第二章 文獻探討

第五節 實驗流程與實施流程

二、 英文部分

Ault, M. J., Gast, D. L., Wolery, M. & Doyle, P. M. (1992). Data collection andgraphing method for teaching chained tasks with the constant time delayprocedure. Teaching Exceptional Children, 24, 28-33.

Bataineh,A. H.(1986).The Effect of An Eight-week Mastery Learning Approach Teacher Training Program on Achieving Mastery of The Practice and Reciprocal Styles of Teaching Physcial Education . Dissertation of the Florida State University.

Baenette,J.J.&Wallis,A.B..(2005).The missing treatment desing

element:Continuity of treatment when multiple postobservations are used in time-series and repeated measures study desi gn. American Journal of Evaluation, 26, 106-123.

Beckett,K.D.(1990).The effects of two teaching styles on college

students’achievement of selected physical education outcomes. Journal of Teaching in Phvsical Education,10 ,153-169.

Boyce,B.A.(1992).The effects of three styles of teaching of university

students’motor performance. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education,11

(4),389-401.

Byra,M.,& Marks,M.C.(1993).The effect of two pairing techniques of specific feedback and comfort levels of lea rners in the reciprocal style of

teaching.Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 12(3),286-300.

Chen, C., Zhang, J., Lange, E., Miko, P., & Joseph, D. (2001). Progressive time delay procedure for teaching motor skills to adults with severe mental retardation. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 18 , 35-48.

Collins, B. C., Branson, T. A., & Hall, M. (1995).Teaching generalized reading of cooking product labels to adolescents with mental disabilities through the use of key words taught by peer tutors Education and training in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, 30 , 65-75.

Fait, H. F. (1978). Special. physical. Education: Adapted corrective Developmental. W. B. Saunders Company.

Franks , B . D . (1992) . The spectrum of teaching styles: A silv er anniver sary in physical education.

Goldberger,M.,& Gerney,P.(1986).The effects of direct teaching styles of motor skill acquisition of fifth grade children. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport,57(3),215-219.

Johnson,P.W.(1983).A comparison of the effects of two teaching styles on tumbling skill acquisition of college students.

Mariani, T.(1970).A comparison of the effectiveness of the command method and the task method of teaching the forehand and backhand tennis strokes. The Research Quarterly,41(2),171-174.

Mosston, M.,& Ashworth, S. (1986).Teaching Physical Education.

Mosston, M. (1992).Tug-O-War, Nomore: meeting teaching learning objectives using the spectrum of teaching styles.

Sandra, L., Gibbons, F., & Bushakra , B. (1989) Effect of Special Olympics participation on the perceived competence and social acceptance of

mentally retarded children. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 6 ,40-51.

Skinner, B. F (1968). The technology of teaching. NY:

Appleton-Century-Corfts.

Singer,R.,& Pease,D.(1979).Effect of guided vs. discovery learning strategies on initial motor task learning, transfer and retention. The Research

Quarterly,49(2),206-217.

Schoen, S. F., & Sivil, E. O. (1989). A comparison of procedures in teaching self-help skills: Increasing assistance, time delay, and observational learning. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 19 , 57-72.

Schuster, J. W., Gast, D. L., Wolery, M., & Guiltinan, S. (1988). The

effectiveness of a constant time delay procedure to teach chained responses to adolescents with mental retardation. Journal of Applied Behavior

Analysis, 21, 169-178.

Siedentop,D.(1991).Developing teaching skills in physical education. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Company.

Schoen, S. F., & Ogden, S. (1995). Impact of time delay, observational learning, and attentional cuing upon word recognition during integrated small -group instruction. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 25 , 503-519.

Schlosser, R W.& Sigafoos, J. (2006). Augmentative and alternative

communication interventions for persons with developmental disabilities:

Narrative review of comparative single subject experimental studies.

Research in Developmental Disabilities: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 27,1-29.

Walls, R.T., Dowler, D. L., Haught, P., & Zaw locki, R. J. (1984). Progressive delay and unlimited delay of prompts in forward chaining and whole task training strategies. Education and Training of the Mentally Retarded, 19, 276-284.

Whitmore,L.G.(1984).Comparison of The Effectiveness of Two Teaching Methods for Tumbling Skill Acquisition and Attitude Change at The Elementary School Age. Unpublished master thesis, Northeast Missouri State University, University Microfilms MFUMI.13-24011.

Zhang, J., Gast, D., Horvat, M., & Dattilo, J. (1995). The effect iveness of aconstant time delay procedure on teaching lifetime sport skills to adolescents. Education and Training in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, 30, 51-64.

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附 件 一

練習式教學法與互惠式教學法對高職輕度智能障礙者高爾夫球與壘球動作 技能學習成效之研究比較參 加 者 須 知 及 家 長 、 監 護 人 同 意 書

親愛的家長、同學你好:我是國立台灣師範大學體育研究所研究生 ,非 常榮幸企盼邀請你(貴子弟)參與實驗性活動的研究,本次實驗擬下學期進行一 項以「 練 習 式 與 互 惠 式 對 輕 度 智 能 障 礙 學 習 成 效 之 影 響 」的研究,希望 先徵詢您的同意,讓貴 子弟參與。實驗地點設於本校操場,對實驗環境會注 意安全,而所進行的動作技能學習不具危險性 ,相對亦不會對您孩子身體 健康造成任何傷害。藉此透過本教學策略計畫的實施,目的是以增進您的孩子 運動技能、改善學習態度與習慣並增強自信心。為尊重孩子隱私權,本實驗所 有涉及學生個人資料及研究結果的部分,將以匿名的方式呈現;因研究需要,

貴子弟運動動作技能將被拍成錄影帶作分析 ,所獲得資料僅作為學術研究之 用,與體育成績無關;在未經您的許可之前,絕不做研究之外的用途;與貴子 弟有關的任何資料均會妥善保管 、保密,請您放心。本同意書一式兩份,您 保留一份,另一份由我保存,如果您對這項研究或貴子弟的相關權益有任何 的疑問時,我們很樂意為您說明(我的聯絡電話: 手機:0933-550-595;指導 教授杜正治博士,TEL:02-23568901),倘若同意參與本研究,但簽名之後或 實驗期間改變意願,請通知研究者,貴子弟可以隨時退出實驗而不受限制。最 後誠摯感謝您熱情協助。

祝 闔家平安研究生 劉德山敬上2008. 11

[參 加 者 同 意 書 ]

經過閱讀、溝通,並且瞭解以上所述內容。

參加者學生姓名: 出生年月日: 年

本人 同意 不同意 子弟

參加此項教學研究 家長 (監護人) 簽章

年 11 月

101

Moss ton & Ashworth(1996)

102

Mosston & Ashworth(1996)

103

104

105

附件六

運動場各項教學活動位置圖

擊球區 分區 分區

分區

距離指示器

90m

35

4 3 2

教學者、觀察員以及攝影機位置說明:

A:觀察員 1 B:觀察員 2 C:攝影機 D:教學者 E:研究參與者

司令台

C B

升旗台

A D A

D E B

D

A B

D E C

106

107

附件八

練習式作業表

項目:高爾夫 單元:鐵杆揮擊

姓名: 日期:

說明:請你們照著作業表上的動作來練習 ,練習完畢的動作就在 執行結果欄位打ˇ。

作業內容 日期 教師的回饋

1.空揮桿20次

2.揮擊12顆空心球2次 3.揮擊6顆比賽球1次 4.測驗5顆球

108

日期: 動作者甲姓名:

動作者乙姓名:

動作者:做出「觀察的動作」中的動作,做完之後交換。

觀察者:觀察動作者是否依步驟完成動作。

動作者 1 動作者 2 觀察的動作

1.握棒(右打者握棒是否左手在下;右手在上)

2.左右手第二指節是否對齊 3.雙腳打開與肩同寬 4.握棒處置於耳朵的高度 5.將球棒中心置於球中心 6.準備揮擊時重心後移 7.擊球時重心轉移至身體中心 8.揮擊動作完成時身體不會亂擺動 9.擊球練習6球2

10.測驗

觀察者給予動作者之口語回饋:

1.動作錯誤,請修正。

2.沒有問題請繼續。

3.動作正確,請加油。

附件九

互惠式標準卡

項目:壘球 單元:壘球擊球

在文檔中 練習式教學法與互惠式教學法對高職輕度智能障礙者高爾夫球與壘球動作技能學習成效之研究比較 (頁 106-117)