Studies Series: Introduction to

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Enriching Knowledge for the SS Tourism and Hospitality

Studies Series: Introduction to

Hospitality – Accommodation

Sector (New)


Nature of

hospitality industry

Introdution to the

hotel operations Introduction to the

room division


Introduction to the

accommodation sector


03 04

Table of contents


Future Development


Nature of hospitality industry


Characteristics of

the Hospitality Industry

Hospitality Industry Characteristics

Product-service mix

Two-way communication

Relationship building Diversity in culture

Labor intensive


Characteristics of

the Hospitality Industry

1. Product-service mix

• The characteristics include tangible and intangible

• Focus on providing quality services and products

2. Two-way communication

• Communicate with customers every moment

• Understand the instant needs of customers

• Focus on staff’s relationship


Characteristics of

the Hospitality Industry

3. Relationship building

• Rely on long-term customers

• Build good relationships, customers are likely to provide opinions

• Provide tailor-made product and services

4. Diversity in culture

• Customers are from different countries or religion

• Accept different value and handling method

• Staff must satisfy needs from different cultural



Characteristics of

the Hospitality Industry

5. Labor intensive

• Service-oriented

• Labor from different backgrounds needs to work together

• Create a memorable experience for the customers


Introduction to the

accommodation sector


Types of Accommodation

City center hotels Spa hotels

Suburban hotels Casino hotels

Airport hotels All-suite hotels

Highway hotels or Motels Boutique hotels

Convention hotels Timeshares / Vacation ownership Commercial hotels Historic conversion hotels

Resort hotels Extendedstay hotels / Serviced Apartments

Bed and breakfast inns (B&Bs) Guest houses

Hostels Cabins

Villas or Chalets


Convention hotel vs Commercial hotel

Convention hotel

• Located in financial and business center (central business district).

• With various business facilities such as conference table, working table, Internet connection.

• A large number of guest room.

• With more relax and pressure- releasing facilities.

• With large conference area.

Commercial hotel

• Located in city center or business district.

• Small room size, provide simple service.

• The decoration of the restaurant is simple.

• Area for conference activities is small.

• Provide business facilities.


Types of Accommodation

• City center hotels Eaton HK

• Airport hotels

Regal Airport Hotel

• Villas or Chalets

Club Med Finolhu Villas (Maldives)

• Convention hotels

Grand Hyatt hotels • Commercial hotels


Types of Accommodation

• Resort hotels

• Bed and breakfast inns (B&Bs) B&B Cheung Chau

• Spa hotels

Cordis, Hong Kong

• Hostels

YHA Mei Ho House Youth Hostel • Casino hotels Disney Explorers Lodge


Types of Accommodation

• All-suite hotels Horizon Suite Hotel

• Boutique hotels

Tung Nam Lou Art Hotel

• Timeshares / Vacation ownership Westin Los Cabos Resort Villas and Spa (Mexico)

• Historic conversion hotels FWD HOUSE 1881

• Extendedstay hotels / Serviced Apartments Harbourfront Horizon

• Guest houses Heart Guest House


Special hotel worldwide

Capsule Hotels – Japan

Nine Hours Shinjuku-North

Nine Hours is a modern capsule hotel with a space shuttle design.

The front desk is open 24 hours, can book a pod day or night.

The name is based on the idea that business travellers spend an

average of nine hours at their hotel.


Special hotel worldwide

Underwater Hotels – Maldives Conrad Maldives Rangali Island

• Master bedroom with 180-degree curved acrylic dome

• Floor-to-ceiling windows in the bathroom and walk-in closet

• Dedicated tunnel viewing theater


Special hotel worldwide

Cave Hotels – Turkey Museum Hotel

• Museum Hotel award-winning hotel

provides “real” museum experience with its authentic accommodation furnished with priceless antiques.

• Heated outdoor pool offered by the hotel is available throughout the year.

• Certain rooms also include free wine taps

which can be enjoyed during your stay.


Different types of room in a hotel

Types of Room Descriptions

Single Room A room that sleeps only one person and has been fitted with a single, double or queen-size bed.

Twin Room A room that can accommodate two persons with two twin beds.

Double Room A room that can accommodate two persons with a double or queen-size bed.

Double-Double Room

A room that can accommodate two to four persons with two twin, double or queen-size beds.

Triple Room A room that can accommodate three persons and has been fitted with three twin beds, one double bed and one twin bed or two double beds.


Different types of room in a hotel

Types of Room Descriptions

Hollywood Twin Room

A room that can accommodate two persons with two twin beds joined together by a common headboard. Medium tariff and budget hotels tend to provide many of these room settings which cater both couples and parties in two.

Studio / Murphy Room

A room that is fitted with a sofa bed or a Murphy bed (i.e. a bed that folds out of a wall or closet) which can be transformed from a bedroom in night time to a living room in day time.

Suite A room with one or more bedrooms and a living space.

The bedrooms might be singles, doubles or twin doubles.


Different types of room in a hotel

Types of Room

Descriptions President


The most expensive room provided by a hotel. Usually, only one president suite is available in one single hotel property. Similar to the normal suites, a president suite always has one or more bedrooms and a living space with strong emphasis on grand in-room decoration, high quality amenities and supplies, and tailor-made services (e.g. personal butler during the stay).

Villa A special form of accommodation which can be found in some resort hotels. It is a kind of stand-alone house which gives extra privacy and space to hotel guests. A fully equipped villa contains not only bedrooms and a living room but a private swimming pool, Jacuzzi and balcony. It is suitable for couples, families and large groups.


Different types of room in a hotel

Types of Room

Descriptions Accessible


This room type is mainly designed for disabled guests and it is required by law that hotels must provide certain number of accessible rooms to avoid discrimination. The room setting of an accessible room is different from other standard rooms for guests’ conveniences. Common features include safety bars and emergency buttons in the bedroom and bathroom, touch floor lamps, fire alarm lights, and outward opening door for bathroom, etc. The rooms should always be located at ground or at lower floors and should be near to the elevators for easier accessibility of disabled guests. Besides, this room type is also suitable for seniors.


Different types of room in a hotel

Types of Room Descriptions

Balcony Room A room with a balcony.

Executive- Floored Room

A room located at the ‘executive floor’ which enables convenient access to the executive lounge. Besides, some hotels also provide ‘female executive floors’ with their rooms assigned to female guests only due to safety and security reasons.

Room for

Extended Stay

This room type can be found in service apartments and hotels which target for long stay guests (e.g. expatriates). Open kitchens or cooking equipment are usually available in the room. Some would also provide housekeeping services (e.g. once a week) in a regular basis.


Different types of room in a hotel

Types of Room Descriptions

Smoking / Non- Smoking Room

Many hotels provide both smoking and non-smoking rooms for their guests. In order to minimize the effects of secondhand smoke exposure on non-smoking guests, some hotels group all smoking rooms in certain floors and separate them from non-smoking rooms.

Adjacent Room Rooms close by or across the corridor, but are not side by side.

Adjoining Room Rooms that are side by side, but do not have a connecting door between them.

Connecting Room

Two rooms that are side by side and have a connecting door between them.


1. Rack Rate

2. Corporate Rate 3. Commercial Rate 4. Airline Rate

Different types of room rates in a hotel

5. Group Rate 6. Children’s Rate 7. Package rate

8. Complimentary rate (Comp)


Introduction to the hotel operations


Types of hotel guests

Hotel guests Hotel guests

Leisure Travelers Domestic Tourists Corporate Business


Conference Participants Free Independent

Travelers (FITs)

Very Important Persons (VIPs)

Group Inclusive Tours (GITs)



Modes of Hotel Management

Independently Owned and Operated

1. Tuve hotel (Causeway Bay)

• With edgy urban location &

bonsai version of minimalism

• Located in east of Victoria Park, the uniquely decorated TUVE is a quiet space in

contrast to the nearby bustling

Causeway Bay area


Modes of Hotel Management

Independently Owned and Operated

2. Tung Nam Lou Art Hotel (Yau Ma Tei)

• The decoration is based on the theme of combining

Chinese and Western, and there are also many cultural and artistic facilities.

• 52 rooms with various

themes such as design,

music, reading.


Modes of Hotel Management

Management Contract

Crowne Plaza Causeway Bay Hong Kong (SEA Group)

• Situated at the heart of Hong Kong's most renowned shopping district

• a spectacular city or Happy Valley Racecourse view

• 263 guest rooms and suites are spacious and comfortable


Modes of Hotel Management

Management Contract - Hotel owners

Advantages Disadvantages

1. Managed and trained by experienced talents

2. Lower the risk due to lack of management experiences

3. Gain hotel management knowledge and skills for future management

1. Financially liable for all costs, expenses & losses

2. Lost of operational control 3. Less incentive and morale in

management enterprise if only a fixed management fee is paid

without any sharing of profits


Modes of Hotel Management

Management Contract - Management enterprises

Advantages Disadvantages

1. Receive a management fee during the contract period

2. Little or no up-front financing or equity involved

3. Last for five, ten or twenty years in management contract period

1. Over dependence on owner for necessary funds in operations

2. Minimum input in ownership decisions

3. No extra rewards for good business performance if the

management contract is run in a fee structure without any

incentive schemes


Modes of Hotel Management


InterContinental Hotels Group, AccorHotels - Novotel Citygate Hong Kong Hotel

• Offers free shuttle services

to Hong Kong International



Modes of Hotel Management

Franchising - Franchisees

Advantages Disadvantages

1. Gain the hotel management knowledge and experience

2. Gain the brands using right of famous hotel

3. Gain control rights of hotels operation

1. Strict requirements and standards

2. Joining Fees to hotel owners

3. Hotel owners can retract the

brand using rights anytime


Modes of Hotel Management

Franchising - Franchisors

Advantages Disadvantages

1. Expand the market rapidly

2. Gain joining fees and different margin profit by the franchisee 3. Huge purchasing

1. Brand negative image occurred by some franchisee

2. Franchisee gain the hotel guests list and main messages from the hotel

3. Difficulty to manage all of the

hotels around the world


Organization of Hotel Departments


Introduction to the room division


Departmental Structure of Rooms Division

Room division

Front Office Housekeeping



Uniformed Service / Concierge


Front office department


Front office department


Relationship Between

Front Office Department and Other Departments

Housekeeping Department Engineering

• Check-in, occupied and check- out rooms in order to organize room cleaning; and

• Special requests from guests, such as baby cot or extra

blanket, etc., so that extra

amenities and services can be provided to guests.

• The engineering department is

responsible for maintaining

properly the hotel facilities

under the care of the front

office department such as the

proper of functioning of the

guest lift.


Relationship Between

Front Office Department and Other Departments

Security Human Resources

• The front office needs to provide guest information to the security department in the event of

emergency; such as fire alarm, power failure and so on. When guest reports loss of property to the front office, security

department will be informed to handle the case together with front office’s assistant manager.

• The human resources department provides staff training and

recruitment service to the front office. It also sets up the staff

grooming and discipline standard

for staff to follow.


Relationship Between

Front Office Department and Other Departments

Food and Beverage Department Sales and Marketing Department

• The front desk will provide the food and beverage department with a guest room special amenities

request form. The food & beverage department then arranges for item such as welcome fruit basket with fruits, chocolates and wine to be put in the guest room.

• The sales and marketing

department needs to work closely with the front desk and reservations department for reservations of

groups, tours and corporate bookings. The front desk will

provide to the sales and marketing

department an updated rooming list,

with guest room number upon the

arrival of tours or groups.


Hotel Front Office Department


Hotel Front Office Department


Hotel Front Office Department



Front Office Manager

The front office department is headed by the front office manager (FOM) whose main duty is to enhance guest services by constantly developing services to meet guests’ needs

Reservation clerk

Handle reservation request and prepare reservation confirmation slips


The main duty is to ensure that the hotel achieves the highest possible level of room occupancy and the maximum revenue.



Executive floor manager

The executive floor manager oversees the smooth operation of the executive floors and business centre

Telephone operator

process all incoming and outgoing calls through the hotel

switchboard. Staff in this department generally possesses good language and communication skills


Hotel Front Office Department

Guest cycle


makes room reservation




guest stays in the hotel


checks out and leaves


New technology

Check-In-Kiosks –

Park MGM Las Vegas

Easy Check-in Experience

Get room faster

Lobby hosts are available for questions and/or recommendations

Have ID and/or Passport ready along with confirmation number

avoid check-in lines and view upgrade options in one centralized location

Hotel Front Office Department


Hotel Front Office Department

Artificial Intelligence (AI)

Pepper Heads to Hospitality - helps out at hotels in two of the nation’s most-visited destinations

Pepper for hospitality can support hotel properties and staff in many different ways. Proactively calling guests over for a unique interaction, Pepper can interact with guests while they are waiting in line to check in, encouraging them to learn more about a property, help them find their way to the restaurant, gym or spa, or provide dinner recommendations for that evening. Pepper is also the perfect option for a

fresh entertainment experience in the lobby or a private lounge.

New technology

( nations-most-visited-db2796b35c12)


Housekeeping Department


Housekeeping Department

Housekeeping department structure in a large hotel


Housekeeping Department

Housekeeping department

structure in a small hotel



Executive Housekeeper

• Interviews, selects and engages staff in conjunction with human resources manager;

• Training;

• Deployment;

• Prepares work schedules, work procedures and job descriptions;

• Compiles duty rotas, holiday lists, etc.;

• Personnel records;

• Arranges supervision;

• Staff welfare;

• Orders and controls equipment, materials and linen;

• Handles complaints; and

• Key control.



Assistant Housekeeper

• Assists executive housekeeper in day-to-day operation;

• Dispatches room attendants and floor supervisors to assigned floor;

• Checks equipment and recommends new purchases;

• Inspects guest rooms, lobbies and back stairs;

• Keeps records of extra work performed by housekeeping department;

• Takes inventory; and

• Prepares attendance records.



Floor Supervisor

Checks staff on duty;


Supervision of staff;

Checks section/floor of rooms by filling in the room inspection list;

Conducts induction and general training;

Orders and issues cleaning materials;

Linen checks;

Maintenance checks; and

Liaises with reception on guest arrivals and departures.



Public Area Supervisor

• Inspects public areas cleaned to see whether cleaning is adequate, supplies in public areas meet the standard and needs for immediate repair is reported;

• Makes maintenance report for restaurant or item in need of repair and follows up to make sure work is completed


• Supervises cleaning of public areas, corridors and offices;

• Trains cleaners, advises executive housekeeper if performance is not satisfactory; and

• Liaises with other departments such as food and beverage department regarding the cleaning schedule.



Room Attendant

• Cleans rooms, bathrooms and suites;

• Handle dirty and clean linen;

• Provide turn-down service; and

• Reports faults, maintenance and peculiarities.


Housekeeping Department

Room cleaning procedures

1. Entering the Guest Room

2. Having a First Check and Opening Up the Room 3. Making the Beds

4. Cleaning Up the Trash and Dusting the Room 5. Cleaning the Bathroom

6. Vacuuming

7. Final Checking and Returning Rooms to Inventory


Relationship Between

Housekeeping Department and Other Departments

Front Office Engineering

• Housekeeping must continually

exchange information on room status so that check-out rooms can be

returned as quickly as possible. In addition, renovations, repairs and

maintenance can be scheduled during periods of low occupancy.

• It is the housekeeping staff’s responsibilities to request the engineering department for minor repairs in order to avoid a major breakdown. They must work closely as a team to do preventive

maintenance and renovations with minimum disturbance to guests.


Relationship Between

Housekeeping Department and Other Departments

Human Resources Food and Beverage

• The relationship between human resources department and

housekeeping department is similar to those mentioned earlier with the front office department.

• The relationship between the

housekeeping department and food and beverage department involves the supply of table linen and uniform, and the cleaning of their outlets.


Relationship Between

Housekeeping Department and Other Departments

Sales and Marketing Purchasing

• The sales and marketing

department relies heavily on the housekeeping department for prompt delivery of goods/services as promised to the guests. The major problem they face together, especially in large hotels, is back- to-back conventions and groups.

• The Purchasing department buys all cleaning and guest supplies. Its

relationship with the housekeeping department is self-evident. When it

comes to deciding what brand, quality or size should be stocked - whether the item is cleaning powder or mattresses - the executive housekeeper must pool their knowledge to consider the characteristics, cost and availability of the products.


Room Status Codes

Terminologies Codes Descriptions Occupied


OC The room is occupied and has been cleaned by room attendant

Occupied Dirty

OD The room is occupied and hasn’t been cleaned by room attendant Vacant Clean

/ Ready


The room is vacant and has been cleaned by room attendant or ready for sale

Vacant Dirty VD The room is vacant and hasn’t been cleaned by room attendant

Out of Order OOO The room is under maintenance, refurbishment or extensive cleaning No Need


NNS The guest has requested ‘no service’

for the room


Revenue-centred Department and Cost-centred Department

Revenue-centred Department

• Sales and Marketing Department

• Food and Beverage Department Cost-centred Department

• Accounts

• Housekeeping

• Front Office Department

• Engineering

• Security

• Purchasing


Back-of-the-house Department and Front-of-the-house Department

Back-of-the-house Department

• Sales and Marketing Department

• Accounts

• Housekeeping

• Engineering

• Security

• Purchasing

Front-of-the-house Department

• Food and Beverage Department

• Front Office Department


Housekeeping Department

Adopted measures of Covid-19

Hong Kong Ocean Park Marriott Hotel

• Requiring that surfaces are treated with hospital-grade disinfectants

• Cleaned with hospital-grade disinfectants in guest room

• Enhanced cleaning technologies - electrostatic sprayers to sanitize surfaces throughout the hotel

• Using air purifying systems that are effective

against viruses in the air and on surfaces


Housekeeping Department

New technology

HotSOS Housekeeping Software - Using Data to Shape Hotel Operations

• Advanced Task Automation

• Scheduled Maintenance

• Housekeeping Automation Mobile

• Room Inspections

• Hotel Guest Management

• Access to over 200+ API Integrations PMS



Security procedure


Security procedure

• Maintaining systems

• Protection of personal property of guests, employees and the hotel

a) Handling Guests’ Valuables

• Guest valuables found in the room during cleaning must be reported to the housekeeping department

• Stays in the room until the assistant manager, floor supervisor and the security officer arrive.

• must be recorded in the Housekeeping Logbook

• The guest room will be double locked until the guest



Security procedure

b) Key Control

• Room attendant must complete or sign “The Sign in and out” log book for the key issued

• Always lock the key cabinet

• Keys must be returned to the housekeeping office

• Loss of key should be reported immediately


Security procedure

c) Suspicious Person

Housekeeping staff must report any suspicious person roaming the guestroom floor

d) Lost and Found

Staff must hand in items found inside the hotel premises

All information should be record in the Lost

and Found Logbook for reference if guests

enquire of lost items.


Security procedure

New technology

Motorola Solutions’ Safe Hospitality Solution - Improves Safety &

Guest Experience

• The Safe Hospitality solution integrates these technologies via a simple cloud-based platform to support the specific operational, security and safety requirements of this industry.

• Video security analytics can send alerts to radios when unusual activity is detected, and access control can identify the security risk of a door propped open. Data from cameras and sensors can trigger staff to address guest needs or safety threats, while voice

communications can dynamically connect teams to support everyday operations or emergency response.



Future development

in the accommodation sector


Future Development


Future Development



Future Development

The English-speaking receptionist is a vicious-

looking dinosaur, and the one speaking Japanese is a female humanoid with blinking lashes.

“If you want to check in, push one,” the dinosaur says. The visitor still has to punch a button on the desk and type in information on a touch panel screen.


Future development

Virtual reality replaces the real world with visual and audio input while augmented reality layers virtual elements onto the real world. Customers who want to try before they buy can take virtual tours of your property and even parts of the destination.

With AR, a hotel might use something like an interactive map to provide information to guests.


Thank You




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