教育評鑑人員創意特質與培訓策略之研究

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˪㔁做埴㓧冯姽揹⬠↲˫ 2013 ⸜ 12 㚰炻䫔⋩ℕ㛇炻枩 43-64

ఀىຟᠦΡষഺཎ੫፴ᇄஉଋ๊౱Ϟंـ!

㜿≕ṩġ

ᄢġ ौ

姽揹Ṣ⒉㗗姽揹㍐≽傥⏎枮⇑忼ㆸ䚖䘬䘬慵天斄挝炻㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉䘬∝シ䈡岒傥⋼ ≑℞㒢僓⁛䴙旸⇞炻⣂⃫⿅侫⇌㕟炻㍸↢㚱㓰⓷柴妋㰢䫾䔍炻᷎䌚⼿⍿姽侭䘬ᾉảˤ 㛔䞼䨞慵溆⛐㍊妶㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉∝シ䈡岒ℏ㵝⍲℞➡妻䫾䔍炻䴻㔯䌣↮㜸⼴炻怨婳 㔁做姽揹柀➇⮰⭞⬠侭⍲℟姽揹⮎⊁ⶍἄ䴻槿侭ℙᶫỵ炻惵⎰冒䶐姒婯柴䵙ẍ䃎溆 ⛀橼㱽吸普シ夳炻䴻䶐䡤⼁㔜⼴䘤䎦➡妻䫾䔍䘬夷∫椾⃰⛐㕤⋼≑姽揹Ṣ⒉忚埴奺 刚娵⎴䘬廱嬲炻ẍ⇑∝シ䈡岒䘬⺢䩳炻⋼≑姽揹ⶍἄ⚆㬠㛔岒烊℞㫉炻⇯枰㊩临忚 埴➡妻冯䞼佺婚䦳䘬嬲朑冯䘤⯽炻㍸⋯姽揹Ṣ⒉⍫冯≽㨇冯㺧嵛⮎⊁暨㯪烊ℵ侭炻 䞕㛇➡妻冯䞼佺婚䦳ㅱ㚜慵夾姽揹ね⠫䘬⟹忈炻⡆≈檀⹎Ḻ≽㬟䦳ẍ⋼≑Ṣ⒉䘤⯽ ∝シ䈡岒᷎⬴ㆸ姽揹䚖䘬ˤ䞼䨞㚨⼴⇯㍸↢⺢嬘炻ὃ䚠斄㨇㥳⍲⼴临䞼䨞⍫侫ˤġ 斄挝娆烉∝シ䈡岒ˣ➡妻䫾䔍ˣ姽揹Ṣ⒉ ____________________ 㜿≕ṩ烉⚳䩳冢⊿喅埻⣏⬠喅埻冯Ṣ㔯㔁做䞼䨞㇨∗㔁㌰ℤ䞼䨞䘤⯽嗽䞼䘤攟ˤ 暣⫸悝ẞ烉srlin@academic.tnua.edu.tw 姣烉 㛔婾㔯㓡⮓冒埴㓧昊⚳⭞䥹⬠⥼⒉㚫墄≑⮰㟰妰䔓ˬ∝シ姽揹Ṣ⒉䈡岒冯➡妻䫾䔍ᷳ䞼 䨞炷I炸烉ẍ喅埻⣏⬠䁢⮎嶸⟜➇˭炷NSC100-2410-H-119-011-炸ˤ

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Journal of Educational Administration and Evaluation December, 2013, Vol. 16, pp. 43-64

A Study of the Creative Personalities of

Evaluators and Cultivating Strategies

Shaw-Ren Lin

Abstract

Evaluators are key factors in the evaluation process. The creative personalities of evaluators can help them break free from traditional constraints and propose problem-solving strategies to win the trust of their evaluation subjects. This study focuses on the issues of creative personalities of evaluators and cultivating strategies. To achieve these objectives, previous studies were analyzed for a basic review, after which a seven members focus group proceeded by semi-structured questionnaire for data gathering. The findings are as follows: First, for cultivating the creative personalities of evaluators, they have to identify and transform their role. Second, to raise the motivation of evaluators and fulfill practical needs, the cultivating strategies would have to be reformed and developed continually. Furthermore, the short-term cultivating courses should be constructed under highly interactive evaluation scenarios. This study hopes to provide some suggestions for related institutes of education and further educational evaluation studies.

Keywords: creative personalities, cultivating strategies, evaluators

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Shaw-Ren Lin: Associate Professor / Graduate Institute of Arts and Humanities Education, & Dean / Office of Research & Development, Taipei National University of the Arts. E-mail: srlin@academic.tnua.edu.tw

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൦ȃᆱ፣!

姽揹慵夾㍷徘冯⇌㕟炻㓭㔁做姽揹ḇ⯙㗗⻟婧姽揹Ṣ⒉⮵㔁做䎦尉㍷徘冯₡ῤ ⇌㕟䘬㬟䦳炷㜿≕ṩ炻2008烊悕㗕ỹ炻2007烊喯拎渿炻2004烊Scriven, 1981炸ˤ⚈㬌 姽揹Ṣ⒉䘬怑↯⿏⼙枧姽揹忶䦳⍲䳸㝄䓂懭炻⎗婒㗗忼ㆸ姽揹䚖䘬⍲㍸⋯姽揹⑩岒 䘬慵天⚈䳈炷⏛㶭Ⱉ炻2010烊⬓⽿湇炻2004烊㚦㵹よ炻2011烊㚦ㅚ㓧ˣ昛┬⽟炻2008炸ˤ ᶵ忶⚳ℏ䚖⇵⎬栆姽揹⛐怜倀姽揹⥼⒉㗪炻⚈㰺㚱ᶨ⭂䘬怜倀夷䭬ㆾ㧁㸾炻㇨ẍ⣏ 悥ẍˬ⬠侭˭ 䁢ᷣ天怜倀⮵尉炻Ụ᷶⎒天㗗⬠侭⯙傥ㆸ䁢⎰䎮䘬姽揹Ṣ⒉炷悕㗕 ỹ炻2006炸ˤ㬌冱晾㺧嵛Ḯ⮰㤕䞍嬀ᶲᶨ⭂䦳⹎䘬➢䢶炻ᶵ忶⮰㤕䞍嬀⢾䘬℞Ṿ天䳈炻 ⁷㗗姽揹ΐ䎮ˣン⹎ˣṢ㟤䈡岒䫱炻⯙ᶵᶨ⭂䫎⎰㇨暨炻㬌䎦尉暋⃵䓊䓇姽揹ⶍἄ ㍐≽ᶲ䘬旣䣁ˤNevo炷1995炸⯙㚦婒忶姽揹Ṣ⒉ᷣ奨ᶲ䘬ῷ夳炻ⷠἧ⼿⍿姽侭⼺⡆ ㄪㄖ炻⡆≈⮵姽揹䘬ᶵᾉả冯㈿㉺ˤ姽揹Ṣ⒉䘬ᶨ冱ᶨ≽炻悥㗗⍿姽侭斄↯䘬䃎溆ˤ 㓭⤪ỽ⎗䧙⼿ᶲ㗗怑↯䘬姽揹Ṣ⒉炻ᶨ凔娵䁢军⮹ㅱℤ㚱ᶨ⭂䦳⹎䘬姽揹⮰㤕䞍嬀 冯⮎⊁䴻槿炻ㇵ䬿⼿ᶲ℟➢㛔䘬姽揹傥≃ˤLong 冯 Kishchuk炷1997炸⯙㍸↢姽揹Ṣ ⒉⍾⼿⮰㤕嫱䄏⇵ㅱ㺧嵛ℑᾳ➢㛔天䳈烉椾⃰㗗䞍嬀炻℞㫉䁢䴻槿ˤ䞍嬀㗗㊯ᾳṢ ᾖ䔊䴻娵⎗䘬婚䦳ㆾ⬠ỵ炻᷎忂忶⮰㤕䳬䷼䘬侫娎烊䴻槿⇯䁢⮎晃➟埴姽揹ⶍἄ䘬 㬟䶜炻᷎䴻忶⮰㤕Ṣ⒉夾⮶䘬⮎佺昶㭝ˤ⛐⍾⼿嫱䄏⼴怬枰忚埴⮰㤕䘤⯽炻ℵ德忶 ㎃䄏 䁢㊩临ㆸ攟䘬㨇⇞ˤ役⸜⚳ℏ⢾⮵姽揹Ṣ⒉䘬姽揹傥≃⶚㚱媠⣂㍊妶炻㬠䲵 ⼴䘤䎦㬌ṃ姽揹傥≃ᷣ天⎗㵝㊔ᶱ㕡朊炻椾⃰㗗ㅱ℟⁁ˬ姽揹⮰㤕䞍嬀˭炻⁷㗗Ḯ妋 姽揹㬟⎚冯䎮婾ˣ娵䞍姽揹Ṣ⒉奺刚ˣ䅇〱姽揹䘤⯽傰䴉冯姽揹㧁㸾ˣ䶐↿姽揹㇨ 暨枸䬿ˣ⮲慵姽揹ΐ䎮嬘柴䫱烊℞㫉⽭枰℟⁁➟埴ˬ姽揹⮎⊁䘬㈨傥˭炻⁷㗗㚦㚱➟ 埴姽揹䘬䴻槿ˣね⠫↮㜸傥≃ˣ怷廗⿅侫㈨傥ˣḮ妋姽揹㳩䦳ˣ䭉䎮姽揹妰䔓ˣ妋 㰢姽揹堅䨩ˣ傥惵⎰暨㯪婧㔜嬲⊾䫱烊ẍ⍲ˬᶨ凔䲣䴙⊾䞼䨞傥≃˭炻⤪傥忚埴䞼䨞 夷∫冯姕妰ˣḮ妋䞼䨞䦳⸷⍲㕡㱽ˣἧ䓐怑䔞䘬屯㕁吸普㕡⺷ˣ傥↮㜸岒⊾冯慷⊾ 屯㕁ˣ℟Ṣ晃㹅忂冯堐忼傥≃䫱䫱炷⼸㖲㜚ˣ㚦㵹よ炻2008烊㚦㵹よ炻2008烊湫㚁 㜙炻2007烊King, Stevahn, Ghere, & Minnema, 2001; Rossi, Lipsey, & Freeman, 2004;

Scriven, 1996炸炻⚈㬌炻昌Ḯ⮰㤕䞍嬀⢾炻ᾳṢン⹎冯䈡岒ḇ㚫㗗姽揹傥≃䘬慵天朊 ⎹ˤ ⛐ᾳṢ䘬Ṣ㟤䈡岒冯ン⹎ᷕ炻℞∝シ堐䎦㗗㊯ᾳ橼䘬䞍嬀冯䴻槿ˣシ⎹炷⊭㊔ ン⹎ˣ⁦⎹ˣ≽㨇炸㈨ⶏ䫾䔍䫱ᾳṢ䈡岒冯䳬䷼䑘⠫Ḻ≽䘬䳸㝄炷叱䌱䎈炻2006炸ˤ ᶾ䓴ᷣ天⚳⭞⛐䘤⯽䴻㾇ᷳ㗪炻∝シ㳣≽ḇ⶚ㆸ䁢慵天䘬∝㤕⃫䳈炻⊭㊔㈡⇌⿏⿅ 侫ˣ㒜㔋冯倂㔪⿅侫ˣ↮㜸ˣ䵄⎰ˣ姽揹䫱⓷柴妋㰢傥≃炻悥塓娵䁢㗗䘤⯽∝シ冯

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∝㕘䘬慵天⚈䳈炻傥㍸ὃ⿅䵕廱嬲ˣ䱦䙲㯪䱦炻侴䓊䓇㚱₡ῤ䘬届䌣炻㓭∝シᶨ䚜 㗗役⸜Ἦ䞼䨞Ṣ㟤䈡岒㗪䘬慵天嬘柴ˤ⚈㬌炻㖊䃞姽揹Ṣ⒉䘬ン⹎冯䈡岒㚫⼙枧姽 揹傥≃炻恋湤炻⒒ṃ∝シ䈡岒傥㚱㓰⋼≑姽揹Ṣ⒉䘤㎖⮰㤕冯怑↯⿏炻嬻姽揹Ṣ⒉ 朊⮵墯暄姽揹ね⠫冯⓷柴㗪傥枮⇑妋㰢⚘暋炻㍸⋯姽揹ⶍἄ䘬➟埴㓰傥烎 ⚆栏䚖⇵姽揹Ṣ⒉䚠斄䞼䨞ᶲ炻⣂倂䃎㕤姽揹傥≃䘬㍊妶炻⮵㕤姽揹Ṣ⒉Ṣ㟤 䈡岒䘬䞼䨞䚠⮵庫⮹炻∝シ䈡岒㚜䁢份夳ˤ劍⍫侫∝シ冯∝忈≃䞼䨞䚠斄㔯䌣炻⎗ 䚳↢天㍊妶姽揹Ṣ⒉䘬∝シ䈡岒炻䞼䨞慵溆ᷣ天⛐↮㜸姽揹Ṣ⒉䘬∝忈⿏Ṣ㟤炻㬠 䲵姽揹Ṣ⒉㇨ㅱ℟⁁䘬∝シ䈡岒冯傥≃炻⊭㊔╄㬉⿅侫ˣ⻰⿏ˣ゛⁷≃⻟ˣ⤥⣯ˣ ℏ⛐≽㨇ˣ婈⮎冯䛇婈ˣ冰嵋⺋㲃ˣ栀シ℺晒ˣ≯㕤㊹㇘ˣ冒ᾉˣ㦪㕤㹅忂ˣ侸⽫ 䫱䫱炻⽆㬌ṃℏ㵝⎗⇅㬍䚳↢∝シ䈡岒⊊⽭㚫⼙枧姽揹Ṣ⒉⛐㍐≽姽揹ⶍἄ㗪䘬ン ⹎冯堐䎦ˤ ⎎⢾炻⤪ỽ嬻姽揹Ṣ⒉傥㑩㚱⮰㤕傥≃冯ン⹎烎䚠斄䞼䨞㘖念⺢嬘枰䘤⯽⮰㤕 姽揹Ṣ⒉䘬➡妻㨇⇞ㆾ㔁做妻䶜炻᷎庼ẍ侫㟠ㆾ娵嫱㕡⺷䭉㍏姽揹Ṣ⒉䳈岒ˤ伶⚳ 㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉ᷳ⛐借妻䶜炻ᷣ天䓙姽揹⮰㤕䳬䷼㍸ὃ婚䦳冯㳣≽炻⊭㊔烉姽揹䞼妶 㚫冯ⶍἄ⛲ˣ䘤埴⮰㤕㛇↲ˣ⇞妪㕡㟰姽揹㧁㸾䫱炻冯⚳ℏ䚖⇵檀㔁姽揹ᷕ⽫䘬➡ 妻䫾䔍冯婚䦳䓂䁢䚠役ˤᶵ忶姽揹Ṣ⒉䘬∝シ䈡岒᷎ᶵᶨ⭂傥⛐⇵徘婚䦳ᷕ梲ㆸ炻 ⒒ṃ➡妻婚䦳ㆾ䫾䔍㗗慵天侴⽭暨烎䎦㚱➡妻䫾䔍ㆾ婚䦳傥⏎㺧嵛姽揹Ṣ⒉䘬慵天 傥≃冯䈡岒烎㛔䞼䨞⮯⃰㔜䎮⃰⇵姽揹Ṣ⒉∝シ䈡岒䘬䞼䨞䳸㝄炻ℵ忚ᶨ㬍㍊妶怑 ⎰姽揹Ṣ⒉䘬➡妻䫾䔍ˤ㓭䞼䨞䚖䘬ᷣ天⤪ᶳ烉 ᶨˣ㔜䎮᷎㍊妶㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉∝シ䈡岒䘬ℏ㵝冯慵溆烊 Ḵˣ↮㜸㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉➡妻䫾䔍䘬䎮⾝㕤⮎㕥䎦㱩烊 ᶱˣ㍸↢㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉∝シ䈡岒➡妻䫾䔍䘬℟橼⺢嬘ˤ

ຯȃМᝦ௤ଆ!

ΙȃఀىຟᠦΡষഺཎ੫፴ޟ१ौܒ!

㖑⛐ 1980 ⸜ẋ炻Patton炷1981炸⯙㚦㍸↢∝シ姽揹炷creative evaluation炸䘬㤪 ⾝炻娵䁢∝シ㗗姽揹⮰㤕ᶲ冯䓇ᾙἮ䘬暨㯪炷inherent demand炸炻⚈䁢姽揹㴱⍲Ḯ㳣 ≽忚埴ˣṢ⒉ˣ₡ῤ⇌㕟䫱ℏ㵝炻䧖栆⊭㊔㕡㟰姽揹ˣṢ⒉姽揹ˣㆸ㝄姽揹䫱栆✳炻 ℤ℟Ḯℙ忂⿏冯䌐䈡⿏ˤ∝シ姽揹䘬攳㓦ン⹎溻⊝⽆㕘䘬奨溆⭂佑姽揹ね⠫炻朊⮵ ⣂⃫ᶼ墯暄䘬䎦尉傥ᶵ㕟⮳㯪㕘䘬⓷柴妋㰢㕡⺷炻䃉枰⍿旸㕤忶⍣㖊㚱䴻槿䘬➭

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㊩ˤ㓭∝シ姽揹䘬慵天䚖䘬ᷳᶨ⯙㗗ⶴ㛃姽揹Ṣ⒉傥ẍ℟∝シ䘬⿅侫冯㕡⺷炻嬻姽 揹ⶍἄ傥㚜枮⇑⛘㍐≽炻㇨ẍ天↮㜸姽揹ᷕ∝シ䘬Ἦ㸸冒䃞ᶵ傥⾥䔍ˬ姽揹Ṣ˭䘬 ∝シˤ ᾳṢ∝シ堐䎦ᷫ㊯ᾳ橼䘬䞍嬀冯䴻槿ˣシ⎹炷⊭㊔ン⹎ˣ⁦⎹ˣ≽㨇炸㈨ⶏ䫾 䔍炻㬌ṃᾳṢ䈡岒冯䳬䷼䑘⠫Ḻ≽䘬䳸㝄炷叱䌱䎈炻2006炸ˤCsikszentmihalyi ḇ娵 䁢∝忈≃㗗⬠攨炷field炸ˣ柀➇炷domain炸冯ᾳṢ炷individual炸ᶱ㕡朊䘬ṌḺἄ䓐炻

Ṿ䘬∝忈≃ᶱ㊯㧁䲣䴙㧉⺷炷three-pronged systems model炸ᷣ⻝ᾳṢ䴻⬠佺䓊䓇㝸 柀➇䞍嬀娵䞍ᶲ䘬ℏ⊾炻ℵ⚈䓇㳣䴻槿冯ℏ⛐≽㨇⼊ㆸ↢嬲䔘冯㕘⣯䘬゛㱽ˤ∝忈 ≃⯙㗗ᶨ䧖㕘⣯゛㱽冯㓡嬲炻ᶨᾳṢ天傥∝忈䓊⑩炻尉⽝䞍嬀䲣䴙䘬柀➇䞍嬀⽭枰 椾⃰塓ᾳṢ㇨ℏ⊾烊䃞侴炻㬌∝㕘㬟䦳怬⽭枰䴻忶⬠攨䘬䮑怠炻⬠攨ẋ堐䘬⯙㗗娚 柀➇䘬䣦㚫㔯⊾䳬䷼炻䓙ˬ⬰攨Ṣ˭炷gatekeeper炸ẍ柀➇ᷕ䘬ℙ嬀㧁㸾㈡⇌ᾳṢ䘬 ∝ シ 冯 㕘 䓊 ⑩ 炻 忂 忶 ㈡ ⇌ 䘬 ∝ シ ㇵ 傥 忚 ℍ 柀 ➇ 炷 叱 䌱 䎈 炻 2006 烊 Feldman, Csikszentmihalyi, & Gardner, 1994炸ˤ⚈㬌炻ᾳṢ䘬∝シ堐䎦⽭枰➢㕤䈡⭂䘬⮰㤕柀 ➇䞍嬀炻᷎⛐ᶨ⬠攨䘬䣦㚫㔯⊾䳸㥳ᷕᶵ㕟⛘嬲䔘冯ṌḺἄ䓐炻㓭㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉ㅱ ⃰℟⁁姽揹柀➇⮰㤕䞍嬀炻ẍ㺧嵛⬠攨䮑怠䘬攨㩣炻ℵ惵⎰ẋ堐ˬᾳṢシ⎹˭䘬∝ シ䈡岒炻ㇵ傥䫎⎰∝シ姽揹⮵姽揹Ṣ⒉傥≃冯䈡岒䘬➢㛔暨㯪ˤ ẍ㔁做姽揹⮎⊁䁢ἳ炻䓙㕤姽揹慵夾⇌㕟㬟䦳炻㈡⇌⿏⿅侫⯙⼰冒䃞⛘㚫塓夾 䁢㗗姽揹侭⽭枰㑩㚱䘬➢㛔傥≃炻Ữ㈡⇌⿏⿅侫䔊䪇ᶵ⎴㕤∝忈⿏⿅侫炻Ṣ栆⽫㘢 㳣≽ᷕ䘬↮㜸㈡⇌㛔⯙ᶵ⎴㕤∝シ䘤゛炻姽揹侭㑩㚱㈡⇌⿏⿅侫炻᷎ᶵẋ堐Ṿḇ傥 枮⇑忚埴∝忈⿏⿅侫ˤ㇨ẍ炻䁢性⃵⍿旸㕤⍇㚱⬠埻䞍嬀側㘗冯䴻槿炻㚱∝シ䘬姽 揹Ṣ⒉⛐姽揹忶䦳ᷕ炻昌Ḯ㚫⮵⶚䞍䎦尉冯忳ἄ㕡㱽㍸↢冒ㆹ㈡⇌冯岒䔹⢾炻㚜慵 䘬㗗傥⣈䘤㎖㓷扛䘬奨⮇冯゛⁷炻ẍ⇑㕤晐㗪⮵ね⠫嬲⊾ ↢⍵ㅱ炻᷎䘤⯽↢⣂䧖 ⎗傥⿏炻ẍ⍲㚱㓰䘬㕘䳬⎰冯⚈ㅱ㕡⺷ˤ䵄妨ᷳ炻∝シ姽揹Ṣ⒉枰℟㚱䓴⭂㕘⓷柴 䘬傥≃炻侴朆⎒㗗ẘ岜ṾṢ䘬⭂佑ㆾシ夳烊ṾᾹḇㅱ℟㚱嶐崲ᶵ⎴柀➇傰䴉䘬傥≃ Ἦ廱㎃㇨⬠⍲㇨䞍炻忁ṃ傥≃⽭枰㢵➢㕤柀➇⮰㤕䞍嬀冯ᾳṢ∝シ䈡岒炻栗䣢↢㔁 做姽揹Ṣ⒉∝シ䈡岒䘬慵天ˤ

ΠȃຟᠦΡষഺཎ੫፴ޟϱొ!

㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉ㅱ℟⁁䘬傥≃⣏农⎗㬠䲵䁢ℑᾳ朊⎹炻椾⃰㗗姽揹⮰㤕䞍嬀冯㈨ 埻㕡朊䘬傥≃炻⊭㊔℟⁁姽揹䎮婾䞍嬀ˣ姽揹夷∫➟埴⮎⊁ˣ姽揹㕡㱽婾ˣ姽揹ΐ 䎮ˣ姽揹䞼䨞ˣ姽揹⮰㤕䘤⯽䫱傥≃烊⎎⢾⇯㗗ᶨ凔忂䓐䘬傥≃炻⊭㊔怷廗⿅侫ˣ 屯㕁吸普↮㜸ˣ妰䔓㑘⮓ˣ⎋婆堐忼ˣ⛀昲⎰ἄˣ㹅忂⋼婧ˣ⮲慵ᶵ⎴奨溆ˣṢ晃

(6)

斄Ὢˣ⡻≃䭉䎮ˣ屔ảデ䫱炻㴱⍲Ⰼ朊庫⺋炷⼸㖲㜚ˣ㚦㵹よ炻2008烊㚦㵹よ炻2008烊 湫㚁㜙炻2007烊King et al., 2001; McGuire, 2002; Scriven, 1996; Shadish, Newman, Scheirer, & Wye, 1995炸ˤ劍Ṽ䳘奨⮇⎗䘤䎦⣏悐↮䘬傥≃␴ᾳṢ䘬シ⎹⍲Ṣ㟤䈡岒 㚱⭮↯䘬斄Ὢ炻㚱ṃℏ㵝冯℞婒㗗傥≃炻ḳ⮎ᶲㅱ㬠Ⱄ㕤Ṣ㟤䈡岒ˤ劍㚜倂䃎㕤∝ シ䈡岒ᶲ炻䨞䪇⒒ṃ∝シ䈡岒㗗姽揹Ṣ⒉㇨⽭枰℟⁁烎䞼䨞侭㚦⍫侫䚠斄㔯䌣᷎ẍ ⮎嫱㕡⺷⺢㥳ˬ㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉∝シ䈡岒⚈䳈˭炻䴻䓙槿嫱⿏⚈䳈↮㜸㩊槿ᾉ⹎冯㓰 ⹎炻⺢㥳↢∝シ䈡岒䘬Ḽ⣏㥳朊⍲℞ᶳℙ 40 枭ℏ㵝烉㥳朊ᶨ䁢ˬ∝㕘嬲忂˭炻ᶳ㚱 5 枭ℏ㵝炻Ⱄ㕤姽揹Ṣ⒉徥㯪∝㕘ˣ嬲⊾ˣᶵ⍿旸⁛䴙冯⚢⭂⼊⺷䘬䈡岒烊㥳朊Ḵ 䁢ˬ攳㓦奢⮇˭炻ᶳṎ㚱 5 枭ℏ㵝炻Ⱄ㕤叿慵奨⮇≃ˣ⣂⃫⿅侫冯夳妋䘬䈡岒烊㥳朊 ᶱ䁢ˬ㯪䞍℺晒˭炻ᶳ㚱 10 枭ℏ㵝炻Ⱄ㕤姽揹Ṣ⒉≯㕤㍊䳊ˣ⤥⣯ˣ㊩临ㆸ攟䫱䈡 岒烊㥳朊⚃䁢ˬ怷廗㶙⿅˭炻ᶳ㚱 10 枭ℏ㵝炻Ⱄ㕤倂㬃ˣ怷廗冯䎮⿏䘬⿅䵕烊㥳朊 Ḽ䁢ˬ⮲慵冒⼳˭炻ᶳṎ㚱 10 枭ℏ㵝炻Ⱄ㕤ΐ䎮ˣ冒䚩冒⼳ˣ䛇婈䘬ン⹎冯䈡岒ˤ Ḽᾳ㥳朊㵝味⺋㲃炻㥳ㆸ㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉∝シ䈡岒ℏ㵝ˤ ⽆堐 1 ⎗䚳↢Ḽᾳ㥳朊䘬慵天⿏⸛⛯㔠ẍˬ攳㓦奢⮇˭5.63 㚨檀炻℞㫉ὅ⸷䁢 ˬ⮲慵冒⼳˭ˣˬ怷廗㶙⿅˭ˣˬ∝㕘嬲忂˭炻㚨Ỷ䁢ˬ㯪䞍℺晒˭ˤ䴻嬲䔘㔠↮㜸⼴ F ῤ忼栗叿炷170.86, p < .001炸炻栗䣢㥳朊攻⸛⛯㔠㚱㖶栗ⶖ䔘ˤḳ⼴㭼庫䘤䎦炻ˬ攳 㓦奢⮇˭檀㕤℞Ṿ⚃㥳朊炻ᶼ⛯忼栗叿烊ˬ⮲慵冒⼳˭冯ˬ怷廗㶙⿅˭ᷳ攻䃉栗叿ⶖ 䔘炻Ữ䘮栗叿檀㕤ˬ∝㕘嬲忂˭冯ˬ㯪䞍℺晒˭烊ˬ∝㕘嬲忂˭Ṏ檀㕤ˬ㯪䞍℺晒˭炻 ḇ忼栗叿ˤ⎗夳㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉∝シ䈡岒ẍ℟㓷扛奨⮇≃ˣ傥ᶵ⎴奺⹎⿅侫ˣ㦪㕤㍸ ↢ᶵ⎴夳妋䫱Ⱄ㕤ˬ攳㓦奢⮇˭䈡岒庫⍿慵夾炻℞Ṿ⤪傥晐㗪冒䚩ˣ傥冒⼳冯䭉䎮ˣ ⿅侫℟怷廗䫱䈡岒ḇ⼰慵天炻栗䎦姽揹Ṣ⒉昌Ḯ攳㓦奢⮇䫱䈡岒⢾炻庫ῷⰔ䎮⿏⿅ 䵕䘬⮲慵冒⼳冯怷廗㶙⿅䫱䈡岒ḇ⽭枰ℤ℟ˤ楁㷗⬠埻⍲借㤕屯㬟姽⮑⯨炷Hong Kong Council for Accreditation of Academic and Vocational Qualifications炸⻟婧炻姽揹

忶䦳ᷕ炻姽⮑䘬㚨㟠⽫₡ῤ⯙㗗ˬᶵ↢Ṣシ㕁ᷳ⢾˭炷no surprise炸炷ὗ㯠䏒炻2010炸炻 シ␛姽揹⥼⒉ㅱ㚱䎮⿏ˣ冒⼳䘬ン⹎⍇⇯炻慵夾姽揹忶䦳⍲䳸㝄⇌⭂䘬䨑⭂冯ᶨ农 ⿏ˤ

έȃຟᠦΡষޟஉଋ๊౱!

天㛇⼭㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⎴㗪㑩㚱柀➇⮰㤕䞍嬀冯∝シ䈡岒炻⊊⽭䴻忶ᶨ㭝㗪攻⮰ 㤕䘬梲ㆸˤ忁℞ᷕ军⮹㴱⍲ℑᾳ慵天䘬嬘柴炻Ṏ⌛ˬṨ湤㧋䘬Ṣ怑⎰㑼ả姽揹ⶍἄ˭ ẍ⍲ˬṨ湤㧋䘬➡做㕡⺷怑⎰梲ㆸ怑ả䘬姽揹Ṣ⒉˭ˤ⇵侭ᷣ天㗗ˬ怠㑯˭炻シ㖐姽 揹Ṣ⒉⍫冯⇵ㅱ⶚℟⁁䈡⭂傥≃冯Ṣ㟤䈡岒烊⼴侭⇯⻟婧ˬ梲ㆸ˭炻ẋ堐⍫冯姽揹⼴

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堐 1 㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉∝シ䈡岒㥳朊冯ℏ㵝ᷳ䴙妰↮㜸 㥳ġ ġ 朊 柴ġ ġ 䚖 ⸛⛯㔠 㥳朊 ⸛⛯㔠 F ῤ ḳ⼴ 㭼庫 1.∝㕘嬲忂 ℟㚱寸⭴䘬゛⁷≃ 4.93 5.15 170.86*** 2>5,4>1>3a ≯㕤䨩䟜⁛䴙ㆾㄋἳ 5.34 ≯㕤∝㕘冯嬲⊾ 5.33 ᶵ⭡㖻㺧嵛䎦㱩 4.80 ᶵ➟叿㕤ᶨ农⿏ㆾ⚢⭂⼊⺷ 5.35 2.攳㓦奢⮇ 㚱㓷扛䘬奨⮇≃ 5.79 5.63 㦪㕤㍸⓷冯㍸↢ᶵ⎴夳妋 5.58 傥䚳↢⣂䧖⎗傥⿏ 5.51 傥⽆ᶵ⎴奺⹎⿅侫ᶨẞḳ 5.70 傥㍍⍿㕘ḳ䈑ㆾ㕘䴻槿 5.56 3.㯪䞍℺晒 ⮵䑘⠫䘬怑ㅱ≃⻟ 5.01 5.08 㚱⺋㲃䘬冰嵋 4.82 ⷠ㉙㆟䔹ン⹎ 4.75 㚱⻟䁰䘬⤥⣯⽫ 5.27 㛇⼭ᶵ㕟䘬忚㬍 5.49 栀シ㈧㑼桐晒冯屔ả 5.22 冒ㆹㆸ攟冯⬠佺≽㨇⻟ 5.51 㚱⸥満デ 4.88 ℟℺晒䱦䤆 4.74 㦪㕤㍍⍿㊹㇘ 5.15 4.怷廗㶙⿅ ╄㬉冯ṢḺ≽冯㹅忂䚳㱽 5.51 5.46 ⮵ḳ䈑㶙⿅䅇ㄖ 5.47 傥⮷⽫嫡ヶ⛘ᶳ㰢⭂ 5.32 㚱䌐冒妋㰢⓷柴䘬傥≃ 5.41 傥䌐䩳⿅侫 5.58 傥↮㜸冯䳬䷼⓷柴 5.58 ⿅侫℟怷廗冯㫉⸷⿏ 5.58 傥䚳↢冯彐⇍ḳ䈑攻䘬斄忋⿏ 5.58 傥㚱妰䔓⛘㌴㎉⍲婧㔜ⶍἄ㬟䦳 5.34 ⷠ㍸↢⓷柴ㆾ㈡⇌ 5.28 5.⮲慵冒⼳ 傥➭⬰ᾉ⾝冯忻⽟≯㯋 5.48 5.47 䥖尴冯⮲慵ṾṢ 5.42 傥晐㗪冒ㆹ⍵䚩 5.45 ⼭Ṣ䛇婈冯婈⮎ 5.50 ᾉ⬰姽揹ⶍἄ㈧媦冯ΐ䎮 5.71 ≯㕤朊⮵⚆ㅱ 5.46 傥➭㊩⇘⸽ᶵ⋲徼侴⺊ 5.26 傥冒⼳᷎䭉䎮冒ㆹね䵺 5.43 ⮵姽揹ⶍἄ℟㚱䅙⾙ 5.54 傥≯㕤㈧娵拗婌 5.46 姣烉a䁢㯪䱦䯉炻ḳ⼴㭼庫ˬ5,4˭ẋ堐 5 冯 4 ᷳ攻ⶖ䔘㛒忼栗叿ˤ ***p< .001.

(8)

ㅱ㍍⍿䘬➡妻㕡⺷冯㬟䦳ˤ㓭ㅱ⛐ᶨ攳⥳⯙句⮎姽揹⥼⒉怜怠炻娵䛇侫慷Ṣ⒉䘬側 㘗傥≃⍲ᾳṢ䈡岒炻⚈䁢姙⣂姽揹㇨暨䘬傥≃␴シ⎹冯Ṣ㟤䈡岒㚱⭮↯䘬斄Ὢˤ㬌 ⢾炻枰䘤⯽怑⎰䘬➡妻䫾䔍ẍ⡆⻟姽揹傥≃炻䓂军德忶㚱㓰傥䘬➡妻䫾䔍Ἦ㓡嬲姽 揹Ṣ⒉䘬ᾳṢ䈡岒冯ン⹎ˤ

炷ᶨ炸⚳ℏ姽揹Ṣ⒉➡妻䎦㱩

伶⚳⮎㕥娵⎗⇞⹎⶚ᷭ炻㖑㚱⮰㤕⛀橼 American Evaluation Association ㍸↢姽 揹Ṣ⒉䘬㊯⮶⍇⇯炷Guilding Principles for Evaluator炸炻⊭㊔㚱䲣䴙⛘忚埴㍊䨞ˣ嵛 ẍ⊅ảˣ㬋䚜冯婈⮎ˣ⮲慵ˣẍ⍲℔ℙ⇑䙲䘬屔ả烊᷎娵䁢姽揹㗪䘬姒姽Ṣ⒉ㅱ℟ ⁁㕡㱽⬠妻䶜ˣ➢㛔⬠㬟ˣ姽揹ⶍἄ䴻槿䫱屯㟤天㯪炻⚈㬌䘤⯽↢⮵姒姽Ṣ⒉䘬➡ 妻㕡⺷ˤ姽揹⥼⒉➡妻ᶨ䚜㗗姽揹忶䦳⽭⁁ⶍἄᷳᶨ炻ẍ䡢ᾅ姽揹Ṣ⒉嵛ẍ⊅ả姽 揹ⶍἄ炷⏛㶭Ⱉ炻2010烊㼀ㄏ䍚炻2004烊Altschuld, 1999炸ˤ㖊㚱⮎晃ᶲ䘬暨㯪炻役 ⸜⚳ℏ⢾䃉ᶵ农≃㕤㍸⋯㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉䘬⮰㤕傥≃炻⊭㊔⺢䩳娵嫱㨇⇞䘬␤倚ḇ㚦 ⺋㲃妶婾ˤỮ堉惴⚳ℏ䔞Ṳ姽揹ⶍἄ⮎⊁炻㫚⺢䩳ᶨ⣿⬴㔜䘬娵嫱㨇⇞ṵⰔ妶婾冯 䞼嬘ᷕ䘬嬘柴炻ᶼ⚳ℏ䎦昶㭝姽揹ⶍἄ䛦⣂炻⮎ḇ䶑ᶵ㾇⿍ˤ䘤⯽ẍ➡妻䁢➢䢶䘬 娵嫱⇞⹎Ụ᷶⶚ㆸ䁢㍐≽姽揹Ṣ⒉娵嫱㨇⇞庫䁢⎗埴䘬徼⼹炷㚦㵹よ炻2011炸ˤ ⚳ℏ役⸜䘬➡妻㕡⺷炻ẍ⣏⬠姽揹侴妨炻ᷣ天䓙屉⛀㱽Ṣ檀䫱㔁做姽揹ᷕ⽫炷ẍ ᶳ䯉䧙檀㔁姽揹ᷕ⽫炸屈屔夷∫冯➟埴ˤ椾⃰天䫎⎰暨㯪⿏⍇⇯炻天⃰忚埴⥼⒉⮵ 䞼佺婚䦳䘬暨㯪婧㞍␴姽Ộ炻姕妰䫎⎰⥼⒉暨㯪ᷳ婚䦳ˤ䫔Ḵ㗗⣂⃫⿏⍇⇯炻䞼佺 婚䦳天℟㚱⣂㧋⊾炻㚱朄ン䘬婚䦳炻ḇ㚱≽ン䘬婚䦳炻ḇ㚱⮎ἄ␴妶婾䘬婚䦳炻庫 㖻㽨崟⍫冯䞼佺侭䘬冰嵋ˤ䫔ᶱ㗗⮎䓐⿏⍇⇯炻䞼佺婚䦳ᶵ傥㚱忶⣂䎮婾䘬嫃㌰炻 侴㗗䞼佺ᷳ⼴炻䡢⮎傥⣈䓐⛐⮎⛘姒姽ⶍἄ炻侴ᶼ⮵姒姽ⶍἄ㚱⮎岒䘬⸓≑炷⏛㶭 Ⱉ炻2010炸ˤẍ 100 ⸜㟉⊁姽揹⍲䫔Ḵ忙㛇䲣㇨姽揹䁢ἳ炻檀㔁姽揹ᷕ⽫夷∫↢➡妻 ᷳ⽭ᾖ冯怠ᾖ婚䦳炻℞ᷕ⽭ᾖ婚䦳Ⱄ㕤姽揹ᷳ㟠⽫⮰㤕䞍嬀冯㈨傥炻怠ᾖ婚䦳⇯Ⱄ 㕤姽揹⥼⒉ㅱ℟⁁ᷳ姽揹➢㛔䳈梲ˤ䴻⍫惴⚳⢾䴻槿⼴炻䘤⯽↢⽭ᾖ婚䦳ℙ㚱Ḵ攨炻 ↮⇍㗗ˬ姽揹ΐ䎮冯⮎⊁˭⍲ˬ姽揹⟙⏲㑘⮓˭ˤ⎎⢾炻䁢⚈ㅱ⬠䓇⬠佺ㆸ㓰姽Ộ㨇 ⇞徸㻠ㆸ䁢姽揹慵溆炻䁢嬻⥼⒉㶙ℍḮ妋炻ḇ⮯㬌枭ᷣ柴䲵ℍ婚䦳ˤ⎎⢾⛐怠ᾖ婚 䦳㕡朊炻ᷣ天㗗㍸⋯姽揹⥼⒉姽揹䘬➢㛔䳈梲炻⶚姕妰忶ˬ㔁做䓊㤕ℐ䎫⊾˭ˣˬ姽 揹冯㔁做⑩岒ᾅ嫱˭ˣˬ姽揹冯㱽⼳˭ˣˬ姽揹⮵檀䫱㔁做䘬⼙枧˭ˣẍ⍲ˬ⬠䓇⬠佺ㆸ 㓰姽慷˭䫱ᷣ柴婚䦳ᷳ攳姕炻㍸ὃ姽揹⥼⒉役⸜Ἦ⚳ℏ⢾檀䫱㔁做姽揹ᷳ㕘䞍冯嵐 ⊊炷㛶䎖⤪炻2011炸ˤ䔞䃞炻姽揹㨇㥳㇨㍸ὃᷳ➡妻婚䦳炻㚜⽭枰傥⎴㗪⊭⏓⮰㤕㈨ 傥炷hard skill炸炻⤪婚䦳䞍嬀ˣ⣏⬠䭉䎮䞍嬀ˣ䲣㇨䞍嬀ˣ姽揹㈨ⶏ䫱炻ẍ⍲庇㈨傥 炷soft skill炸炻⤪㈿⡻⿏ˣ≯㯋ˣ⻰⿏ˣ㨇≽ˣ⎴䎮⽫⍲⮵⑩岒㓡┬䘬䅙⾙䫱炷ὗ㯠

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䏒炻2010炸ˤ ẍ 100 ⸜㟉⊁姽揹Ἦ䚳炻檀㔁姽揹ᷕ⽫⮵㕤娵⎗⮑嬘⥼⒉冯姽揹⥼⒉攳姕忶ᷳ ➡妻婚䦳炻ℙ㚱⚃攨炻⊭㊔ˬ姽揹⮎㕥妰䔓冯⮎㕥㳩䦳˭炻ᷣ天嬻⥼⒉Ḯ妋姽揹䚖䘬ˣ ⍇⇯ˣℏ⭡冯枭䚖ˣ㧁㸾冯天䳈ˣ䳸㝄ᷳ娵⎗➢㸾⍲嗽䎮䫱炻᷎ↅ倂⥼⒉⮵姽揹ἄ 㤕ᷳℙ嬀烊℞㫉䁢ˬ⺢㥳⬠䓇⬠佺ㆸ㓰⑩岒ᾅ嫱㨇⇞˭炻嬻姽揹⥼⒉Ḯ妋⬠䓇⬠佺ㆸ 㓰ᷳℏ㵝冯姽揹慵溆烊ℵἮ䁢ˬ姽揹⟙⏲㑘⮓˭炻⺢䩳㑘⮓ˬ嫱㒂㛔ỵ˭炷evidence- based炸姽揹⟙⏲䘬傥≃炻䡢ᾅ⟙⏲ℏ⭡ᷳ⎗ᾉ⹎烊㚨⼴䁢ˬ姽揹⮎⊁冯姽揹ΐ䎮˭炻 䚖䘬⛐⋼≑⥼⒉怑↯⛘㈖㺼姽揹⥼⒉ᷳ⮰㤕奺刚炻⊭⏓忚埴屯㕁㩊教ˣ⍫姒ˣṢ⒉ 㘌婯㗪吸普嫱㒂ᷳ慵溆冯ㅱ㲐シḳ枭䫱ˤ䵄㊔侴妨炻⚳ℏ䚖⇵䓙檀㔁姽揹ᷕ⽫ᷣ⮶ ᷳ➡妻㕡⺷炻℟㚱䞼佺侭⮶⎹ˣ㟰ἳ⮎ἄ⮶⎹ˣẍ⍲ℙ嬀ↅ倂⮶⎹炷㰈ὲ⎱炻2010炸ˤ 炷Ḵ炸䲣䴙⿏䘬➡妻䫾䔍 ⍫侫⚳ℏ⢾䘬➡妻䫾䔍冯慵天奨溆⼴炻⎗䘤䎦⺢䩳䲣䴙⿏䘬➡妻䫾䔍⶚ㆸ䁢⚳ 晃攻⎬ᷣ天⚳⭞斄㲐䘬慵溆ˤ湫㚁㜙炷2007炸ˣ⼸㖲㜚冯㚦㵹よ炷2008炸㚱斄姽揹Ṣ ⒉傥≃䘬䞼䨞炻悥⺢嬘枰䘤⯽⮰㤕姽揹Ṣ⒉䘬➡妻㨇⇞ㆾ㔁做妻䶜炻᷎庼ẍ侫㟠ㆾ 娵嫱㕡⺷Ἦ䭉㍏姽揹Ṣ⒉䳈岒ˤ伶⚳㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉ᷳ⛐借妻䶜炻ᷣ天䓙姽揹⮰㤕䳬 ䷼㍸ὃ婚䦳冯㳣≽炻⊭㊔姽揹䞼妶㚫冯ⶍἄ⛲ˣ䘤埴⮰㤕㛇↲ˣ⇞妪㕡㟰姽揹㧁㸾 䫱炷Russon, 2005炸烊ᶵ忶⽆⮎䓐⿏冯∝シ⿏䘬奺⹎Ἦ⿅䳊炻ㆹᾹ⮵∝シ䈡岒䘬➡妻 䫾䔍㚫㛇⼭㚜檀䘬⣂⃫⿏冯∝㕘⿏ˤ King 䫱Ṣ炷2001炸㚦⮯姽揹Ṣ⒉䘬㟠⽫傥≃忚埴↮栆炻↮⇍䁢䲣䴙䘬㍊䨞傥≃ 炷systematic inquiry炸ˣ䧙借䘬姽揹⮎⊁傥≃炷competent evaluation practice炸ˣᶨ凔姽 揹⮎⊁㈨ⶏ炷general skills for evaluation practice炸ˣẍ⍲姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕ᾉ⾝炷evaluator

professionalism炸炻℞ᶳ⍰⊭㊔ 16 枭㫉䳂傥≃炻᷎ℵ䳘↮↢ 49 枭㚜℟橼䘬傥≃ˤ㍸

↢䘤⯽ˬ傥≃㛔ỵ姽揹婚䦳˭炷competency-based evaluation curricula炸䘬⺢嬘炻娵䁢 ➡妻婚䦳昌傥㽨䘤↢㬌⚃朊⎹䘬傥≃⢾炻ᶼ枰忚ᶨ㬍㍊妶㬌柀➇ᶵ⭡㖻䘤䎦冯➡做

䘬ˬ㼃⛐傥≃˭炷potential competencies炸ˤ䓙㬌䚳Ἦ炻➡妻婚䦳ṵ⬀⛐ˬ嬲朑˭䘬⎗

傥炻⽭枰≯㕤䨩䟜⁛䴙㧉⺷炻䡢⮎⚈䈡岒冯傥≃侴䘤⯽䫾䔍炻朆㗗⼊⺷ᶲ䘬㔟埵ˤ ὗ㯠䏒炷2010炸娵䁢㽛㳚⣏⬠⑩岒ᾅ嫱⯨炷Australian Universities Quality Agency炸 ⛐姽揹⥼⒉➡妻婚䦳夷∫ᶲ枿㚱䈡刚炻昌㚱側㘗⍲䚠斄屯妲嫃㌰⢾炻㚫ẍ⣏⬠䘬冒 姽⟙⏲㚠䁢➢䢶㔁㛸炻⺞Ỡ↢⓷柴德忶↮䳬忚埴妶婾炻⓷柴⊭㊔⤪ỽ䘤⯽㚨Ἓ姒夾 嬘䦳ˣ⤪ỽ䘤㍀怢㺷屯㕁ˣ⤪ỽ㚱㓰䌯⛘槿嫱屯㕁ˣ娚姒婯婘ˣẍ⍲⤪ỽ⮓↢姽揹 ⟙⏲⇅䧧䫱ˤ婚䦳ḇ㚫ẍ奺刚㈖㺼⍲妶婾ⶍἄ⛲䘬㕡⺷忚埴炻ⶴ㛃⍫冯侭傥䡢⮎䛇 㬋Ḯ妋姽揹䘬䚖䘬ˣ䱦䤆冯忶䦳ˤ⛐㭼庫楁㷗冯㽛㳚⮵姽揹⥼⒉➡妻婚䦳⼴炻䴻䓙

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ṾⰙᷳ䞛㬠䲵↢ẍᶳ⺢嬘炻⤪ㆸ䩳屈屔⥼⒉➡妻婚䦳䘬⮰屔╖ỵˣ倀ảㆾ➡妻⮰屔 嫃⒉ˣ䶐⮓⮎ἳᾳ㟰㔁㛸ˣℐ⸜婚䦳⇞⹎⊾䘬夷∫ˣẍ⍲┬䓐⚳晃䎦㚱屯㸸䫱ˤ℞ ᷕ⎗䚳↢⮵䲣䴙⊾䘬姜㯪炻ẍ㯪➡妻䫾䔍䘬㚱㓰䘤⯽ˤ㇨媪㚱䲣䴙䘬➡妻㨇⇞夷∫炻 ⇯军⮹枰侫慷姽揹⥼⒉奺刚㼬㶭ˣ⮰屔䳬䷼ˣ⣂⃫婚䦳ˣね⠫⟹忈䫱⎬ᾳⰌ朊ˤ 劍ẍ姽揹⥼⒉奺刚㼬㶭䁢ἳ炻Fetterman ㍸Έᷳ⼘㪲䙲傥姽揹炷empowerment evaluation炸⍾⎹⻟婧姽揹侭䘬奺刚昌㊯⮶侭⢾炻怬ㅱ⊭⏓妻䶜侭ˣὫ忚侭ˣΈ⮶侭 ⍲斉㖶侭炻朆ⷠ慵夾⍫冯侭ᷳᷣ≽㪲冯冒ᷣ㪲炷㼀ㄏ䍚炻2006炸ˤ⥹ᶼᶵ婾姽揹Ṣ⒉ 䨞䪇㗗ẍ“慵₡ῤ⇌㕟䘬姽揹ᷣ⮶侭奺刚䁢ᷣ炻ㆾ㗗“慵⽆㕩⋼≑⍫冯侭䘬奺刚䁢 ᷣ炻伶⚳㔁做姽揹䓴⶚㚱㈡⇌冯彗婾炷㼀ㄏ䍚炻2006炸ˤỮ⽆ㇻ䟜⁛䴙姽揹Ṣ⒉奺刚 䘬奨溆Ἦ䚳炻朊⮵墯暄䘬姽揹ね⠫炻䎮゛䘬姽揹Ṣ⒉悥ㅱ℟㚱㈖㺼⤥⣂⃫奺刚䘬傥 ≃炻䚠⮵㷃⮹⇑⭛斄ὪṢ⮵姽揹㬟䦳䘬❳⿐炻㬌ᶵ⎴㕤⁛䴙姽揹⥼⒉㈖㺼䘬㈡⇌奺 刚炻⽭⭂㚫㗗㛒Ἦ姽揹➡妻䫾䔍⽭枰侫慷䘬慵天傥≃ㆾン⹎ˤ ⛐➡妻䘬ね⠫⟹忈ᶲ炻晾䃞仢⮹㔠㒂⍲⮎⽝⿏䞼䨞Ἦ嫱㖶ね⠫⮵∝シ䘤⯽䘬慵 天炻Ữ⽆㬟⎚冯㘖念䘬䓇㳣䴻槿Ἦ䚳炻⢾⛐䑘⠫ⷠⷠ㶙⇣⛘⼙枧ṢᾹ䘬⿅゛冯デ⍿ˤ ⚈㬌炻⟹忈姽揹ね⠫䘬㕡⺷炻ㅱ㵝㊔䨢攻冯㗪攻䘬⚈䳈炻⊭㊔庫℟橼䘬䑘⠫ỵ伖ˣ 姕⁁ˣ㳣≽㖍䦳䫱炻ẍ⍲庫㉥尉䘬䨢攻㯋㯃ˣ⛀昲㔯⊾ˣ␴媏⹎冯嫃侭䳈梲䫱ˤ忁 ṃ⚈䳈⛐夷∫姽揹➡妻䫾䔍㗪炻㚨⤥傥ᶨἝ侫慷炻ẍ䡢ᾅ㔜橼䫾䔍䘤⯽䘬䲣䴙⿏炻 ㍸⋯➡妻婚䦳䘬ㆸ㓰ˤ

⍪ȃंـПݲ!

㛔䞼䨞吸普⚳ℏ⢾㚱斄㔁做姽揹ˣ∝シ姽揹ˣ∝シṢ㟤䈡岒冯傥≃ᷳ䚠斄㔯䌣炻 枸㛇⃰㍊妶㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉䘬∝シ䈡岒炻ℵὅ㬌䘤⯽㚱≑㕤姽揹⮎⊁ᷳ➡妻䫾䔍ˤ㕡 㱽ᶲ䓙㕤䞼䨞Ⱄ⇅㍊⿏岒炻㓭䴻㔯䌣↮㜸䚠斄䎮婾冯䎦㱩⼴炻庼ẍ䃎溆⛀橼㱽吸普 ⬠侭⮰⭞シ夳ˤ怨婳⮵尉䁢㔁做姽揹柀➇䘬⮰⭞⬠侭⍲℟姽揹⮎⊁ⶍἄ䴻槿侭炻䳸 㝄ℙ怨婳 7 ỵ炻柀➇⮰攟⤪堐 2ˤ 䞼䨞ⶍ℟ᷣ天䁢䃎溆⛀橼䘬妶婾柴䵙炻婳⍫侫堐 3ˤ⛐屯㕁䘣抬ᶲ炻䃎溆⛀橼 忶䦳䓙䞼䨞≑䎮ℐ䦳抬枛᷎⬴ㆸ徸⫿䧧炻ℵ䓙䞼䨞侭㔜䎮冯↮㜸屯㕁炻ẍ⮷⮓劙㔯 ⫿㭵ὅ⸷⮯⍫冯侭䶐嘇炻⫿㭵⼴⇯⏰䎦䘤妨㗪攻炻⤪ a1105 ẋ堐 a ⮰⭞⬠侭㕤ᶲ⋰ 11 溆 05 ↮ᷳ䘤妨ˤ 䞼䨞㕡㱽ẍ㔯䌣↮㜸㍊妶姽揹Ṣ⒉∝シ䈡岒䚠斄䎮婾冯䎦㱩炻⺢䩳䞼䨞侭⮵ᷣ 柴䘬娵䞍冯䩳⟜ˤ䃎溆⛀橼忶䦳ᷕ⇯䚉慷吸普⍫冯侭䘬妲〗炻䓙䞼䨞≑䎮姀抬徸⫿

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堐 2 䃎溆⹏婯⮰⭞⬠侭幓↮ᶨ奥堐 幓ġ ġ ↮ġ ġ ⇍ ⬠ġ ġ 埻ġ ġ ⮰ġ ġ 攟 檀䫱㔁做姽揹ᷕ⽫➢慹㚫䳬攟 㔁做姽揹 ⣏⬠㔁㌰ 㔁做㓧䫾↮㜸ˣ㔁做姽揹ˣ⬠㟉䴻䆇䭉䎮 ⣏⬠∗㔁㌰ 㔁ⷓ姽揹ˣ㔁ⷓ⮰㤕䘤⯽ ⣏⬠∗㔁㌰ 㔁做埴㓧ˣṢ≃屯㸸䭉䎮 ⣏⬠≑䎮㔁㌰ 㔁做埴㓧ˣ㔁做姽揹 ⣏⬠≑䎮㔁㌰ 㔁做埴㓧ˣ⬠㟉埴㓧 ⚳⭞㔁做䞼䨞昊∗䞼䨞⒉ 㔁做㓧䫾ˣ㔁做㱽夷 堐 3 䃎溆⛀橼妶婾柴䵙 柴䵙 㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉慵天䘬∝シ䈡岒⊭㊔恋ṃ烎 ⚳ℏ䎦㚱姽揹Ṣ⒉➡妻婚䦳䎦㱩⍲⃒仢溆烎 䎮゛ᷕ䘬㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉➡妻婚䦳ㆾ䫾䔍ㅱ㚱⒒ṃℏ⭡烎 姽揹Ṣ⒉∝シ䈡岒䘬➡妻婚䦳ㆾ䫾䔍ㅱ侫慷⒒ṃ朊⎹冯ℏ⭡烎 怑⎰⚳ℏ梲ㆸ㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉∝シ䈡岒䘬➡妻婚䦳冯䫾䔍䁢ỽ烎 䧧炻䴻䞼䨞侭㬠䲵㔜䎮⼴炻⮯⼭慸㶭䘬ℏ⭡䚜㍍婳⍫冯侭㼬㶭炻᷎㩊夾℞ᷕ㗗⏎㚱 ῷ婌ˤ䞼䨞妶婾䘬㑘⮓忶䦳⇯䚉慷㶭㤂㍷徘炻慵天シ夳⇯⍇㔯⺽䓐炻䚉⎗傥⍂⮎㔀 ⮓炻ẍ䡢ᾅ䞼䨞傥䵕㊩ᶨ⭂䘬ᾉ⮎⹎ˤ

ဓȃ๖ݎᇄଆ፣!

➢㕤⃰⇵∝シ姽揹Ṣ⒉䘬媠⣂䈡岒冯傥≃炻䴻㔯䌣㍊妶䞼䨞侭⼁㔜↢䲣䴙⿏䘬 ➡妻䫾䔍炻ℵ䴻䃎溆⛀橼䘬⮰⭞姒婯⼴炻⇅㬍䘤䎦➡妻䫾䔍䘬夷∫姕妰ㅱ⎗㬠䲵䁢 ˬ姽揹Ṣ⒉奺刚娵⎴䘬廱嬲˭ˣˬ➡妻冯䞼佺婚䦳嬲朑䘤⯽˭炻冯ˬ姽揹ね⠫⟹忈˭䫱 ᶱᾳ朊⎹烉ġ

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ΙȃຟᠦΡষُՓᇯӣޟᙽᡐ!

炷ᶨ炸⚆㬠姽揹䘬㛔岒 ㇨媪ˬ姽揹Ṣ⒉奺刚娵⎴䘬廱嬲˭炻ᷣ天㗗⽭枰嬻姽揹Ṣ⒉㒢僓⁛䴙姽揹侭奺刚 䘬⇣㜧⌘尉炻⊭㊔㶙℟㪲⦩ˣ⏡㮃㯪䕝ˣ仢᷷⻰⿏ˣ忶⹎➭㊩ˣẍ⍲⚈㪲⦩䓊䓇䘬 ᶵ⮵䫱斄Ὢ䫱ˤ㓭天⺢䩳姽揹Ṣ⒉䘬∝シ䈡岒炻椾天ᷳ⊁⛐㓡嬲姽揹Ṣ⒉⮵奺刚䘬 娵䞍炻㏺㡬⁛䴙ẍἮ庫ῷⰔ屈朊䘬奺刚埴䁢ˤ姽揹⥼⒉⎗⿅侫䪁⛐ᶨᾳˬ昒Ờㆸ攟˭ 䘬奺刚炻⽆⍿姽侭䘬䩳⟜↢䘤炻憅⮵⓷柴㍸ὃ⮰㤕侴⎗埴䘬夳妋ㆾ⺢嬘炻侴ᶵ㗗ᶨ ␛天㯪⍿姽侭思⽒冒⶙娵⭂䘬⮰㤕ˤ ౜ӧຑ᠘Ԗ΋ঁࡐεޑୢᚒ൩ࢂǴ೭٤ຑ᠘ہ঩೿ࢂӧࢌঁሦୱᏢ Ԗ஑ᆒǴӢࣁᏢԖ஑ᆒǴཇ஑ᆒதத൩཮ཇ୲࡭Ծρޑ஑཰Ǵཇ୲࡭྽ ฅ൩Кၨό৒೚ځдޑёૈǴКၨό৒ܰவځдفࡋ࣮٣௃ǶȐc1038ȑ ⚳⢾⛐䘤⯽姽揹Ṣ⒉娵嫱⇞⹎ᷳ㗪炻ḇ㘖念娵䁢㍐≽娵嫱椾⃰⽭枰⃰嬻姽揹Ṣ ⒉娵㶭姽揹ⶍἄ䘬シ佑炻⌛㑼ả姽揹Ṣ⒉䘬シ佑ỽ⛐烊℞㫉ㇵ㗗⤪ỽ㚱㓰⛘梲ㆸㆾ ➡妻姽揹Ṣ⒉炷Altschuld, 1999炸ˤ⚈㬌姽揹Ṣ⒉枰橼娵⇘⛐姽揹㍐≽忶䦳ᷕ炻⽭枰 晐㗪⚆㬠⇘姽揹䘬㛔岒炻天慵夾㓡忚㬟䦳侴朆㗗䷦㓰嫱㖶ˤ姽揹⥼⒉傥㶭㤂⛘思 ⽒姽揹䘬㛔岒➟埴ⶍἄ炻᷎忳䓐℞⮰㤕䞍傥⋼≑⍿姽╖ỵ炻⯙㗗⮵℞奺刚ả⊁䘬䎮 妋冯娵⎴ˤ ౜ӧຑ᠘ہ঩ډᏢਠѐǴЬाᗋࢂѐ଺ᕮਏຑໆǴᔈ၀ाૈڀᡏග рёՉޑࡌ᝼ǶΨ൩ࢂӧೖຑၸำύǴຑ᠘ہ঩ࢂց੿ޑԖ଺ډᇶᏤᆶ ׯ຾ޑ೽ϩǶہ঩όࢂѝࢂפୢᚒǴԶࢂගٮёૈ܈ёՉޑ଺ݤǴࣗԿ ё΋ଆ૸ፕჹ၉Ǵפрှ،БݤǶȐe1133ȑ 䚖⇵檀㔁姽揹ᷕ⽫⛐忚埴⣏⬠㟉⊁ㆾ䲣㇨姽揹㗪炻妪㚱⎔普Ṣ⍲夷∫⥼⒉㙐姽 揹⥼⒉怜倀天溆炻ᷣ天㗗怨婳⣏⬠㔁㌰㑼ả姽揹⥼⒉炻㍉⍾⎴₽姽揹炷peer review炸 䘬㕡⺷炻⥼⒉㗗Ⱄ㕤ℤả⿏岒ˤỮ⚈⥼⒉Ἦ冒⣂⃫柀➇炻⎬℟⮰攟炻⍫冯➡妻婚䦳 㗗䡢ᾅ姽揹⥼⒉ẍ㚨⾓忇侴䯉╖䘬㕡⺷Ἦ℟⁁姽揹⮰㤕䞍傥ˤᶵ忶䯉䞕䘬䞼佺婚䦳 㗗⏎䛇傥嬻⣏⬠㔁㌰Ᾱ㙓㗪㒙ᶳˬ㔁㌰˭䘬幓↮炻廱嬲䁢姽揹⥼⒉䘬奺刚炻䡢⮎Ḯ 妋姽揹䘬㛔岒冯䓐シ炻℞㓰㝄怬㚱⼭⓮㥟ˤ

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ࣁΑ៝ϷϦѳ࠼ᢀǴҞ߻ଯ௲ຑ᠘ύЈࣴಞ௲׷೿΋ኬǴЪᖱৣޑ ᖱಞϣ৒җຑ᠘ύЈ಍΋ϣ৒ǴԖڋԄޑೕۓǶᗨฅӧࣴಞਔ΋ۓ཮֋ ޕǴፎຑ᠘ہ঩ܭೖຑਔᏃໆᒥൻຑ᠘চ౛ǴՠӢࣁঁΓ੝፦܈ځдӢ નǴӧೖຑ౜൑ᗋࢂ཮Ԗ٤ঁΓЬᢀཀ᛽ӧ္य़Ƕऩہ঩Ьᢀཀ᛽ϼ மǴϼ୲࡭ςـǴ൩৒ܰ೷ԋڙຑൂՏ֚ᘋǶȐa1028ȑ 哉忚晬炷2009炸㍸↢姽揹Ṣ⒉ⷠ拗Ḫ䘬奺刚䁢㔁⮶妻娙侭ˣ↮ṓ侭⍲䣦Ṍ侭烊 娵䁢ㅱ㈖㺼崟屯㕁吸普侭ˣ柀➇⮰⭞ˣΐ䎮思⬰侭ˣ㊩⸛㈡⇌侭ˣ㽨⊝溻准侭ˣᷣ ≽㹅忂侭⍲℟橼⺢妨侭䫱奺刚炻␴姽揹Ṣ⒉䘬∝シ䈡岒ᷕˬ⮲慵冒⼳˭冯ˬ怷廗㶙 ⿅˭䘬ℏ㵝䚠䔞ᶨ农ˤ姒婯ᷕ悐↮⍿姒侭ḇ悥㍸⇘Ḯ姽揹Ṣ⒉奺刚廱嬲⍲ⶍἄ娵⎴ 䘬慵天⿏炻ḇ娵䁢∝シ䈡岒⚈ℤ℟怷廗䎮⿏冯攳㓦デ⿏炻姽揹Ṣ⒉劍℟⁁∝シ䈡岒炻 㚫㚱≑㕤䶑␴ᾳṢ⛐奺刚娵⎴䘬堅㑲ˤ姽揹Ṣ⒉昌Ḯ㑩㚱⮰㤕傥≃⍲䳈梲⢾炻∝シ 䈡岒䘬Ḽᾳ㥳朊㔜⎰Ḯ媠⣂䈡岒炻ḇ婧⎰Ḯ䎮⿏冯デ⿏䘬姜㯪炻㍸愺姽揹Ṣ⒉⛐⣂ 㕡⿅侫ˣ㈡⇌ˣ₡ῤ⇌㕟㗪㚨䳪傥⚆㬠姽揹䘬㛔岒ˤ䔞⍿姽侭橼娵↢姽揹傥ⷞἮ䘬 届䌣炻⯙㚫栀シ德忶姽揹㓡┬嗽⠫炻姽揹Ṣ⒉冯⍿姽Ṣ⒉攻䘬ˬᾉả˭ḇ㚜⭡㖻⺢ 䩳炷悕㗕ỹˣ㹓⭍➢炻2012炸ˤ 炷Ḵ炸怜倀㗪枰侫慷姽揹⥼⒉䈡岒 姽揹⥼⒉Ṣ㟤䈡岒㚫⼙枧℞奺刚廱嬲炻ᷣ奨シ嬀忶⻟ㆾ忶㕤➭㊩⶙夳悥㚫⡆≈ 奺刚廱嬲ᶲ䘬⚘暋ˤ⛐䃎溆⛀橼忶䦳ᷕ炻ᶵ⮹⬠侭娵䁢姽揹⥼⒉䘬怜倀ᶨ⭂天䴻忶 䮑怠炻Ȩ౜ӧӢࣁሡ؃ໆεǴा྽ຑ᠘ہ঩ځჴࡐ৒ܰǴߐᘖࡐեǴ่݀൩ว౜ຑ᠘ ਔଯଯӧ΢Ǵՠதୢ΋٤ό஑཰ޑୢᚒǶȐd1050ȑȩ⎰㟤䘬⬠䴻㬟⍲幓↮側㘗㗗➢㛔 㡅ẞ炻Ữ⮎岒䘬⮰㤕傥≃␴Ṣ㟤䈡岒㚜㗗⽭枰侫慷䘬慵溆ˤ ୯ϣҞ߻ຑ᠘ہ঩ᗨฅٮόᔈ؃Ǵՠᒦᒧਔၗ਱ᆶచҹᗋࢂߚதख़ ाǶନΑ஑཰ૈΚѦǴӵ݀ຑ᠘ہ঩ҁي൩Ԗၨ໒ܫᆶܰྎ೯ޑ੝፦Ǵ ӆѐ᝻วд൩཮Кၨ৒ܰ٤ǶȐe1152ȑ ଯ௲ຑ᠘ύЈᒦငຑ᠘ہ঩ਔԖ൳ঁೕጄǶ२Ӄ΋ۓࢂ௲௤ǴନΑ ੝ਸޑᏢߐѦǴٯӵ᛬ೌБय़௲௤ёૈКၨϿёҗୋ௲௤ᏼҺǴЪѸ໪ ԖၸՉࡹᙍޑ࿶ᡍǴ೭ࢂന୷ҁޑచҹǹӆٰωࢂԵቾޑຑ᠘஑཰೽ ϩǶҞ߻᠋ډ׫ນၨӭޑЬाࢂӧܭࡕޣȐຑ᠘஑཰ȑǴႽࢂຑ᠘ہ঩ উ౛ǵྎ೯БԄǵ൧ख़ᄊࡋǵـှӭϡቸ܄฻ǶᗋԖ൩ࢂКБᇥୢୢᚒ ޑБݤ܈ᄊࡋǵࢂց੿ޑᜫཀుΕΑှǵϷπբ዗ו฻฻ǶȐa1015ȑ ຑ᠘ہ঩΋ۓा࿶ၸᑔᒧǴӵ݀ཀᜫόଯޑǴΨόाமॐୖуǶന ӳΨૈவࡕ೛ຑ᠘ޑفࡋٰ࣮ہ঩ޑ߄౜Ǵωૈගϲຑ᠘ہ঩ޑન፦Ƕ Ȑf1128ȑ

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⽆⮎⊁朊䚳炻姽揹Ṣ⒉㑩㚱䘬䈡岒炻昌Ḯ冯Ṣ䚠嗽圵㳥⢾炻怬⽭枰℟⁁䅙ねˣ ℐ⽫㈽ℍˣ檀⍫冯⹎ˣℙ⎴妶婾䘬シ栀ˣ攳㓦䘬⿅゛冯柀⮶ˣẍ⍲⭡㖻㹅忂䫱炻䫎 ⎰∝シ䈡岒䘬ℏ㵝ˤᶵ忶炻姽揹⮰㤕傥≃㭼庫⭡㖻䴻䓙➡妻冯䞼佺䫱㕡⺷徸㻠梲ㆸ炻 ᾳṢṢ㟤䈡岒⛐嬲⊾ᶲ⯙ᶵ⭡㖻䩳䪧夳⼙炻⡆≈➡妻婚䦳夷∫䘬暋⹎ˤ㇨ẍ⤪㝄傥 ⛐怠㑯㗪⌛䈡⇍栏⍲⇘姽揹Ṣ⒉䘬Ṣ㟤䈡岒炻᷎䡢⮎⍫侫⮎晃堐䎦㶀㰘冯㑯⃒炻句 ⮎姽揹⥼⒉䘬怜怠炻思⽒㇨媪ˬṢ⮵Ḯ炻ḳね⯙⮵Ḯ˭䘬䴻槿㱽⇯炻天⺢䩳㔜橼䘬 ➡妻㨇⇞⯙ㅱ⽆䮑怠䘬㸸柕攳⥳侫慷ˤ

Πȃஉଋᇄंಬ፞แᡐ८ี৤!

Ȩ୯ϣ຾ՉεᏢਠ୍܈س܌ຑ᠘ਔǴӢڀ௲ػຑ᠘஑཰ޑ௲௤ࣁኧόӭǴ܌а ΋ۓाԖ୻ػޑፐำǴᡣ΋૓௲௤೸ၸࣴಞ٬ځڀԖ୷ᘵޑຑ᠘ޕૈˤȐg1105ȑȩ⚈ 㬌ˬ➡妻冯䞼佺婚䦳嬲朑䘤⯽˭ᷣ天㗗㍊妶䎦㚱䞼佺㕡⺷䘬仢溆炻天㓡列䎦㚱姽揹 嫃佺⺷䁢ᷣ䘬婚䦳炻⽆嬲朑䘬奺⹎䘤⯽䫎⎰姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕傥≃冯∝シ䈡岒梲ㆸ䘬➡ 妻婚䦳炻䡢⮎㍸愺姽揹Ṣ⒉傥㌴㎉姽揹慵溆炻᷎晐㗪冒ㆹ⍵⿅炻⺢䩳⮵姽揹ⶍἄ䘬 ˬ䳪幓⬠佺˭傥≃ˤ ຑ᠘ہ঩όࢂ஑Һᙍ୍ǴҞ߻ᗋࢂอයঋᙍǶӵ݀ࢂอයঋᙍǴٗ ሶؒᒤݤǴ൩ࢂѝԖȨࣴಞȩޑБԄǴӢࣁѸ໪಄ӝຑ᠘ᐒᄬࣴಞޑҞ ޑǴہ঩Ѹ໪Αှຑ᠘Ǵाᇡޕр൩ࢂाѐ୺Չຑ᠘Һ୍ǴനӳૈӄЈ ׫Εຑ᠘πբǶȐa1020ȑ 炷ᶨ炸⍫冯➡妻ㆾ䞼佺≽㨇ᶵ⻟ 晾䃞➡妻ㆾ䞼佺婚䦳䘬䧖栆冯⼊⺷ᶵ⮹炻ᶵ忶⮎晃㍐≽㗪ⷠ㚫怕忯ᶨṃ⚘暋炻 ⊭㊔⥼⒉⍫冯≽㨇ˣ婀⚈ᶵ⣈䫱⚈䳈炻⣏⣏旸⇞Ḯ䞼佺婚䦳䘬㑵ἄ⼊⺷炻ⷠ㚫⁦⎹ ⥍⋼⼴䘬䯉ὧ姕妰ˤ䔞䃞䞼佺婚䦳⣒墯暄ㆾ⣒䯉╖炻ḇ㚫⼙枧姽揹⥼⒉㈽ℍⶍἄ䘬 シ栀ˤ ӢࣁεᏢ௲௤දၹ೿ࡐԆǴӵ݀ਔ໔܎ϼߏǴрৢཀᜫ৮܂཮फ़ եǶќѦǴ௲௤ॺಞᄍ֤๱᠋Ǵ܌аࣴಞε೿ѝૈҔᖱ௤ޑБԄǴ೯த ࢂ΋Ϻϣ൩ֹԋ܌ԖࣴಞǴх֖ᇥܴǵፐำ฻฻ǶȐa1023ȑ ೭ᅿ૽ግǵࣴಞၸำǴ೭ሶอኩޑ൳ԛਔ໔Ǵךᇡࣁࢂࡐᜤׯᡂ΋ ঁΓޑ੝፦ᆶགྷݤǶ܌аԖёૈޑࢂᡣдӧ೭ঁၸำύᐟวдޑԾ᝺Ǵ

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ᡣдӣѐࡕёаวሇϸ࣪ǶࣴಞѝࢂଆঁᓐǴૈЇวࡕុਏᔈКၨԖբ ҔǼȐd1112ȑ 姽揹ⶍἄ⚈枰⮵╖ỵㆾṢ⒉忚埴₡ῤ⇌㕟侴栗⼿慵天炻㑼ả姽揹⥼⒉⽭⭂㚱ᶨ ⭂䘬ⶍἄ屈匟冯⡻≃ˤ≈ᶲ⍫冯姽揹䘬⮎岒≑䙲᷎ᶵ⣏炻婀⚈ᶵ嵛炻姽揹⥼⒉⮵奺 刚娵⎴冯㈽ℍ㚱旸烉Ȩ౜ӧᏼҺຑ᠘ہ঩ځჴࢂࡐٌधޑǴ΋૓೿ࢂٿϺ΋ڹǴՉำ ࡐᆙ෣Ǵ܌ளޑຑ᠘຤ൔၿΨόଯǶу΢ჹԾρᙍఱว৖܈ϲ฻٠ؒԖϼӭᔅշǴ ܌аᇨӢځჴࡐϿˤȐa1024ȑȩㆾ姙⎗⿅侫㛅⎹ˬ⥼⒉⮰ả⇞˭夷∫炻溻⊝姽揹⮰攟 ⍲㚱⽿侭㈽ℍˤ 炷Ḵ炸➡妻婚䦳ㅱ㚜⊁⮎䘬夷∫ 㖊䃞婀⚈ᶵ嵛⼙枧⥼⒉㈽ℍ䘬≽㨇炻ᶵ忶⎒天⍫冯℞ᷕ炻➢㕤ⶍἄἧ␥デ炻⣏ ⣂㔠Ṣ⒉怬㗗ⶴ㛃傥䚉≃⬴ㆸⶍἄ炻㓭➡妻婚䦳傥㍸ὃ℞⮰㤕ᶲ䘬⋼≑ˤ奨⮇䎦㚱 ⣏⬠⍲ᷕ⮷⬠姽揹䘬⥼⒉➡妻婚䦳炻ℏ⭡⣏悥ẍ婒㖶娚㫉姽揹ℏ⭡ˣ慵溆ⶍἄˣ姽 揹ΐ䎮ˣẍ⍲⟙⏲㑘⮓䁢ᷣ炻⼊⺷ᶲ⇯ẍ嫃佺㕡⺷⯭⣂ˤ䓙㕤姽揹ᶨ䚜ẍἮ慵夾䘬 㗗䷦㓰姽Ộ炻庫ῷⰔ䷥䳸⿏姽揹䘬䚖䘬炻⮵⑩岒㍸⋯冯㓡┬䘬⮎岒㓰䙲ṵ⼭妶婾ˤ ➡妻冯䞼佺⯙天徸㻠⺽⮶Ṣ⒉⍣㓡嬲⮵姽揹䚖䘬䘬娵䞍炻⽆慵䷦㓰姽Ộ廱嬲⇘慵⑩ 岒㓡忚炻⚈㬌ᷣ嫃Ṣㆾᷣ㊩Ṣ䘬䎮⾝冯奨溆朆ⷠ慵天炻➡妻婚䦳ᷕ⽭枰㚜⊁⮎⛘≈ ℍὫㆸ嬲朑䘬㍊妶炻㚜⣂䘬⺽⮶冯妶婾㗗Ὣㆸ儎≃㽨䚒䘬慵天㕡⺷炻ᶵ傥⎒㗗倥嫃 ⹏侴⶚烉Ȩϩಔ૸ፕځჴࢂࡐԖਏޑǴεৎёа࣬ϕᐟᕏǴԖ࿶ᡍޑёаӭϩ٦ǶЬ ࡭ΓऩЇᏤளەǴიᡏԋߏޑ୏Κ཮ၨԖਏ౗ǶȐc1045ȑȩ ౜ӧ൩ࢂεৎ೿΢΋ኬޑፐำǴᏵך܌ޕԖ٤ςڀຑ᠘஑཰ᆶ࿶ᡍ ޑၗు௲௤൩όᜫཀୖуǴߚதёெǶ܌аᔈ၀ाЬ୏ᗎፎдॺୖᆶǴ ό΋ۓा΢ࡽԖޑፐǴഗӭࢂՉ߻ᇥܴǴ܈ࢂᗎдॺЬ࡭૸ፕ཮Ǵॷख़ дॺޑᖂఈᆶ஑཰Ǵ๏дॺӭ΋٤൧ख़ǶȐg1008ȑ 侴➡妻婚䦳ㅱ⎗侫ㄖ姽揹⥼⒉䘬⮰㤕側㘗 怑⹎䘬ˬ↮栆˭炻䓙㕤⥼⒉䘬怜倀㚫 栏⍲柀➇䘬⣂⃫⿏炻姽揹䞼佺ㆾ➡妻婚䦳军⮹⎗↮ㆸḴ䧖烉ᶨ䁢怨婳⶚℟㔁做姽揹 ⮰㤕側㘗冯䴻槿䘬⮰⭞⬠侭炻⎎ᶨ⇯䁢ᶨ凔柀➇⮰⭞⬠侭ˤ⇵侭枰婒㖶姽揹忚埴 㕡⺷⍲㲐シḳ枭炻⼴侭ㇵ枰≈ℍ姽揹⮰㤕婚䦳ˤ侴➡妻╖ỵḇ⎗ὅ姽揹⥼⒉䘬⮰㤕 柀➇ˬ↮䳬˭炻᷎⮯㚱䴻槿冯㰺䴻槿㔁㌰㶟⎰䶐䳬炻ᾳ㟰妶婾㗪⚈⮰㤕ᶨ农⿏檀㚫庫 䁢倂䃎炻ḇ⎗䘤㎖⛀橼ㆸ攟䘬≇㓰ˤ

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㬌⢾炻➡妻婚䦳昌Ḯ㗗埴⇵䘬婒㖶冯妻䶜⢾炻ḇㅱ娚䘤⯽↢ˬ⛐借忚ᾖ˭䘬姕

妰烉Ȩຑ᠘ہ঩΋ۓाԖ࡭ុ຾অڋࡋǴᜪ՟ಕᑈࣴಞਔኧޑБԄǴऩόୖу൩όុ

ငǶȐg1133ȑȩ㇨媪⛐借忚ᾖ㊯䘬㗗⼊ㆸ⿏䘬➡妻㕡⺷炻ᶨỵ㔁㌰⤪㝄ㆸ䁢姽揹⥼⒉炻

恋⯙⽭枰橼娵㑼ả姽揹⥼⒉ˬ借㵗䘤⯽˭䘬慵天ˤ伶⚳ˬℐ⚳ⷓ屯➡做娵⎗⥼⒉㚫˭ 炷National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education炸䘬姽揹Ṣ⒉ả㛇䁢ᶱ⸜炻

⎗忋ảᶨ㫉炻ᷳ⼴⇯枰ℵ䴻➡妻ㇵ⎗两临㑼ả炷⺽冒㼀ㄏ䍚炻2005炸炻⎗夳姽揹Ṣ⒉ ⛐借忚ᾖ冯䳪幓⬠佺䘬慵天⿏ˤ䎮゛ᶲㅱ⎗⺢䩳ˬ忚昶˭䘬⇞⹎炻姽揹⥼⒉ᶨ攳⥳ ⃰㬟䴻ˬ奨⮇˭昶㭝炻䳗妰ᶨṃ⮎⛘姽揹䴻槿⼴炻ℵ惵⎰⍫冯婚䦳䫱㕡⺷㗱⋯䁢ˬ忚 昶˭昶㭝炻㚨⼴ㇵ㗗ˬ屯㶙˭昶㭝炻㚨⤥傥㚱⋨昼ˤ ୻૽೛ी΢ࢂցૈԖᜪ՟᛾ྣޑ໘ࢤ܄ཷۺǴЧભډҘભ฻฻Ǵό ӕ฻ભѐຑόӕޑჹຝǶ೭ኬ଺ଆٰᓸΚёૈ཮׳εǴёаѐ௖૸Ԝᅿ ೕჄޑёՉ܄ǶȐf1125ȑ ୯ѦԖ٤୻૽БԄǴӃࢂԖཀᜫޑǴЪᄌᄌޑ୻૽΢ѐǶךࢂ௲௤Ǵ ՠΨࢂவᢀჸ঩Ӄ໒ۈǴӆٰᡂԋೖຎہ঩Ǵӆٰᡂԋє໣ΓǴࢂ΋ቫ ΋ቫݽ΢ѐޑǴόࢂ܌ԖΓёа೏ᗎፎ྽ຑ᠘ہ঩ǶȐa1114ȑ 侴⛐⎵䧙䘬嬲朑ᶲ炻䎦⛐⃀慷ẍˬ䞼佺Ṍ㳩˭⍾ẋˬ➡妻˭炻嬻姽揹⥼⒉デ⍿⇘ 庫檀䘬⮲慵炻旵Ỷᶵ⽭天䘬⚘㒦烉Ȩӧ୻૽ᆶࣴಞϐ໔Ǵךၨ໼ӛᆀϐࣁȬࣴಞȭǴ ӢࣁԖ٤௲௤ჹܭȬ୻૽ȭ೭ঁຒ཮ၨࣁ௵གǴࣴಞ฻ܭࢂԴৣϐ໔࣬ϕҬࢬǶ Ȑa1026ȑȩ

έȃຟᠦ௑ც༭അޟПԒ!

姒婯䳸㝄䫔ᶱᾳ㬠䲵䁢ˬ姽揹ね⠫⟹忈˭炻ᷣ天倂䃎㕤䎮婾婚䦳冯⮎⊁ね⠫䘬忋 䳸⿏炻斄↯➡妻䫾䔍傥⏎䆇忈↢℟姽揹㯃⚵䘬ね⠫ˣ婚䦳傥⏎嬻姽揹Ṣ⒉幓嗽㕤姽 揹㯃⚵ˣ⋼≑奺刚䘬廱嬲冯娵⎴ˤ㬌㤪⾝ᷣ天➢㕤Ṣ㟤䈡岒䘬梲ㆸᶵ㖻炻ᶨᾳ⎴㗪 傥⬠佺栗⿏婚䦳冯晙⿏婚䦳䘬ね⠫炻䘤㎖婚䦳䎮婾ᷕ㼃⛐婚䦳䘬シ㵝炻ㇵ傥⛐䞕㗪 攻ℏ䓊䓇庫ℐ朊䘬⼙枧炻嬻姽揹Ṣ⒉⛐ン⹎娵䞍ᶲ䓊䓇嬲⊾ˤ䓙㕤∝㕘䘬⇢㽨㚱㗪 ᷎ᶵ㚫晐㗪⬀⛐炻⤪㝄傥⺢䩳ᶨᾳ℟㚱檀⹎Ḻ≽⎗傥䘬䑘⠫炻⯙傥㍸ὃ庫⣂䘬⇢㽨 冯㽨⊝炻⭡㖻䓊䓇庫Ἓ䘬∝シ䎮⾝ˤ

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ঁΓ੝፦όϼёૈࡐזӦᡂϯǴഗӭࢂჹຑ᠘πբᇡޕϷᄊࡋ΢ޑ ׯᡂǴ܌аอයޑࣴಞ΋ۓाࡐז຾Εຑ᠘௃ნǶёаӧ୻ػፐำ΢ӭ མଛ΋٤ਢٯǴᡣεৎ೿ୖᆶ૸ፕǴ೸ၸਢٯҁيޑ૸ፕၸำǴ཮ᡣہ ঩ॺࡐזଞჹ଺ݤගٮӚᅿёૈޑှ،БԄǴࣗԿӢࣁץղॄय़ਢٯׯ ᡂԾρޑᄊࡋǶȐc1119ȑ ӧѦ೽ຑ᠘ਔǴຑ᠘ہ঩کڙຑჹຝ໔ޑϕ୏ၟྎ೯ࡐख़ाǴԜ೽ ϩӧࣴಞၸำा੝ձගᒬǴΨёೕჄჴբǴ໒วрፐำࡐӭޑёૈ܄Ƕ Ȑd1148ȑ 天⟹忈➡妻ㆾ䞼佺婚䦳℟㚱姽揹ね⠫炻⽭枰䨩䟜䎦㚱庫⚢⭂╖ᶨ䘬⼊⺷炻ᶵ傥 ẍ嫃徘姽揹⮰㤕䁢ᷣ炻⁷㗗ⶍἄ⛲ˣ↮䳬妶婾䫱㕡⺷䘮⎗㍉䓐ˤᶵ忶忁ṃ㕡⺷ㅱ ㍸ὃ㧉㒔䘬ᾳ㟰炻⃀慷嬻⥼⒉㶙ℍᾳ㟰ね⠫炻德忶㟰ἳ↮㜸ẍ㍍役⮎ἄ䴻槿烉Ȩ୻૽ ፐำाаਢٯϩ݋ᆶ૸ፕࣁЬǴԶЪ҅य़ᆶϸय़ޑਢٯ೿ाԖǴ΋ۓाԖჴբǶ Ȑd1105ȑȩ⇵徘楁㷗冯㽛㳚䘬姽揹⥼⒉➡妻婚䦳ḇ悥⶚嵐⎹㧉㒔⮎ἳ䁢ᷣ炻㚫彎䎮 㧉㒔⮎⠫ⶍἄ⛲炻惵⎰奺刚㈖㺼䫱㧉⺷忚埴烊ḇ㚫憅⮵ᶨṃ䎦㚱ᾳ㟰炻忚埴↮䳬妶 婾ˤ⎗䚳↢➡妻婚䦳⛐姽揹ね⠫⺢䩳⼴炻䵲嶇晐㗗㍸ὃ⮰㤕⮵娙䘬㨇㚫炻ẍ⍲⮎⛘ 㑵ἄ䘬䴻槿炻嬻⍫冯侭傥⣈德忶㹅忂Ṍ㳩炻䚠Ḻ⬠佺炻橼槿姽揹⮎⛘ね⠫ˤ ځჴёஒ୻૽࣬ᜢၗྍ೸ၸᆛၡϦ໒ǵӅ٦Ƕፐำ຾Չਔຑ᠘ہ঩ ёϩಔǴ೸ၸუՔᜢ߯຾Չঁਢޑ૸ፕǵࡺ٣ޑ௶ॊǴϩ٦ຑ᠘ޑউ౛ ᆶೕጄϷ௃ნύޑၮҔǶȐe1152ȑ ӧೕჄፐำਔǴ൩ႣӃፓࢗ܈ว௚ၸѐӚਠຑ᠘ਔڀԖ੝Յޑ೽ ϩǴע೭٤ԖബཀޑܿՋ׬рٰբࣁ΢ፐޑ௲׷Ǵᡣຑ᠘ہ঩ѐ૸ፕ٠ ϩ݋Ǵᡣдॺёа࣮ډࡐӭόӕޑ੝Յ܈ਢٯǶȐc1026ȑ ⣂⃫䘬䔘㤕㽨䘤ḇ㗗⟹忈姽揹ね⠫㗪枰侫慷䘬天䳈炻ḇ⎗⺽忚℞Ṿ䓊㤕䴻槿Ἦ 寸⭴婚䦳䘬ℏ⭡炻ἳ⤪⺽ℍẩ㤕䓴䘬嫃ⷓ冯⛀昲炻⇑䓐嶐柀➇䘬䴻槿㍸ὃ㚜⣂⃫⮵ 娙冯㽨䘤䘬䨢攻ˤ ፋډ౜ӧޑ୻૽ፐำǴ೯த೿ࢂکຑ᠘מೌ่ӝǴ൳ЯؒԖ੝ձԖ ബཀޑܿՋܫӧ္य़Ƕ᝽ӵᇥךॺӧᖱྎ೯Ǵٗ௲ৣکᏢғ௲Ꮲ౜൑ޑ ྎ೯کҾ཰ࣚᖱޑྎ೯БԄ൩ёૈό΋ኬǶ܌аԖؒԖёૈ൩ᡣᖱৣࡐ ӭϡǴᗎፎҾ཰ࣚ܈ځдౢ཰ΓωٰᖱፐǶȐc1046ȑ

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ӂȃ๖፣ᇄ࡚ដ!

Ιȃ๖፣!

㛔䞼䨞㟡㒂㔯䌣㍊妶⍲䃎溆⛀橼䘬㬟䦳炻㬠䲵↢姽揹Ṣ⒉∝シ䈡岒➡妻䫾䔍䘬 ᶱᾳ朊⎹炻᷎䌚⼿ẍᶳ䳸婾烉 炷ᶨ炸 姽揹Ṣ⒉䘬奺刚娵⎴冯廱嬲炻㚱≑㕤∝シ䈡岒䘬⺢䩳炻᷎傥⋼≑⮎晃ⶍ ἄ㗪⚆㬠姽揹䘬㛔岒 ∝シ䈡岒䘬Ḽᾳ㥳朊⚈ℤ℟怷廗䎮⿏冯攳㓦デ⿏炻嬻姽揹Ṣ⒉傥⣈℔㬋冯┬シ 䘬朊⮵⓷柴炻ᶨ㕡朊㚱≑㕤姽揹Ṣ⒉冯⍿姽侭暁㕡ᾉảデ䘬⺢䩳炻⎎ᶨ㕡朊ḇ⚈≈ 媠㕤⮰㤕ᶲ䘬冒⼳冯䅙⾙炻晐㗪㍸愺⛐⣂㕡⿅侫ˣ㈡⇌ˣ₡ῤ⇌㕟㗪㚨䳪傥⚆㬠姽 揹䘬㛔岒ˤ姽揹Ṣ⒉∝シ䈡岒䘬梲ㆸ炻椾⃰⽭枰嬻姽揹Ṣ⒉⛐奺刚娵⎴ᶲ䓊䓇廱嬲炻 ㏺㡬⁛䴙ẍἮ庫ῷⰔ屈朊䘬奺刚埴䁢炻廱嬲ㆸ慵夾ˬ⸛堉˭䘬∝シṢ㟤䈡岒炻㬋⎹ ⛘㍸ὃ⮰㤕夳妋ˤ姽揹⥼⒉⎗⿅侫ㆸ䁢ᶨᾳˬ昒Ờㆸ攟˭䘬奺刚炻⽆⍿姽侭䘬䩳⟜ ↢䘤炻憅⮵⓷柴㍸ὃ⮰㤕侴⎗埴䘬⺢嬘ˤ⎎⢾炻⚈姽揹Ṣ⒉䘬⮰㤕䞍傥庫⭡㖻梲ㆸ炻 Ṣ㟤䈡岒⌣ᶵ㖻㓡嬲炻㓭ḇㅱ㔜橼⿅侫➡妻㨇⇞䘬⺢䩳炻⽆怜怠䘬㸸柕⯙攳⥳侫慷 姽揹Ṣ⒉䘬Ṣ㟤䈡岒炻ḇ㚱≑㕤姽揹ᾉả䘬⺢䩳ˤ 炷Ḵ炸 䎦㚱➡妻冯䞼佺婚䦳⽭枰农≃嬲朑冯䘤⯽炻ẍ⇑㍸⋯⍫冯≽㨇冯㺧嵛⮎ ⊁ᶲ䘬暨㯪 䚖⇵⚳ℏ⣏⣂㔠姽揹⥼⒉⮵➡妻冯䞼佺婚䦳⚈婀⚈ᶵ⣈炻ẍ农⍫冯≽㨇ᶵ⻟炻 㓰㝄㚱旸炻䎦㚱➡妻ㆾ䞼佺婚䦳ㅱ䘤⯽䫎⎰ℤ℟姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕傥≃冯∝シ䈡岒梲ㆸ 䘬➡妻ℏ⭡ˤᷣ天嬲朑㕡⎹ㅱ⿅侫⮹ᶨṃ朄ン䘬嫃⹏炻⤪ỽ傥㍸ὃ㚜⣂䘬⺽⮶冯妶 婾炻⃀慷ὫㆸṢ⒉忚埴儎≃㽨䚒烊᷎㏕惵ᶲ↮䳬ˣ↮栆冯↮䳂䘬⊁⮎ 㱽炻㽨䘤⍫ 冯侭䘬シ栀冯䅙⾙炻㍸⋯⍫冯≽㨇ˤ㚨慵天㗗⊁⮎⛘嬻姽揹Ṣ⒉⬠佺⇘⤪ỽ㌴㎉姽 揹慵溆炻庼ẍ⛐借忚ᾖ夷∫炻⺢䩳⮵姽揹ⶍἄ䘬ˬ䳪幓⬠佺˭傥≃ˤ 炷ᶱ炸 䞕㛇➡妻冯䞼佺婚䦳ㅱ㚜慵夾姽揹ね⠫䘬⟹忈炻ẍ㚜⣂⃫∝㕘䘬㕡⺷⋼ ≑∝シ䈡岒䘬梲ㆸ

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ˬ姽揹ね⠫⟹忈˭斄↯➡妻䫾䔍傥⏎䆇忈↢℟姽揹㯃⚵䘬ね⠫炻⛐䞕㗪攻ℏ䓊 䓇㚨㚱㓰䌯䘬⼙枧ˤ∝シ䈡岒梲ㆸ枰天∝シね⠫䘬㏕惵炻䴻䃎溆⛀橼妶婾⼴䘤䎦⊭ ㊔㧉㒔⮎⠫ˣ⮎ἄˣ㟰ἳ↮㜸ˣ䔘㤕㽨䘤䫱℟㚱檀⹎Ḻ≽㬟䦳䘬䑘⠫栗⼿⼰慵天ˤ 惵⎰嬲朑䘬㬟䦳炻➡妻冯䞼佺忶䦳ㅱ晐㗪⺢䩳傥㍸ὃ庫⣂⇢㽨冯㽨⊝䘬ね⠫炻德忶 ↮䳬忚埴⣏慷≽ン⿏䘬Ḻ≽Ṍ㳩ˣ⣂⃫嶐➇䘬㽨䚒炻⯙⭡㖻䓊䓇庫⣂䘬∝シ䎮⾝冯 ⓷柴妋㰢䘬妶婾炻㚱≑㕤姽揹Ṣ⒉奺刚廱嬲冯⮵∝シ䈡岒䘬慵夾ˤ

Πȃ࡚ដ!

㛔䞼䨞㔜䎮⃰⇵⮵㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉∝シ䈡岒䞼䨞䳸㝄炻ẍ㔯䌣↮㜸冯䃎溆⛀橼吸 普➡妻䫾䔍䘬䚠斄シ夳炻䌚农⇵徘䞼䨞䳸㝄ˤ⼴临䞼䨞⎗ὅ㒂㛔䞼䨞䘤䎦炻㊩临㶙 ℍ㍊妶姽揹Ṣ⒉∝シ䈡岒䘬慵天⿏⍲ℏ㵝ˤ⛐䞼䨞㕡㱽ᶲ炻ḇ⎗忳䓐㚜⣂⃫䘬㕡⺷炻 ⊭㊔庫⣏夷㧉䘬⓷⌟婧㞍炻⺢䩳⮎⽝䞼䨞䳸㝄烊ㆾ㗗德忶㶙⹎姒婯炻吸普⎬栆⇑⭛ 斄ὪṢ䘬シ夳炻㒜⣏㬌䞼䨞ᷣ柴䘬⺋⹎冯㶙⹎ˤ㬌⢾炻㛔䞼䨞憅⮵姽揹⮎⊁炻ὅ䞼 䨞䳸㝄㍸↢ẍᶳ⺢嬘烉 炷ᶨ炸慵夾姽揹Ṣ⒉∝シ䈡岒炻⋼≑℞奺刚娵䞍冯廱嬲 䚖⇵⚳ℏ⎬昶㭝姽揹⥼⒉ᷣ天Ἦ㸸怬㗗⣏⬠㔁㌰炻㬌ṃṢ⒉℟㚱ᶵ⎴柀➇䘬⮰ 㤕䞍嬀炻Ữ㛒⽭⮵姽揹⮰㤕㚱㶙ℍ䘬Ḯ妋炻姙⣂Ṣ⮵姽揹䘬゛㱽⥳䳪 䔁⛐䷦㓰侫 㟠冯㈡⇌炻姽揹䞼佺婚䦳⮵⮰㤕傥≃冯∝シ䈡岒䘬梲ㆸ㚱℞⽭天⿏ˤ侴ᶵ婾㗗姽揹 ⶍἄṢ⒉ㆾ㗗姽揹⥼⒉炻⛐ⶍἄᶲⷠ㚫朊冐⇘⎬䧖ᶵ⎴ね⠫炻⚈㬌天傥廱嬲⁛䴙䘬 奺刚冯⼊尉炻ㇵ傥⚈ㅱ䎦ẋ⊾姽揹䘬媠⣂㊹㇘ˤ忁奺刚䘬廱嬲⇯⽭枰➢㕤㔁做姽揹 Ṣ⒉傥≃冯∝シṢ㟤䈡岒炻ᶼ䓙㕤姽揹Ṣ⒉⽭枰⮵⍿姽橼忚埴₡ῤ⇌㕟炻㓭⮰㤕䞍 嬀ˣ䞼䨞傥≃冯曰㳣䘬⽫㘢傥≃⽭䃞ᶵ⎗ㆾ仢炻ḇ⺢嬘㛒Ἦ⛐姽揹⥼⒉䘬怜倀ᶲ炻 ⎗⮯姽揹⥼⒉䘬Ṣ㟤䈡岒侫慷忚⍣炻䈡⇍㗗⥼⒉⎔普Ṣ䘬怠㑯䈡⇍慵天炻᷎句⮎㑯 ⃒㰘≋冯㊩临忚ᾖㆸ攟䘬ⶍἄˤ 炷Ḵ炸➡妻ㆾ䞼佺婚䦳⛐夷∫冯ℏ⭡ᶲ⎗忚埴↮栆ˣ↮䳬ˣ冯↮䳂䘬ˬᶱ↮˭ 夷∫炻᷎≈ℍ姽揹Ṣ⒉䘬借㵗䘤⯽ 姽揹➡妻ℏ⭡ᶲㅱ⎗侫ㄖ姽揹⥼⒉⮰㤕側㘗᷎忚埴↮栆炻ᶵ⽭滲柕ᶨ农炻ㅱ倂 䃎㕤⮎晃㓰㝄ˤ婚䦳忚埴㗪ḇ⎗ὅ⥼⒉⮰㤕柀➇ˣ㗗⏎㚱姽揹䴻槿Ἦ↮䳬炻ẍ⇑⛀ 橼⮵娙冯ㆸ攟ˤ㬌⢾炻姽揹⥼⒉ḇㅱ⺢䩳借㵗䘤⯽㨇⇞炻德忶忚昶↮䳂㍸⋯Ṣ⒉䘬 ⮰㤕䳈梲炻⌛㇨媪↮栆ˣ↮䳬ˣ冯↮䳂䘬ˬᶱ↮˭夷∫ˤ➡妻冯䞼佺婚䦳傥䫎⎰⮎

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晃暨㯪炻℟㚱∝シ䘬嬲朑冯嬲⊾炻ㇵ㚫㚱⇑㕤⥼⒉姽揹䞍傥⮎岒䘬㓞䨓炻ᶵ⺢䩳 Ṣ⒉ㅱ℟⁁䘬傥≃炻ḇ⎴㗪㵝梲∝シ䈡岒ˤ侴㛅ˬ⥼⒉⮰ả⇞˭夷∫炻溻⊝姽揹⮰ 攟⍲㚱⽿侭㈽ℍ炻傥䡢ᾅ⥼⒉庫Ἓ⑩岒䘬傥≃冯䈡岒炻ḇ㗗⎎ᶨ䧖⿅侫㕡⎹ˤ 炷ᶱ炸➡妻婚䦳ㅱẍ⮎ἄ冯ᾳ㟰↮㜸䁢ᷣ炻㍸ὃ⥼⒉⮵娙冯Ṍ㳩㨇㚫炻ẍ⇑姽 揹ね⠫䘬⟹忈 ∝シ䈡岒䘬梲ㆸ炻⽭枰⛐∝シ䘬ね⠫ᶳㇵ⭡㖻䘤䓇ˤ⛐䞕㛇䘬➡妻冯䞼佺婚䦳 ᷕ炻姽揹ね⠫䘬⟹忈朆ⷠ慵天炻⽭枰㍸⋯⮎ἄ冯ᾳ㟰↮㜸婚䦳䘬㭼慵炻⋼≑Ṣ⒉⮎ 晃Ḯ妋⛐ᶵ⎴䘬姽揹䉨㱩ㆾね⠫ᷕ⎗傥㚫䓊䓇䘬䉨㱩炻᷎ḳ⃰枸 㸾⁁ˤḇ⽭枰㍸ ὃ㚜⣂⮰㤕⮵娙冯Ṍ㳩䘬㨇㚫炻傥⣈Ṍ㎃屯㕁↮㜸冯彐⇍䘬䴻槿ˣ奨⮇⽫⼿ˣẍ⍲ 姒婯䘬㍸⓷䫱㈨ⶏ炻䘮㚱⇑㕤Ṣ⒉忼ㆸ∝シ䈡岒⍲姽揹ả⊁ˤ⚳ℏ䚖⇵➡妻⇞⹎晾 㚱㟰ἳ⍲⮎ἄ婚䦳炻Ữ䞼䨞侭⮎晃⍫冯䞼佺婚䦳䘬䴻槿Ἦ䚳炻婚䦳ᷕ䡢⮎㚱㟰ἳ䘬 ⟙⏲冯↮ṓ炻Ữ↮䳬妶婾䘬㕡⺷庫䁢⮹夳炻⮎ἄㆾⶍἄ⛲䘬⮎⛘婚䦳㚜㗗仢᷷炻㬌 㕡朊ṵ㚱姙⣂≒≃䨢攻ˤᶵ忶ẍ⮎ἄ㕡⺷ˣ奺刚㈖㺼ˣ⮷䳬妶婾䫱㕡⺷忚埴➡妻炻 ⛐婚䦳䘤⯽⍲ね⠫⟹忈ᶲ悥⽭枰㚱㚜⣂㗪攻ˣṢ≃ˣ䴻屣䫱屯㸸䘬㈽ℍ炻ṵ⼭䚠斄 ╖ỵ㊩临≒≃ˤ

୤ՃМᝦ!

㰈ὲ⎱炷2010炸ˤ㊩临㍐≽姽揹⥼⒉⮰㤕⇞⹎䱦忚姽揹⑩岒ˤ姽揹暁㚰↲炻24ˤ⍾ 冒 http://epaper.heeact.edu.tw/archive/2010/03/01/2684.aspx ⏛㶭Ⱉ炷2010炸ˤ句⮎姽揹⥼⒉䞼佺婚䦳㍸⋯姽揹⑩岒冯㓰傥ˤ姽揹暁㚰↲炻24ˤ ⍾冒 http://epaper.heeact.edu.tw/archive/2010/02/23/2677.aspx 㛶䎖⤪炷2011炸ˤ姽揹⥼⒉➡妻䞼佺冯姽揹⮎⊁ˤ姽揹暁㚰↲炻33ˤ⍾冒ġ http://epaper.heeact.edu.tw/archive/2011/09/01/4817.aspx 㜿≕ṩ炷2008炸ˤ㔁做姽揹烉㧁㸾䘬⍾⎹冯㍊䳊ˤ冢⊿ⶪ烉⽫䎮ˤ ὗ㯠䏒炷2010炸ˤṆ㳚檀䫱㔁做姽揹⥼⒉⮰㤕妻䶜ᷳ⇾㜸——ẍ楁㷗⍲㽛㳚䁢ἳˤ姽 揹暁㚰↲炻24ˤ⍾冒 http://epaper.heeact.edu.tw/archive/2010/02 /23/2681.aspx ⼸㖲㜚ˣ㚦㵹よ炷2008炸ˤ檀借⬠㟉姽揹Ṣ⒉姽揹傥≃冯奺刚ᷳ䞼䨞ˤ䔞ẋ㔁做䞼 䨞炻16炷2炸炻101-131ˤ ⬓⽿湇炷2004炸ˤ㔁做㓧䫾冯姽揹䞼䨞——徥㯪⋻崲ˤ冢⊿ⶪ烉⬠⭴ˤ 悕㗕ỹ炷2006炸ˤ䔞姽揹忯ᶲ㔁做——姽揹シ㵝㍊䨞ˤ㔁做埴㓧冯姽揹⬠↲炻2炻19-42ˤ

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悕㗕ỹ炷2007炸ˤ㔁做姽揹䞼䨞烉⍇伒冯妋㓦ˤ冢⊿ⶪ烉Ḽ⋿ˤ 悕㗕ỹˣ㹓⭍➢炷2012炸ˤᾉả——姽揹䘬慵天⃫䳈ˤ冢䀋㔁做姽婾㚰↲炻1炷14炸炻 15-21ˤ 㚦㵹よ炷2008炸ˤ㔁做姽揹烉䎮婾冯⮎⊁䘬⮵娙ˤ冢⊿ⶪ烉ⷓ⣏㚠剹ˤ 㚦㵹よ炷2011炸ˤ⬠㟉姽揹Ṣ⒉娵嫱徼⼹ᷳ䞼䨞ˤ㔁做䞼䨞冯䘤⯽㛇↲炻7炷3炸炻1-35ˤ 㚦ㅚ㓧ˣ昛┬⽟炷2008炸ˤ姽揹⥼⒉➡妻㗗⃒岒姽揹䘬斄挝炻姽揹暁㚰↲炻13炻42-44ˤ 湫㚁㜙炷2007炸ˤ㔁做姽揹夷∫Ṣ⒉傥≃ℏ㵝ᷳ䞼䨞ˤ㕘䪡㔁做⣏⬠㔁做⬠⟙炻24 炷1炸炻109-126ˤ 叱䌱䎈炷2006炸ˤ∝忈≃㔁⬠烉忶⍣ˣ䎦⛐冯㛒Ἦˤ冢⊿ⶪ烉⽫䎮ˤ 哉忚晬炷2009炸ˤ婾㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉ㅱ㈖㺼䘬奺刚ˤ姽揹暁㚰↲炻18炻61-62ˤ 㼀ㄏ䍚炷2004炸ˤ怩⎹ᶳᶨẋ䘬㔁做㨇㥳姽揹烉⚆栏冯⇵䝣ˤ庱㕤ˬ㔁做㨇㥳姽揹 ⚆栏冯⯽㛃˭⬠埻䞼妶㚫婾㔯普炷枩 11-23炸ˤ冢⊿ⶪ烉冢䀋ⷓ䭬⣏⬠㔁做䞼䨞 ᷕ⽫ˤ 㼀ㄏ䍚炷2005炸ˤ㔁做姽揹䘬⚆栏⍲⯽㛃ˤ冢⊿ⶪ烉⽫䎮ˤ 㼀ㄏ䍚炷2006炸ˤ⼘㪲䙲傥姽揹ᷳ㍊㜸ˤ䔞ẋ㔁做䞼䨞炻14炷1炸炻1-23ˤ 喯拎渿炷2004炸ˤ檀䫱㔁做姽揹䘬嵐⊊冯⯽㛃ˤ䘤堐㕤ˬ㔁做姽揹——⚆栏冯⯽㛃 ⬠埻䞼妶㚫˭ˤ⚳䩳冢䀋ⷓ䭬⣏⬠炻冢⊿ⶪˤ

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