theme such as ‘Space Emigration’ or ‘The Future Houses’.

• Using sketches, texts or camera to depict and capture different views and

impressions of an object or a scene.

• Using visual diary to illustrate one’s own research processes on a particular theme in order to generate and modify ideas.

• Interpreting the art concept of Cubism and applying the interpretation through

expressing the concept of space in a still life painting.

• Interpreting the art concepts of Chinese architecture and applying those concepts in redesigning the Hong Kong Central

Library from a new perspective.

Students will be able to

Note: Teachers may select appropriate learning objectives from other key stages to suit their students’ standards.

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Developing Creativity and Imagination

(creating, performing and participating in Visual Arts) Learning Objectives Examples of Learning Activities

KEY STAGE 3 Students will be able to

3. apply the common processes of art creation:

• to define aims and purposes;

• to generate ideas from observation, experience, memory and imagination, and from nature, man- made environments and objects, etc.;

• to develop ideas by searching for and processing visual information and by manipulating visual elements based on aesthetic logic and design principles, etc.;

• to explore

alternatives by re- composing, by different

combinations, etc.;

and

• to evaluate

alternatives based on aims, purposes, aesthetic logic and design principles, etc.

• Making a list of criteria to create an outfit, e.g. clothes or accessories, for a classmate to reflect his/ her character.

• Designing a promotional item for a selected tourist spot, listing out its aims and purposes.

• Observing the different gestures of birds to inspire the creation of a sculpture on the theme of bird.

• Observing and using objects and images from popular culture to develop and evolve ideas in a relief sculpture.

• Collecting, selecting and organising visual information on an environmental problem, using visual elements based on the design principle of ‘emphasis’ to express

viewpoints and feelings towards the environmental problem through a collage.

• Searching information on the features of different animals for making sketches using free forms and geometric forms, and

eventually making a clay totem of the creature.

• Using the idea of changing the usage or appearance of an object and combining it with other objects to form an interesting and creative new object.

• Combining the features of an animal with the appearance and functions of a designed product to explore new ideas.

• Evaluating and making suggestions for improvements of one’s own poster design using criteria based on the purpose, use of visual elements, design principles and creative ideas.

• Repainting a famous picture with selected colour scheme and design principles, then comparing it with the original one and evaluating the work according to the use of those principles.

Note: Teachers may select appropriate learning objectives from other key stages to suit their students’ standards.

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Developing Creativity and Imagination

(creating, performing and participating in Visual Arts) Learning Objectives Examples of Learning Activities

KEY STAGE 3

4. use sketching, drawing, information

technology, or other appropriate tools and resource materials to stimulate and develop ideas;

5. use collaboration skills to develop ideas and enhance the learning of art;

and

6. explore ideas and connections between visual arts and other disciplines.

• Searching information about street displays in Hong Kong from books, magazines, internet, on-site study and survey to develop ideas for a Hong Kong tourists promotional brochure.

• Using sketches, photographs and computer- generated images to stimulate and develop ideas for a painting on a selected theme.

• Working in groups to collect pictures and information on the scenery, people and special features of the beaches in Hong Kong for developing and creating ideas for an artwork.

• Working in groups to develop ideas for an installation and displaying their work in the art room/school hall.

• Reading a poem with scenic descriptions and discussing its imagery and background information in order to explore ideas for a painting.

• Exploring ideas in creating a mask with African elements by making reference to the lives of African tribal people and making connection to the music and dance of traditional African rituals.

Students will be able to

Note: Teachers may select appropriate learning objectives from other key stages to suit their students’ standards.

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Developing Skills and Processes

(knowing and using art materials, processes, elements and resources) Learning Objectives Examples of Learning Activities

KEY STAGE 1KEY STAGE 2 Students will be able to

1. use basic elements of art to express ideas and feelings;

2. recognise the characteristics of different art media;

3. safely and correctly use appropriate tools, materials and techniques for a purpose; and

4. identify connections between visual arts and other

disciplines.

1. create artworks which reflect skills in applying art

knowledge, techniques and processes to express ideas and feelings;

2. convey ideas in a selected medium;

3. explore and use a variety of art media, tools and techniques;

• Expressing different intensities of falling rain with lines of different length and thickness.

• Using warm colours to create a greeting card showing love and care to the recipient.

• Exploring the techniques and recognising the characteristics of paper-sculpture.

• Exploring different techniques of oil pastels.

• Using scissors safely and appropriately to create a simple paper cutting.

• Using appropriate cloth or paper in lantern making in order to achieve a translucent effect.

• Adapting an episode from a story learnt in a language lesson and expressing the episode in painting.

• Creating an interesting visual effect by changing part of the characters in Chinese idioms.

• Using bright colours to express the visual impact of joy in a painting about the celebration of an event.

• Using colour effects to paint a scene to express the feeling of harmony.

• Using clay to create forms to illustrate facial expression.

• Adapting ideas from some interesting themes in current affairs or daily life and expressing them in a four-framed comic.

• Exploring and using different materials and techniques to make a lantern.

• Exploring the techniques and tools for making a wire sculpture to form human figures in motion.

Students will be able to

Note: Teachers may select appropriate learning objectives from other key stages to suit their students’ standards.

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Developing Skills and Processes

(knowing and using art materials, processes, elements and resources) Learning Objectives Examples of Learning Activities

KEY STAGE 3KEY STAGE 2 Students will be able to

4. understand and compare knowledge and skills of visual arts in relation to other disciplines.

1. select appropriate art knowledge, skills and processes to communicate ideas and feelings in understanding and making art;

2. visualise aesthetic ideas in a medium properly, monitor progress and revise the approach when necessary;

3. explore and apply skills and knowledge of traditional and emerging technology in visual

communication; and

4. connect and apply knowledge and skills of visual arts with other art forms or other disciplines.

• Linking up the concept of mathematical patterning with the use of gradation by M. C. Escher in his printmaking to create a patterning piece.

• Expressing the imageries of a poem by painting, and comparing the media of expression between poetry and painting.

• Using the drawing method (e.g. front, rear, side views, etc.) with appropriate drawing tools in expressing the three-dimensional structure of a designed product.

• Selecting appropriate colour scheme and applying watercolour or acrylic painting techniques to paint a landscape painting.

• Using sculpturing processes and

techniques to make a three-dimensional form and making necessary adjustments according to aesthetic needs.

• Visualising ideas connected to the theme of

‘War and Peace’ with a selected medium and revising the approach when necessary.

• Applying skills of traditional graphic communication to design the layout of a promotional brochure on a selected topic and exploring skills in using graphic and

publishing software to produce the brochure.

• Exploring a range of traditional and non- traditional skills and processes of

printmaking; selecting and applying the appropriate skills in making their own exlibris.

• Creating a piece of animation with musical effects using IT skills and composition skills learnt in music lessons.

• Connecting the art knowledge in designing a costume with the production techniques learnt in Home Economics lessons for making a fashion product.

Students will be able to

Note: Teachers may select appropriate learning objectives from other key stages to suit their students’ standards.

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Note: Teachers may select appropriate learning objectives from other key stages to suit their students’ standards.

Cultivating Critical Responses

(responding to, reflecting on and appraising art issues using artistic understanding)

Learning Objectives Examples of Learning Activities

KEY STAGE 2KEY STAGE 1

1. talk about the content of artworks;

2. describe art elements applied in artworks;

and

3. express opinions and listen to others’ ideas about artworks.

1. use art terminology to describe and analyse artworks;

2. interpret visual forms based on techniques, meaning and art elements and principles of design;

3. express and give reasons for their opinions / preferences; and

• Describing the various modes of life

illustrated in the ceramic work ‘Tea, please!’

 ! !"by local ceramicist LI Weixian ( ).

• Describing the people, objects and scene in the painting ‘Dreamland’ ( ) by local painter CHEN Fushan ( ).

• Observing or touching sculptures and describing their forms and textures.

• Describing the rhythmic pattern of an artwork from the organisation of lines with different qualities.

• Visiting an artist’s studio or an exhibition, and listening to the artist talking about his/

her creative ideas.

• Expressing personal opinions on the content and mode of expression of children’s artworks.

• Describing and analysing the use of colour, structure and contents of the Chinese New Year Print illustrating the New Year

woodblock print.

• Describing the form and analysing the relationship between the subject matter and the use of material of the work ‘Crab#4’ by local sculptor ZHANG Yi.

• Studying the sculptures by Henry Moore to understand the concept of ‘negative

shapes’ and ‘positive shapes’.

• Appreciating the painting of ‘Shrimp’() by QI Baishi ( ) and understanding how the artist uses Chinese painting techniques to create the shapes of objects with ink.

• Expressing personal opinions, with reasons, on the composition of a popular comic and the form of its characters.

• Expressing opinions on ‘Guernica’ by Picasso after understanding the background of the work.

Students will be able toStudents will be able to

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Note: Teachers may select appropriate learning objectives from other key stages to suit their students’ standards.

Cultivating Critical Responses

(responding to, reflecting on and appraising art issues using artistic understanding)

Learning Objectives Examples of Learning Activities

KEY STAGE 3KEY STAGE 2

4. apply criteria to assess artworks.

1. use art experiences to respond;

2. apply processes of art criticism by describing, analysing, interpreting and judging artworks;

3. evaluate visual forms based on the

meaning, the formal structure, the

techniques and the expressive quality to make an informed judgment;

4. be confident in their own artistic

judgment,

performances and capabilities; and

• Assessing a poster design based on its effectiveness in terms of communication and artistic qualities.

• Evaluating an artwork according to the appropriateness of the selection of materials for the expression of a particular theme.

• Analysing the design features, usage and context of a selected piece of furniture during an on-site visit to a furniture shop.

• Using appropriate art terminology and language to respond to an artwork shown in an exhibition of a local museum.

• Describing the content expressed in Andy Warhol’s ‘Marilyn Diptych’( !"#) and analysing the use of visual elements, principles of design and techniques so as to form a personal interpretation of the

purpose and idea of the artist and making an overall judgment on the work.

• Comparing two different artworks on the same theme using the processes of

describing, analysing, interpreting to make an informed judgment and writing a review on the artworks.

• Evaluating a mask created by oneself or a classmate in terms of the aspects of its symbolic meaning, the use of visual elements, production techniques and the quality of expression.

• Analysing still life paintings made by several artists, comparing their meanings, use of visual elements, techniques and ways of expression, and selecting the most favourite one based on informed judgment.

• Commenting, analysing, and raising personal viewpoints on an interior design project by other classmates and clarifying the criteria used in the critique.

• Presenting orally with confidence to the class on the artworks of a chosen artist and supporting the appraisal with research and analysis.

Students will be able toStudents will be able to

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Note: Teachers may select appropriate learning objectives from other key stages to suit their students’ standards.

Cultivating Critical Responses

(responding to, reflecting on and appraising art issues using artistic understanding)

Learning Objectives Examples of Learning Activities

KEY STAGE 3

5. develop criteria to

assess artworks. • Making a list of criteria for the evaluation of designed products according to personal and aesthetic needs and using these criteria to assess one’s own design and his/her classmates’ works.

• Developing criteria to assess one’s own or his/her classmates’ wire sculpture, then analysing and making judgment to one another’s work.

Students will be able to

Figure

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References

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