Health Management and Social Care

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Health Management and Social Care

Field Learning Resources Series

Teacher Handbook:

Classroom Practice

Curriculum Development Institute, Education Bureau

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Contents

Introduction 3

1. Approaches of Learning and Teaching 4-10

2. Effective learning components 11-19

2.1 Briefing and debriefing 11-13

2.2 Building up basic skills 14-20

2.3 Reflection 21-23

3. Effective class management 24-28

3.1 Supervision 24

3.2 Attitude and code of ethics 25

3.3 Issues to be concerned 26-27

3.4 Handling Complaints and grievances 27

3.5 Confidentiality and Getting agencies / clients’ on using information

27-28

Figure 1.1 Comparison between Educational Paradigms 4

Figure 1.2 Approaches of Learning and Teaching 6

Figure 1.3 Activity: Writing Life Stories 7

Figure 2.4 Model of Reflection 17

Appendix(1)- Briefing to students on Field Learning Activity 29-32

Appendix(2)- Debriefing Skills 33-34

Appendix(3)- Field Learning Plan 35

Appendix(4)- Letter to Parents (sample) 36-37

Appendix(5)- Attendance record of Field Learning (Individual )(sample)

38

Appendix(6)- Attendance record of Field Learning (Group) (sample) 39 Appendix(7)- Client’s consent form for interview/audio/video

recordings

40-41

Appendix(8)- Declaration of disposition of personal data of client 42

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Field Learning Resources Series (2)

Teacher Handbook (II) Classroom Practice

Introduction

This series aims to provide theories and examples of classroom practice of field learning in Health Management and Social Care (HMSC) curriculum. The contents are recommended to be read with Chapter 4 of the HMSC Curriculum and Assessment Guide (Secondary 4-6) (The Curriculum Development Council and the Hong Kong Examinations and Assessment Authority)

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, so as to obtain relevant information about the basic backgrounds.

1 Jointly prepared by the Curriculum Development Institute and the Hong Kong Examinations and Assessment Authority, 2007. Health Management and Social Care- Curriculum and Assessment Guide (Secondary 4 to 6).

Hong Kong: The Education and Manpower Bureau.

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1. Approaches of Learning and Teaching

Our education has long been dominated by the traditional paradigm under which ‘instruction’ or ‘teaching’ is taken as the ends. Education is merely transference of knowledge from teachers who provide instructions to learners who merely listen and receive. However, we now begin to recognise that this paradigm mistakes a means for an end — teaching is not an end but a means to achieve learning which is possibly the primary end of education.

Table 2.1 provides a brief comparison between the two educational paradigms. Regarding the insufficiency of the traditional paradigm2, a new paradigm is formed with the shifting of the core idea of education from teaching to learning. Since knowledge is no longer perceived as constantly existed but constructed and varied with times, situations and persons, education is believed to be teacher-oriented as well as student-centered, that is, students are given opportunities to experience and learn, and teachers are supportive to facilitate the overall learning process.

Table 2.1 Comparing Educational Paradigms

Instruction-oriented Learning-oriented

Direct instruction

 Knowledge exists ‘out-there’

 Learning is cumulative and linear

 Knowledge shall be transferred from teachers to learners

Learning-oriented

 Knowledge exists in the mind and is shaped by experience

 Learning is a nesting and interaction of frameworks

 Knowledge shall be discovered and constructed

2 Barr, R. B., & Tagg, J.(1995). From teaching to learning- A new paradigm for undergraduate education. Change:

The magazine of higher learning, 27(6),12-26.

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Teacher-centered and -controlled

 One teacher and one classroom

 Teachers speak, instruct and grade; Learners passively listen, follow and are then assessed

Student-centered and -controlled

 Whichever learning experience that works

 Teaching and learning require mutual cooperation, collaboration and support; external evaluation is needed.

Instead of characterising it as a simple acquisition process based on teacher transmission, teaching and learning is now more commonly conceptualised as a process whereby students proactively construct their own knowledge and skills3 while teachers provide assistance to facilitate student learning. To comply with this shift in conception of teaching and learning, there is a parallel shift in relation to the teaching and learning models and methods. Field learning emphasises not only on the acquisition of knowledge by students, but also a process for them to

3Chickering, A. W., & Gameson, Z. F. (1987). Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education. AAHE Bulletin, 39(7), 3-7. ; Chickering, A. W., & Gameson, Z. F. (1991). Applying the Seven Principles to Good Practice in Undergraduate Education, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. ; Graham, C., Cagiltay, K., Lim, B., Craner, J., & Duffy, T. M.

(2001). Seven principles of effective teaching: A practical lens for evaluating online courses. The Technology Source, 30(5), 50. ; Ignash, J. M., & Townsend, B. K. (2000). Evaluating State-Level Articulation Agreements According to Good Practice. Community College Review, 28(3), 1-21. ; Kuh, G. D., & Vesper, N. (1997). A comparison of student experiences with good practices in undergraduate education between 1990 and 1994.

The Review of Higher Education, 21(1), 43-61; Nicol, D. J., & Macfarlane‐Dick, D. (2006). Formative assessment and self‐regulated learning: A model and seven principles of good feedback practice. Studies in higher education, 31(2), 199-218.

Field Learning gets more students’ involvement in learning Wisdom of Teachers:

※ Most of the time, students are unwilling to learn in “one-way” or

“passive” mode in classroom.

※ Most of the students show greater motivation in learning through experience.

※ Field learning is a more interactive way of learning and teaching and

enhances greater educational effectiveness.

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lead the exploration and co-construct knowledge with teachers.

The HMSC Curriculum and Assessment Guide (Secondary 4-6) (The Curriculum Development Council and the Hong Kong Examinations and Assessment Authority)4 has mentioned the following approaches of learning and teaching (Table 2.2), which may help teachers review, reflect and improve classroom practice.

Table 2.2 Approaches of Learning and Teaching Learning as a product

Learning is usually conceived of as an outcome. Students learn some new knowledge and skills from their teachers by studying the pre-determined aims of the

curriculum. Learning is considered successful when there are

ensuring changes in knowledge and skills.

Teaching as instruction

This occurs when teachers present new knowledge, teach students to consolidate the knowledge in an organised manner in the learning process, provide opportunities for them to learn and practice, check what they know with simple questions and answers, and provide informative feedback for them to review and improve their

learning.

Learning as a process

This occurs when students are given opportunities to transform information in solving problems.

Teaching as enquiry

With the use of appropriate learning and teaching strategies, students can be engaged in complex cognitive processes with enhanced in-depth communication.

Students are often invited to make

predictions, debate alternatives, etc., and this can take place during interaction in class, in pairs or in groups. The chosen topic/theme should be placed in a wider meaningful context. “Open-ended”

4Curriculum Development Council & Hong Kong Examination and Assessment Authority (2007). Technology Education Key Learning Area: Health Management and Social Care Curriculum and Assessment Guide (Secondary 4-6). Hong Kong: Education and Manpower Bureau.

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questions are used and “wait time” is allowed to encourage explanations or elaboration of answers.

Learning as co-construction Students and teachers construct

and create knowledge together.

This occurs when students demonstrate their knowledge and skills, and perform competently.

Their insights also help teachers to see students’ new perspectives and ideas.

Teaching as co-construction

Teachers help students to develop higher-level cognitive skills by using

“scaffolds” (i.e. temporary supportive frameworks). They can provide model responses (e.g., demonstrations and model answers), prompts and feedback (as in guided discovery); and they can rehearse arguments, and give cue cards and self-evaluation check-lists to enhance students’ understanding of related topics.

When shifting from teaching as instruction to that of co-construction, the roles (and responsibilities) of teachers and students are also changing. Apart from being knowledge instructors, teachers are required to be the facilitators in constructing knowledge – that means to enhance students’ construction of knowledge through encouragement, assistance, supervision, suggestion, feedbacks, evaluation, etc. Students are no longer merely listeners, receivers or persons who inherit knowledge, they are knowledge constructors instead – act as participants or actors, proactively construct a wide range of knowledge through personal experiences and discussion with others.

Table 2.3 briefly describes how teachers and students practice field learning by different approaches through a kind of field learning activity – “writing life story”, which is a way for teachers to flexibly utilise different learning and teaching modes with available time and resources.

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Table 2.3 Activity: Writing Life Stories

Learning stages Examples of Learning and Teaching Activities under Different Approaches

Teaching / Knowledge Building:

 Build up students’

basic knowledge, which includes:

 Stages across the lifespan – needs of the elderly

 Erikson’s theory –

understand its relationship with the telling of life stories (i.e. the elderly achieve self-integrity through

reminiscence.)

 Roles of teachers

 Apart from being instructors, teachers can be the

facilitators to

encourage students to have deeper understanding of the telling of life stories from

different resources.

Co-construction  Students collect information about life stories, present and discuss how the writing of life stories helps them apply knowledge of different life stages (especially the needs of the elderly) and concept of self-integrity in Erikson’s theory.

Then they set the learning objectives of field learning with the HMSC teacher.

Enquiry  Teachers provide an example of life story of an elderly, either before or after the lessons, and use open questions to discuss with students on how the writing of life stories helps them apply knowledge of different life stages (especially the needs of the elderly) and concept of self-integrity in Erikson’s theory. Then they facilitate students to set the learning objectives of field learning.

Instruction  Teachers systematically guide students to understand how the writing of life stories could help them apply knowledge of different life stages (especially the needs of the elderly) and concept of self-integrity in Erikson’s theory, as well as the learning objectives of field learning.

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Table 2.3 Activity: Writing Life Stories (Continued)

Learning stages Examples of Learning and Teaching Activities under Different Approaches

Planning:

 Comprehensive plan to ensure that all the activities align with the objectives of field learning.

 Roles of teachers

 Apart from being the major planner, teachers can also be the person to

facilitate students to involve more in activity planning.

Co-construction  Teachers let students set their own activity plans after explaining to students how the activities can be carried out the activity and how the activities could align with the specific learning objectives.

Teachers will help students to refine their activity plan, in order to achieve their expected learning goals.

Enquiry  Teachers prepare a basic outline of learning plan for students, and highlight the basic requirements (time / format of activities) and learning objectives.

 Students are allowed to suggest activities that align with the learning objectives. For example, students may suggest organising activities like listening to oldies, sharing life events in the past or social events, to help the clients reminisce about their past.

Instruction  Teachers provide students with detailed activity plan and clear guidelines, so that students are able to fully understand the aims and activities of field learning.

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Table 2.3 Activity: Writing Life Stories (Continued)

Learning stages Examples of Learning and Teaching Activities under Different Approaches

Reflection and round-up:

 Students sum up the field learning experiences and complete the reflective journals as well as all relevant assignments.

 Roles of teachers

 Apart from being the assessor,

teachers can also be instructors or

advisor in a variety of follow-up

activities (e.g. peer evaluation, group presentation,

in-class discussion), thus bringing more concrete reflection to students

Co-construction  Teachers and students jointly review the application of

knowledge and the gaps between theories and realities related to different life stages (especially the needs of the elderly) and concept of self-integrity in Erikson theory, in order to construct deeper understanding of related knowledge or concepts.

Enquiry  Teachers stimulate students’

thinking through open questions, leading students to reflect on the life stages and how self-integrity of Erikson theory can be applied in the field learning activities.

Instruction  Teachers systematically guide students to understand the different life stages (especially the needs of the elderly) and concept of self-integrity in Erikson theory

through application of the field learning experiences.

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2. Effective Learning Components

Effective field learning relies heavily on the co-construction of knowledge by making reflection on experiences. There are three specific teaching and learning components — a briefing and debriefing process, development of basic techniques and the use of reflective journal writing. These components ensure how learning and teaching can best be integrated and how learners can undergo good reflection on their experiences.

2.1 Briefing and Debriefing

In order to optimise the experiences gained from field learning, it is believed that briefing and debriefing are two inevitable process through which field learning experiences can be fully integrated into the teaching and learning curriculum5 and any conflicts or difficulties in learning theories and observing practices can be discussed and resolved6.

Briefing is commonly defined as orienting a person to an experience, which includes the activities, goals and rules with which participants can achieve their goals in the activity (Appendix 1). The purpose of briefing is to optimise student learning by addressing student expectations and feelings about new and unfamiliar experiences they are about to undertake. In doing so, teachers can and/or are expected to clarify and resolve any concerns, anxieties (and/or confused) or inaccurate beliefs students might have upheld7, to emphasise the

5Mackenzie, L. (2002). Briefing and debriefing of student fieldwork experiences: Exploring concerns and reflecting on practice. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, 49(2), 82-92; Raths, J. (1987). Enhancing Understanding through Debriefing. Educational Leadership, 45(2), 24-27. ;

6Horsfall, J. (1990). Clinical placement: prebriefing and debriefing as teaching strategies. The Australian journal of advanced nursing: a quarterly publication of the Royal Australian Nursing Federation, 8(1), 3.

7Alvani, C. (1995). Problem-based learning in a health sciences curriculum. London: Routledge; White, R., & Ewan,

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importance of peer group support and the acknowledgement of feeling amongst the group8, and/or to address the pragmatic aspects of field activity like orientation of field activity, clarification of the specific objectives to be achieved, a broad overview of what might take place, prior practice of the skills required, and knowledge of available resources9.

Although there are different definitions of debriefing in different fields, but a core notion can be found: debriefing is about a purposeful reflection which can be undertaken by an individual or group10, and it is a process where ideas, issues, feelings or concerns are discussed amongst members of a group/association after experiences (Appendix 2). Indeed, debriefing needs to be based on specific learning intentions and be a regular activity that is closely linked to experiential learning. It is based upon the premise that there is a positive connection between exposure to a practical experience and the process of learning from experience

C. E. (1997). Clinical teaching in nursing. London: Chapman & Hall.

8Horsfall, J. (1990). Clinical placement: prebriefing and debriefing as teaching strategies. The Australian journal of advanced nursing: a quarterly publication of the Royal Australian Nursing Federation, 8(1), 3.

9 Best, D. L., & Rose, M. L. (1996). Quality supervision: theory and practice for clinical supervisors. London: W. B.

Saunders.

10 Pearson, M., & Smith, D. (1986). Debriefing in Experience-Based Learning. Simulation/games for learning, 16(4), 155-72.

Importance of briefing Wisdom of Teachers:

※ At the beginning stage, students may not have enough confidence. They need more concrete instructions from teachers. After some time, teachers would only provide some directions for discussion to allow students to have more freedom and autonomy in planning and carrying out the activity.

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after it has occurred11. The purpose of debriefing is to optimise learning by reviewing the field experience and evaluating how the objectives have been successfully achieved 12. Since field activities might be new and unforgettable for students, it may be time and energy demanding, and students have built up initial relationship with clients and staff in the process. Debriefing is then a significant tool to allow students to emotionally and practically disengage from those experiences and focus back on the academic setting13, objectively critique and reflect on experiences, develop appropriate ways of communicating issues of personal significance, ventilate feelings upon experiences, develop new strategies as a result of experiences, develop skills in peer support and accept different ideas and voices, review personal progress against objectives set in the field activities, incorporate newly learned information to refine their knowledge and/or beliefs, and/or to evaluate experiences and look for further actions14.

11 Lederman, L. (1984). Debriefing: A critical re-examination of the use of post-experience analytic process and implications for its effective use. Simulation and Games, 15, 415–431.

12 White, R., & Ewan, C. E. (1997). Clinical teaching in nursing. London: Chapman & Hall.

13 Horsfall, J. (1990). Clinical placement: prebriefing and debriefing as teaching strategies. The Australian journal of advanced nursing: a quarterly publication of the Royal Australian Nursing Federation, 8(1), 3.

14Best, D. L., & Rose, M. L. (1996). Quality supervision: theory and practice for clinical supervisors. London: W. B.

Saunders; Horsfall, J. (1990). Clinical placement: prebriefing and debriefing as teaching strategies. The Australian journal of advanced nursing: a quarterly publication of the Royal Australian Nursing Federation, 8(1), 3. ; Pearson, M., & Smith, D. (1986). Debriefing in Experience-Based Learning. Simulation/games for learning, 16(4), 155-72; Raths, J. (1987). Enhancing Understanding through Debriefing. Educational Leadership, 45(2), 24-27.

Importance of debriefing Wisdom of Teachers:

※ The 30-minute debriefing after field learning activity, on one hand, helps students to review their experiences. On the other hand, it guides them for further study, e.g., collect data to further verify and interpret their experiences.

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2.2 Building up basic skills

Before carrying out field learning activities, teachers need to help students acquire basic organisation and social skills, so as to facilitate the field learning.

Organisational skills

One of the learning objectives in field learning is to let students plan and implement health promotion and social care activities in various environments and contexts, and for different groups. Organisational skills help students to realise if the activity and planning is relevant to health and social care, as well as to know how to collaborate with each other to achieve the targets.

According to the HMSC Curriculum and Assessment Guide (Secondary 4 to 6)

15, organisational skills include:

Teachers may assist students to organise field learning activities systematically through field learning tasks. (Appendix 3) Teachers may also refer to ‘Appendix (1) – Examples of Field Learning Tasks in Teacher Handbook (I) - Curriculum Design Planning and Management’ for the design of field learning activities.

15Curriculum Development Council & Hong Kong Examination and Assessment Authority (2007). Technology Education Key Learning Area: Health Management and Social Care Curriculum and Assessment Guide (Secondary 4-6) (P. 38). Hong Kong: Education and Manpower Bureau.

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Skills needed when providing support to others

When providing support to others, students need to equip themselves with some basic skills, such as communication, observation, relationship building, critical thinking and creativity. Teachers may choose to equip students with certain skills according to the content of field learning, such as observation, communication, relationship building, empathy, conflict management, etc.

 Empathy

Empathy means to put oneself in someone’s shoes in order to understand the view points and feelings of others, instead of imposing one’s preference and views on others. Empathy helps people to identify the emotions of others and know how to share with others. It facilitates cooperation with clients when providing services.

 Communication skills

The HMSC Assessment and Curriculum Guide (Secondary 4 to 6), lists the items below for students to build up communication skills16:

16 Curriculum Development Council & Hong Kong Examination and Assessment Authority (2007). Technology Education Key Learning Area: Health Management and Social Care Curriculum and Assessment Guide (Secondary 4-6) (p. 38). Hong Kong: Education and Manpower Bureau.

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In field learning, students need to develop communication skills for talking and listening to clients. A variety of different communication skills has been developed to foster appropriate and effective communication which ensures accurate and comprehensive information.

Students are expected to acquire the following communication skills before field learning:

1. Verbal communication skills:

 Students should know how they could talk to clients in friendly and comfortable manners, as well as to avoid inappropriate talks (e.g. giving instructions, warning or judgments). The communication skills include:

I. Listening skills: students should be able to listen carefully and pay attention to details, avoid showing negative response (e.g. disagreement, disappointment, and indifference), prevent impoliteness and unnecessary interruption, and maintain an encouraging manner when having conversation with clients.

II. Skills for gathering information:

 Asking questions – to clarify facts and check understanding. When students attempt to gather certain information from the clients, they should be able to ask the right questions and avoid discriminative or biased directions.

 Paraphrasing – to restate the information, thinking and feeling of the speaker in one’s own words. Students could ask if the communication is accurate by asking ‘Do you mean…? ‘‘Are you

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saying that…?’

2. Non-verbal communication skills:

I. Eye contact – to make eye contact with the speaker can help focus the attention, reduce the likelihood of being distracted, and encourage the speaker.

II. Showing interest – to express the signs of warmth and friendliness (e.g. by smiling, expressing encouragement). Affirmative head nods and appropriate facial expressions, when added to good eye contact, convey to the speaker that the listeners are listening.

III. Personal space - to maintain a comfortable distance or interaction with clients (e.g. holding an elderly’s hands when she is sharing sadness and keeping a proper not too far and too intimate distance) with clients in general.

IV. Avoid distracting actions – when listening, to avoid looking at watch, shuffling papers, playing the pencils or engaging in similar distraction actions. The actions convey the message that the listeners are bored and uninterested. More importantly, they indicate that the listeners are not fully attentive and may be missing part of the message that the speaker wants to convey.

*For more details, please refer to Part 14.3 Communication Skills in Booklet 14 – Social Care in Action

* A ‘Checklist of Communication Skills’ is also available in Student Handbook for the reference of students.

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 Observation skills

Apart from communication skills, the following observation skills are also essential:

I. Observing clients

Students should be able to observe or record both the verbal and non-verbal responses of the clients. For instance, students should be able to be aware of some simple signs of behaviour: a client might be in emotional distress if he/she continues to avoid answering a particular kind of issues (and students should avoid pushing him/her), a client might be expressing issues with anger if he/she is holding his/her fists (and students should try to distract him/her by suggesting other issues or avoid further discussion), and a client might be a bit shy or passive if he/she fails to take a turn to speak (and students should try to invite her to speak).

II. Observing environment

Students need to observe the environment of the service units, such as space, facilities and safety measures, atmosphere, features of clients, services provided and the jobs of different staff.

*For more details, please refer to ‘Appendix (1) – Examples of Field Learning Tasks in Teacher Handbook (I) - Curriculum Design Planning and Management’

* A ‘Field Observation Checklist’ is also available in Student Handbook for the reference of students.

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 Relationship Building Skills

According to the HMSC Curriculum and Assessment Guide (Secondary 4 to 6)

17, students need to examine the ways for fostering positive and caring relationship for promotion and maintenance of care in service delivery. In order to achieve this, students need to:

During field learning, students are expected to build up relationship with the clients, but at the same time avoid being over-involved in the relationship. They need to understand that the relationship will be ended after the field learning.

 Critical thinking skill

Critical thinking is also crucial in field learning. Students should be able to consider how their own motivations, assumptions, expectations, and biases shape the ways in which they analyze and draw conclusion from the collected data.

Students should be taught to record information in an objective manner during field activities and afterwards to be taught and assisted to reflect on the

17 Curriculum Development Council & Hong Kong Examination and Assessment Authority (2007). Technology Education Key Learning Area: Health Management and Social Care Curriculum and Assessment Guide (Secondary 4-6) (p. 33). Hong Kong: Education and Manpower Bureau.

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experience appropriately and purposefully.

 Creativity

Although creativity is hard to be taught, teachers can facilitate and encourage students to develop creativity through helping the clients and designing the activities. The students are encouraged to:

I. Respect the uniqueness of clients: students should understand that individual differences exist in real life situation. There is no formula to predict human responses. For this reason, they can come up with different ideas regarding the proper ways to communicate with different target groups.

II. Respect cultural diversity: students should be psychologically prepared to accept and adapt to the diversity of the clients, such as race, religion, gender, sexual orientation, occupations, and educational background. Students should have cultural sensitivities in planning services and interacting with clients.

III. Think outside the box: teachers should encourage students to think out of the box to design creative and funny ways to interact and provide services to the clients.

IV. Make use of limited resources: it can be emphasized that creativity does not rely on the availability of resources. Time and energy contributed by students are more important. The activities can be creative even when resources are limited.

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2.3 Reflection

To make stronger and better linkage between experiences and learning goals, reflective journal is regarded as the most effective tool 18with well documented benefits19. Reflective journal writing is a process in which one can learn from experiences by “looking forward to” the future as well as “reflecting” the past.

It includes: a description of an experience (i.e. the field learning activity), an interpretation of the experience (i.e. issues or ideas simulated by the activity), and an exploration or analysis of the experience in conjunction with personal development (i.e. an inward examination of personal knowledge and beliefs together with new insights) 20. A model of reflection (Table 2.4) can help us understand different levels of reflection21.

18Bangert-Drowns, R. L., Kulik, C. L. C., Kulik, J. A., & Morgan, M. (1991). The instructional effect of feedback in test-like events. Review of educational research, 61(2), 213-238. ; Butler, D. L., & Winne, P. H. (1995). Feedback and self-regulated learning: A theoretical synthesis. Review of educational research, 65(3), 245-281. ; Langer, J.

A., & Applebee, A. N. (1987). How writing shapes thinking: A study of teaching and learning. (Research Report No. 21).Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English. ; Hayes, J. R., & Flower, L. S. (1980). Identifying the organization of writing processes. Cognitive processes in writing, 3-30. ; Hayes, J. R. (2000) A new framework for understanding cognition and affect in writing. In R. Indrisano and J. R. Squire (Eds) Perspectives on writing:

research, theory and practice (pp. 6–44) Newark, DE: International Reading Association. ; Winne, P. H. (1997).

Experimenting to bootstrap self-regulated learning. Journal of educational Psychology, 89(3), 397-410. ;Winne, P.

H. (2001) Self-regulated learning viewed from models of information processing. In B. J. Zimmerman & D. H.

Schunk (Eds), Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: Theoretical perspectives (2nd ed., pp. 153–189).

Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

19Bringle, R. G., & Hatcher, J. A. (1999). Reflection in service learning: Making meaning of experience. Educational Horizons, 77, 179-185. ; Coles, R. (1993). The call of service: A witness to idealism. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

20Lim, L. Y. L. (2009). A comparison of students’ reflective thinking across different years in a problem-based learning environment. Instructional Science, 39(2), 171–188. ;Rogers, R. R. (2001). Reflection in higher education: A concept analysis. Innovative Higher Education, 26(1), 37–57.

21Mezirow, J. (1997). Transformative Learning: Theory to Practice. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 74, 5-12.

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Table 2.4 Model of Reflection

Reflection Examples of reflection in field learning Non-

reflective

Habitual Action

Routinely and frequently conducted with little conscious thought

A mere description of experience(s)

Understanding Comprehend and apply knowledge within contextual constraints, without recognising personal significance

Gain general applied knowledge through

analysing experiences, but no relationship with

personal development.

Reflective Reflection Assess the problem-solving process and use this to make decision about what is the best way to approach the problem, but without re-assessing assumptions on which beliefs are based.

Show sufficient insights on knowledge, and are able to apply in specific

experiences with relevant personal development.

However, it is insufficient to describe and judge the thoughts, beliefs and values behind.

Critical Reflection

Evaluate ideas and actions in light of the underlying assumptions

Suggest excellent analysis for activities through relevant knowledge, and demonstrate the meaning of critical thinking, beliefs and activities for a person.

Good reflective journal begins with critical appraisal of the learning experience, then peer evaluation, and eventually self-awareness22. At the critical appraisal stage, students are given the freedom to take a trial on describing the

22Riley‐Douchet, C., & Wilson, S. (1997). A three‐step method of self‐reflection using reflective journal writing.

Journal of Advanced Nursing, 25(5), 964-968. ; Saylor, C. R. (1990). Reflection and professional education: Art, science, and competency. Nurse educator, 15(2), 8-11. ; Stark, S. (1994). A nurse tutor's experience of personal and professional growth through action research. Journal of advanced nursing, 19(3), 579-584.

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experience, recording emotional reactions, and/or undergoing the rearrangement of their reflections in writing the journals which are not required to be rewritten or refined in academic formats.

Students then move on to the second stage of discussion. Students are expected to share questions derived from their reflections and/or experiences with encouragement from teachers. More specifically, teachers are supposed to assist students in the integration of theories they have learnt in class and address the questions students raised with information provided for discussion.

The final stage is for students to document the unique discovery in their learning as an outcome of the entire learning process. Teachers give feedback to students regarding their personal growth and the constructed knowledge.

Reflective Journal Wisdom of Teachers:

※ Students may be worried about the writing of the reflective journals since they did not have good writing skills. Through guiding them to make use of the worksheets and field notes to integrate their learning experience, they found that the writing of reflective journals was not really difficult.

※ In field learning, students need to take records, do writing and other academic work in the process of observation, data collection, activity planning and reflection. Their competence in academic field is also enhanced.

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3. Effective classroom management

3.1 Supervision

Field learning activities must be carried out under the supervision of a HMSC teacher. The teacher is the major supervisor of the field learning as a whole to ensure that the safety of students and their undertaking of responsibility and proper behaviour in field learning. An HMSC teacher is expected to supervise field learning by:

 advising students on their planning of field learning goals and strategies;

 monitoring and coordinating field learning activities;

 giving relevant learning support to students if needed; and

 assessing field learning assignments, such as field learning plan, field notes, reflective journals, so as to assist students in effective learning.

In some occasions, schools may agree with an agency to assign a supervisor or an instructor to provide guidance to the students in the field learning activities.

The HMSC teacher (i.e. major supervisor), however, retains all educational and teaching functions. Collaboration should be properly established between the HMSC teacher and the agency-based supervisor (i.e. assistant supervisor). The tasks of the assistant supervisor include supervising the attendance of students (Appendix 5 and 6), maintaining the required contacts before and after each field activity as well as ensuring the activities are implemented adhering to the plan and schedule agreed by schools and agencies.

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3.2 Attitudes and code of ethics

Students should be genuine and responsible when conducting field learning activities. They should dress appropriately and neatly when attending the activities of the agency. They should also be polite and respectful to the staff and clients of the agency, which includes:

 to clients

 respecting the clients’

 right to making choices

 racial and cultural differences

 avoid misusing relationship with the clients, in which conflict of interest may be involved

 respecting the clients’ privacy and confidentiality of their personal particulars

 never discuss the client’s personal information with others in all circumstances

 to agency and staff

 attending activities on time and following instructions of the staff

 respecting all staff of the agencies; any suggestions, criticism and conflicts should be spoken out and solved with responsible attitudes

 reporting any harms towards clients’ interest and safety, or any unusual situations or behaviours

 avoid stating any fake or incorrect description

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3.3 Issues to be concerned General Administration

The following information on EDB website (http://www.edb.gov.hk) is provided for the reference of schools:

 School Administration Guide : Home > School Administration and Management > Regulations > School Administration Guide

 Home > School Administration and Management > Administration > About Activities > School Activities Guidelines

 Home > School Administration and Management > Administration > About School > School Safety & Insurance

Field Learning Administration

Some service units may request students to follow specific procedures in field learning activities or be careful in conducting some activities. Schools and teachers should note the following arrangements:

 The special procedures or instructions (e.g. measures for infection control) by agencies (e.g. hospitals, midway home, elderly home, clinics) must be followed when students conduct field learning. Teachers need to inform or assist students to follow the relevant guidelines or instructions, such as providing infection control training for students so they could take relevant measures such as hand-washing, the use of gloves, gowns, protective eyewear and/or masks.

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 Teachers should have sufficient information about the natures of the service and the clientele so as to identify the potential risks of the settings and ensure that students will not contact with the clients with potential dangers, such as those with propensity for violence. Teachers should also help students to communicate with vulnerable groups (such as patients suffering from serious illness) effectively, e.g. to avoid inappropriate manner and sensitive issues.

3.4 Handling Complaints and grievances

The school should work out proper procedures to address complaints and grievances that might happen during field learning. Basically, all complaints and grievances should first be addressed directly to the HMSC teachers. The teacher should investigate into the complaints or grievances between students and agency staffs and be fair in handling them. No matter the organisation has settled the complaints or grievances or not, the agency staff should report to teachers about the conflicts between students and staff/ clients.

3.5 Confidentiality and getting permission from agencies/clients on using information

Students should follow the professional ethics of confidentiality by concealing all kinds of records (including written and printed copies, audio or visual tapes, computer disk copies, etc.) in which the personal data or anything related to the activity participants/clients can be identified. All records should be destroyed by the student after the assessment is completed and all disputes are settled. Only records which do not contain any information regarding the participants’ / clients’ identities can be selectively preserved for academic

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purpose (e.g. student can keep the group proposals but not the participants’ / clients’ profile records).

No one can use audio, video, camera and other instruments unless students have got the prior permissions from all participants and / or organisations.

Students are requested to ask for written agreement from activity participants/

clients, and ensure all audio or visual recordings are strictly kept confidential for academic purpose. Moreover, all those materials will be destroyed after the confirmation of final grade of the course (Appendix 7).

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Briefing to Students on Field Learning Activity

The following guidelines can be the reference to Health Management and Social Care (HMSC) teachers when they plan to conduct a briefing session to students for introducing field learning activity:

A. Objectives of Field Learning

1. Application of previous knowledge

 Recapitulation on the relevant fundamental knowledge 2. Self-regulated Model

 Students, under the instruction, supervision, and assistance of teachers, implement their own learning plans and activities

3. Experiential Learning

 Highlight the distinctiveness of this subject by reflecting upon experiential learning (discuss and clarify with students the basic skills, knowledge and concepts to be involved in the field learning).

4. Differentiate field learning from other similar activities, especially voluntary work and service learning (i.e. field learning shall be educational-based instead of service-based or vocational-based)

5. Teachers can provide examples of field learning assignments submitted by students of previous cohorts and/ or other schools or hold sessions of sharing from previous students to arouse students’ interests in conducting field learning.

APPENDIX 1

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B. Implementation of Field Learning 1. Modules of Elective Part

 Students need to know / decide the module of the Elective Part relevant to the field learning

 Teachers could guide students to plan how they could complete the assignment of the module through the field learning activities.

2. Schedule

 Students shall begin conducting field learning by Secondary 5 and finish before Secondary 6

3. Assignments

 Students are required to write a reflective journal after the activities

 Students may be required to complete field notes during field learning to prepare their writing of reflective journal.

 Teachers may explain and illustrate the assessment rubrics of the reflective journal with examples of previous assignments.

4. Teachers can refer to the following table to explain the implementation of field learning activities

 This template can be used to help students understand and grasp the objectives, content and some significant regulations of field learning before the implementation.

 Teachers could adopt the following suggestions to explain the components of field learning to students in order to ensure effective communication and achievement of learning objectives.

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Items Content

Procedure 1. Activity Date(s) 2. Name of the Agency 3. Address of the Agency

4. Responsible person of the Agency 5. Contact no. of the Agency

6. Venue and time for meeting 7. Venue and time for dismissal Content 1. Objectives of Field Learning

2. Related Learning Topics 3. Contents of Activities

Logistic Arrangements 1. Grouping and group leader 2. List of job division and details 3. Transportation

4. List of materials 5. Finance and budget

6. Communication with parents

7. Communication with teachers (arrangement of attendance / absence from activities)

Notes to Student 1. Self- introduction to the unit supervisor

2. Self- introduction to the clients

3. Good relationship between group mates 4. Appropriate dress code

5. Proper manners

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6. Safety Working with the

agency

1. Complying with the regulations of the agency 2. Measures to ensure the privacy of the agency and

clients

3. Documents to be prepared and submitted to agency 4. Duty reports and sharing with the unit supervisor

and staff

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Debriefing

Experiential learning increases students’ interest and learning motivation.

The design of the activity is important, but assisting students to evaluate the knowledge learnt after activity weights even more. “Debriefing” shows its function here. Debriefing is the assistance to students to discover the knowledge that deserved to be learnt from different angles in their personal experiences, in which students grow when teachers do not keep providing answers.

Debriefing can start from the overview of all the activities (macro level) to every detailed item of each activity (micro level), depending on the decision of the teacher.

Teachers could consider using the following steps to help students discover their experiences so as to integrate knowledge for learning:

Flow of Debriefing

(Source - Roger Greenaway - Website: http://reviewing.co.uk/learning-cycle/index.htm)

“4F” – “facts”, “feeling”, “findings” and “future”, aims to help students to learn step by step with teachers’ assistance to integrate knowledge through questioning skills that facilitate students to apply the acquired knowledge. Quality interaction between learning and teaching takes place.

APPENDIX 2

Feelings

※Reflection

Findings

※Generalization

Integrated Learning Facts

※Experience

Future

※Application

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After the health promotion activity for the ex-mentally ill patients at half-way house, the HMSC teacher helped students review their experience through the following debriefing process:

Debriefing Teacher’s questions

Student’s response

1. Facts What impressed you most in the activity?

When playing the ‘broomstick football’, a resident was very excited and he broke the broomstick.

2. Feelings How did you feel? I was petrified and worried that it was a sign of relapse.

Like many others, I have stigmatized the persons with mentally illness. I have a little bit resistance in approaching them.

3. Findings What did you find or learn in this experience?

After the activity, I have found my impression wrong. I observed that the residents were passive and silent.

They answered our questions with single words. It may be due to their feeling of being alienated and isolated by the society. Labelling is more harmful than mental illness itself.

4. Future What are your suggestions and planning?

I have set my study question on understanding the needs of people or patients with mental illness.

My initial suggestions are:

Individual level

 Not to stigmatize people / patients with mental illness, not to isolate and discriminate them.

Community level

 Provide more employment to help them reintegrate into the society

Society level

 Provide more day hospital, half-way houses to help people or patients with mental illness stay in the community

References:

Roger Greenaway : Website: http://reviewing.co.uk/learning-cycle/index.htm 麥淑華和鄧淑英(2006)。《成長體驗 Debriefing》。香港:突破出版社。

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Field Learning Plan

Theme:

Level:

Time:

Previous Knowledge :

Related Topic(s):

Key Question(s):

Learning Activity

1 2 3

Date : Time : Target(s) :

Agency :

Observation :

Interview (s)

Service (s) / Activities

APPENDIX 3

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Letter to Parents (Sample)

SECONDARY SCHOOL

Dear Parents / Guardians : Date:

Field Learning Activity –Visit to XXX Centre

The teacher of Health Management and Social Care (HMSC) has arranged the following field learning activity. Field learning is one of the major assessment tasks in HMSC. Students have to attend the activity as scheduled and submit the relevant assignments as part of their assessment. Details of the activity are as follows:

Date :

Name of Agency : Address of

Agency :

Meeting Time : Meeting Place:

Dismissal Time : Dismissal Place : Teacher-in-charge : Dress-code :

Transportation Fee :

Should you have any queries, please feel free to contact (responsible teacher’s name) at (telephone no.).

Principal

(Name of Principal) APPENDIX 4

(School chop)

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Reply Slip

Field Learning Activity – Visit to XXX Centre

To: (Name of Principal), the Principal

The arrangements of the activity are noted. My child will attend the field learning activity as scheduled and on time.

Name of Student: Signature of Parent:

Class (Class No.) : ( ) Name of Parent:

Date: Contact No.:

Please return the reply slip to the HMSC teacher on ( dd / mm / yyyy)

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Field Learning of Health Management and Social Care

Attendance Record (Individual) (Sample)

Student Name: Class: Class No.:

Name of Agency:

Address of Agency:

Name of Responsible Staff :

 Students please fill in this form and hand it to the responsible staff of the agency for signature and verification.

Date First Second Third Fourth Fifth Sixth

Arrived at

Leave at

Ser vice time (in hours)

Verified by agency staff or school teacher

 Total Ser vice Time (in hours):______________________________________

APPENDIX 5

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Field Learning of Health Management and Social Care

Attendance Record (Group / Class)(Sample) Particulars of Agency

Name:

Address:

Contact No.:

Responsible Staff:

No. Name of student

Class Contact No.

Date

(Arrive at – Leave at) Total

Service Hours (in hr.) M D

( )

M D ( )

M D ( )

M D ( )

M D ( ) 1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

Responsible staff of agency (if applicable)

 Please hand in this form to the responsible teacher for filing after each activity.

APPENDIX 6

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Consent for Interview / Audio / Video Recordings (Group Activity) In some group activities of field learning, clients may be requested to have interview, audio or visual recording. Students could make reference to the following form to seek consent of the clients and explain how it helps them achieve the learning objectives. Students should make sure to destroy all information after the field learning.

Name of Field Learning Agency:

Date / Period of Interview :

Time of Audio- / video-recording :

Venue of Audio- / video-recording:

1. I understand that interview / visual / audio recordings are for learning purpose, I agree to participate in these activities.

2. I request / do not request to re-play / re-listen the recordings.

3. I request / do not request all recording should be destroyed on ____________, and necessary / do not necessary to do it in front of me.

4. I request / do not request if your school published any information about me, I want to have a copy for retention.

Name of Client Signature Date

Name of Student:_________________ Signature:______________ Date:

Responsible teacher:_______________ Signature:______________ Date:

Responsible staff of the agency:_______ Signature: Date:

APPENDIX 7

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Consent for Interview / Audio / Video Recordings (Individual Interview)

I agree / disagree to accept the students to have interview / audio / video recordings with me for their field learning task.

(If agree) A student has to follow the undersigned instruction,

1. Keeping my information confidential and protecting my privacy.

2. If there is no dispute, hand in all records containing my personal information (e.g. written and printed copies, audio or video, computer back up copies, USB copies, etc.) to the responsible teacher to destroy them after completion of the task.

Signature: _______________________

Name of Client: __________________ Date:

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Declaration of Disposition of Personal Data of Client

To ensure students have followed the undersigned instruction, the students must fill in this form and hand it to the responsible teacher for filing.

I, the undersigned, declared that:

1. I have full understanding of the principle of keeping confidentiality and protecting the privacy rights of the clients whom I serve / have served during the Field Learning period.

2. If there is no dispute, I will hand in all records (e.g. written and printed copies, audio or video, computer back-up copies, USB copies, etc.) to my teacher containing all the personal data of the clients after confirmation of the final grade of the subject.

Name of Student:_____________________ Signature:_______________________

Class :_________________________ Class No.:_______________________

APPENDIX 8

Figure

Updating...

References

Related subjects :