IEEE Standard for SystemVerilog— Unified Hardware Design, Specification, and Verification Language

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IEEE Standard for SystemVerilog—

Unified Hardware Design, Specification, and Verification Language

Sponsored by the

Design Automation Standards Committee

IEEE

3 Park Avenue

New York, NY 10016-5997 USA

21 February 2013

IEEE Computer Society and the

IEEE Standards Association Corporate Advisory Group

IEEE Std 1800™-2012

(Revision of IEEE Std 1800-2009)

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IEEE Standard for SystemVerilog—

Unified Hardware Design, Specification, and Verification Language

Sponsor

Design Automation Standards Committee of the

IEEE Computer Society and the

IEEE Standards Association Corporate Advisory Group Approved 5 December 2012

IEEE-SA Standards Board

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The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.

3 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016-5997, USA

Copyright © 2013 by The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.

All rights reserved. Published 21 February 2013. Printed in the United States of America.

IEEE, 802, and POSIX are registered trademarks in the U.S. Patent & Trademark Office, owned by The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Incorporated.

Verilog is a registered trademark of Cadence Design Systems, Inc.

P'): ISBN 978-0-7381-811-67'GT

PULQW:ISBN 978-0-7381-811-STDPD98078

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support for modeling hardware at the behavioral, register transfer level (RTL), and gate-level abstraction levels, and for writing testbenches using coverage, assertions, object-oriented programming, and constrained random verification. The standard also provides application programming interfaces (APIs) to foreign programming languages.

Keywords: assertions, design automation, design verification, hardware description language, HDL, HDVL, IEEE 1800, PLI, programming language interface, SystemVerilog, Verilog®, VPI

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The SystemVerilog Language Working Group is entity based. At the time this standard was completed, the SystemVerilog Working Group had the following membership:

Karen Pieper, Accellera Representative, Tabula, Inc., Chair Neil Korpusik, Oracle Corporation, Vice Chair, Technical Chair

Dennis Brophy, Mentor Graphics Corporation, Secretary Stuart Sutherland, Sutherland HDL, Inc., Technical Editor

Work on this standard was divided among primary committees.

The Champions Committee was responsible for ensuring consistency in the work done by each committee.

Neil Korpusik, Oracle Corporation, Chair Dave Rich, Mentor Graphics Corporation, Co-Chair

The Basic/Design Committee (SV-BC) was responsible for the specification of the design features of SystemVerilog.

Matt Maidment, Intel Corporation, Chair Brad Pierce, Synopsys, Inc., Co-Chair Shalom Bresticker, Intel Corporation

Charles Dawson, Cadence Design Systems, Inc.

Josef Derner, Mentor Graphics Corporation John Goodenough, ARM, Ltd.

Kaiming Ho, Fraunhofer IIS Haim Kerem, Intel Corporation

Dmitry Korchemny, Intel Corporation Dave Rich, Mentor Graphics Corporation Neil Sensarkar, Marvell Technology Group Ltd.

Yatin Trivedi, Synopsys, Inc.

Tony Tsai, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Shalom Bresticker, Intel Corporation Surrendra Dudani, Synopsys, Inc.

Francoise Martinolle, Cadence Design Systems, Inc.

Brad Pierce, Synopsys, Inc.

Stuart Sutherland, Sutherland HDL, Inc.

Tom Alsop, Intel Corporation Shalom Bresticker, Intel Corporation Eric Coffin, Mentor Graphics Corporation

Peter Flake, Accellera Systems Initiative Alex Gran, Mentor Graphics Corporation

Mark Hartoog, Synopsys, Inc.

Kaiming Ho, Fraunhofer IIS

Francoise Martinolle, Cadence Design Systems, Inc.

Dave Rich, Mentor Graphics Corporation Arnab Saha, Mentor Graphics Corporation

Daniel Schostak, ARM, Ltd.

Steven Sharp, Cadence Design Systems, Inc.

Stuart Sutherland, Sutherland HDL, Inc.

Gordon Vreugdenhil, Mentor Graphics Corporation

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Mehdi Mohtashemi, Synopsys, Inc., Chair Neil Korpusik, Oracle Corporation, Co-Chair

The Assertions Committee (SV-AC) was responsible for the specification of the assertion features of SystemVerilog.

Dmitry Korchemny, Intel Corporation, Chair Tom Thatcher, Oracle Corporation, Co-Chair

The C API Committee (SV-CC) was responsible for on the specification of the DPI, the SystemVerilog Verification Procedural Interface (VPI), and the additional coverage API.

Charles Dawson, Cadence Design Systems, Inc., Chair Ghassan Khoory, Synopsys, Inc., Co-Chair

The Discrete Committee (SV-DC) was responsible for defining features to support modeling of analog/

mixed-signal circuit components in the discrete domain.

Scott Little, Intel Corporation, Chair

Abhijeet Kolpekwar, Cadence Design Systems, Inc., Co-Chair Tom Alsop, Intel Corporation

Jonathan Bromley, Accellera Systems Initiative Dhiraj Goswami, Synopsys, Inc.

Alex Gran, Mentor Graphics Corporation Mark Hartoog, Synopsys, Inc.

Scott Little, Intel Corporation

Francoise Martinolle, Cadence Design Systems, Inc.

Dave Rich, Mentor Graphics Corporation

Ray Ryan, Mentor Graphics Corporation Arturo Salz, Synopsys, Inc.

Daniel Schostak, ARM Ltd.

Nilotpal Sensarkar, Marvell Technology Group, Ltd.

Steven Sharp, Cadence Design Systems, Inc.

Brandon Tipp, Intel Corporation Tony Tsai, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Gordon Vreugdenhil, Mentor Graphics Corporation

Ashok Bhatt, Cadence Design Systems, Inc.

Laurence Bisht, Intel Corporation Eduard Cerny, Synopsys, Inc.

Ben Cohen, Accellera Systems Initiative Dana Fisman, Synopsys, Inc.

John Havlicek, Freescale, Inc.

Tapan Kapoor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc.

Jacob Katz, Intel Corporation

Manisha Kulshrestha, Mentor Graphics Corporation Scott Little, Intel Corporation

Anupam Prabhakar, Mentor Graphics Corporation Erik Seligman, Intel Corporation

Samik Sengupta, Synopsys, Inc.

Chuck Berking, Cadence Design Systems, Inc.

Steve Dovich, Cadence Design Systems, Inc.

Amit Kohli, Cadence Design Systems, Inc.

Francoise Martinolle, Cadence Design Systems, Inc.

Abigail Moorhouse, Mentor Graphics Corporation Michael Rohleder, Freescale, Inc.

Arnab Saha, Mentor Graphics Corporation Arturo Salz, Synopsys, Inc.

George Scott, Mentor Graphics Corporation Bassam Tabbara, Synopsys, Inc.

Jim Vellenga, Cadence Design Systems, Inc.

Vitaly Yankelevich, Cadence Design Systems, Inc.

Shekar Chetput, Cadence Design Systems, Inc.

Scott Cranston, Cadence Design Systems, Inc.

Dave Cronauer, Synopsys, Inc.

Mark Hartoog, Synopsys, Inc.

John Havlicek, Freescale, Inc.

Ghassan Khoory, Synopsys, Inc.

Francoise Martinolle, Cadence Design Systems, Inc.

Arturo Salz, Synopsys, Inc.

Sundaram Sangameswaran, Texas Instruments, Inc.

Steven Sharp, Cadence Design Systems, Inc.

Gordon Vreugdenhil, Mentor Graphics Corporation Ian Wilson, Accellera Systems Initiative

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When the IEEE-SA Standards Board approved this standard on 5 December 2012, it had the following membership:

Richard H. Hulett, Chair John Kulick, Vice Chair Robert M. Grow, Past Chair Konstantinos Karachalios, Secretary

*Member Emeritus

Also included are the following nonvoting IEEE-SA Standards Board liaisons:

Richard DeBlasio, DOE Representative Michael Janezic, NIST Representative

Matthew J. Ceglia

IEEE Manager, Professional Services

Michelle Turner

IEEE Standards Program Manager, Document Development

Joan Woolery

IEEE Standards Program Manager, Technical Program Development Accellera Systems Initiative

Cadence Design Systems, Inc.

Fraunhofer IIS Freescale, Inc.

Intel Corporation

Japan Electronics and Information Technology Industries Association (JEITA)

Marvell Technology Group Ltd.

Mentor Graphics Corporation Oracle Corporation

Synopsys, Inc.

Satish Aggarwal Masayuki Ariyoshi Peter Balma William Bartley Ted Burse Clint Chaplin Wael Diab Jean-Philippe Faure

Alexander Gelman Paul Houzé Jim Hughes Young Kyun Kim Joseph L. Koepfinger*

David J. Law Thomas Lee Hung Ling

Oleg Logvinov Ted Olsen Gary Robinson Jon Walter Rosdahl Mike Seavy Yatin Trivedi Phil Winston Yu Yuan

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The purpose of this standard is to provide the electronic design automation (EDA), semiconductor, and system design communities with a well-defined and official IEEE unified hardware design, specification, and verification standard language. The language is designed to coexist and enhance the hardware description and verification languages (HDVLs) presently used by designers while providing the capabilities lacking in those languages.

SystemVerilog is a unified hardware design, specification, and verification language based on the Accellera SystemVerilog 3.1a extensions to the Verilog hardware description language (HDL) [B3], published in 2004.a Accellera is a consortium of EDA, semiconductor, and system companies. IEEE Std 1800 enables a productivity boost in design and validation and covers design, simulation, validation, and formal assertion- based verification flows.

SystemVerilog enables the use of a unified language for abstract and detailed specification of the design, specification of assertions, coverage, and testbench verification based on manual or automatic methodologies. SystemVerilog offers application programming interfaces (APIs) for coverage and assertions, and a direct programming interface (DPI) to access proprietary functionality. SystemVerilog offers methods that allow designers to continue to use present design languages when necessary to leverage existing designs and intellectual property (IP). This standardization project will provide the VLSI design engineers with a well-defined IEEE standard, which meets their requirements in design and validation, and which enables a step function increase in their productivity. This standardization project will also provide the EDA industry with a standard to which they can adhere and that they can support in order to deliver their solutions in this area.

aThe numbers in brackets correspond to those of the bibliography in Annex Q.

This introduction is not part of IEEE Std 1800-2012, IEEE Standard for SystemVerilog—Unified Hardware Design, Specification, and Verification Language.

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Part One: Design and Verification Constructs

1. Overview... 2

1.1 Scope... 2

1.2 Purpose... 2

1.3 Content summary... 2

1.4 Special terms... 3

1.5 Conventions used in this standard ... 3

1.6 Syntactic description... 4

1.7 Use of color in this standard ... 5

1.8 Contents of this standard... 5

1.9 Deprecated clauses... 8

1.10 Examples... 8

1.11 Prerequisites... 8

2. Normative references ... 9

3. Design and verification building blocks ... 11

3.1 General... 11

3.2 Design elements... 11

3.3 Modules ... 11

3.4 Programs ... 12

3.5 Interfaces... 13

3.6 Checkers... 14

3.7 Primitives ... 14

3.8 Subroutines ... 14

3.9 Packages... 14

3.10 Configurations ... 15

3.11 Overview of hierarchy ... 15

3.12 Compilation and elaboration... 16

3.13 Name spaces ... 18

3.14 Simulation time units and precision... 19

4. Scheduling semantics... 23

4.1 General... 23

4.2 Execution of a hardware model and its verification environment ... 23

4.3 Event simulation ... 23

4.4 Stratified event scheduler... 24

4.5 SystemVerilog simulation reference algorithm ... 29

4.6 Determinism... 29

4.7 Nondeterminism... 30

4.8 Race conditions... 30

4.9 Scheduling implication of assignments ... 30

4.10 PLI callback control points ... 32

5. Lexical conventions ... 33

5.1 General... 33

5.2 Lexical tokens ... 33

5.3 White space... 33

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5.6 Identifiers, keywords, and system names ... 34

5.7 Numbers... 35

5.8 Time literals ... 40

5.9 String literals... 40

5.10 Structure literals... 42

5.11 Array literals ... 43

5.12 Attributes ... 43

5.13 Built-in methods ... 45

6. Data types ... 47

6.1 General... 47

6.2 Data types and data objects... 47

6.3 Value set ... 47

6.4 Singular and aggregate types ... 48

6.5 Nets and variables... 49

6.6 Net types ... 50

6.7 Net declarations ... 61

6.8 Variable declarations ... 64

6.9 Vector declarations ... 66

6.10 Implicit declarations ... 67

6.11 Integer data types ... 68

6.12 Real, shortreal, and realtime data types ... 69

6.13 Void data type... 69

6.14 Chandle data type... 69

6.15 Class... 70

6.16 String data type ... 70

6.17 Event data type... 75

6.18 User-defined types ... 76

6.19 Enumerations ... 77

6.20 Constants... 83

6.21 Scope and lifetime ... 90

6.22 Type compatibility... 92

6.23 Type operator... 95

6.24 Casting ... 96

6.25 Parameterized data types ... 101

7. Aggregate data types... 103

7.1 General... 103

7.2 Structures ... 103

7.3 Unions... 105

7.4 Packed and unpacked arrays ... 109

7.5 Dynamic arrays ... 113

7.6 Array assignments... 116

7.7 Arrays as arguments to subroutines ... 117

7.8 Associative arrays ... 118

7.9 Associative array methods ... 121

7.10 Queues ... 124

7.11 Array querying functions ... 129

7.12 Array manipulation methods ... 129

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8.2 Overview... 134

8.3 Syntax ... 135

8.4 Objects (class instance)... 136

8.5 Object properties and object parameter data... 137

8.6 Object methods ... 138

8.7 Constructors ... 138

8.8 Typed constructor calls... 140

8.9 Static class properties... 141

8.10 Static methods... 141

8.11 This ... 141

8.12 Assignment, renaming, and copying... 142

8.13 Inheritance and subclasses ... 144

8.14 Overridden members... 144

8.15 Super ... 145

8.16 Casting ... 146

8.17 Chaining constructors ... 146

8.18 Data hiding and encapsulation... 147

8.19 Constant class properties ... 147

8.20 Virtual methods... 148

8.21 Abstract classes and pure virtual methods ... 150

8.22 Polymorphism: dynamic method lookup... 150

8.23 Class scope resolution operator :: ... 151

8.24 Out-of-block declarations ... 153

8.25 Parameterized classes ... 154

8.26 Interface classes ... 157

8.27 Typedef class ... 167

8.28 Classes and structures ... 167

8.29 Memory management ... 168

9. Processes... 169

9.1 General... 169

9.2 Structured procedures ... 169

9.3 Block statements ... 173

9.4 Procedural timing controls... 179

9.5 Process execution threads ... 189

9.6 Process control... 189

9.7 Fine-grain process control ... 193

10. Assignment statements ... 196

10.1 General... 196

10.2 Overview... 196

10.3 Continuous assignments ... 197

10.4 Procedural assignments... 200

10.5 Variable declaration assignment (variable initialization) ... 205

10.6 Procedural continuous assignments ... 205

10.7 Assignment extension and truncation ... 207

10.8 Assignment-like contexts... 208

10.9 Assignment patterns... 209

10.10 Unpacked array concatenation... 213

10.11 Net aliasing ... 216

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11.1 General... 218

11.2 Overview... 218

11.3 Operators... 219

11.4 Operator descriptions... 223

11.5 Operands ... 243

11.6 Expression bit lengths... 247

11.7 Signed expressions... 249

11.8 Expression evaluation rules ... 250

11.9 Tagged union expressions and member access... 251

11.10 String literal expressions... 253

11.11 Operator overloading ... 254

11.12 Minimum, typical, and maximum delay expressions ... 256

11.13 Let construct ... 258

12. Procedural programming statements ... 264

12.1 General... 264

12.2 Overview... 264

12.3 Syntax ... 264

12.4 Conditional if–else statement... 265

12.5 Case statement ... 270

12.6 Pattern matching conditional statements ... 275

12.7 Loop statements ... 279

12.8 Jump statements... 283

13. Tasks and functions (subroutines) ... 285

13.1 General... 285

13.2 Overview... 285

13.3 Tasks ... 285

13.4 Functions... 289

13.5 Subroutine calls and argument passing... 295

13.6 Import and export functions... 300

13.7 Task and function names ... 300

13.8 Parameterized tasks and functions... 300

14. Clocking blocks ... 302

14.1 General... 302

14.2 Overview... 302

14.3 Clocking block declaration ... 302

14.4 Input and output skews ... 304

14.5 Hierarchical expressions ... 305

14.6 Signals in multiple clocking blocks ... 306

14.7 Clocking block scope and lifetime... 306

14.8 Multiple clocking blocks example... 306

14.9 Interfaces and clocking blocks... 307

14.10 Clocking block events... 308

14.11 Cycle delay: ## ... 308

14.12 Default clocking... 309

14.13 Input sampling ... 310

14.14 Global clocking... 311

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15. Interprocess synchronization and communication... 320

15.1 General... 320

15.2 Overview... 320

15.3 Semaphores... 320

15.4 Mailboxes... 322

15.5 Named events... 325

16. Assertions... 330

16.1 General... 330

16.2 Overview... 330

16.3 Immediate assertions... 330

16.4 Deferred assertions ... 333

16.5 Concurrent assertions overview... 340

16.6 Boolean expressions ... 343

16.7 Sequences... 344

16.8 Declaring sequences ... 348

16.9 Sequence operations ... 356

16.10 Local variables ... 378

16.11 Calling subroutines on match of a sequence... 384

16.12 Declaring properties... 385

16.13 Multiclock support... 411

16.14 Concurrent assertions... 421

16.15 Disable iff resolution ... 438

16.16 Clock resolution... 440

16.17 Expect statement ... 445

16.18 Clocking blocks and concurrent assertions... 446

17. Checkers... 448

17.1 Overview... 448

17.2 Checker declaration ... 448

17.3 Checker instantiation ... 451

17.4 Context inference... 454

17.5 Checker procedures... 455

17.6 Covergroups in checkers... 457

17.7 Checker variables... 458

17.8 Functions in checkers... 464

17.9 Complex checker example... 464

18. Constrained random value generation ... 467

18.1 General... 467

18.2 Overview... 467

18.3 Concepts and usage... 467

18.4 Random variables ... 470

18.5 Constraint blocks ... 472

18.6 Randomization methods ... 492

18.7 In-line constraints—randomize() with... 493

18.8 Disabling random variables with rand_mode() ... 496

18.9 Controlling constraints with constraint_mode() ... 497

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18.12 Randomization of scope variables—std::randomize()... 500

18.13 Random number system functions and methods ... 501

18.14 Random stability ... 503

18.15 Manually seeding randomize ... 505

18.16 Random weighted case—randcase ... 506

18.17 Random sequence generation—randsequence... 507

19. Functional coverage... 517

19.1 General... 517

19.2 Overview... 517

19.3 Defining the coverage model: covergroup... 518

19.4 Using covergroup in classes ... 520

19.5 Defining coverage points ... 522

19.6 Defining cross coverage... 533

19.7 Specifying coverage options... 542

19.8 Predefined coverage methods ... 547

19.9 Predefined coverage system tasks and system functions... 549

19.10 Organization of option and type_option members ... 549

19.11 Coverage computation ... 550

20. Utility system tasks and system functions ... 555

20.1 General... 555

20.2 Simulation control system tasks ... 556

20.3 Simulation time system functions... 556

20.4 Timescale system tasks... 558

20.5 Conversion functions ... 561

20.6 Data query functions... 562

20.7 Array querying functions ... 564

20.8 Math functions ... 566

20.9 Bit vector system functions... 568

20.10 Severity tasks ... 569

20.11 Elaboration system tasks... 570

20.12 Assertion control system tasks... 571

20.13 Sampled value system functions... 578

20.14 Coverage system functions ... 579

20.15 Probabilistic distribution functions... 579

20.16 Stochastic analysis tasks and functions ... 581

20.17 Programmable logic array modeling system tasks ... 583

20.18 Miscellaneous tasks and functions... 586

21. Input/output system tasks and system functions... 588

21.1 General... 588

21.2 Display system tasks... 588

21.3 File input/output system tasks and system functions... 599

21.4 Loading memory array data from a file ... 609

21.5 Writing memory array data to a file... 613

21.6 Command line input... 614

21.7 Value change dump (VCD) files ... 617

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22.2 Overview ... 638

22.3 `resetall... 638

22.4 `include ... 639

22.5 `define, `undef, and `undefineall ... 639

22.6 `ifdef, `else, `elsif, `endif, `ifndef ... 645

22.7 `timescale ... 648

22.8 `default_nettype ... 649

22.9 `unconnected_drive and `nounconnected_drive ... 650

22.10 `celldefine and `endcelldefine... 650

22.11 `pragma ... 650

22.12 `line ... 651

22.13 `__FILE__ and `__LINE__ ... 652

22.14 `begin_keywords, `end_keywords ... 653

Part Two: Hierarchy Constructs 23. Modules and hierarchy... 660

23.1 General... 660

23.2 Module definitions... 660

23.3 Module instances (hierarchy)... 672

23.4 Nested modules... 683

23.5 Extern modules ... 684

23.6 Hierarchical names ... 685

23.7 Member selects and hierarchical names ... 688

23.8 Upwards name referencing ... 689

23.9 Scope rules ... 692

23.10 Overriding module parameters ... 694

23.11 Binding auxiliary code to scopes or instances ... 701

24. Programs ... 705

24.1 General... 705

24.2 Overview... 705

24.3 The program construct ... 705

24.4 Eliminating testbench races ... 709

24.5 Blocking tasks in cycle/event mode... 709

24.6 Programwide space and anonymous programs... 710

24.7 Program control tasks ... 710

25. Interfaces... 711

25.1 General... 711

25.2 Overview... 711

25.3 Interface syntax... 712

25.4 Ports in interfaces... 716

25.5 Modports... 717

25.6 Interfaces and specify blocks ... 723

25.7 Tasks and functions in interfaces... 724

25.8 Parameterized interfaces ... 730

25.9 Virtual interfaces... 732

25.10 Access to interface objects... 737

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26.1 General... 738

26.2 Package declarations... 738

26.3 Referencing data in packages ... 739

26.4 Using packages in module headers ... 743

26.5 Search order rules ... 744

26.6 Exporting imported names from packages ... 746

26.7 The std built-in package... 747

27. Generate constructs... 749

27.1 General... 749

27.2 Overview... 749

27.3 Generate construct syntax... 749

27.4 Loop generate constructs ... 751

27.5 Conditional generate constructs... 755

27.6 External names for unnamed generate blocks ... 758

28. Gate-level and switch-level modeling ... 760

28.1 General... 760

28.2 Overview... 760

28.3 Gate and switch declaration syntax ... 760

28.4 and, nand, nor, or, xor, and xnor gates... 766

28.5 buf and not gates ... 767

28.6 bufif1, bufif0, notif1, and notif0 gates... 768

28.7 MOS switches ... 769

28.8 Bidirectional pass switches... 770

28.9 CMOS switches ... 771

28.10 pullup and pulldown sources ... 772

28.11 Logic strength modeling ... 772

28.12 Strengths and values of combined signals ... 774

28.13 Strength reduction by nonresistive devices ... 786

28.14 Strength reduction by resistive devices ... 786

28.15 Strengths of net types... 786

28.16 Gate and net delays ... 787

29. User-defined primitives ... 791

29.1 General... 791

29.2 Overview... 791

29.3 UDP definition... 791

29.4 Combinational UDPs ... 795

29.5 Level-sensitive sequential UDPs ... 796

29.6 Edge-sensitive sequential UDPs ... 796

29.7 Sequential UDP initialization ... 797

29.8 UDP instances... 799

29.9 Mixing level-sensitive and edge-sensitive descriptions... 800

29.10 Level-sensitive dominance ... 801

30. Specify blocks... 802

30.1 General... 802

30.2 Overview... 802

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30.5 Assigning delays to module paths ... 812

30.6 Mixing module path delays and distributed delays ... 816

30.7 Detailed control of pulse filtering behavior... 817

31. Timing checks... 826

31.1 General... 826

31.2 Overview... 826

31.3 Timing checks using a stability window... 829

31.4 Timing checks for clock and control signals ... 836

31.5 Edge-control specifiers ... 845

31.6 Notifiers: user-defined responses to timing violations ... 846

31.7 Enabling timing checks with conditioned events ... 848

31.8 Vector signals in timing checks ... 849

31.9 Negative timing checks... 850

32. Backannotation using the standard delay format... 855

32.1 General... 855

32.2 Overview... 855

32.3 The SDF annotator... 855

32.4 Mapping of SDF constructs to SystemVerilog ... 855

32.5 Multiple annotations ... 860

32.6 Multiple SDF files ... 861

32.7 Pulse limit annotation ... 861

32.8 SDF to SystemVerilog delay value mapping... 862

32.9 Loading timing data from an SDF file... 863

33. Configuring the contents of a design ... 865

33.1 General... 865

33.2 Overview... 865

33.3 Libraries ... 866

33.4 Configurations ... 868

33.5 Using libraries and configs ... 874

33.6 Configuration examples... 875

33.7 Displaying library binding information ... 877

33.8 Library mapping examples ... 877

34. Protected envelopes ... 880

34.1 General... 880

34.2 Overview... 880

34.3 Processing protected envelopes ... 880

34.4 Protect pragma directives... 882

34.5 Protect pragma keywords... 884

Part Three: Application Programming Interfaces 35. Direct programming interface... 901

35.1 General... 901

35.2 Overview... 901

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35.5 Imported tasks and functions ... 904 35.6 Calling imported functions ... 911 35.7 Exported functions ... 913 35.8 Exported tasks... 914 35.9 Disabling DPI tasks and functions... 914 36. Programming language interface (PLI/VPI) overview... 916 36.1 General... 916 36.2 PLI purpose and history... 916 36.3 User-defined system task and system function names... 917 36.4 User-defined system task and system function arguments ... 918 36.5 User-defined system task and system function types ... 918 36.6 User-supplied PLI applications... 918 36.7 PLI include files... 918 36.8 VPI sizetf, compiletf, and calltf routines ... 918 36.9 PLI mechanism ... 919 36.10 VPI access to SystemVerilog objects and simulation objects ... 921 36.11 List of VPI routines by functional category... 922 36.12 VPI backwards compatibility features and limitations ... 924 37. VPI object model diagrams... 929 37.1 General... 929 37.2 VPI Handles... 929 37.3 VPI object classifications... 930 37.4 Key to data model diagrams ... 936 37.5 Module ... 939 37.6 Interface ... 940 37.7 Modport ... 940 37.8 Interface task or function declaration ... 940 37.9 Program ... 941 37.10 Instance ... 942 37.11 Instance arrays ... 944 37.12 Scope ... 945 37.13 IO declaration ... 946 37.14 Ports ... 947 37.15 Reference objects ... 948 37.16 Nets ... 950 37.17 Variables ... 954 37.18 Packed array variables ... 957 37.19 Variable select ... 958 37.20 Memory... 959 37.21 Variable drivers and loads ... 959 37.22 Object Range... 960 37.23 Typespec ... 961 37.24 Structures and unions... 963 37.25 Named events ... 964 37.26 Parameter, spec param, def param, param assign ... 965 37.27 Virtual interface ... 966 37.28 Interface typespec ... 968 37.29 Class definition ... 969

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37.32 Constraint, constraint ordering, distribution ... 974 37.33 Primitive, prim term... 975 37.34 UDP ... 976 37.35 Intermodule path ... 976 37.36 Constraint expression ... 977 37.37 Module path, path term ... 978 37.38 Timing check ... 979 37.39 Task and function declaration ... 980 37.40 Task and function call ... 981 37.41 Frames ... 983 37.42 Threads ... 984 37.43 Delay terminals ... 984 37.44 Net drivers and loads ... 985 37.45 Continuous assignment ... 986 37.46 Clocking block ... 987 37.47 Assertion ... 988 37.48 Concurrent assertions ... 989 37.49 Property declaration ... 990 37.50 Property specification ... 991 37.51 Sequence declaration ... 992 37.52 Sequence expression ... 993 37.53 Immediate assertions ... 994 37.54 Multiclock sequence expression ... 995 37.55 Let ... 995 37.56 Simple expressions ... 996 37.57 Expressions ... 997 37.58 Atomic statement ... 1000 37.59 Dynamic prefixing ... 1001 37.60 Event statement ... 1002 37.61 Process ... 1002 37.62 Assignment ... 1003 37.63 Event control ... 1003 37.64 While, repeat... 1004 37.65 Waits ... 1004 37.66 Delay control... 1004 37.67 Repeat control ... 1005 37.68 Forever ... 1005 37.69 If, if–else ... 1005 37.70 Case, pattern ... 1006 37.71 Expect ... 1007 37.72 For ... 1007 37.73 Do-while, foreach ... 1007 37.74 Alias statement ... 1008 37.75 Disables... 1008 37.76 Return statement ... 1008 37.77 Assign statement, deassign, force, release... 1009 37.78 Callback ... 1009 37.79 Time queue ... 1010 37.80 Active time format ... 1010 37.81 Attribute ... 1011 37.82 Iterator... 1012 37.83 Generates ... 1013

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38.1 General... 1015 38.2 vpi_chk_error() ... 1015 38.3 vpi_compare_objects()... 1016 38.4 vpi_control() ... 1018 38.5 vpi_flush()... 1019 38.6 vpi_get()... 1019 38.7 vpi_get64()... 1020 38.8 vpi_get_cb_info()... 1020 38.9 vpi_get_data() ... 1021 38.10 vpi_get_delays()... 1022 38.11 vpi_get_str()... 1024 38.12 vpi_get_systf_info()... 1025 38.13 vpi_get_time()... 1026 38.14 vpi_get_userdata() ... 1027 38.15 vpi_get_value() ... 1027 38.16 vpi_get_value_array() ... 1033 38.17 vpi_get_vlog_info() ... 1037 38.18 vpi_handle() ... 1038 38.19 vpi_handle_by_index() ... 1039 38.20 vpi_handle_by_multi_index()... 1039 38.21 vpi_handle_by_name() ... 1040 38.22 vpi_handle_multi()... 1041 38.23 vpi_iterate()... 1041 38.24 vpi_mcd_close()... 1042 38.25 vpi_mcd_flush()... 1043 38.26 vpi_mcd_name() ... 1043 38.27 vpi_mcd_open() ... 1044 38.28 vpi_mcd_printf()... 1045 38.29 vpi_mcd_vprintf()... 1046 38.30 vpi_printf()... 1046 38.31 vpi_put_data()... 1047 38.32 vpi_put_delays() ... 1049 38.33 vpi_put_userdata() ... 1052 38.34 vpi_put_value()... 1052 38.35 vpi_put_value_array() ... 1055 38.36 vpi_register_cb()... 1059 38.37 vpi_register_systf() ... 1067 38.38 vpi_release_handle()... 1071 38.39 vpi_remove_cb()... 1071 38.40 vpi_scan()... 1072 38.41 vpi_vprintf()... 1073 39. Assertion API... 1074 39.1 General... 1074 39.2 Overview... 1074 39.3 Static information ... 1074 39.4 Dynamic information... 1075 39.5 Control functions ... 1079

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40.2 Overview... 1083 40.3 SystemVerilog real-time coverage access ... 1084 40.4 FSM recognition ... 1089 40.5 VPI coverage extensions... 1092 41. Data read API... 1097 Part Four: Annexes

Annex A (normative) Formal syntax ... 1099 A.1 Source text ... 1099 A.2 Declarations ... 1108 A.3 Primitive instances... 1119 A.4 Instantiations... 1120 A.5 UDP declaration and instantiation ... 1122 A.6 Behavioral statements ... 1123 A.7 Specify section... 1130 A.8 Expressions ... 1134 A.9 General... 1139 A.10 Footnotes (normative)... 1142 Annex B (normative) Keywords... 1145 Annex C (normative) Deprecation... 1147 C.1 General... 1147 C.2 Constructs that have been deprecated... 1147 C.3 Accellera SystemVerilog 3.1a-compatible access to packed data... 1148 C.4 Constructs identified for deprecation... 1148 Annex D (informative) Optional system tasks and system functions... 1151 D.1 General... 1151 D.2 $countdrivers ... 1151 D.3 $getpattern ... 1152 D.4 $input ... 1153 D.5 $key and $nokey ... 1153 D.6 $list... 1153 D.7 $log and $nolog ... 1153 D.8 $reset, $reset_count, and $reset_value ... 1154 D.9 $save, $restart, and $incsave... 1155 D.10 $scale ... 1156 D.11 $scope ... 1156 D.12 $showscopes ... 1156 D.13 $showvars ... 1156 D.14 $sreadmemb and $sreadmemh... 1156

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E.1 General... 1158 E.2 `default_decay_time... 1158 E.3 `default_trireg_strength ... 1158 E.4 `delay_mode_distributed ... 1159 E.5 `delay_mode_path... 1159 E.6 `delay_mode_unit ... 1159 E.7 `delay_mode_zero... 1159 Annex F (normative) Formal semantics of concurrent assertions ... 1160 F.1 General... 1160 F.2 Overview... 1160 F.3 Abstract syntax ... 1161 F.4 Rewriting algorithms ... 1167 F.5 Semantics ... 1171 F.6 Extended expressions... 1180 F.7 Recursive properties ... 1180 Annex G (normative) Std package... 1182 G.1 General... 1182 G.2 Overview... 1182 G.3 Semaphore ... 1182 G.4 Mailbox... 1182 G.5 Randomize ... 1183 G.6 Process ... 1183 Annex H (normative) DPI C layer ... 1184 H.1 General... 1184 H.2 Overview... 1184 H.3 Naming conventions ... 1185 H.4 Portability... 1185 H.5 svdpi.h include file... 1185 H.6 Semantic constraints ... 1186 H.7 Data types ... 1188 H.8 Argument passing modes... 1192 H.9 Context tasks and functions ... 1195 H.10 Include files... 1199 H.11 Arrays... 1202 H.12 Open arrays ... 1205 H.13 SV3.1a-compatible access to packed data (deprecated functionality)... 1211 Annex I (normative) svdpi.h ... 1217 I.1 General... 1217 I.2 Overview... 1217 I.3 Source code... 1217

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J.1 General... 1226 J.2 Overview... 1226 J.3 Location independence ... 1227 J.4 Object code inclusion... 1227 Annex K (normative) vpi_user.h ... 1230 K.1 General... 1230 K.2 Source code... 1230 Annex L (normative) vpi_compatibility.h ... 1247 L.1 General... 1247 L.2 Source code... 1247 Annex M (normative) sv_vpi_user.h ... 1250 M.1 General... 1250 M.2 Source code... 1250 Annex N (normative) Algorithm for probabilistic distribution functions ... 1260 N.1 General... 1260 N.2 Source code... 1260 Annex O (informative) Encryption/decryption flow ... 1268 O.1 General... 1268 O.2 Overview... 1268 O.3 Tool vendor secret key encryption system ... 1268 O.4 IP author secret key encryption system ... 1269 O.5 Digital envelopes ... 1270 Annex P (informative) Glossary ... 1272 Annex Q (informative) Bibliography ... 1275

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Figure 4-1—Event scheduling regions ... 28 Figure 6-1—Simulation values of a trireg and its driver ... 53 Figure 6-2—Simulation results of a capacitive network ... 54 Figure 6-3—Simulation results of charge sharing... 55 Figure 7-1—VInt type with packed qualifier ... 108 Figure 7-2—Instr type with packed qualifier ... 108 Figure 9-1—Intra-assignment repeat event control utilizing a clock edge... 188 Figure 14-1—Sample and drive times including skew with respect to the positive edge of the clock ... 305 Figure 16-1—Sampling a variable in a simulation time step ... 342 Figure 16-2—Concatenation of sequences ... 347 Figure 16-3—Value change expressions ... 362 Figure 16-4—Future value change ... 366 Figure 16-5—ANDing (and) two sequences ... 368 Figure 16-6—ANDing (and) two sequences, including a time range ... 369 Figure 16-7—ANDing (and) two Boolean expressions ... 369 Figure 16-8—Intersecting two sequences... 370 Figure 16-9—ORing (or) two Boolean expressions ... 371 Figure 16-10—ORing (or) two sequences... 372 Figure 16-11—ORing (or) two sequences, including a time range ... 373 Figure 16-12—Match with throughout restriction fails... 375 Figure 16-13—Match with throughout restriction succeeds ... 376 Figure 16-14—Conditional sequence matching ... 392 Figure 16-15—Conditional sequences... 393 Figure 16-16—Results without the condition... 393 Figure 16-17—Clocking blocks and concurrent assertion ... 447 Figure 17-1—Nondeterministic free checker variable ... 459 Figure 18-1—Example of randc ... 472 Figure 18-2—Global constraints ... 481 Figure 18-3—Truth tables for conjunction, disjunction, and negation rules... 487 Figure 21-1—Creating the 4-state VCD file... 617 Figure 21-2—Creating the extended VCD file... 627 Figure 23-1—Hierarchy in a model... 687 Figure 23-1—Scopes available to upward name referencing ... 693 Figure 28-1—Schematic diagram of interconnections in array of instances... 766 Figure 28-2—Scale of strengths ... 774 Figure 28-3—Combining unequal strengths... 774 Figure 28-4—Combination of signals of equal strength and opposite values ... 775 Figure 28-5—Weak x signal strength ... 775 Figure 28-6—Bufifs with control inputs of x ... 776

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Figure 28-9—Combined signals of ambiguous strength ... 777 Figure 28-10—Range of strengths for an unknown signal... 777 Figure 28-11—Ambiguous strengths from switch networks... 777 Figure 28-12—Range of two strengths of a defined value ... 778 Figure 28-13—Range of three strengths of a defined value ... 778 Figure 28-14—Unknown value with a range of strengths... 778 Figure 28-15—Strong X range ... 779 Figure 28-16—Ambiguous strength from gates ... 779 Figure 28-17—Ambiguous strength signal from a gate ... 779 Figure 28-18—Weak 0 ... 780 Figure 28-19—Ambiguous strength in combined gate signals ... 780 Figure 28-20—Elimination of strength levels ... 781 Figure 28-21—Result showing a range and the elimination of strength levels of two values ... 782 Figure 28-22—Result showing a range and the elimination of strength levels of one value ... 783 Figure 28-23—A range of both values ... 783 Figure 28-24—Wired logic with unambiguous strength signals ... 784 Figure 28-25—Wired logic and ambiguous strengths ... 785 Figure 28-26—Trireg net with capacitance ... 790 Figure 29-1—Module schematic and simulation times of initial value propagation ... 799 Figure 30-1—Module path delays ... 804 Figure 30-2—Difference between parallel and full connection paths ... 810 Figure 30-3—Module path delays longer than distributed delays... 816 Figure 30-4—Module path delays shorter than distributed delays... 817 Figure 30-5—Example of pulse filtering... 817 Figure 30-6—On-detect versus on-event... 820 Figure 30-7—Current event cancellation problem and correction ... 822 Figure 30-8—NAND gate with nearly simultaneous input switching where one event

is scheduled prior to another that has not matured ... 823 Figure 30-9—NAND gate with nearly simultaneous input switching with output event

scheduled at same time ... 824 Figure 31-1—Sample $timeskew ... 838 Figure 31-2—Sample $timeskew with remain_active_flag set ... 839 Figure 31-3—Sample $fullskew ... 841 Figure 31-4—Data constraint interval, positive setup/hold... 850 Figure 31-5—Data constraint interval, negative setup/hold ... 851 Figure 31-6—Timing check violation windows ... 854 Figure 37-1—Example of object relationships diagram... 931 Figure 37-2—Accessing a class of objects using tags ... 932 Figure 38-1—s_vpi_error_info structure definition ... 1016

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Figure 38-3—s_vpi_delay structure definition... 1022 Figure 38-4—s_vpi_time structure definition ... 1022 Figure 38-5—s_vpi_systf_data structure definition ... 1025 Figure 38-6—s_vpi_time structure definition ... 1026 Figure 38-7—s_vpi_value structure definition... 1028 Figure 38-8—s_vpi_vecval structure definition ... 1028 Figure 38-9—s_vpi_strengthval structure definition... 1028 Figure 38-10—s_vpi_vlog_info structure definition ... 1037 Figure 38-11—s_vpi_delay structure definition... 1050 Figure 38-12—s_vpi_time structure definition ... 1050 Figure 38-13—s_vpi_value structure definition... 1054 Figure 38-14—s_vpi_time structure definition ... 1054 Figure 38-15—s_vpi_vecval structure definition ... 1055 Figure 38-16—s_vpi_strengthval structure definition... 1055 Figure 38-17—s_cb_data structure definition ... 1059 Figure 38-18—s_vpi_systf_data structure definition ... 1068 Figure 39-1—Assertions with global clocking future sampled value functions ... 1079 Figure 40-1—Hierarchical instance example ... 1087 Figure 40-2—FSM specified with pragmas... 1092

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Table 3-1—Time unit strings... 19 Table 4-1—PLI callbacks ... 32 Table 5-1—Specifying special characters in string literals ... 41 Table 6-1—Built-in net types ... 51 Table 6-2—Truth table for wire and tri nets ... 51 Table 6-3—Truth table for wand and triand nets ... 52 Table 6-4—Truth table for wor and trior nets ... 52 Table 6-5—Truth table for tri0 net ... 56 Table 6-6—Truth table for tri1 net ... 56 Table 6-7—Default values... 66 Table 6-8—Integer data types... 68 Table 6-9—String operators ... 72 Table 6-10—Enumeration element ranges ... 80 Table 6-11—Differences between specparams and parameters ... 89 Table 7-1—Value read from a nonexistent array entry ... 112 Table 8-1—Comparison of pointer and handle types ... 137 Table 9-1—fork-join control options... 175 Table 9-2—Detecting posedge and negedge ... 181 Table 9-3—Intra-assignment timing control equivalence ... 187 Table 10-1—Legal left-hand forms in assignment statements ... 196 Table 11-1—Operators and data types ... 220 Table 11-2—Operator precedence and associativity ... 221 Table 11-3—Arithmetic operators defined ... 224 Table 11-4—Power operator rules... 225 Table 11-5—Unary operators defined ... 225 Table 11-6—Examples of modulus and power operators ... 225 Table 11-7—Data type interpretation by arithmetic operators ... 226 Table 11-8—Definitions of relational operators ... 227 Table 11-9—Definitions of equality operators ... 228 Table 11-10—Wildcard equality and wildcard inequality operators... 228 Table 11-11—Bitwise binary AND operator... 230 Table 11-12—Bitwise binary OR operator... 230 Table 11-13—Bitwise binary exclusive OR operator... 231 Table 11-14—Bitwise binary exclusive NOR operator... 231 Table 11-15—Bitwise unary negation operator... 231 Table 11-16—Reduction unary AND operator ... 232 Table 11-17—Reduction unary OR operator... 232 Table 11-18—Reduction unary exclusive OR operator ... 232 Table 11-19—Results of unary reduction operations ... 233

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Table 11-21—Bit lengths resulting from self-determined expressions ... 248 Table 16-1—Operator precedence and associativity ... 356 Table 16-2—Global clocking future sampled value functions ... 366 Table 16-3—Sequence and property operator precedence and associativity ... 388 Table 18-1—Unordered constraint c legal value probability ... 482 Table 18-2—Ordered constraint c legal value probability ... 483 Table 18-3—rand_mode argument... 496 Table 18-4—constraint_mode argument ... 498 Table 19-1—Instance-specific coverage options... 542 Table 19-2—Coverage options per syntactic level... 544 Table 19-3—Coverage group type (static) options... 545 Table 19-4—Coverage type options ... 546 Table 19-5—Predefined coverage methods... 547 Table 20-1—Diagnostics for $finish ... 556 Table 20-2—$timeformat units_number arguments... 559 Table 20-3—$timeformat default value for arguments ... 560 Table 20-4—SystemVerilog to C real math function cross-listing ... 567 Table 20-5—Values for control_type for assertion control tasks... 573 Table 20-6—Values for assertion_type for assertion control tasks ... 573 Table 20-7—Values for directive_type for assertion control tasks ... 573 Table 20-8—VPI callbacks for assertion control tasks ... 577 Table 20-9—Types of queues of $q_type values ... 581 Table 20-10—Argument values for $q_exam system task... 582 Table 20-11—Status code values ... 582 Table 20-12—PLA modeling system tasks ... 583 Table 21-1—Escape sequences for printing special characters... 589 Table 21-2—Escape sequences for format specifications ... 590 Table 21-3—Format specifications for real numbers ... 592 Table 21-4—Logic value component of strength format ... 595 Table 21-5—Mnemonics for strength levels ... 595 Table 21-6—Explanation of strength formats ... 596 Table 21-7—Types for file descriptors... 600 Table 21-8—$fscanf input field characters... 605 Table 21-9—Rules for left-extending vector values... 623 Table 21-10—How the VCD can shorten values ... 623 Table 21-11—Keyword commands... 624 Table 21-12—VCD type mapping... 636 Table 22-1—IEEE 1364-1995 reserved keywords ... 655 Table 22-2—IEEE 1364-2001 additional reserved keywords ... 656

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Table 22-5—IEEE 1800-2009 additional reserved keywords ... 657 Table 22-6—IEEE 1800-2012 additional reserved keywords ... 658 Table 23-1—Net types resulting from dissimilar port connections... 682 Table 26-1—Scoping rules for package importation... 745 Table 28-1—Built-in gates and switches... 762 Table 28-2—Valid gate types for strength specifications ... 762 Table 28-3—Truth tables for multiple input logic gates ... 767 Table 28-4—Truth tables for multiple output logic gates ... 768 Table 28-5—Truth tables for three-state logic gates ... 769 Table 28-6—Truth tables for MOS switches ... 770 Table 28-7—Strength levels for scalar net signal values ... 773 Table 28-8—Strength reduction rules... 786 Table 28-9—Rules for propagation delays ... 787 Table 29-1—UDP table symbols... 794 Table 29-2—Initial statements in UDPs and modules... 797 Table 29-3—Mixing of level-sensitive and edge-sensitive entries ... 801 Table 30-1—List of valid operators in state-dependent path delay expression... 807 Table 30-2—Associating path delay expressions with transitions ... 813 Table 30-3—Calculating delays for x transitions ... 815 Table 31-1—$setup arguments ... 829 Table 31-2—$hold arguments ... 830 Table 31-3—$setuphold arguments ... 831 Table 31-4—$removal arguments ... 833 Table 31-5—$recovery arguments ... 834 Table 31-6—$recrem arguments ... 835 Table 31-7—$skew arguments ... 837 Table 31-8—$timeskew arguments ... 838 Table 31-9—$fullskew arguments... 840 Table 31-10—$width arguments ... 842 Table 31-11—$period arguments ... 843 Table 31-12—$nochange arguments ... 844 Table 31-13—Notifier value responses to timing violations ... 846 Table 32-1—Mapping of SDF delay constructs to SystemVerilog declarations... 856 Table 32-2—Mapping of SDF timing check constructs to SystemVerilog... 857 Table 32-3—SDF annotation of interconnect delays ... 859 Table 32-4—SDF to SystemVerilog delay value mapping ... 862 Table 32-5—mtm_spec argument ... 863 Table 32-6—scale_type argument ... 864

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Table 34-2—Encoding algorithm identifiers ... 887 Table 34-3—Encryption algorithm identifiers ... 889 Table 34-4—Message digest algorithm identifiers... 894 Table 36-1—VPI routines for simulation-related callbacks ... 922 Table 36-2—VPI routines for system task or system function callbacks... 923 Table 36-3—VPI routines for traversing SystemVerilog hierarchy... 923 Table 36-4—VPI routines for accessing properties of objects ... 923 Table 36-5—VPI routines for accessing objects from properties... 923 Table 36-6—VPI routines for delay processing ... 923 Table 36-7—VPI routines for logic and strength value processing... 923 Table 36-8—VPI routines for simulation time processing... 924 Table 36-9—VPI routines for miscellaneous utilities ... 924 Table 36-10—Summary of VPI incompatibilities across versions ... 925 Table 37-1—Part-select parent expressions ... 999 Table 38-1—Return error constants for vpi_chk_error()... 1016 Table 38-2—Size of the s_vpi_delay->da array ... 1023 Table 38-3—Return value field of the s_vpi_value structure union ... 1029 Table 38-4—Size of the s_vpi_delay->da array ... 1050 Table 38-5—Value format field of cb_data_p->value->format ... 1061 Table 38-6—cbStmt callbacks... 1063 Table 40-1—Coverage control return values... 1085 Table 40-2—Instance coverage permutations ... 1086 Table 40-3—Assertion coverage results... 1094 Table B.1—Reserved keywords ... 1145 Table D.1—Argument return value for $countdriver function... 1152 Table H.1—Mapping data types ... 1189 Table N.1—SystemVerilog to C function cross-listing... 1260

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Syntax 5-1—Syntax for system tasks and system functions (excerpt from Annex A) ... 35 Syntax 5-2—Syntax for integer and real numbers (excerpt from Annex A) ... 36 Syntax 5-3—Syntax for attributes (excerpt from Annex A) ... 44 Syntax 6-1—Syntax for net type declarations (excerpt from Annex A) ... 56 Syntax 6-2—Syntax for net declarations (excerpt from Annex A) ... 61 Syntax 6-3—Syntax for variable declarations (excerpt from Annex A) ... 65 Syntax 6-4—User-defined types (excerpt from Annex A) ... 76 Syntax 6-5—Enumerated types (excerpt from Annex A) ... 78 Syntax 6-6—Parameter declaration syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 84 Syntax 6-7—Casting (excerpt from Annex A) ... 96 Syntax 7-1—Structure declaration syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 103 Syntax 7-2—Union declaration syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 106 Syntax 7-3—Dynamic array new constructor syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 114 Syntax 7-4—Declaration of queue dimension (excerpt from Annex A) ... 125 Syntax 7-5—Array method call syntax (not in Annex A) ... 129 Syntax 8-1—Class syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 136 Syntax 8-2—Calling a constructor (excerpt from Annex A) ... 140 Syntax 8-3—Class syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 159 Syntax 9-1—Syntax for structured procedures (excerpt from Annex A) ... 169 Syntax 9-2—Syntax for sequential block (excerpt from Annex A) ... 174 Syntax 9-3—Syntax for parallel block (excerpt from Annex A) ... 175 Syntax 9-4—Delay and event control syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 180 Syntax 9-5—Syntax for wait statement (excerpt from Annex A) ... 185 Syntax 9-6—Syntax for intra-assignment delay and event control (excerpt from Annex A) ... 186 Syntax 9-7—Syntax for process control statements (excerpt from Annex A) ... 189 Syntax 10-1—Syntax for continuous assignment (excerpt from Annex A) ... 197 Syntax 10-2—Blocking assignment syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 201 Syntax 10-3—Nonblocking assignment syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 202 Syntax 10-4—Syntax for procedural continuous assignments (excerpt from Annex A) ... 205 Syntax 10-5—Assignment patterns syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 210 Syntax 10-6—Syntax for net aliasing (excerpt from Annex A) ... 216 Syntax 11-1—Operator syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 219 Syntax 11-2—Conditional operator syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 234 Syntax 11-3—Inside expression syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 237 Syntax 11-4—Streaming concatenation syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 239 Syntax 11-5—With expression syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 241 Syntax 11-6—Tagged union syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 251 Syntax 11-7—Operator overloading syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 255 Syntax 11-8—Syntax for min:typ:max expression (excerpt from Annex A) ... 257

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Syntax 12-1—Procedural statement syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 265 Syntax 12-2—Syntax for if–else statement (excerpt from Annex A) ... 265 Syntax 12-3—Syntax for case statements (excerpt from Annex A) ... 270 Syntax 12-4—Pattern syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 275 Syntax 12-5—Loop statement syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 279 Syntax 12-6—Jump statement syntax (excerpt from Annex A)... 283 Syntax 13-1—Task syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 286 Syntax 13-2—Function syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 290 Syntax 13-3—Task or function call syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 296 Syntax 14-1—Clocking block syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 303 Syntax 14-2—Cycle delay syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 309 Syntax 14-3—Default clocking syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 310 Syntax 14-4—Global clocking syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 311 Syntax 14-5—Synchronous drive syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 316 Syntax 15-1—Event trigger syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 326 Syntax 15-2—Wait_order event sequencing syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 327 Syntax 16-1—Immediate assertion syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 331 Syntax 16-2—Deferred immediate assertion syntax (excerpt from Annex A)... 334 Syntax 16-3—Sequence syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 345 Syntax 16-4—Sequence concatenation syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 346 Syntax 16-5—Declaring sequence syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 349 Syntax 16-6—Sequence repetition syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 357 Syntax 16-7—And operator syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 367 Syntax 16-8—Intersect operator syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 370 Syntax 16-9—Or operator syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 371 Syntax 16-10—First_match operator syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 373 Syntax 16-11—Throughout construct syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 375 Syntax 16-12—Within construct syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 376 Syntax 16-13—Assertion variable declaration syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 378 Syntax 16-14—Variable assignment syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 379 Syntax 16-15—Subroutine call in sequence syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 384 Syntax 16-16—Property construct syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 387 Syntax 16-17—Implication syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 390 Syntax 16-18—Followed-by syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 395 Syntax 16-19—Property statement case syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 404 Syntax 16-20—Concurrent assert construct syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 422 Syntax 16-21—Default clocking and default disable syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 438 Syntax 16-22—Expect statement syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 445 Syntax 17-1—Checker declaration syntax (excerpt from Annex A)... 449

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Syntax 18-2—Constraint syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 473 Syntax 18-3—Constraint distribution syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 476 Syntax 18-4—Uniqueness constraint syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 477 Syntax 18-5—Constraint implication syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 478 Syntax 18-6—If–else constraint syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 478 Syntax 18-7—Foreach iterative constraint syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 479 Syntax 18-8—Solve...before constraint ordering syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 483 Syntax 18-9—Static constraint syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 484 Syntax 18-10—Inline constraint syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 493 Syntax 18-11—Scope randomize function syntax (not in Annex A) ... 500 Syntax 18-12—Randcase syntax (excerpt from Annex A)... 506 Syntax 18-13—Randsequence syntax (excerpt from Annex A)... 508 Syntax 18-14—Random production weights syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 509 Syntax 18-15—If–else conditional random production syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 509 Syntax 18-16—Case random production syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 510 Syntax 18-17—Repeat random production syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 510 Syntax 18-18—Rand join random production syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 511 Syntax 18-19—Random production syntax (excerpt from Annex A)... 513 Syntax 19-1—Covergroup syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 518 Syntax 19-2—Coverage point syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 523 Syntax 19-3—Transition bin syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 527 Syntax 19-4—Cross coverage syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 534 Syntax 20-1—Syntax for simulation control tasks (not in Annex A) ... 556 Syntax 20-2—Syntax for time system functions (not in Annex A) ... 556 Syntax 20-3—Syntax for $printtimescale (not in Annex A) ... 558 Syntax 20-4—Syntax for $timeformat (not in Annex A) ... 559 Syntax 20-5—Type name function syntax (not in Annex A) ... 562 Syntax 20-6—Size function syntax (not in Annex A) ... 563 Syntax 20-7—Range function syntax (not in Annex A) ... 564 Syntax 20-8—Array querying function syntax (not in Annex A) ... 564 Syntax 20-9—Bit vector system function syntax (not in Annex A) ... 568 Syntax 20-10—Severity system task syntax (not in Annex A) ... 569 Syntax 20-11—Elaboration system task syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 570 Syntax 20-12—Assertion control syntax (not in Annex A) ... 572 Syntax 20-13—Sampled value system function syntax (not in Annex A) ... 578 Syntax 20-14—Syntax for $random (not in Annex A) ... 579 Syntax 20-15—Syntax for probabilistic distribution functions (not in Annex A) ... 580 Syntax 20-16—Syntax for PLA modeling system task (not in Annex A) ... 583

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Syntax 21-1—Syntax for $display and $write system tasks (not in Annex A) ... 589 Syntax 21-2—Syntax for $strobe system tasks (not in Annex A) ... 598 Syntax 21-3—Syntax for $monitor system tasks (not in Annex A) ... 598 Syntax 21-4—Syntax for $fopen and $fclose system tasks (not in Annex A) ... 599 Syntax 21-5—Syntax for file output system tasks (not in Annex A) ... 601 Syntax 21-6—Syntax for formatting data tasks (not in Annex A) ... 602 Syntax 21-7—Syntax for file read system functions (not in Annex A)... 603 Syntax 21-8—Syntax for file positioning system functions (not in Annex A) ... 607 Syntax 21-9—Syntax for file flush system task (not in Annex A) ... 608 Syntax 21-10—Syntax for file I/O error detection system function (not in Annex A) ... 609 Syntax 21-11—Syntax for end-of-file file detection system function (not in Annex A) ... 609 Syntax 21-12—Syntax for memory load system tasks (not in Annex A) ... 609 Syntax 21-13—$writemem system task syntax (not in Annex A) ... 613 Syntax 21-14—Syntax for $dumpfile task (not in Annex A) ... 617 Syntax 21-15—Syntax for $dumpvars task (not in Annex A)... 618 Syntax 21-16—Syntax for $dumpoff and $dumpon tasks (not in Annex A) ... 619 Syntax 21-17—Syntax for $dumpall task (not in Annex A) ... 619 Syntax 21-18—Syntax for $dumplimit task (not in Annex A) ... 620 Syntax 21-19—Syntax for $dumpflush task (not in Annex A) ... 620 Syntax 21-20—Syntax for output 4-state VCD file (not in Annex A) ... 622 Syntax 21-21—Syntax for $dumpports task (not in Annex A) ... 627 Syntax 21-22—Syntax for $dumpportsoff and $dumpportson system tasks (not in Annex A) ... 628 Syntax 21-23—Syntax for $dumpportsall system task (not in Annex A) ... 629 Syntax 21-24—Syntax for $dumpportslimit system task (not in Annex A) ... 629 Syntax 21-25—Syntax for $dumpportsflush system task (not in Annex A) ... 629 Syntax 21-26—Syntax for $vcdclose keyword (not in Annex A) ... 630 Syntax 21-27—Syntax for output extended VCD file (not in Annex A) ... 631 Syntax 21-28—Syntax for extended VCD node information (not in Annex A) ... 632 Syntax 21-29—Syntax for value change section (not in Annex A) ... 633 Syntax 22-1—Syntax for include compiler directive (not in Annex A) ... 639 Syntax 22-2—Syntax for text macro definition (not in Annex A) ... 640 Syntax 22-3—Syntax for text macro usage (not in Annex A) ... 641 Syntax 22-4—Syntax for undef compiler directive (not in Annex A) ... 645 Syntax 22-5—Syntax for conditional compilation directives (not in Annex A) ... 645 Syntax 22-6—Syntax for timescale compiler directive (not in Annex A) ... 648 Syntax 22-7—Syntax for default_nettype compiler directive (not in Annex A) ... 650 Syntax 22-8—Syntax for pragma compiler directive (not in Annex A) ... 651 Syntax 22-9—Syntax for line compiler directive (not in Annex A) ... 652 Syntax 22-10—Syntax for begin_keywords and end_keywords compiler directives (not in Annex A) .... 653

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Syntax 23-3—Non-ANSI style port declaration syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 663 Syntax 23-4—ANSI style list_of_port_declarations syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 666 Syntax 23-5—Module item syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 672 Syntax 23-6—Module instance syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 673 Syntax 23-7—Syntax for hierarchical path names (excerpt from Annex A) ... 686 Syntax 23-8—Syntax for upward name referencing (not in Annex A) ... 690 Syntax 23-9—Bind construct syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 702 Syntax 24-1—Program declaration syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 706 Syntax 25-1—Interface syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 712 Syntax 25-2—Modport clocking declaration syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 722 Syntax 25-3—Virtual interface declaration syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 732 Syntax 26-1—Package declaration syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 739 Syntax 26-2—Package import syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 740 Syntax 26-3—Package import in header syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 744 Syntax 26-4—Package export syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 746 Syntax 26-5—Std package import syntax (not in Annex A) ... 748 Syntax 27-1—Syntax for generate constructs (excerpt from Annex A)... 751 Syntax 28-1—Syntax for gate instantiation (excerpt from Annex A) ... 761 Syntax 29-1—Syntax for UDPs (excerpt from Annex A) ... 792 Syntax 29-2—Syntax for UDP instances (excerpt from Annex A) ... 799 Syntax 30-1—Syntax for specify block (excerpt from Annex A) ... 802 Syntax 30-2—Syntax for module path declaration (excerpt from Annex A) ... 803 Syntax 30-3—Syntax for simple module path (excerpt from Annex A) ... 804 Syntax 30-4—Syntax for edge-sensitive path declaration (excerpt from Annex A) ... 805 Syntax 30-5—Syntax for state-dependent paths (excerpt from Annex A) ... 806 Syntax 30-6—Syntax for path delay value (excerpt from Annex A) ... 813 Syntax 30-7—Syntax for PATHPULSE$ pulse control (excerpt from Annex A) ... 818 Syntax 30-8—Syntax for pulse style declarations (excerpt from Annex A) ... 820 Syntax 30-9—Syntax for showcancelled declarations (excerpt from Annex A)... 821 Syntax 31-1—Syntax for system timing checks (excerpt from Annex A) ... 827 Syntax 31-2—Syntax for time check conditions and timing check events (excerpt from Annex A)... 828 Syntax 31-3—Syntax for $setup (excerpt from Annex A) ... 829 Syntax 31-4—Syntax for $hold (excerpt from Annex A) ... 830 Syntax 31-5—Syntax for $setuphold (excerpt from Annex A) ... 831 Syntax 31-6—Syntax for $removal (excerpt from Annex A) ... 833 Syntax 31-7—Syntax for $recovery (excerpt from Annex A)... 833 Syntax 31-8—Syntax for $recrem (excerpt from Annex A) ... 834 Syntax 31-9—Syntax for $skew (excerpt from Annex A) ... 836

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Syntax 31-11—Syntax for $fullskew (excerpt from Annex A) ... 840 Syntax 31-12—Syntax for $width (excerpt from Annex A) ... 842 Syntax 31-13—Syntax for $period (excerpt from Annex A) ... 843 Syntax 31-14—Syntax for $nochange (excerpt from Annex A) ... 844 Syntax 31-15—Syntax for edge-control specifier (excerpt from Annex A) ... 845 Syntax 31-16—Syntax for controlled timing check events (excerpt from Annex A) ... 848 Syntax 32-1—Syntax for $sdf_annotate system task (not in Annex A) ... 863 Syntax 33-1—Syntax for cell (excerpt from Annex A) ... 866 Syntax 33-2—Syntax for declaring library in library map file (excerpt from Annex A) ... 867 Syntax 33-3—Syntax for include command (excerpt from Annex A) ... 868 Syntax 33-4—Syntax for configurations (excerpt from Annex A) ... 869 Syntax 35-1—DPI import declaration syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 908 Syntax 35-2—DPI export declaration syntax (excerpt from Annex A) ... 913

Figure

Table 22-5—IEEE 1800-2009 additional reserved keywords   ..................................................................

Table 22-5—IEEE

1800-2009 additional reserved keywords .................................................................. p.33
Table 3-1—Time unit strings Character string Unit of measurement

Table 3-1—Time

unit strings Character string Unit of measurement p.59
Figure 4-1—Event scheduling regions PreponedPre-ActiveActiveInactivePre-NBANBAPost-NBAPostponedtime slotfrom previoustime slot to next time slotregionPLI regionLegend:Pre-PostponedReactiveRe-InactivePre-Re-NBARe-NBAPost-Re-NBAPre-ObservedObservedPost-Obser

Figure 4-1—Event

scheduling regions PreponedPre-ActiveActiveInactivePre-NBANBAPost-NBAPostponedtime slotfrom previoustime slot to next time slotregionPLI regionLegend:Pre-PostponedReactiveRe-InactivePre-Re-NBARe-NBAPost-Re-NBAPre-ObservedObservedPost-Obser p.68
Table 4-1—PLI callbacks Callback Event region  cbAfterDelay Pre-Active

Table 4-1—PLI

callbacks Callback Event region cbAfterDelay Pre-Active p.72
Table 4-1 provides the mapping from the various PLI callbacks.

Table 4-1

provides the mapping from the various PLI callbacks. p.72
Table 5-1—Specifying special characters in string literals Escape string Character produced by escape string

Table 5-1—Specifying

special characters in string literals Escape string Character produced by escape string p.81
Table 5-1—Specifying special characters in string literals  (continued) Escape string Character produced by escape string

Table 5-1—Specifying

special characters in string literals (continued) Escape string Character produced by escape string p.82
Table 6-1—Built-in net types

Table 6-1—Built-in

net types p.91
Table 6-2 is a truth table for resolving multiple drivers on  wire  and  tri  nets. It assumes equal strengths for both drivers

Table 6-2

is a truth table for resolving multiple drivers on wire and tri nets. It assumes equal strengths for both drivers p.91
Table 6-3—Truth table for wand and triand nets wand/triand 0 1 x z

Table 6-3—Truth

table for wand and triand nets wand/triand 0 1 x z p.92
Figure 6-1—Simulation values of a trireg and its driver

Figure 6-1—Simulation

values of a trireg and its driver p.93
Figure 6-2—Simulation results of a capacitive network

Figure 6-2—Simulation

results of a capacitive network p.94
Figure 6-3—Simulation results of charge sharing

Figure 6-3—Simulation

results of charge sharing p.95
Table 6-5—Truth table for tri0 net

Table 6-5—Truth

table for tri0 net p.96
Table 6-8—Integer data types shortint 2-state data type, 16-bit signed integer

Table 6-8—Integer

data types shortint 2-state data type, 16-bit signed integer p.108
Table 6-9—String operators

Table 6-9—String

operators p.112
Table 6-9—String operators  (continued)

Table 6-9—String

operators (continued) p.113
Table 6-10—Enumeration element ranges name Associates the next consecutive number with name.

Table 6-10—Enumeration

element ranges name Associates the next consecutive number with name. p.120
Table 6-11—Differences between specparams and parameters Specparams (specify parameter) Parameters Use keyword specparam Use keyword parameter

Table 6-11—Differences

between specparams and parameters Specparams (specify parameter) Parameters Use keyword specparam Use keyword parameter p.129
Figure 7-2—Instr type with packed qualifier3210x x x x x x x ... ... ... x x x x x x x x x3211..

Figure 7-2—Instr

type with packed qualifier3210x x x x x x x ... ... ... x x x x x x x x x3211.. p.148
Figure 7-1—VInt type with packed qualifier

Figure 7-1—VInt

type with packed qualifier p.148
Table 7-1—Value read from a nonexistent array entry

Table 7-1—Value

read from a nonexistent array entry p.152
Table 7-1—Value read from a nonexistent array entry  (continued)

Table 7-1—Value

read from a nonexistent array entry (continued) p.153
Table 8-1—Comparison of pointer and handle types

Table 8-1—Comparison

of pointer and handle types p.177

References

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