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(SM) B4 L9 You Kids Are All Alike

1. Gerunds 動名詞 V-ing

(文法書 CH 9)

○1 定義:動名詞是指具有動詞性質的名詞,故具所有名詞的特質。

○2 用法:動名詞可當主詞(例 1)、動詞/介系詞的受詞(例 2-3)、主詞補語(例 4)。

例 1: Consuming too much greasy food is harmful to your health.

例 2: After he finished doing the domestic chores, he went out to do some shopping. 例 3: The clown is good at making people laugh, especially children.

例 4: Integrity is doing the right thing when no one is watching.

1 有些動詞可接動名詞或不定詞,如 like, love, hate, prefer, start, begin, continue, bear。

2 有些動詞必須接動名詞當受詞,如 enjoy, finish, mind, practice, deny, avoid, delay, consider,

postpone, prohibit, risk, resist, imagine, admit, suggest, quit, keep, involve, include。

3 有些動詞接動名詞跟不定詞意義不同,如 stop, remember, forget, regret, try, mean。

例 5: Many people like beginning/to begin their day with a cup of fresh coffee. 例 6: He enjoys living in the quiet countryside instead of staying in the bustling city. 例 7: I regret lying to my father. (But I already did.) (後悔做過)

例 8: We regret to tell you a piece of bad news. (遺憾要去做)

○1 有些情形,動名詞可與不定詞互換,例如當主詞及當主詞補語時。

○2 但若主詞表示「目的」,通常使用不定詞。(例 11)

例 9: Seeing is believing. = To see is to believe.

例 10: These animal lovers’ main concern is preventing/to prevent animals from harm or danger. 例 11: To enter medical school is undoubtedly Kevin’s current goal.

2. that-clause as an “apposition”

that 引導名詞子句當同位語 (文法書 p. 186-188)

1 在此句型 that S + V 中,that 單純當連接詞用,無任何意義。

○2 that 子句可當主詞、主詞補語、受詞(置動詞後,不可當介系詞的受詞)。

3 that 子句可當「同位語」,置於名詞之後,用以補充解釋該名詞,闡明實質內容,使語意

更清楚,前面名詞通常是想法、事實、理論等,常見的有belief, news, fact, idea, theory,

suggestion 等名詞後。

1: We all know that we should do our best to protect the environment. (that 子句當受詞)

2: That all men are created equal is a common belief in modern democracies. (that 子句當主詞)

3: The problem is that we don’t have enough time to finish the project. (that 子句當主詞補語)

4: The news that the superstar had been secretly married for years astounded everyone. (當同位語)

that 引導的名詞子句(that 非關代) vs. that 引導的形容詞子句(此時 that 為關代=which) 例5: The theory that only the fittest creatures will survive was proposed by Charles Darwin.

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Exercise Complete the following blanks by filling proper words. [that; which; whether; what]

1. ______________ we will go picnicking tomorrow depends on the weather.

2. ______________ he was unable to finish his study in college disappointed his parents.

3. The announcement ______________ school days would be postponed for two weeks astounded everyone.

4. ______________ bothers us is that he never answers our questions.

5. He lives in Keelung, ______________ is a large seaport, but he commutes to Taipei by car every day.

(SM) B4 L9 You Kids Are All Alike

Class: _______

Number: _____ Name: _________________

Translation 1. 防疫的有效方法包含在不太可能保持社交距離的地方戴口罩,以及避免去高風險國家。 (V-ing) _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ 2. 考試前夕才通宵念書是你最不該做的事情。你應該養成每天複習進度的習慣。 (V-ing) _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ 3. 隨著時間過去,受困在災區的村民們漸漸失去救難隊會來幫助他們的希望。 (the N that S + V) _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ 4. 政府讓台灣民眾可捐贈口罩給其他國家的決定引起諸多質疑,但大多人樂見其成。(the N that...) _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________

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