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向量與二維運動

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向量與它們的性質

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數個向量相加的結果稱為合向量

o

= + =

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例大小及原來的方向畫出來

接著將第二個要加的向量依照前述的比

例。平移到同一座標中，然後把第二個向 量的尾部(出發點)與第一向量的頭部(終點) 相接

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利用比例關係再將

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

參加相加的向量，何者 先加，何者後加，都不 會改變相加的結果

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A

= +

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=

= +

=

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度要再加

2 2

y

x

x y

1

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= x

x

= y

y

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2 2

y

x

x y

1

=

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利用向量可以更完整的描述運動情形

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f

i

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(分母)中，

av

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度的變化率

av

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)

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二維的運動

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立的

= 0

= -g

0x

0

0

0y

0

0

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拋體運動的圖形

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

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= 0



• 這一關係即為拋體在 x 方向唯一的一個距離公式，

=常數

=

=

=

=

Δ

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• ay

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⎟⎟

⎜⎜

= +

=

x y y

x

2 2

1

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y

0 =

x =

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相對速度

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E 為相對於地球靜止的觀察者

A 及 B 分別為二行駛中的車子

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

A車相對於B車的位置 為二車各自對同一觀 察者E的位置向量差 (相減)

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AB

AE

BE

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

若有某一量並沒有非常明確指出是相對於其餘某一物 體時，它有可能是相對於地球的

AB

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例題3.11

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Outline

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