Module Introduction and Sports Vocabulary

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Module Introduction and Sports Vocabulary S1

Fan Talk S4

Sports Quiz S7

Presentation on Sports S10

Sports Advertising S18

Sports Songs S22

Sports Product Review S26

Sports Film S31

Sports Writing S35

Sports Commentary S42

Sports Survey and Report S45

Values of Sports S50


Module Introduction and Sports Vocabulary T1

Fan Talk T6

Sports Quiz T12

Presentation on Sports T15

Sports Advertising T26

Sports Songs T29

Sports Product Review T35

Sports Film T39

Sports Writing T46

Sports Commentary T52

Sports Survey and Report T57

Values of Sports T60

Final Display T64





This resource package is designed and developed in support of the English Language Curriculum and Assessment Guide (Secondary 4 – 6) (2007) and the Suggested Schemes of Work for the Elective Part of the Three-year Senior Secondary English Language Curriculum (Secondary 4 – 6) (2007)


It provides learning resources and teaching ideas for the development and implementation of the elective module “Learning English through Sports Communication”.


The rationale behind the package is that students will have ample opportunities to enrich their English learning experience and extend a range of language abilities through exposure to texts related to sports communication. Carefully designed and sequenced, the materials and activities in this package aim to:

y develop students’ ability to understand a variety of written and spoken texts related to sports and analyse their typical features, language and structures;

y enhance students’ oral and listening skills by encouraging them to listen to and create spoken materials related to sports;

y reinforce students’ language skills and learning strategies through providing them with the opportunities to produce texts for sports coverage and promotion; and

y raise students’ awareness of the types, styles and conventions of sports writing and apply this understanding to their learning and use of the language.

How to use this resource package

This resource package comprises student’s handouts, teacher’s notes, supplementary materials and a CD-ROM. It covers the key focuses suggested in the SoW for the module, i.e. “Sports Vocabulary”, “Fan Talk”, “Quiz on Sports Knowledge”, “Presentation on Sports”, “Sports Advertising”,

“Sports Product Review”, “Films on Sports”, “Sports Writing”, “Sports Commentary”, “Sports Songs”,

“Survey and Report”, “Major Sports Events”, “Feelings about Sport; Sportsmanship” and “Final Display”.

The package takes students through different stages, from understanding and analysing various sports-related texts to creating their own sports-related materials. Through engaging in a variety of learning activities, students are familiarised with the features, language and structures of sports writing and are given opportunities to apply their knowledge and skills in producing a range of spoken and written texts related to sports. Students will understand how the English language works in different sports-related texts and apply this understanding to their learning and use of the language. Given the range of learning activities in this package, teachers are encouraged to exercise careful planning, be selective about the materials and freely adapt them to suit their school contexts and students’ needs, interests and abilities. For instance, the learning activities for “Sports Product Review”, “Sports Commentary” and “Values of Sports” may be more demanding and are intended to enrich students’

learning experience. Teachers should use their discretion to decide whether to cover them or replace them with other more suitable learning activities.

Student’s Handouts

The learning activities on the student’s handouts (indicated by the page number prefix ‘S’) are categorised according to the main skill(s) practised, for example, reading/viewing, writing, listening, speaking, or a combination of these. They provide learners with opportunities to examine different types of sports-related text and engage in a range of reading/viewing, writing, listening and speaking activities, encouraging personal response and discussion as well as developing analytical thinking and appreciation.

Teacher’s Notes

The teacher’s notes (indicated by the page number prefix ‘T’) provide explanations of teaching steps and alternative teaching suggestions as to how to carry out the activities. Where appropriate, teachers may feel free to select and flexibly adapt the activities into assessment tasks to promote learning and teaching.

From this point forwards referred to as SoWs



To help teachers to support “less advanced students” and stretch “more advanced students”, additional suggestions are contained in the “Catering for Learner Diversity” boxes. Suggested time allocations have been provided for each activity for teachers’ reference during lesson planning.

However, the suggested time is for indicative purposes only and will vary according to learners’ needs and abilities. Teachers should use their professional judgement to gauge appropriate timings with a particular group of students in mind.

References to websites that contain materials helpful to the learning and teaching of particular activities are also included in the teacher’s notes. The weblinks or addresses which were accurate at the time this package was published are yet subject to change. Teachers might like to make use of a search engine to regain access to any resources that have been relocated, or may look for similar resources on the web.

Supplementary Materials

The supplementary materials section provides additional teaching suggestions, materials and resources for teachers’ use and reference. Teachers are encouraged to make use of them to cater for learners’ diverse needs and interests, to provide further language support, or to extend learners’



The CD-ROM consists of an electronic version of the learning and teaching materials in this resource package, as well as recordings that support some of the learning activities. The text files are available in both PDF and MS WORD formats for ease of use and adaptation. The audio recordings in the CD-ROM include examples of sports presentations and commentary. Track numbers of the recordings are provided in the explanations for relevant activities and on the cover page of each focus in the teacher’s notes.

To further support the implementation of the module, other relevant online teaching resource materials for each module have been developed and can be accessed at the English Language Education Section website <>.




We are most grateful to Mr Philip Leetch for his expert input in designing the materials and activities for this resource package.



Module Introduction and Sports Vocabulary

Sports and Games

Learning Activity Vocabulary

Identify the following sports and games and write their names in the right column.

e.g. divided into track and field a t h l e t i c s 1. played with bat, net and shuttlecock b _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 2. a bat and ball game very popular in the USA

and Japan b _ _ _ _ _ _ _

3. wheels and paddles needed c _ _ _ _ _ _ 4. an indoor game aiming at a board with a

pointed object d _ _ _ _

5. jumping into water d _ _ _ _ _

6. fighting with special swords f _ _ _ _ _ _ 7. played on a course with 19 holes g _ _ _

8. using the bars and horse g _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 9. graceful movement on the ice i _ _ - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 10. a Japanese martial art j _ _ _

11. involving fast cars m _ _ _ _ - _ _ _ _ _ _ 12. 100m, 200m and so on r _ _ _ _ _ _

13. indoor game on a table with long cues s _ _ _ _ _ _ 14. a wall, racquets and a ball needed s _ _ _ _ _ 15. uses various strokes, lanes and water s _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 16. a bat, ball and table game t _ _ _ _ - _ _ _ _ _ _ 17. Korean martial art t _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 18. a Chinese martial art t _ _ - _ _ _ 19. played at Wimbledon’s courts t _ _ _ _ _

20. hitting the ball with hands, arms or fists v _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _



Letters Page

Learning Activity

Reading and Vocabulary

You are going to read some simple letters written by sports fans.

1. Read the letters and choose the most suitable heading for each from the list below:

A. Should Aim Higher?

B. We Did It!

C. Poor Judgement D. Sad News E. It’s A Red World

F. Starting Winning Or Else…

1. Wasn’t Manchester United’s win against Chelsea on Friday one of the best games ever? Are there any of your readers who still doubt the Reds are the world’s greatest? If so, they are not facing reality!


2. It doesn’t seem fair to me that giant basketball players are allowed to use baskets of the same height as the rest of us. Sure, it must be easy to get the ball through the hoop when you are on a level with it. I say move the basket up and down according to the average height of the team.


3. What’s wrong with Real Madrid this year?

They just don’t seem to be scoring goals.

If they don’t get more points soon they’ll be in big trouble. Maybe the manager should think of some transfers. They need some powerful forwards to get the ball in the net.


4. Did you see the referee in the Shatin-Taipo game? I know you should not argue with referees’ decisions, but it’s hard not to when they make so many mistakes. Dave Tong fouled Mike So really badly, but the referee was far away in a dream world of his own.



5. We had a really great basketball match here on Saturday. The visiting team was far in the lead, we took a time-out, our coach changed our tactics and we became unstoppable, dribbling past the other guys and ending up so far in the lead that I thought our opponents would cry. No, to be fair - they took defeat gracefully and we enjoyed playing them - but it is nice to win!


6. I hope everyone is feeling sympathy for Tracey Lai after her injury on Sunday at the big Hong Kong AAA Meet*. She had been running so well and was the favourite for the 200m, her best event, when she damaged a muscle during the hop, skip and jump. As a result Grace Hung took first, but she said herself it wasn’t a real victory without Tracey competing. Let’s hope she’s fully fit for the international meet next month or Hong Kong will be without one of its stars.


* Hong Kong AAA Meet – an athletics event organised by the Hong Kong Amateur Athletic Association (HKAAA)



2. Find words from the letters on page S2 which mean the following and write them in the boxes provided. The numbers in brackets indicate the letters from which the words can be found.

Meaning Word(s)

a. victory (1)

b. nickname of famous team (1) c. ring of metal (2)

d. group of players (2, 5) e. getting points (3)

f. buying and selling players (3) g. played wrongly, breaking rules (4) h. judge (4)

i. break (5) j. trainer (5)

k. method of play (5) l. moving the ball (5) m. hurt to the body (6) n. athletics occasion (6)

o. an example of field events (6)



Fan Talk

Fan Letters

Learning Activity Reading and Writing

Read the sample fan letters below and answer the questions that follow.

Letter A Dear Ada,

I just want to tell you that because of you I have taken up windsurfing. At first I was afraid of the water, but when I heard you on television saying how easy it was, I decided to give it a try, and now I am out on the sea whenever conditions are right. Of course, I am not a great windsurfer like you, but I do get so much enjoyment from it as I zoom across the waves. Thank you very much!

Letter B Dear Mark,

I watch all your games and visit your fan website at least once a day. I bought your book on golf and have read every word three times. I have an “I love Mark Rowe” T-shirt and “MR Fan” cap. Now I have a favour to ask you. Can you please send me one of your old used golf balls? I promise I will treasure it and keep it as long as I live.

Thank you in advance for your kindness. I will never forget it.

1. Are fan letters usually long or short?


2. Are they written in a conversational/informal or formal style? Explain your answers with an example from each of the letters.


3. Why do the two letter writers write to their sports idols? What is the purpose of each letter?


4. Think of a sports player you would like to write to. Write a short letter to send to his or her website:

Your letter should

be short

be conversational and informal in style

show/state your purpose of writing











Unofficial Website Introductions

Learning Activity Reading and Writing

When a fan creates a website for her/his idol, s/he needs to explain in its introduction why the star deserves a site and why people should support the star.

As in Text A below, the introduction may include the following:

a reason for building the website

the sports player’s biography, including her/his achievement and qualities

appeal for interaction with your readers or for their help Text A

Now read Text B and identify the main features of a website introduction.

Text B

Some people have actually never heard of Celine Chau, one of the world’s best squash players. When I realised this I decided more information about her needed to be available. This is what has inspired me to prepare this website. It has taken a lot of time, but I am sure there are many ways in which it might be improved. If you have any suggestions please email me and I will do my best to implement your ideas.

Celine was born in Hong Kong. She was always interested in racquet games and played tennis and badminton from an early age. A teacher at her secondary school recognising her talent introduced her to squash. She seemed born to play the game and within a year of starting to play it seemed impossible to find anyone who could beat her. Celine moved to Vancouver for her university studies and to find a coach adequate to her needs. She effortlessly wins championship after championship. I think she should be a household name. I hope this website will help to spread the message.

Amin Patel is probably the greatest cricketer of our time. He has attracted thousands of fans to the game with his star quality and good sportsmanship. He has used his fame to help improve the world. His foundation has given an education to many children who would not have received one except for Amin. He is a great bowler and one of the greatest batsmen of all time. He even catches with incredible skill. For all these reasons I deeply admire Amin and dedicate this website to him. Your suggestions on how this site can be improved are most welcome. Please email me at

Player’s biography

Reason for building the website

Appeal for interaction with your readers or for their help



Choose a sports player you would like to honour and write an introduction for a website about her/him.

Be careful with the tenses. Use the past to tell her/his story and the present to say what is true today.

















Sports Quiz

Learning Activity 1 Reading and Speaking Quiz 1

Read the questions below and circle the correct answers in five minutes.

1. What game is played at the Hong Kong Sevens?

a Basketball b Rugby c Football

2. Which sport has been played on the moon?

a Golf b Baseball c Tennis

3. Which country did the football legend Pele play for?

a England b Argentina c Brazil

4. In which city is Old Trafford football stadium?

a Liverpool b New Castle c Manchester

5. What is the name of the round object field athletes throw?

a Discus b Javelin c Dart

6. In tennis, what does love mean?

a No points b 15 points c 40 points

7. For men’s tennis, how many sets are there usually in a match?

a 5 b 4 c 3

8. Which team in NBA does Yao Ming play for?

a Chicago Bulls b Houston Rockets c Boston Celtics



9. How many different sports are there in a pentathlon?

a 4 b 5 c 6

10. What is the nationality of tennis player Roger Federer?

a British b Swiss c Spanish

Score: / 10

Quiz 2

Work in pairs and come up with short answers to the following questions.

1. What equipment do you need for the sport of kendo?

2. What do you hand over in a relay race?

3. In a knock-out competition, if a football match is a draw at the end of time, how is the result decided?

4. What is the English translation of Real in Real Madrid?

5. What do we call a player who sits on the bench during a football game?

6. What colour are the cards that are given out during a football match for bad behaviour?

7. What does the word premier as in Premier League tell us?

8. What is a race involving a bike race, a running race and a swim called?

9. Which two European teams has David Beckham played for?

10. What does a doping offence mean?

Score: / 10

Your teacher will check the answers with you. Count the number of correct answers you get and see who gets the highest score in class.

Learning Activity 2 Reading and Writing

Get into groups of four and think of some sports topics that interest you (e.g. rules and regulations of various sports, the Olympics, football, basketball and sports terms). Search for information on the Internet and read texts related to these sports topics.

Set a quiz of ten questions on the sports topics you have read to test your classmates’ knowledge of them. You may refer to the two quizzes in Learning Activity 1 for some ideas on the kinds of questions you can ask.



Develop and write down some questions for the sports quiz in the table below. Do not show other groups your questions and answers.


Try to have a variety of topics and question types, and a good mix of easy and more challenging questions to keep your classmates interested and motivated. You may set multiple choice questions or provide choices for the more difficult questions if necessary. Don’t forget to prepare the answers.

No. Question Answer

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Learning Activity 3 Speaking

Your teacher will ask different groups to take turns to hold the quiz in class. Make sure you prepare the correct answers and check the correct pronunciation of names and terms before conducting the quiz orally in class.



Presentation on Sports

Presentation on a Sport

Learning Activity

Listening and Speaking A. Brainstorming

You are going to do a group presentation on a kind of sport.

In groups of four, each student chooses one favourite sport. Write all the names of the sports chosen by your group members in the bubbles below and on the next page. Then brainstorm and discuss ideas about the four sports using the “W5 + H” prompts (i.e. when, where, why, what, who and how) and write some notes in the mind maps. Think of some questions to ask yourself, e.g. “Where do people play this sport?”, “What equipment do people need to buy?” and “How is the game played and how do people win in this game?”. Towards the end of your discussion, decide on one sport that the whole group will present on.

Name of sport:







Name of sport:








S11 Name of sport:







Name of sport:








S12 B. Listening

You are going to listen to the recording of a group presentation similar to the one you are going to do.

The talk has been prepared according to the plan below. Read the plan and listen to the recording once to familiarise yourself with the flow of the presentation.

A Sample Presentation on Basketball The Plan

Speaker W5 + H Plan

1 What (is your presentation about)?

How (is the game played)?

Where and when (did the game start)?

¾ Introduce the topic

¾ Describe how the game is played

¾ Give a brief history of the game 2 Where (do people watch the game)?

Which (are some of the famous teams and players)?

¾ Suggest places to watch the game

¾ List famous teams and players 3 What (kind of behaviour is unacceptable)? ¾ Describe fouls

4 What (new words do you want to introduce)? ¾ Introduce new vocabulary

Listen to the recording once again and complete the table with details from the presentation.

Speaker Plan Details

Introduce the topic • Basketball is the best game in the world Describe how the game

is played • It is played by two teams of _________________

• Players throw a ball through a basket to score

• Players cannot __________________________


Give a brief history of

the game • The first game of basketball was played in the _______

in _____________

Give places to watch the

game • You can watch the games at _________________ or on ______________


List famous teams and

players • Famous teams: Houston Rockets, _____________ and ______________

• Famous players: Dwayne Wade, _______________ and ______________

3 Describe fouls Players cannot:

• take a long time to ____________________

• stop the ball going into the basket when ________________________________

• use their body to _______________________

4 Introduce new

vocabulary • A Cinderella team means a team that no one thinks is good but __________________________

• A time-out is a short break when the players _______


• The point guard is the fastest player who __________


• Zone defence is when players watch ______________

_______________________ and try to stop the other team using it


S13 C. Planning

Now you and your group are going to prepare an oral presentation on a sport which all members are interested in. To prepare your group presentation, follow the steps below:

Read through and discuss the ideas you have put down in the mind map in Part A.

Using the sample presentation on basketball in Part B as reference, draw up a plan for your group presentation.

Work out the division of labour and each member should focus on one area or research for one section of the presentation (e.g. Speaker 1 on brief history of the sport, Speaker 2 on when and where to play/watch the sport, Speaker 3 on the rules and fouls and Speaker 4 on vocabulary related to the sport).

Prepare your part of the presentation by researching the sport you have chosen and note down some key information in the mind map below:

Name of sport:



S14 D. Practice and Presentation

Now you will practise for your presentation. The notes on practice and presentation below serve to remind you what you need to pay attention to while you present your ideas with your group mates.

Notes on Practice and Presentation

Before your group gives a presentation in front of the classmates, you should:

Organise your notes on a cue card and use them as your presentation notes. Do not write the full speech and read from the cue cards. Use words and sentence structures that you are confident with.

Decide if your group wants to use any visual aids, e.g. PowerPoint, poster, picture, a piece of equipment.

Practise in front of a mirror. Find the right speed (a bit slower than normal speaking but not slow in a sleepy way).

Record yourself, listen and note your speed, tone, stress, intonation and pronunciation. Be sure you speak loud enough to be heard, use intonation to show your feelings, and pause where appropriate.

Check how words should be pronounced if you are unsure.

Practise as a group so everyone knows when to start speaking and there are no embarrassing gaps with people whispering, “It’s your turn!” Remember to look at the audience as you speak and use appropriate gestures where necessary.

Give your presentation a strong start and a proper ending.

Make use of the “Group Presentation Feedback Form” given by your teacher to reflect on your groups’ own performance and assess other groups’ performances.

Some helpful sentence starters for your presentation:


My presentation will be about…

Today, we’re going to introduce…

Good morning, everyone. I would like to start by talking about…

Changing topic Now let me go on to…

I’d like to move on to…


To summarise, we’ve talked about…

To sum up, … Ending

This is the end of our presentation. Thank you.

We hope you’ve enjoyed our presentation. Thank you.

We hope you find our presentation informative and interesting. Thank you very much.



Presentation on a Sports Event

Learning Activity

Listening and Speaking

What do you know about some of the world’s biggest and most popular sports events?

In the following activities, you will learn about some famous sports events and make an oral presentation about one major event.

A. “Think, Pair, Share”

Think quietly first about the questions below. Then, turn to one classmate and orally exchange responses with your partner. Finally, share ideas with a larger group or the class.

1. What is the last major sports event you watched on television or in person?


2. What major sports event would you most like to attend?


3. What major sports events do you think are of most interest to people in Hong Kong?


4. What major sports events take place in our region?


5. Did you watch any of the last Wimbledon Tennis Tournament matches?


6. What do you know about the Wimbledon Tennis Championships? What do you want to know and how can you find out the information? Complete the diagram below.


Wimbledon Tennis Tournament

HOW will you find out?

What do you WANT to know?

What do you KNOW?


S16 B. Listening

You are going to listen to the recording of a presentation on a major sports event similar to the one you are going to do. Study the plan below and listen to the recording once to familiarise yourself with the structure of the presentation. Then listen to the recording again to fill in the information and details which elaborate this plan.

1. The name of the event Wimbledon Tennis Championships


2. Where, when and how long

• Where: _______________________

• When: ________________________

• How long: _____________________

3. Why it is important;

what makes it special

Attracts all the ____________ in tennis; winning it makes one ___________

4. A little history Among the world’s __________ championships – the first was held in _______

5. Any useful details There are ___________ courts at Wimbledon, with nearly _____________ people attending the games every year

Body paragraphs

6. A great champion of the event

___________________________ – winner of _________

ladies’ singles titles, seven ladies’ ____________________ and ________ mixed doubles titles; _____________________ on the court


7. Closing words of interest

If you have a trip to England, visit Wimbledon and enjoy the ________________________ and _____________


S17 C. Planning

You are going to do an oral presentation on a major sports event. Look at the list of examples below.

Your teacher will now conduct a lucky draw to decide which sporting event your group will research and present to the class. Alternatively, you may make other suggestions to your teacher and come up with your own choice.

Examples of some major sports events:

World Cup (football)

FA Cup (England) (football)

Hong Kong Rugby Sevens

Olympic Games


Winter Olympics Superbowl (American football)

US Open (golf)

Wimbledon (tennis)

Macau Grand Prix (motor racing)

Tour de France (cycling)

Asian Games

Baseball World Series

To prepare your group presentation, follow the steps below:

1. Study the sample presentation on Wimbledon Tennis Championships in Part B and draw up a plan for your presentation.

2. Research the event.

3. Write your ideas and findings for the presentation on a sports event in the table below.


Body paragraphs




Sports Advertising

Learning Activity 1 Reading and Speaking

Read the advertising techniques below and answer the questions that follow.

Advertising Techniques Emotional Appeal

1. A selling point

• This track suit allows for maximum freedom of motion.

• This energy drink is scientifically proved to boost your energy level.

• RX-10 football boots are solely designed for real men.

2. Endorsement

• Yao Ming uses it.

• This is the only brand which David Beckham recommends.

3. Invitation

• Join us in a world of wonder.

• Be one of the team.

4. Price

• You’ll never get a better deal.

Language Devices 1. Positive adjective

• Break the record with this pair of fabulous swimming trunks.

• Our sunglasses make you look superb.

2. Alliteration (words starting with the same letter/sound)

• tremendous T-shirts for top tennis players 3. Slogan

• Sports shoes to dream in

• The sports bag of super stars

• Don’t regret it – buy it!

4. Repetition

• The coolest trainers for the coolest guys 5. Rhyme/rhyming words

• You’ll never lose when you wear our shoes.

6. Question

• Why not buy it now?

• Do you want to be a champion?

7. Simile/metaphor

• You’ll swim like a fish in our swimsuit.

• Our tennis racquets are the best violins – they help you make music on the court.

8. Playing with letters


u m p h i g h e r



Which of the above advertising techniques do these phrases represent? Write the name of the technique in the right column. The first one has been done for you as an example.

e.g. Cool socks — Cool feet repetition

a. It was love at first sight. He couldn’t take his eyes away. Nothing would ever separate him from his Hui golf clubs.

b. Join the exclusive club!

c. Awesome!

d. hand-crafted clubs created by and for world-class champions e. Andy Lau never leaves home without it.

f. the best canoe for sailing on the blue

g. rehydrates you and helps muscles recover fast Learning Activity 2


Study the following advertisement on a sports drink.


Playing hard?

And there’s one opponent worse than the other team…


Quick! Open your THIRST-KILLER!

It’s cooool…man!

⇒ result of latest bio-tech research

⇒ awesome flavours

⇒ used by all top athletes

⇒ energy restoring

Th(e f)irst of its type: THIRST-KILLER!

Kills your thirst In a burst Gives you a buzz*

Oh yes, it does

*Buzz – feeling of excitement, thrill (slang)



By referring to Learning Activity 1 as well as drawing on your own knowledge, list the advertising techniques you can identify from the advertisement in the table below.

Technique Example(s)

Learning Activity 3 Writing and Speaking

Search for more advertisements on sports goods from magazines and/or on the Internet and study the techniques they use to grip potential buyers’ attention.

Decide on a product you would like to promote and sell to your classmates.

Design an advertising poster for your product, making appropriate use of some of the techniques you have learnt in this focus. Add some graphics to make your poster more attractive. After you have finished, you will be asked to present your product in front of the class using the poster.

Draft your poster or write down some ideas on the following page.





Sports Songs

A Quick Introduction to Some Features of Songs

Learning Activity 1 Listening

1. Your teacher will play a song related to sports. Listen and see if you can tell what the lyrics are about. Write down some key words in the box provided below.

2. Below are some features of songs. Do you already know some of them? Where did you come across them before?

A. Rhythm

Rhythm means the musical pattern of stressed and unstressed sounds in a line.

Take “Park ‘n Shop” as an example, why are the letters “a” and “d” omitted in the shop’s name?

This is because “and” is the small and unimportant word that is not stressed and can be shortened.

When we say “Park” and “Shop” with more force, the result is a rhythm or musical pattern.

We can follow this with other lines using the same pattern and create a simple song or chant:

Park and Shop Buy a Fish

Take some Cheese Pay the Bill

The three sounds do not have to be in three words.

Peter Pan has the same rhythm and pattern, as does fall apart.


Think of the nursery rhymes you have learned before. Identify the rhythm and underline the stressed sounds in the following lines from two well-known nursery rhymes.

1. Twinkle, twinkle, little star, How I wonder what you are!

2. Old McDonald had a farm.


S23 B. Rhyme

Rhymes are words that end in the same sounds.

Let’s study the two lines from “Twinkle, twinkle, little star” again and note the underlined words:

Twinkle, twinkle, little star, How I wonder what you are!

“Are” and “star” both have the final sound ar and they rhyme. It should be noted that spelling is not a good guide to rhyme. For example, “rear” and “bear” do not rhyme. It is the sound of the words that is important.


Think of three more words which rhyme with star.




C. Repetition

Repetition means using the same word, phrase or sentence more than once in the text, usually to emphasise the message or make the song more catchy and memorable. For example, the phrase

“we are the champions” is repeatedly used in the song “We Are The Champions” by the band Queen.

Lyrics: Music:

3. Now listen to the song again. Do any of the features above appear in the song? Note them down in the box below.

Learning Activity 2 Reading and Speaking

Read the following sports chants. In groups, refer to the features of songs you have learnt in Learning Activity 1 and discuss some of the song features you see in the chants below. Mark them on the lyrics and write down the name of the feature used.

1. We shall not be moved.

We shall not be moved.

We shall win the cup.

We shall win the cup.

We shall not be moved.

2. If we’re going to win, Clap your hands.

If we’re going to win, Clap your hands.


S24 If we’re going to win,

Stamp your feet and clap your hands!

If we’re going to win, Clap your hands.

3. We’re going to win the game, We’re going to win the game, We’re going to win the game, And soon you’ll see we’re right.

(tune: “For he’s a jolly good fellow”)

4. We’ll be running round the stadium with the cup, We’ll be running round the stadium with the cup, We’ll be running round the stadium with the cup, Just you wait and see,

We’ll be running round the stadium with the cup.

(tune: “She’ll be coming round the mountain when she comes”) 5. Ashes to ashes, dust to dust,

Hate to beat you, but we must!

6. We are the greatest Who you can’t beat

‘Cos we’ll never Never take defeat!

7. Listen to the sound, Listen to the sound, The beat of defeat!

8. One, two, three, four, Who do we adore?

Five, six, seven, eight, Who do we appreciate?

(Shout name of team)


S25 Learning Activity 3

Writing and Speaking

In groups, write a sports chant for your sports team, your house, your class or your school. You might like to apply some of the features of sports chants you have learnt in this focus. Alternatively, you may adapt and rewrite one of the sports chants in Learning Activity 2. Perform your chant to the other groups after writing.












Sports Product Review

Learning Activity 1 Speaking

Work with a partner or in a small group. Discuss the following and make notes in the space provided.

My answer My partner’s answer

1. What do you need to think about when buying a basketball?

2. What do you need to think about when buying a squash racquet?

3. What do you need to think about when buying sports shoes?

4. What do consumers need to know about themselves before they choose items such as sports equipment or clothing?


S27 Learning Activity 2


Read the sample review about a tennis racquet below. Identify the main idea and purpose of each paragraph and fill in the right column with a, b, c or d. The options can be used more than once.

a. Establishing the topic b. Points for consideration c. Comments on the product d. Recommendation

Sample Product Review – Tennis Racquet

Paragraph Content



There are so many models of tennis racquets in the market these days that one is spoilt for choice, but making the right choice is very important because it can mean years of pleasure and satisfaction in playing the game.

Body Paragraphs


When you choose a tennis racquet, there are a number of things you need to think about. You need to consider your skill level, your size, and your playing style. Based on these factors, you then choose a racquet with the weight, balance, and size that will give you the best performance.


Weight: Basically you need to choose the heaviest racquet you can handle easily. Avoid racquets that are too light as the lightness means more shock will go to your arm and wrist, leading to pain in the joints over time.


Balance: Whether the weight of the racquet is distributed more towards the head (head-heavy) or the butt (head-light) is as important as the absolute weight of the racquet. A head-heavy racquet has more power; a head-light racquet is easier to handle but less stable.


Size: As a general rule, a larger head gives you more power and a greater sweet spot, but less control. That is why an oversized racquet may be more suitable for a beginner while the intermediate or advanced players may go for a midsize or mid-plus one.


Once you have thought about these factors, you can decide which category of racquet you are interested in. There are power, tweener, and control racquets. Power racquets are light and large ones. They are more suitable for beginners. Tweeners (from the word “between”) are of medium weight and size and are suitable for intermediate players. Control racquets, with greater weight and smaller size, are suitable for the more advanced player.


I looked at the Ace 4, a superb tweener racquet for a wide range of players.

The Ace 4 offers an outstanding blend of power and control for intermediate and low-level advanced players, though beginners will like it too because this medium-weight frame is easy to handle. The mid-plus head size and large sweet spot enables the players to generate lots of power, even on off-centre hits. The racquet also offers great comfort because of its excellent built-in shock dampener.



Ace 4 is a solid, all-purpose frame that will perform well in any situation, at the baseline or the net. Priced at $650, the Ace 4 is an affordable racquet that represents excellent value for money. If you wish to perfect your skills for outstanding tennis performances, Ace 4 is definitely what you should get!


S28 Learning Activity 3


Read the product review on a jersey below.

Review on AC Jersey

What is your primary concern and reason for buying a new jersey? Is it solely because your favourite soccer or basketball team has a new strip and you feel like following? Well, there are more factors for a smart consumer to consider when choosing a new jersey.

Fabric: Sports fans like you are very likely to play sports in the latest jersey of their favourite sports teams or stars, but make sure you choose an absorbent fabric that helps wick sweat away and block the unpleasant smell. This keeps you dry and comfortable.

Durability: Jersey of good quality should not shrink or deform after machine wash.

Design: There are a variety of designs to choose from such as long and short sleeves, crew-neck and V-neck. Long-sleeved jersey is usually slightly more expensive than short-sleeved one. Choose the type which suits you the most.

AC jersey is famous for its timeless design. It is soft, very well-ventilated and comfortable. The highly durable jersey does not shrink, lose shape or fade after repeated machine wash.

Short-sleeved outfits are only priced at $200, which is definitely good value for your money. For another $50, you will have your name and a lucky number decorated on the back of the jersey.

Isn’t it worth adding one to your wardrobe?

1. Refer to the review you have read and answer the questions below.

a. What factors does the writer suggest that we consider when buying a jersey?


b. Summarise what the writer thinks about the AC jersey in around twenty words.



c. If you are considering buying a jersey, would you go for AC jersey after reading the review?

Why (not)?



2. Compare the review with the one on tennis racquet in Learning Activity 2. Do the writers introduce the topic and conclude the review in the same way? Explain your answer.




S29 Learning Activity 4


1. Choose a sports product you have bought or would like to buy.

2. Do some research in sports shops or on the Internet.

3. Jot down some notes in bullet form in the table below.

4. Write a product review similar to the one in Learning Activity 3. You may refer to Learning Activity 2 for the structure of your review and the language notes on the next page for help.

Product Research Information



Description (colour/size/


Key Features/


My Opinion



Useful vocabulary/expressions for writing a sports product review:

1. Synonyms

y customers/potential purchasers/shoppers y sports products/items/goods/gear y satisfy/meet their needs/requirements y buy/purchase y choose/select/go for/opt for/pick y choice/selection/option

y is suitable/right for hikers

y excellent/amazing/fantastic/superb/incredible/remarkable/incomparable 2. Talking about price

y at the top/bottom end of the market y at the upper/lower end of the price range

y ____ is/are medium-priced/reasonably-priced/inexpensive/cheap y ____ is/are dear/expensive/overpriced

y I pick up a good bargain from the market.

y We bought the ____ (e.g. fishing gear, table-tennis racket) at a low price/for a bargain price.

y This is good value for money/is worth buying.

3. Talking about other factors for consideration

y Materials: The ____ (e.g. shirt) is made of natural fabrics.

y Performance (how well it does something): It absorbs sweat effectively.

y Appearance (how it looks): There were glowing logos on both sides of the ____ (e.g. running shoes).

y Durability (how long it lasts): The ____ (e.g. socks) do not lose their strength or shrink easily.

y Maintenance (what you need to do to keep it in good condition): It is easy to care for and cold machine washing will do.

y Price and availability: It is available at an affordable price in all department stores and sports shops.

Useful language patterns or sentence structures for writing a sports product review:

1. Suggest + gerund or that clause

y I suggest buying Intelligent running shoes with the cushioning effect.

y I suggest (that) joggers buy Intelligent running shoes with the cushioning effect.

2. Recommend + noun or that clause

y I recommend Intelligent running shoes with cushioning effect to all joggers.

y I recommend (that) all joggers buy Intelligent running shoes with the cushioning effect.

3. The comparatives and superlatives

For shorter adjectives with one or two syllables, “-er” and “the -est” are used for comparison.

For adjectives with more syllables, “more” and “the most …” are used. Here are some examples:

y Cotton shirts are more absorbent than nylon shirts, but nano-garments are the most absorbent.

y Intelligent running shoes will be cheaper next year with mass production.

Note: words such as “favourite” and “unique” cannot be used with more/the most because they already mean that. In general we use between for two things and among for more.

“the -er, the -er” pattern:

The heavier the racquet the more powerful the strokes can be, but the more tiring for the player.



Sports Film

Learning Activity

Viewing, Writing and Speaking

1. You are going to watch a film about basketball titled “Coach Carter”. Before you watch the film, preview the mind map below. As you watch the film, add some point form information to establish the characters, plot, setting, and conflict.

Name Trait/Quality


Setting Conflict


(i.e. sequence of events)



2. After watching the film, complete the worksheet below with the help of your mind map notes.

Work with a partner and discuss your responses to the film.

Film Title: Date:




Give a short summary of the film (plot, theme, etc.).

What is the best part of the film?

Do you like the ending? Why or why not?


What are the best scenes in the film?

Why are they successful? (You may talk about the plot, characters or film techniques such as editing, use of camera angles, colour and music).


Name three characters you like. What are their character traits? Use some adjectives to describe them.


S33 Messages

Who do you think this film is intended for?

Write down any memorable phrases or lines you remember from the film.

What can you learn about life from the film?


Who do you think is the best actor/actress in the film?

Overall comments on the film:



3. You and your partner are going to use some of the information in the mind map and table in Questions 1 and 2 to give a short oral presentation on the film. Below is a sample presentation on the same film. Go over it to have an idea on how you can talk about the film and try to identify the focus of each paragraph. Put the appropriate letter from a-e in the brackets at the end of each paragraph of the text.

a. what the speaker likes about the film b. summary of the story

c. what the speaker has learnt from the film d. highlight of role/key action

e. what the speaker dislikes about the film

Sample Presentation on “Coach Carter”

I would like to introduce you to a film called “Coach Carter”. As you can guess from the title, it is about a sport, the sport of basketball. Ken Carter is a successful African American. He goes back to his old school in a poor part of San Francisco and becomes the coach of the basketball team. The boys on the team are not very fit and lose all their games. Coach Carter is very strict with them. It is funny seeing their faces when he tells them to run up and down the gym hundreds of times. If they argue with him he punishes them. Some of them do not like it and leave, but they want to come back when the team starts winning. ( )

Coach Carter says the boys are student players. That means they must be good students as well as good sports players. He stops them playing when he finds their marks very bad. Some do not even go to class. They soon learn their lesson from him. ( )

I like the film because there are many good basketball games. The camera work is good and the music makes everything exciting. I think the acting is good too. Samuel Jackson is very good as the coach. I also found it interesting to see an American high school. It is not very like our school. The students are very badly behaved, no one wears uniform, there are big school dances and many other differences. ( )

Are there any problems? I think the film is a bit long and I didn’t like the side story of one of the boys with a girlfriend who is going to have a baby. ( )

The film teaches us not to give up, but always try our best. The boys do not win every game, but they become better people and their coach in the end is proud of them and they go to college. Please find time to watch this film. ( )

4. Discuss with your partner how you are going to present your ideas to another pair and rehearse your presentation. The sample presentation is for reference only. You need not follow it in exactly the same way, but feel free to adapt it and include any points you think are appropriate.

5. Form yourselves into groups of four with two pairs of students in each. Take turns to present your ideas to the other pair in your group.



Sports Writing

A Report on a Sports Event

Learning Activity 1 Speaking and Reading

A. A friend is going to write an article on your school’s sports day/athletics meet. She asks you what you would expect and like to see in the article. In small groups, think of four items, such as the name of the winning house.





B. Read the following article on an athletics meet and answer the questions that follow:

A Day to Remember

Wu Hong School’s Annual Athletics Meet took place last week and saw some splendid performances.

Ho Chi Wai (6C) won the most medals, an amazing four gold, three silver and two bronze. Cynthia Leung (6A), our Head Prefect, topped the medal table for girls with one gold, three silver and one bronze.

Eagles was the winning house, followed very closely by Bears, only five points behind.

One of the most exciting events was the Grade B Boys 100m final. Gary Cheung and Ko Wai Hung were neck and neck* until the last moment when Ko managed a final burst of* speed and crossed the finishing line just ahead of his opponent. He later said he was disappointed not to have broken the record.

The Form 6 versus Teachers Relay Challenge Cup was as ever highly popular with spectators who rushed forward to watch the race. 6C put in a good challenge but could not beat the science teachers, who had finished before some other teams, who won’t be named here, had got round three laps*!

PE teacher and Meet organiser, Mr Tong, said the athletics meet had gone smoothly and that not many records had been broken. He said the only exception was Wong Mei Ling (1C) who broke the record for Grade C girls’ long jump. We expect to be hearing more about her in the coming years.

The most dramatic moment came near the end of the Club Relay when Stanley Ho (4D) suddenly tripped up just before the finishing line and had to be carried off with a badly sprained* ankle. His misfortune cost the Swimming Club victory in the event.

The prizes were presented by Miss Rita Lo, Director of the Hong Kong Sports Association.

*neck and neck – very close (from horse racing)

*burst of – increase in

*laps – a lap is one complete round of the race-track

*sprain – muscle injury



1. Match the paragraph numbers with the paragraph focuses.

Paragraph 1 dramatic moment

Paragraph 2 an exciting event with some description Paragraph 3 introduction + comment

Paragraph 4 guest of honour

Paragraph 5 top performer

Paragraph 6 a popular event with some details

Paragraph 7 winning house

Paragraph 8 comment of the organiser 2. Which paragraph(s) contain humour?


3. Which paragraph(s) contain indirect speech?


4. What questions do you think the reporter asked when working on the article? Write down three questions that s/he might have asked.

a. ___________________________________________________________________________

b. ___________________________________________________________________________

c. ___________________________________________________________________________

5. The following sentences are taken from the article. Rewrite them by using direct speech.

a. He later said he was disappointed not to have broken the record.


b. PE teacher and Meet organiser, Mr Tong, said the two days of athletics had gone smoothly and that not many records had been broken.


c. He said the only exception was Wong Mei Ling (1C) who broke the record for Grade C girls’ long jump.


6. After reading the article, do you think the athletics meet was an exciting or boring event? Give your reasons.




S37 Learning Activity 2


Write an article about the sports day/athletics meet of your school.

1. To plan your article, you should note down some information of the event:


Participants? ______________________________________________________________________

Levels? __________________________________________________________________________

Houses or teams? __________________________________________________________________

Guests of honour? _________________________________________________________________


Date and time? ____________________________________________________________________

School name? _____________________________________________________________________

Location of the meet?_______________________________________________________________


Which sports? _____________________________________________________________________


What happened?___________________________________________________________________

What was the most exciting or dramatic moment?________________________________________



Who won? ________________________________________________________________________

Who was the winning house? _________________________________________________________


How did they win?__________________________________________________________________




2. Map your paragraph ideas and supporting details to plan the structure of your article. Feel free to add or remove the boxes depending on the number of paragraphs you choose to write.

3. With reference to your notes and the mind map, write an article on the School Sports Day for the School Magazine. Make use of the style you have learnt from Learning Activity 1.

Article Title:


Paragraph 4

Conclusion Introduction

Paragraph 2 Paragraph 1

Paragraph 3



An Essay on a Sports Issue

Learning Activity 1 Speaking and Reading

1. What is a sport? What is your definition of sport? With a partner, brainstorm some definitions and be prepared to share one definition with the class.

2. Discuss with your partner whether the following are sports or not. Write a short reason to justify your decision.


1. Bowling 2. Golf 3. Swimming 4. Horse racing 5. Skipping 6. Dancing

3. With a partner, make a list of sports which involve animals. Do not think only of regular Hong Kong sports, but all kinds of sports around the world.

a. b. c. d.

4. Read the one-sided argumentative essay below and do the activities that follow.

Should hunting be allowed?

The shooting of animals or birds for the pleasure it gives is common in many countries around the world. In the United States, for example, many people have guns and may go hunting for deer, squirrels, and other small animals as a social or family activity. In France and Italy, bird hunting is also an activity welcomed by many people. Despite the concern that some people have about the pain that hunting may cause to animals and hence their argument that it should be banned, my opinion is that hunting is a fun-filled and healthy activity that should be allowed.

Firstly, hunting is good exercise not only for the body, but also for the mind. It requires a lot of strategies and planning. For instance, before you go hunting for animals, you will need to find out a lot of information, such as where their habitat is, when and how they usually appear, how you can attract them, or where to hide yourself in order not to be discovered. It also requires a lot of patience and perseverance as very often you will have to wait for a long while before you need to hold up your rifle or shotgun, after which, of course, will be a test of your shooting skills, which call for a quick and clear mind as well as fitness and agility.

Secondly, the wildlife population needs to be put under control, and hunting is one of the ways that help. Take Canada as an example, the population of seals has now grown to millions. If we do not try to hold down the number, we know from history that the animals will soon experience a tragic die-off when they are unable to find food and shelter. Such deaths will often lead to far more suffering on the animals as compared with those caused by bullets from the hunters’ rifles.

Another reason why hunting should be allowed is that for many years, it has been a source of pleasure, excitement and satisfaction for those who enjoy the activity. It provides an opportunity for people to relax in the peace and quietness of the wilderness while at the same time learn more about nature and enjoy the fun of hunting. Contrary to the view that hunters shoot for the joy of killing, many of them in fact love nature and animals more than the others do. In countries like Australia where people fall for the fascination of animals, vast areas of hunting grounds are available to provide animal-lovers with the adventurous experience of hunting animals like pigs, boars, rabbits and deer.

It is through the activity that these animal-lovers get to observe and understand more about wildlife.

All in all, hunting is an activity that helps to tune up our body and our mind and contributes to solving the problem of animal overpopulation and maintaining our ecosystem. Only if we make sensible decisions on where, what and how to shoot, hunting is just like any other sports activity and I see no reason why it should not be allowed.


S40 a. Introduction

Which is the sentence in the essay that first tells you what the writer thinks about hunting?


b. Body paragraphs

In the essay, three main reasons have been given for the argument that hunting should be allowed.

Evidence and examples are also given to support the argument. In the boxes below, write down the reasons the writer gives, and the examples or evidence s/he uses. Two examples have been given to you.

c. Conclusion

What advice does the writer give in the concluding paragraph?


Should hunting be




Paragraph 2 Reason

e.g. Hunting is good exercise for the body and the mind.

Evidence/Example Paragraph 4


Evidence/Example e.g. Many animal-lovers in

Australia go hunting to observe and understand more about wildlife.

Paragraph 3 Reason





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