Personal Growth Education Revised 2012
School Administration & Support Division Education Bureau
The objectives of student guidance service in the process of education reform in the 21st Century are to promote whole-person development and life-long learning so that students can attain balanced development in the domains of ethics, intellect, physique, social skills and aesthetics and be capable of life-long learning, critical and exploratory thinking, innovating and adapting to changes, thus preparing them to meet all the challenges towards adulthood. An overview of the guidance service provided in primary schools in Britain, the United States, Singapore and China etc. reveals that these countries all hold the same view regarding the above objectives, and that they have actively pursued personal growth education in schools to help promote the healthy development of students.
In 1997, the then Education Department introduced the Teaching Kit on Whole School Approach to Guidance to encourage schools to promote developmental guidance programmes and to enhance the academic, communication and problem-solving skills of students. Developmental guidance has been well received by schools. At the turn of the new millenium, we propose that all primary schools should provide Comprehensive Student Guidance Service and progressively implement school-based Personal Growth Education to further cater for the developmental needs of all students.
1.2 Relationship between Personal Growth Education (PGE) and Comprehensive Student Guidance Service (CSGS)
The Comprehensive Student Guidance Service consists of four domains: Policy and Organization, Supportive Service, Personal Growth Education (PGE) and Responsive Service.
Schools should strike a balance in the development of these four domains and integrate them in the overall student guidance service. On Policy and Organization, schools should allocate suitable resources and provide administrative support to promote PGE. Regarding the Supportive Service, schools should organize staff development activities to equip teachers with the necessary knowledge, skills and attitudes in the implementation of PGE. As for Responsive Service, the teacher and student guidance personnel should help students apply the skills acquired through PGE. Student guidance personnel can strengthen students’
understanding and application of specific themes of PGE through group or individual counseling sessions. Schools should strengthen guidance service for individual students, establish a referral system both within and outside the school, as well as assist teachers to have early identification of and intervention into students’ problems.
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2. Overall Aims
The aims of PGE are to help students:
explore their individual potential, develop in them a healthy self-concept, as well as take a positive attitude towards the challenges in life and effectively solve their problems;
promote social development and build up a good interpersonal relationship;
develop a diligent and proactive learning attitude and master various learning skills, thus preparing them for life-long learning; and
cultivate a proactive attitude towards work and acquire career information and the required skills to lay down the foundation for future career development.
3. Learning Targets
Students should achieve the following through PGE:
learn about and accept the character and traits of oneself, as well as make full use of one’s strengths and improve on one’s weaknesses;
apply problem-solving skills to meet the challenges in life; and
master the knowledge, skills and attitudes on personal safety.
respect and accept others;
understand one’s roles and responsibilities in family, school and society; and
apply effective social/communication skills to build up a good interpersonal relationship.
master effective learning skills and attitudes;
apply effective strategies to obtain a sense of achievement in school; and
effectively manage one’s school life.
Set and modify personal life and learning plan towards career goals;
take a positive attitude towards work and learning; and
acquire career information so as to understand the relationship between one’s academic achievement and career success as well as to learn about career path.
The contents of PGE can be divided into the following three components: learning areas, generic skills, as well as values and attitudes.
4.1 Learning Areas
PGE includes four domains and twelve learning focuses. They are organized as follows:
4 Learning Areas 12 Learning Focuses
1. Personal Development y Self-concept y Problem-solving y Self-management
2. Social Development y Respect and acceptance of others
y Communication skills and interpersonal relationship y Coping skills and conflict management
3. Academic Development y Skills and attitudes in effective learning y School success
y Pleasurable school life 4. Career Development y Plan for living
y Working attitude y Career Path
Each of the learning focuses is classified according to different stages of primary schooling, i.e.
senior level (P5 & P6), middle level (P3 & P4) and junior level (P1 & P2). Please refer to Annex 1 for the contents of each of the learning focuses of PGE.
4.2 Generic Skills
The learning process of PGE lays great emphasis on putting students in various situations and experiences where they will raise questions on reflection, communicate and collaborate with others, and look for solutions on their own initiative. PGE has, therefore, created much room for students to develop the generic skills necessary for life-long learning. Below are some examples of enhancing the generic skills of students through PGE:
Learning Area: Social Development
Learning Focus: Communication skills and interpersonal relationship Contents: Adaptation to Secondary School life─ social adjustment Level: Senior primary
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Generic skills Suggested teaching/ learning strategies Study skills,
Collaboration skills, Numeracy skills
Students group themselves into 5-6 small groups and conduct a survey of the possible social adjustment difficulties they may encounter on promotion to secondary one, and then compile the statistics for analysis.
Critical thinking skills, Problem-solving skills, Communication skills
Students present the findings of their survey in class, discuss in groups the possible social adjustment difficulties they may encounter on promotion to secondary one and explore the coping strategies.
Self-management skills Students complete their self-reflection report to review their own character and the possible social adjustment difficulties they may encounter on promotion to secondary one.
Information technology skills
Students design goodwill cards with the aid of computer, expressing their appreciation for their teachers/classmates whom they will leave.
4.3 Values and Attitudes
PGE attaches great importance to the development of students’ personal as well as social values and attitudes. These values and attitudes, which complement the 12 learning focuses covered by the four learning areas under PGE, can be developed through various learning activities.
Reference could be drawn from Annex 2 to select the suitable values and attitudes for inclusion in PGE so that students can make a wise decision when being confronted with personal and social problems.
5. Mode of Design
Schools are recommended to adopt the following mode of design for PGE:
y PGE should be designed and scheduled in such a way as to tie in with the developmental needs of different levels of students with due emphasis on students’ whole-person development.
y The design should be based on students’ life experience. Schools may first relate the four basic learning areas (personal, social, academic and career development) to the personal level of students and then extend to the family and the school levels, so as to help students apply what they have learned in their daily life. Schools can refer to the suggested list of significant life events for primary students (Annex 3) in designing the PGE activities.
y It should be designed in a progressive and spiral mode. Each of the learning focuses
should be differentiated according to different stages of primary schooling, i.e. senior level (P5 & P6), middle level (P3 & P4) and junior level (P1 & P2). The degree of complexity in respect of knowledge, skills and attitudes should be increased systematically and coherently to motivate students and consolidate what they have learned.
6. Learning and Teaching Strategies
PGE activities can be conducted by teachers or guidance personnel. The following learning and teaching strategies, which have been implemented and proven effective in some local and overseas schools, can be used for reference:
6.1 Guidance and Encouragement
To provide “guidance” to students is to use various life experiences as examples with which they can discuss, analyze and work out the solutions. To give “encouragement” to students is to give them appreciation and due recognition so as to motivate them to engage in their learning, to freely express their views and feelings as well as to be observant and empathetic towards others’ feelings. It is necessary for teachers or guidance personnel to create a free and open environment for students to explore and reflect on themselves, thus facilitating their development.
6.2 Good Communication and Open-mindedness
In order to implement PGE smoothly, teachers/guidance personnel have to be equipped with effective communication skills, which include “attentive listening”, “reflection of feelings”, “techniques to express oneself and be receptive to others’ views and opinions”
and “make good use of encouragement”, etc. For better understanding and mastery of such skills, teachers/guidance personnel may refer to the materials and worksheets in the Teaching Kit on Whole School Approach to Guidance issued to schools by the then Education Department (n o w r e n a m e d a s E d u c a t i o n B u r e a u ) in 1997. Good communication between teachers and students will not only create a caring and trusting atmosphere in class, but also encourage students to actively participate in classroom activities. In PGE lessons, teaching by modeling is far more important than teaching by inculcation/indoctrination. In this connection, teachers/guidance personnel should keep an open mind, share their personal experiences and feelings with students as well as appreciate and accept the students as individuals.
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6.3 Debriefing and Self-reflection
While it is essential to maintain the interest and fun in the design of PGE activities, it is more important to achieve the objective of facilitating students’ development.
Teachers/guidance personnel should, therefore, be more efficient in time allocation and help students share, discuss and reflect upon themselves in order to learn effectively.
Otherwise, the activities will be reduced to mere functions, thus running counter to the original objectives of PGE.
In order to identify students’ needs and analyze the effectiveness of PGE at an early stage, schools have to conduct continuous assessment on students’ performance, particularly on the skills and values/attitudes cultivated through PGE. Written examinations or tests focusing on factual memory are not desirable assessment tools for PGE. Schools are advised to adopt the following assessment methods:
(a) Portfolio on Student’s Personal Growth
The portfolio, which is used for maintaining student’s works on PGE, records the strengths and weaknesses of individual students. It not only allows students to have a better understanding of themselves, but also assists teachers to effectively identify and assess students’ developmental needs, and hence to provide appropriate guidance.
(b) Teachers’ Observation
Teachers should design a list of observation items for individual students or for the whole class in accordance with the contents and learning targets of PGE so as to assess students’ competencies in an objective way.
(c) Peer Evaluation
Through a simple questionnaire or checklist, teachers may invite students to collect some information on their peers in aspects such as co-operation and politeness. Such an evaluation can reflect students’ individual performance and achievement in PGE.
(d) Parent Evaluation
Parents, who are in closest relationship with their children, are in a better position to evaluate their children’s performance, particularly in the development of healthy living habits, communication and interpersonal skills, etc.
Teachers may set competency standards with students, so that the latter can continuously assess their performance. In the learning process, students can assess their own progress according to these pre-defined criteria.
8. School-based Personal Growth Education
Schools can develop the school-based PGE according to their aims, culture, characteristics and students’ needs. Schools should take note of the following in developing school-based PGE:
y A minimum of 12 periods, each lasts for about 30 minutes, should be allocated to PGE for each level per school year. Schools should make flexible use of the teaching time to conduct PGE in single lessons or double lessons. Also, schools can arrange additional lessons as required to cater for students’ developmental needs.
y In primary schools, Student Guidance Teachers/Officers/Personnel (SGTs/SGOs/SGP) should take the lead in assisting the relevant teachers to develop the school-based PGE.
We have prepared some worksheets in Chinese, which are available on the homepage of the E d u c a t i o n B u r e a u (http://www.edb.gov.hk/index.aspx?nodeid=121&langno=1), to facilitate the design of class activities in accordance with the four learning areas and the twelve learning focuses under PGE. Teachers may download the relevant worksheets and this overview from the above website.
y While the four learning areas are to be included in the school-based PGE, schools may adjust the weighting of the four learning areas to cater for their own needs. Some teaching materials can be found in Annex 4 with a view to assisting the frontline teachers and SGTs/SGOs/SGP to demonstrate their creativity in the process of implementation by designing and making use of more interesting worksheets to arouse students’ interest in PGE.
9. Life-wide Learning
Life-wide learning is a learning approach which extends the learning scope of PGE beyond the confines of classroom, thus helping students make practical use of the knowledge, skills and values acquired through PGE. Teachers/guidance personnel should make full use of the community resources provided by government departments or other organizations to enrich students’ learning experiences. The following are examples of life-wide learning activities related to PGE:
y Pay a visit to a fire station to understand the relationship between their learning at school and the work of a fireman. Students will also learn about the requirements for being a fireman;
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y Perform a show and do voluntary work in children’s home to develop students’
collaboration and communication skills;
y Pay a visit to a library to learn how to develop and improve learning skills such as collection of data and reading skills.
10. Linkage with Other Learning Areas
Schools may, according to their practical needs, conduct cross-curricular activities by integrating PGE into other learning areas. The following are some successful practices in Hong Kong:
y Integrate PGE into General Studies. For example, help students understand and accept the uniqueness of self including one’s strengths and weaknesses through the topic
y Match PGE with Chinese. For example, the Chinese teachers can ask the students to apply the Mind Mapping skills that they have learnt in the PGE lessons in the composition lessons, organize slogan competition on “Love” for promoting a caring culture among students;
y Merge PGE with Moral and National Education. For example, personal, family and social domain, helping students know oneself, communication and care, broadmindedness and accept individual differences.
y Inculcate the collaboration spirit in Physical Education lessons and put it in practice; and y Integrate PGE with the Universal Programme of the Understanding Adolescent Project
(Primary). For example, the learning focus on Self-concept of PGE includes the setting of living objectives and personal goal. Schools can consider integrating the above topics with the Unit of Goal Setting of the Universal Programme. (See Annex 1)
11. Development of PGE
Starting from the 2002/03 school year, school-based PGE has been initially carried out at junior or senior primary level and progressively extended to other levels over a period of 3 years. At present, PGE is provided for all primary students.
Learning Areas of Personal Growth Education
Learning Area 1: Personal Development
Learning focuses Junior primary students are able to Middle primary students are able to Upper primary students are able to Self-concept - Understand and accept their individuality
as well as strengths and weaknesses
- Identify different emotions and feelings
- Improve their weaknesses, develop their personal strengths and set living objectives (can be merged with the Unit of Goal Setting of the
- Understand and adequately express their emotions (can be merged with the Unit of Emotion Management of the UP)
- Develop a positive attitude toward oneself, explore their potentials and set personal goal (can be merged with the Unit of Goal Setting of the UP)
- Adequately manage personal emotions and stress (can be merged with the Unit of Emotion Management of the UP)
Problem-solving - Share with adults the problems
encountered and seek their assistance
- Learn about problem-solving and decision-making skills (can be merged with the Unit of Problem Solving of the UP)
- Develop a positive attitude in face of adversity (can be merged with the Unit of Optimism of the UP)
- Demonstrate decision-making skills in handling dilemmas (can be merged with the Unit of Problem Solving of the UP)
Self-management - Learn about body and private parts - Say “No” to strangers for their
inappropriate physical contact - Learn about personal hygiene
- Demonstrate knowledge of self-protection against sexual harassments/ abuses
- Develop healthy habits
- Understand and adjust to puberty changes (including changes on psychological, physical and social development, and developmental concepts on sex)
- Know how to take care of themselves
*UP : Th e U n i v e r s a l P r o g r a m m e o f t h e U n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e A d o l e s c e n t P r o j e c t ( P r i m a r y )
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Learning Area 2: Social Development
Learning focuses Junior primary students are able to Middle primary students are able to Upper primary students are able to Respect and
acceptance of others
- appreciate and accept the individuality of others (such as appearance, interests, strengths and weaknesses, etc.)
- Respect others’ feelings (can be merged with the Unit of Social Skills of the UP)
- Master effective social and communication skills (e.g. in expressing personal feelings and opinions, and develop friendship with others) (can be merged with the Unit of Social Skills of the UP)
- Respect and accept individual differences, including body shape, abilities, nationalities, religions, races, genders and sexual orientation ) (can be merged with the Unit of Social Skills of the UP)
Communication skills and interpersonal
- Be acquainted with new classmates, friends and teachers
- Understand one’s relationship with family and responsibilities in family - Strengthen the communication with their
- Learn about the personal responsibilities and roles in groups (e.g. cooperation with classmates and complying with rules of schools/ teams and games)
- Be caring and helpful (e.g. helping out in household chores and volunteer services, etc.)
- Express their own views in groups
- Demonstrate effective social and
communication skills (e.g. interpersonal skills towards opposite sex and adults) (can be merged with the Unit of Social Skills of the UP)
- Handle changes on social links and transition from primary to secondary school (e.g. departing from friends and teachers of primary school and relating to new friends and teachers in promoting to secondary school)
- Manage adverse peer influences on oneself (e.g. gambling, late for school, truancy, reading indecent publications / internet information, sleep over, theft, young gangs, bullying, smoking, psychotropic substances abuse and compensated dating, etc.)
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Coping skills and conflict management
- Handle conflicts with peers - Handle problems among peers (e.g.
verbal, physical and text/cyber bullying or being bullied, etc., and responsibilities of bystanders) - Aware of any family adversities and
seek relevant assistance (e.g.
communicate with adults of one’s feelings)
- Handle adversities and stressful changes in face of catastrophic life events (e.g.
issues arising from sibling rivalry, divorce/death/unemployment/economic problems, etc.)
Learning Area 3 : Academic Development
Learning focuses Junior primary students are able to Middle primary students are able to Upper primary students are able to Skills and attitudes in
- Make good use of stationery and homework handbook
- Learn to listen attentively, raise questions and follow instructions to participate in classroom activities and complete assignments
- Master collaborative learning skills - Identify factors affecting learning and
seek ways to improve it
- Master learning skills (e.g. skills on note-taking, effective working memory and creativity thinking) - Schedule time-table for revision
- Employ multiple learning strategies for diversified learning (e.g. use of
information technology, project learning and collection of data)
- Understand the importance of self-learning and life-long learning
School Success - Explore personal strengths in academic and non-academic aspects
- Understand the responsibilities of a student
- Adapt to primary school life
- Develop personal strengths in academic and non-academic aspects - Handle problems encountered in
learning (e.g. issues related to unsatisfactory results and repeating)
- Recognize personal strengths in academic and non-academic aspects - Master interviewing skills
- Adapt to secondary school life
Pleasurable school life
- Be acquainted with new classmates and teachers and accept learning
- Participate actively in various school activities
- Cultivate a sense of belonging to school
- Participate actively in and help promote school activities
- Serve fellow classmates, teachers and the school
- Understand personal interests, aptitudes, strengths and weaknesses in making a right choice for secondary school - Learn about secondary school life to
prepare for transition
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Learning Area 4: Career Development
Learning focuses Junior primary students are able to Middle primary students are able to Upper primary students are able to Plan for Living - Schedule personal time-table and
understand the importance of setting an order of priority for daily events
- Learn and apply time-management skills
- Plan well for school holidays and after-school hours
- Use time management skills to balance personal, academic and family life
Working attitude - Develop a positive attitude towards work e.g. cooperation, responsibility, conscientiousness and punctuality through games and collaborative learning experiences
- Apply positive attitude of cooperation, responsibility,
conscientiousness and punctuality in school assignments and tasks assigned by parents and teachers
- Apply positive attitude of cooperation, responsibility, conscientiousness and punctuality in organizing and
participating in school functions and community services
Career development - Learn about different types of occupation
- Build knowledge on occupations through reading
- Learn about the nature and basic requirements for various occupations - Build knowledge on occupations
- Learn about the relationship between career development and personal growth
- Realize how various occupations are related to different school subjects - Recognize various means for gathering
career information and make simple presentations
- Understand the requirements of various occupations and how one’s competencies and aspirations are related
Annex 2 A Proposed Set of Values and Attitudes for Incorporation in the School Curriculum
Attitudes - sanctity of life
- truth - aesthetics - honesty - human dignity - rationality - creativity - courage - liberty - affectivity - individuality
- self-esteem - self-reflection - self-discipline - self-cultivation - principled morality - self-determination - openness
- independence - enterprise - integrity - simplicity - sensitivity - modesty - perseverance
- equality - kindness - benevolence - love
- freedom - common good - mutuality - justice - trust
- interdependence - sustainability
- betterment of mankind
- due process of law - democracy
- freedom and liberty - common will - patriotism - tolerance
- equal opportunities - culture and civilisation
- human rights and responsibilities - rationality
- sense of belonging - solidarity
- optimistic - participatory - critical - creative - appreciative - empathetic
- caring and concerned - positive
- confident - cooperative - responsible
- adaptable to changes - open-minded
- with a respect for y Self
y others y life
y quality and excellence y evidence
y fair play y rule of law
y different ways of life, beliefs and opinions
y the environment - with a desire to learn - diligent
- committed to core and sustaining values
* Core Values: Certain values that are commonly or universally emphasized across human societies.
Sustaining Values: Other values, which can vary across ages, places and races, that are helpful for sustaining the core values at an instrumental level.
Extracted from Learning To Learn: Life-long Learning and Whole-person Development published by the Curriculum Development Council of Hong Kong in June 2001.
Annex 3 A Suggested List of Significant Life Events for Primary Students
(1) Personal Development and Healthy Living y Permanent teething
y Entering Puberty y Self caring
y Selecting reading materials
y Developing good habits/Getting rid of bad habits (e.g. environmental preservation/punctuality/
balanced diet/eye protection/exercise and rest/
personal and community hygiene) y Developing interest/hobbies y Dressing up oneself y Using pocket money
y Managing personal finance (e.g. expenditure and savings)
y Facing media (Reading newspapers and magazines, watching TV, listening to radio programmes etc.) y Worshipping idols
y Surfing the Internet y Managing emotions y Handling sexual harassment y Facing serious illness/death y Hurting oneself/Committing suicide
(2) Family life y Showing love and concern to family members
y Eating out with family
y Teaching siblings doing homework y Doing housework
y Celebrating birthday with family y Family outing
y Having new family members(s)
y Moving house y Being alone at home
y Negotiating for self-independence from parents y Family member(s) being unemployed
y Handling family disputes y Parents getting divorced
y Facing illness/death of family member(s) (3) School Life
y Adapting to new life in primary/secondary school y Taking lunch in school
y Handling problems in studies y Being praised/punished by teacher(s) y Serving teachers and schoolmates y Going on a school outdoor trip/picnic
y Making choice among different school activities y Receiving the report card
y Attending tutorial lesson
y Having school holiday
y Holding responsible post(e.g. monitor/monitress, row leader, prefect, posts in class society, librarian)
y Choosing extra-curricular activities
y Promoting to a new class/repeating in the same class y Graduation
(4) Social Life y Making new friends
y Respecting different opinions and cultures y Going out with friends of opposite sex y Playing games
y Participating in religious activities y Attending feast
y Helping neighbours/the needy in society y Participating in voluntary work
y Showing concern and helping classmates/friends (e.g. falling ill, poor academic results)
y Handling undesirable peer pressures
(e.g. drug taking, smoking, engaging in law-breaking activities)
y Handling problems in peer relationships (e.g. conflicts, problems with money, bullying) y Attending funeral
y Facing temptations and undesirable societal influences
Extracted from Learning to Learn: Life-long Learning and Whole-person Development published by the Curriculum Development Council of Hong Kong in June 2001.
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2 0 0 3 全 方 位 學 生 輔 導 服 務 – 成 長 課 教 材 套 香 港 聖 公 會 小 學 輔 導 服 務 處
2 0 0 3 「 和 諧 校 園 齊 創 建 」 資 源 套 教 育 局
2 0 0 6 生 命 之 旅 - 生 命 教 育 教 材 套 （ 小 學 篇 ）
基 督 教 香 港 信 義 會
「 生 命 天 使 」教 育 中 心
2 0 0 7 《 健 康 生 活 遠 離 毒 品 》 藥 物 教 育 教 材 套
保 安 局 禁 毒 處 ( 社 區 藥 物 教 育 輔 導
會 編 製 ) 2 0 0 9
「 人 生 過 山 車 」 棋 盤 遊 戲 教 育 局
2 0 1 0 有 教 無 戾 校 園 欺 「 零 」 計 畫 實 務 手 冊 第 七 冊 、 第 八 冊 ( 小 學 篇 )
香 港 城 市 大 學 應 用 社 會 科 學 系
2 0 1 0 不 可 一 不 可 再 健 康 校 園 新 一 代 學 校 禁 毒 資 源 套
香 港 青 年 協 會 禁 毒 常 務 委 員 會
2 0 0 9
「 不 可 一 ‧ 不 可 再 」無 毒 家 教 有 妙 法 家 長 禁 毒 教 育 資 源 套
東 華 三 院 越 峰 成 長 中 心
香 港 大 學 曾 潔 雯 博 士
2 0 1 0 「 做 個 智 N e t 的 」 互 聯 網 教 育 資 源 套 香 港 青 年 協 會 / 教 育 局
教 育 局 網 上 資 源
資 源 名 稱 超 連 結
全 方 位 學 生 輔 導 服 務 h t t p : / / w w w. e d b . g o v. h k / i n d e x . a s p x ? n o d e I D = 1 9 7 4 & l a n g n o = 2
個 人 成 長 教 育 h t t p : / / w w w. e d b . g o v. h k / i n d e x . a s p x ? n o d e I D = 1 2 1 & l a n g n o = 2
「 成 長 的 天 空 」計 劃 － 發 展 課 程
h t t p : / / w w w. e d b . g o v. h k / i n d e x . a s p x ? n o d e I D = 8 1 8 4 & l a n g n o = 2
和 諧 校 園 齊 創 建 h t t p : / / p e a c e c a m p u s . e d b . h k e d c i t y . n e t /
和 諧 校 園 齊 創 建 之「 校 不 容 凌 」
h t t p : / / p e a c e 2 . e d b . h k e d c i t y . n e t /
個 人 成 長 教 育 學 生 自 評 問 卷
h t t p : / / w w w. e d b . g o v. h k / i n d e x . a s p x ? n o d e I D = 5 7 1 2 & l a n g n o = 2
「 運 用 戲 劇 元 素 教 授 個 人 成 長 教 育 / 生 命 教 育 課 」 教 案 匯 編
h t t p : / / w w w. e d b . g o v. h k / i n d e x . a s p x ? n o d e I D = 5 9 8 1 & l a n g n o = 2
德 育、公 民 及 國 民 教 育 h t t p : / / w w w. e d b . g o v. h k / i n d e x . a s p x ? l a n g n o = 2 &
n o d e I D = 2 3 9 7
德 育 及 公 民 教 育 資 源 網
h t t p : / / m c e . e d b . h k e d c i t y . n e t /
健 康 校 園 h t t p : / / w w w. e d b . g o v. h k / i n d e x . a s p x ? n o d e I D = 5 0 2 4 & l a n g n o = 2
性 教 育 網 站 h t t p : / / c d 1 . e d b . h k e d c i t y. n e t / c d / m c e / s e d / w e b f i l e s / o p e n i n g . h t m l
Choices Into Action: Guidance and Career Education Program Policy for Ontario Elementary and Secondary Schools 1999
Guidance & Counseling Curriculum Guide Contents (http://www/republic.k12.mo.us/guide/guide_co.htm)
Guidance Curriculum for the Comprehensive School Counseling Program: Blueprint for Elementary School Guidance Curriculum
Guidance Curriculum for the Comprehensive School Counseling Program: Elementary Academic Development
Guidance Curriculum for the Comprehensive School Counseling Program: Elementary Career Development (http://www.ncpublicschools.org/curriculum/Guidance/elemcareer.htm)
Guidance Curriculum for the Comprehensive School Counseling Program: Elementary Personal/Social Development
Guidance Curriculum for the Comprehensive School Counseling Program: Introduction (http://www.ncpublicschools.org/curriculum/Guidance/intro1.htm)
Gysbers, N.C. & Henderson, P. (2000). Developing & Managing Your School Guidance Program.
Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.
Hong Kong Education Department (1998).Review Report on the Pilot Project on the Grow with Guidance System – Development of Whole School Approach to Guidance. Hong Kong: Education Department.
Radd, T. (1997). The Grow with Guidance System. USA: Grow with Guidance.