Prepared by The Curriculum Development CouncilRecommended for use in schools by The Education BureauHKSARG2011

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General Studies for Primary Schools Curriculum Guide (Primary 1 - Primary

6)

Prepared by

The Curriculum Development Council Recommended for use in schools by The Education Bureau

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Preamble

A series of eight Key Learning Area (KLA) Curriculum Guides (Primary 1 to Secondary 3) and the General Studies (GS) for Primary Schools Curriculum Guide (Primary 1-6) have been developed by the Curriculum Development Council (CDC) to support the Basic Education Curriculum Guide - Building on Strengths (2002) and to help realise the recommendations made in the CDC Report on Learning to Learn - The Way Forward in Curriculum Development (2001) and in the Education Commission's (EC's) education reform final report, Learning for Life, Learning through Life (2000).

The CDC is an advisory body giving recommendations to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government on all matters relating to curriculum development for the school system from kindergarten to sixth form. Its membership includes heads of schools, teachers, parents, employers, academics from tertiary institutions, professionals from related fields or related bodies and representatives from the Hong Kong Examinations and Assessment Authority, as well as officers from the Education Bureau.

The KLA and GS Curriculum Guides are based on the Learning to Learn consultation documents of the respective KLAs and GS published in November 2000. Relevant KLA committees under the CDC have taken into consideration the concerns, needs and interests of schools, teachers and students as well as societal expectations expressed during the consultation period when developing these Guides.

The KLA and GS Curriculum Guides aim to present curriculum frameworks, which specify the KLAs' or GS's curriculum aims, learning targets and objectives, and provide suggestions regarding curriculum planning, learning and teaching strategies, assessment and resources. In addition, each Curriculum Guide provides exemplars of effective learning, teaching and assessment practices. Schools are encouraged to adopt the recommendations in the Curriculum Guides and to achieve the learning goals of the school curriculum (CDC Report, 2001) and aims of education (EC Report, 2000), taking into consideration their contexts, needs and strengths.

Schools are also encouraged to make cross-reference to the Basic Education Curriculum Guide - Building on Strengths (2002) and the related

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KLA curriculum guides. This will ensure that there is a coherent understanding of curriculum planning at school, KLA and subject levels.

The General Studies for Primary Schools Curriculum Guide (Primary 1 to 6) was first published in 2002. Since the full implementation of the curriculum in 2004, there has been marked changes in society and the world. The Curriculum Development Council, therefore, has updated and enriched the content of the Curriculum Guide to meet students’ needs and align with societal development. The exemplars in the Curriculum Guide will be published in a separate edition to include more exemplars for teachers’ easy reference.

All primary schools should adopt the General Studies curriculum in accordance with the recommendations of this Curriculum Guide from the 2011-12 school year. The Education Bureau will provide teacher professional development programmes and exemplars on learning and teaching to facilitate the implementation of the curriculum.

As curriculum development is a collaborative and on-going enhancement process, we will update and improve the KLA and GS Curriculum Guides as well as their related subject guides from time to time to meet new needs of students and society.

Ideas and suggestions on the development of the GS curriculum are always welcome and may be sent to:

Chief Curriculum Development Officer (Kindergarten and Primary) Curriculum Development Institute

Education Bureau 13/F, Wu Chung House 213 Queen's Road East Wanchai

Hong Kong

E-mail address: kpgs_cdi@edb.gov.hk

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Key Messages

General Studies (GS) for Primary Schools

❖ provides learning experiences for students to have a better understanding of themselves and the world around them

❖ arouses students' interest in and develop their skills to enquire about themes and issues related to science, technology and society

❖ cultivates positive attitudes and values for healthy personal and social development

Existing Strengths

❖ teachers generally understand that GS can help develop students' learning skills, positive values and attitudes

❖ more schools develop different modes of curriculum planning in GS building on their strengths and student needs

❖ students can experience enquiry-based learning in GS

❖ students have great interest in GS

❖ schools begin to value diversified assessment as a means to improve learning

❖ continuous parental support for GS learning

❖ availability of more learning resources and opportunities for life-wide learning

Direction of Curriculum Development

❖ to establish a culture of constant renewal of the school-based curriculum continuously and update the curriculum according to the GS curriculum framework, students' needs, interest and changing situations of society

❖ to strengthen the vertical and horizontal development of GS curriculum, as well as the linkage between GS and other subjects/learning experiences in whole-school curriculum planning

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❖ to achieve the aims of the GS curriculum through sustaining the key tasks in curriculum reform, life-wide learning and effective use of learning and teaching strategies and resources

❖ to formulate an overall assessment policy for GS according to the guidelines set out for assessment in the GS Curriculum Guide, and to use the data/

information collected to analyse the learning condition of students, thus develop effective learning and teaching strategies to promote learning

Principles to Guide Action

❖ all primary schools implement GS curriculum according to the suggestions in the GS Curriculum Guide

❖ develop school-based GS curriculum according to the GS curriculum framework and the strengths of schools

❖ make use of diversified learning and teaching strategies to provide students with various learning experiences

❖ enhance teachers' professional development and collaboration for the promotion of students’ learning

Curriculum Aims

The GS curriculum aims at enabling students to :

❖ maintain a healthy personal development and become confident, rational and responsible citizens

❖ recognise their roles and responsibilities as members of the family and society and show concern for their well-being

❖ develop a sense of national identity and be committed to contributing to the nation and the world

❖ develop curiosity and interest in the natural and technological world as well as understand the impact of science and technology on society

❖ develop care and concern for the environment

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Entitlement of Students

❖ all students learn GS from P1-P6

❖ students engage in learning experiences for all core elements

❖ students are given appropriate learning time for GS, which constitutes 12-15 % of the total lesson time in the primary curriculum

The Central Curriculum

The central GS curriculum, in the form of an open and flexible curriculum framework, sets out the learning targets and learning objectives for the development in students subject knowledge, generic skills, positive values and attitudes under the following six strands:

❖ Health and Living

❖ People and Environment

❖ Science and Technology in Everyday Life

❖ Community and Citizenship

❖ National Identity and Chinese Culture

❖ Global Understanding and the Information Era

There should be a balanced coverage of the six strands. The learning of Chinese history and culture is an entitlement of students in the strand of National Identity and Chinese Culture.

Connecting SBCD to Central Curriculum

Schools are encouraged to adapt the central curriculum in developing their school-based curriculum to achieve the learning targets and objectives set out in the Curriculum Guide for GS in Primary Schools. Measures may include:

❖ readjust the learning objectives according to students' needs, interest and abilities

❖ taking into consideration students' needs, strengths of the school and teachers' professional knowledge and abilities, organise the learning

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content to cover all core learning elements and adopt the appropriate extension studies, learning and teaching strategies, homework strategies and modes of assessment

Learning and Teaching

❖ to adopt a diversified teaching approach such as the enquiry approach and relevant learning strategies to help students develop generic skills, knowledge, values and attitudes

❖ to use the life event approach to develop positive values and attitudes, strengthen affective development and nurture a sense of national identity

❖ to continue developing the Four Key Tasks and to facilitate learning through effective learning and teaching strategies

❖ to stimulate students' interest to enquire and explore with hands-on and problem-solving activities, rather than confine learning to the text and pen and paper assignments

❖ to make flexible use of textbooks and choose quality learning and teaching resources

❖ to tap community resources to promote life-wide learning

Assessment

❖ for teachers and students to identify strengths and weaknesses and to bring about improvement in learning

❖ to use diversified modes of assessment and provide quality feedback in order to improve the curriculum as well as learning and teaching

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List of Abbreviations

CDC Curriculum Development Council CDI Curriculum Development Institute EC Education Commission

EDB Education Bureau GS General Studies

HKSAR Hong Kong Special Administrative Region IT Information Technology

KLA(s) Key Learning Area(s) KS1 Key Stage One KS2 Key Stage Two

PSHE Personal, Social and Humanities Education SBCD School-based Curriculum Development SE Science Education

TE Technology Education

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CONTENTS

Preamble i

Key Messages iii

List of Abbreviations vii

Chapter 1 Introduction 1

1.1 Background 2

1.2 Position of General Studies in the School Curriculum 2 1.3 Rationale and Direction of Development 3 1.4 Development Strategies in the General Studies Curriculum 4 Chapter 2 Curriculum Framework 7

2.1 Aims 9

2.2 Learning Targets 10

2.3 Components of the General Studies Curriculum Framework 11

2.3.1 Strands 12

2.3.2 Generic Skills 12

2.3.3 Values and Attitudes 13

2.4 Learning Objectives 13

2.5 Core and Extension 13

2.6 Thematic Approach 47

Chapter 3 Curriculum Planning 63 3.1 Central Curriculum and School-based Curriculum Development 64

3.2 Collaborative Lesson Preparation 66

3.3 Modes of Curriculum Planning 67

3.4 Curriculum Interface between Different Learning Stages 68

3.5 Cross-KLA Links 69

3.6 Time Allocation 70

3.7 Curriculum Planning Process 70

Chapter 4 Learning and Teaching 73

4.1 Guiding Principles 74

4.1.1 Providing Various Learning Opportunities 74 4.1.2 Arousing Students' Interest in Learning 74 4.1.3 Developing Students' Learning to Learn Capabilities 74

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4.1.4 Developing Students' Generic Skills and Nurturing 74 Students' Positive Values and Attitudes

4.1.5 Enriching Students' Learning Experiences 75

4.2 The Enquiry Approach 75

4.2.1 Merits of Enquiry-based Learning 75 4.2.2 Major Strategies of Enquiry-based Learning 75

4.3 Other Key Tasks 86

4.3.1 Moral and Civic Education 86

4.3.2 Reading to Learn 88

4.3.3 Information Technology for Interactive Learning 90

4.4 Homework for Students 90

4.4.1 The Purpose of Homework 90

4.4.2 Setting Meaningful Homework for General Studies 91 4.4.3 Guidance and Feedback on Homework 93

4.5 Life-wide Learning 94

4.6 Catering for Learner Diversity 96

4.6.1 Adapting the Flexible Curriculum 97

4.6.2 Specific Strategies 97

4.6.3 Differential Assessment 98

4.7 Areas of Concern and Suggestions for Improvement Measures 98 Chapter 5 Assessment 99 5.1 Principles to Guide Actions for Assessment in General Studies 100

5.1.1 Comprehensive Assessment 100

5.1.2 Diversified Assessment 100

5.1.3 Assessment with Emphasis on the Learning Process 101

5.1.4 Quality Feedback 101

5.2 Formulating Assessment Policy for General Studies 101 5.2.1 Setting Clear Assessment Goals 101 5.2.2 Catering for Students' Needs and Abilities 101 5.2.3 Adopting Diversified Strategies and Modes of Assessment 101 5.2.4 Effective Use of the Assessment Data 102 5.2.5 Recording Students’ Achievement 102

5.3 Modes of Assessment 102

5.3.1 Formative Assessment 104

5.3.2 Summative Assessment 107

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Chapter 6 Learning and Teaching Resources 109 6.1 Functions of Learning and Teaching Resources 110 6.2 Selection of Learning and Teaching Resources 110

6.3 Commonly Used Resources 111

6.3.1 Textbooks 111

6.3.2 Workbooks and Worksheets 112

6.3.3 Reference Books and Other Printed Materials 112

6.3.4 Multi-media Resources 112

6.3.5 Community Resources 113

6.4 Resource Management in Schools 114

Appendices 115

1 An Illustration of the Design Cycle 116

2 Moral and Civic Education Curriculum Framework 121 3 Areas of Concern and Suggested Improvement Measures 125 4 Examples of Formats/Means Used for Different Purposes of 131

Assessment

4.1 學生自評 132

4.2 教師觀察及家長評鑑 133

4.3 學生態度的評估 134

4.4 共通能力的評估 135

4.5 專題研習報告的評估 138

4.6 鼓勵創意及思考試題 140

References 142

Membership of the Ad Hoc Committee on General Studies for Primary Schools 148

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Chapter 1

Introduction

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Introduction

1.1 Background

Children in the 21st century have to overcome the challenges brought about by the rapid developments in science, technology and society. The curriculum should provide them with learning experiences that enable them to construct knowledge and develop a global perspective, and develop life-long learning skills, so that they can contribute to today's knowledge-based economy and society.

The GS curriculum was first introduced in response to the recommendations of Education Commission Report No. 4 and has been implemented since 1996.

The GS Curriculum Guide published in 2002 was developed on the basis of the previous one and was revised in accordance with the curriculum reform. It aims at guiding children to have a better understanding of themselves and the world around them, and of the inter-dependence between people, things and their environment. The curriculum proposes a range of contexts for developing students' knowledge and abilities to achieve the aims of education. As Hong Kong is experiencing rapid social, scientific and technological developments, it is necessary to introduce an open and flexible curriculum framework that enables teachers to enhance their students' capabilities of learning how to learn so that they can meet and overcome the challenges of the new century.

In 2011, the Curriculum Development Council (CDC) has updated and enriched the GS curriculum in accordance with the needs of society and schools. It aims at keeping abreast with time so that students can effectively enhance their capabilities of learning through content closely related to their daily life.

1.2 Position of General Studies in the School Curriculum

GS provides students with opportunities to integrate knowledge, skills, values and attitudes across the Key Learning Areas (KLAs) of Personal, Social and Humanities Education (PSHE), Science Education (SE) and Technology Education (TE). It promotes creativity through hands-on and minds-on learning

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experiences and problem-solving process. It emphasises student enquiry and the development of skills for learning to learn.

As recommended in the CDC report Learning to Learn - Life-long Learning and Whole-person Development (2001) and the Basic Education Curriculum Guide - Building on Strengths (2002), 12-15 % of students' learning time in school should be allocated to the learning of GS.

1.3 Rationale and Direction of Development

The GS curriculum is designed in the notion that students' learning experiences should be connected and not compartmentalised, so that students can develop a holistic view of themselves as individuals in the community, their place in the natural world, and the interaction of human beings with the environment.

To ensure that students benefit from the curriculum, this Curriculum Guide has been developed with the following emphases:

Broadening the learning space

Students have sufficient time for enquiry-based learning in which they play an active role in the search for and construction of their own knowledge, and for the development of generic skills and values/attitudes that are essential for whole-person development.

Strengthening the interface with pre-primary and secondary school curricula Thematic and project approaches are promoted to enhance personal and social education in the junior primary curriculum and to provide a smooth interface with the pre-primary curriculum. Strengthening the development of generic skills can facilitate students to adapt to the learning of relevant subjects in their future study in secondary school.

Integrating students' learning experiences

Through the learning of GS, students should develop a holistic view of themselves as individuals in the community, their place in the natural world, and the interaction of human beings with the environment.

Coherence and connection between different areas of learning in the curriculum are strengthened through the adoption of a thematic approach and a life event approach since they link classroom learning with students' life experiences.

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Promoting life-wide learning

The appropriate use of community resources is encouraged, e.g. museums, facilities and activities provided by community organisations and other public and private bodies to widen the scope of learning beyond the school setting.

Developing students' independent learning ability

Teachers are encouraged to provide students with diversified learning experiences including project learning, information technology (IT) for interactive learning, scientific exploration and the design of simple technological products.

Enhancing interest and curiosity in science and technology

Emphasis is placed on developing students' innovative abilities and their sensitivity to the effects of the development of science and technology.

More hands-on learning activities are encouraged to nurture students' curiosity.

Putting emphasis on students' affective development

In relation to personal and social development and the nurturing of positive values and attitudes, there is an emphasis on affective development, including managing emotions and developing a sense of belonging to our local community and home country.

1.4 Development Strategies in the General Studies Curriculum

With the various support measures from the EDB, tertiary institutions and other related organisations, schools can build on their strengths to open up more opportunities and space for learning and teaching of GS. Since the adoption of the curriculum in 2004, schools have gained achievements in the following aspects to a certain extent. They can continue to evaluate whether they have fulfilled these expectations:

At Key Stage One (Primary 1 - Primary 3)

Our students will Our teachers will

• develop a healthy lifestyle

• be able to manage their daily life needs and live in harmony with other people

• strengthen personal and social education by using a life event approach

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Our students will Our teachers will

• develop a keen interest in observing the environment instead of focusing on the study of textbook content, and have hands-on experiences to cultivate a sense of curiosity in the natural and human world

• develop investigative and enquiry skills to solve problems encountered in daily life

• avoid being textbook-bound in teaching

• design hands-on and minds- on activities to arouse students' interest in the natural and human world

• put emphasis on investigative and enquiry learning to help students solve daily life problems

At Key Stage Two (Primary 4 - Primary 6)

Our students will Our teachers will

• conduct hands-on and minds-on enquiry with an open mind

• develop positive attitudes and values through learning experiences of various life events

• develop an awareness of their role in society and their national identity through understanding local society, Chinese history and culture

• connect what they have learnt in school to daily life through project learning

• develop basic knowledge, investigative skills and problem- solving capabilities in science and technology

• move away from content-based teaching

• increase the use of hands-on and minds-on learning activities to develop students' enquiry skills, including IT for interactive learning

• foster positive values and attitudes in students in their personal and social development

• strengthen students' affective development, especially towards their national identity and Chinese culture

• develop students' generic skills through a wide range of learning activities including project learning

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Our students will Our teachers will

• motivate students' interest and develop their knowledge and skills in science and technology through hands-on problem- solving and investigative activities

It is suggested that schools should develop a culture of constant renewal of the school-based curriculum. They are also encouraged to update the curriculum according to the GS curriculum framework, the needs and interests of students as well as societal changes. In whole-school curriculum planning, schools should strengthen the vertical and horizontal development of the GS curriculum, as well as the linkage between GS and other subjects and other learning experiences. Moreover, they should achieve the curriculum goals through sustaining the key tasks in curriculum reform, life-wide learning as well as effective use of learning and teaching strategies and resources.

Schools should also formulate an overall assessment policy of GS following the guidelines set out for assessment in the GS Curriculum Guide, and use the data/information collected to analyse the learning condition of students, thus develop effective learning and teaching strategies to promote learning.

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Chapter 2

Curriculum Framework

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Curriculum Framework

The curriculum framework for GS comprises a set of interlocking components including:

❖ subject knowledge;

❖ generic skills; and

❖ positive values and attitudes.

The relationships among knowledge, generic skills, and values and attitudes are illustrated in the following diagram.

Knowledge

Generic Skills Values & attitudes

The framework sets out what students should know, value and be able to do at Key Stages 1 and 2. It gives schools and teachers fl exibility and ownership to plan and develop alternative curriculum modes to meet their varied needs.

Cross-reference should be made to the Curriculum Guides of KLAs of PSHE, SE and TE for the related components at Key Stages 1 and 2.

2.1 Aims

The GS curriculum aims to enable students to:

❖ maintain a healthy personal development and become confi dent, rational and responsible citizens

❖ recognise their roles and responsibilities as members of the family and society and show concern for their well-being

❖ develop a sense of national identity and be committed to contributing to the nation and the world

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❖ develop curiosity and interest in the natural and technological world as well as understand the impact of science and technology on society

❖ develop a care and concern for the environment

2.2 Learning Targets

Students are expected to:

❖ understand their growth and development, develop a healthy lifestyle and a respect for self and others, and value harmonious human relationships

❖ understand their local community and the wider community of Hong Kong, development, characteristics and possible future developments

❖ develop a caring concern for the well-being of their family, the community of Hong Kong, the Chinese nation and the world

❖ develop motivation and the skills to explore, investigate and generate solutions for scientific problems emerging from the study of the material world, use of energy, living things and the Earth and beyond

❖ develop an interest in exploring the technological world and perform technology activities creatively to solve simple problems in daily life

❖ understand that science and technology may impact negatively on human society and the environment, and that they have the responsibility to guard against this

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Global Understanding and the Information Era General Studies

Connecting learning experiences in three Key Learning Areas

Personal, Social and Humanities

Education

Science Education

Organising curriculum content into six strands

Generic Skills

Values and Attitudes

Diversified modes of curriculum planning and

effective learning, teaching and assessment

To achieve the aims and learning targets of

Health and Living People and Environment Science and Technology in Everyday Life Community and Citizenship National Identity and Chinese Culture

Technology Education

2.3 Components of the General Studies Curriculum Framework

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2.3.1 Strands

Strands are used to organise the curriculum content. There are six strands in the GS curriculum, which are derived from the elements of learning in the KLAs of PSHE, SE and TE. They are:

❖ Health and Living

❖ People and Environment

❖ Science and Technology in Everyday Life

❖ Community and Citizenship

❖ National Identity and Chinese Culture

❖ Global Understanding and the Information Era 2.3.2 Generic Skills

Generic skills are fundamental to enabling students to learn. They are to be developed through learning and teaching and are transferable to different learning situations. The CDC Report on Learning To Learn - The Way Forward in Curriculum Development (2001) proposes nine generic skills to be developed in the school curriculum: collaboration skills, communication skills, creativity, critical thinking skills, information technology skills, numeracy skills, problem- solving skills, self-management skills and study skills.

As a cross-KLA curriculum, GS provides great scope for the development of these generic skills. The emphasis on personal and social development, citizenship education, scientific investigation and technological awareness in the local setting contributes to students' acquisition of self-management skills, study skills, problem-solving skills, critical thinking skills and creativity.

Students also make use of numeracy and IT skills to solve problems and search for information. Through project learning and investigation activities, students develop collaboration skills and communication skills when they interact with people and work with others in learning environments in and outside the classroom. Starting from the short-term phase of 2001-02 to 2005-06, schools have been placing priority on the development of critical thinking skills, creativity and communication skills recommended by the CDC Report on Learning To Learn - The Way Forward in Curriculum Development (2001).

Schools should continue to help students develop these generic skills through GS, and develop other generic skills through different learning content and contexts.

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2.3.3 Values and Attitudes

Values are qualities that students should develop as principles underlying conduct and decision-making, while attitudes are personal dispositions needed to perform a task well. Values and attitudes affect each other.

The development of personal and social values and attitudes is intrinsic within the GS curriculum. These values and attitudes are spelt out in the learning objectives of the relevant strands below.

2.4 Learning Objectives

Learning objectives define more specifically what students are expected to learn in accordance with the broad learning targets for Key Stages 1 and 2.

They are to be used by teachers in the planning of the curriculum, units, lessons and activities.

2.5 Core and Extension

The proposed content of the GS curriculum consists of two components, core and extension. It allows the curriculum to cater for students of different abilities and needs. In terms of curriculum time, the core will constitute approximately 80% of the whole curriculum. The core contains the basic components of the GS curriculum and is for all students, whereas the extension component is generally more demanding and allows students to pursue further in-depth study on particular issues in the core elements.

For some students, it will be more desirable for them to concentrate on the core so that more time is available for them to master the basic knowledge and develop generic skills and relevant values and attitudes. For others, the challenges provided by the extension component may allow them to have deeper learning and a greater sense of achievement. Schools should consider the interests and abilities of their students and make appropriate adaptations in the curriculum so that a balance between coverage and mastery of the curriculum can be achieved.

The learning objectives, core and proposed extension elements of the six strands are listed in the following tables.

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Strand 1: Health and Living

This strand aims at arousing students' awareness of their growth and development, as well as helping them to develop a healthy lifestyle. Students are expected to acquire some basic understanding of the physical, psychological and social aspects of health, possess a positive attitude towards their personal growth and development, and make informed decisions related to their health and safety. Through life-wide learning opportunities, they should also be guided to carry out investigations on health-related issues.

Learning Objectives

Key Stage One Key Stage Two

Knowledge and understanding

• to identify the different stages of growth and development

• to understand that there are individual differences in growth and development

• to know the importance of maintaining personal hygiene, environmental hygiene and safety, and ways of bringing them about

• to understand one’s own interests and realise that one’s own emotions and behaviour may influence oneself and others

• to understand the importance of family to an individual

• to understand the harm of drug abuse

• to know the physical and emotional changes which occur at puberty and ways to cope with them

• to know the factors affecting one’s health and safety

• to know the ways to manage risks

• to understand one’s own needs, aspirations and strengths and ways to address one’s weaknesses

• to be aware that a person’s actions may have positive or negative consequences on oneself or others

• to understand the effects of drug abuse on individual, family and society

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Key Stage One Key Stage Two Knowledge and

understanding (Cont'd)

• to understand the importance of living in responsible ways to reflect a loving regard for all life

• to recognise the

importance of setting life goals

• to know the ways of making rational consumer decisions

• to understand the

importance of community health

Skills • to develop healthy living and eating habits

• to manage oneself in daily life situations, and to exercise self- discipline in managing personal hygiene, safety and emotions in daily life situations

• to observe safety codes in daily life situations

• to use the support and advice of adults to make personal decisions related to health

• to use appropriate verbal and non-verbal ways to communicate with others and to express emotions

• to practise planning one’s use of time

• to be able to manage personal health as well as physical and emotional changes at puberty

• to analyse relevant information and make informed decisions on personal health

• to practise a healthy lifestyle

• to master the skills of rejecting temptation

• to identify current issues concerning health and environmental hygiene, and carry out investigations into selected ones

• to identify situations where expectations differ according to gender and understand how these expectations may influence one’s choices and options

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Key Stage One Key Stage Two Skills

(Cont'd)

• to communicate one’s anxieties, excitements and queries to family members, peers and elders where appropriate, and to seek help from elders, counselors or institutions when necessary

• to enhance relationships with family members and peers while developing assertiveness skills

• to make rational consumer decisions Values and

attitudes

• to be positive towards healthy living, including eating habits, work, rest and physical exercise

• to accept changes that occur as one grows and individual differences in growth and development

• to treasure harmonious relationships with family members, peers and others around

• to observe the proper use of medicine

• to appreciate the

uniqueness of individuals and respect their

variations in strengths and weaknesses

• to accept that individuals are different in their growth and development during puberty

• to value one’s own body

• to accept sexual feelings and reactions, and show positive attitudes in dealing with them

• to show sensitivity for the feelings and concern of others

• to reject unhealthy behaviours

• to respect and value life

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Key Stage One Key Stage Two Values and

attitudes (Cont'd)

• to show commitment in participating in activities related to promotion/ maintenance of community health Core Elements

Key Stage One:

❖ the different stages of human growth and development

❖ the changes that occur when one grows

❖ similarities and differences between boys and girls

❖ uniqueness of an individual (e.g. physique, likes and dislikes, aptitudes and abilities, thoughts and feelings)

❖ the importance of food, physical exercises and rest to health

❖ the importance of food hygiene

❖ simple personal and environmental hygiene practices

❖ functions of different parts of the body as a basis for body care

❖ ways of protecting the body, including the private parts of the body

❖ simple safety procedures in daily situations

❖ ways of seeking help when faced with problems (e.g. health, safety)

❖ proper handling and use of medicine

❖ getting along with friends and family members

❖ the need to express feelings and emotions which would influence oneself and others

❖ decision-making in simple dilemma situations

❖ simple conflict-resolution skills in daily life situations

❖ managing oneself in daily life situations, e.g. getting dressed, keeping

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❖ planning daily schedule for work, play and rest

❖ the harm of drug abuse Key Stage Two:

❖ physical, psychological and social changes during puberty

❖ the differences between individuals in growth and development during puberty

❖ functions of major organs and systems of the body

❖ gender roles and relationships

❖ sexual feelings and reactions, and ways to deal with them

❖ a healthy lifestyle (e.g. regular pattern of work and rest, do not indulge in web surfing, healthy diet)

❖ the effects of drugs on individual, family and society

❖ say “NO” to gambling, drug abuse, substance abuse, smoking, drinking and sexual requests

❖ major causes and prevention of common diseases

❖ one's own strengths and weaknesses and the differences in strengths and weaknesses among individuals

❖ emotions and ways to express them

❖ dealing with stress and frustration (e.g. peer pressure, harassment, study)

❖ enhancing relationships and assertiveness skills

❖ managing and using money

❖ dealing with unfamiliar situations and challenges

❖ simple first aid and safety in daily life situations

❖ minimising risks in daily life situations (e.g. safety, health, relationships)

❖ people and agencies that can assist with injury prevention, emergency care and violence prevention

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❖ problems and solutions related to environmental hygiene

❖ activities related to promotion/maintenance of community health Suggestions for Extension

Depending on students' abilities and interests, as well as strengths of the school, teachers may consider providing more in-depth study on selected content within the strand. For example:

❖ When students learn about healthy diet in Key Stage One, they can find out what healthy food is through project learning, and to put healthy diet into practice by designing a menu and preparing food for Healthy Picnic Day and Healthy Christmas Party.

❖ Students can investigate in Key Stage Two the social issues related to this strand through case study, e.g. pre-marriage pregnancy, drug abuse, compensated dating, indulgence in online games. They can understand the causes of these issues and their effects on teenagers. Schools can also bring in external resources such as visits, seminars and workshops organised by relevant organisations so that they can have a better understanding of these issues.

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Strand 2: People and Environment

This strand aims at arousing students’ concern for the environment and its sustainable development. Students are expected to acquire a basic understanding of Nature and the relationships between mankind and the environment, and be willing to bear the responsibility of environmental conservation. Through enquiry learning on environmental issues, they should be guided to use information from various sources in making decisions on their actions for making good use of earth resources, protecting and improving the environment.

Learning Objectives

Key Stage One Key Stage Two

Knowledge and understanding

• to recognise the features of living things through observing and interacting with Nature

• to have basic

understanding of the life processes

• to identify the features of day and night and how they are related to people’s life patterns

• to identify simple features of weather changes

• to know the characteristic features of our immediate environment

• to understand the natural and human environment in a place and describe the environment in different places

• to identify features of animals and plants that change over time

• to recognise the interdependence of living things and their environment

• to know that different natural and human

processes are shaping the characteristics of a place

• to understand how people are affected by the natural environment and how they react to the limitations imposed by the natural environment

• to understand how the local environment influences our daily life

• to identify and describe climate and seasonal changes and their effects

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Key Stage One Key Stage Two Knowledge and

understanding (Cont'd)

• to understand how local human activities and natural environment may affect each another

• to understand the need for energy conservation

• to recognise the Earth as a wealth of resources

• to recognise the effects of human activities on the natural environment

• to understand people’s responsibility of environmental

conservation, treasure and make good use of earth resources

• to understand the cost of consuming natural resources and the various ways to manage and manipulate resources Skills • to make careful

observation of our surroundings

• to identify features on maps and photographs

• to draw pictorial maps to illustrate key features of our surroundings

• to work with peers in taking care of plants

• to develop

environmentally friendly practices

• to plan and carry out simple investigations into the environment and related issues

• to draw sketches/maps and other graphical representations to display information about places

• to identify patterns shown on maps and other graphical representations

• to report on patterns of energy use in the home, school and other workplaces

• to make wise use of natural resources and develop a lifestyle which promotes sustainable

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Key Stage One Key Stage Two Values and

attitudes

• to appreciate that there are similarities and differences among different types of living things

• to appreciate how living things depend on one another in the environment

• to develop a caring attitude towards animals and plants

• to show concern for the environment and make wise use of natural resources

• to show concern and readiness to take action in caring for and improving the environment

• to appreciate the wonder of Nature and show interest in exploring our environment

• to accept that birth, growth, illness and death are the major processes in the life cycle of living things

• to respect and care for all living things and show concern for endangered species

• to recognise the importance of environmental conservation, and to participate actively in it

• to be open-minded and objective towards different views

• to develop a concern for major local and national environmental issues Core Elements

Key Stage One:

❖ the existence of a variety of living things, their observable characteristics and life processes

❖ the needs of living things

❖ taking care of living things

❖ the importance of the environment in fulfilling the basic needs of living things

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❖ living things in different environments and their dependence on each other

❖ features of day and night and how they relate to the patterns of our daily life

❖ weather changes and how they affect our daily life

❖ managing oneself in activities under different weather conditions

❖ characteristics of our immediate living environment

❖ how natural and human environment in the neighbouring areas affect people's life

❖ care of the environment and ways of conserving resources

❖ ways of minimising generation of waste in daily life Key Stage Two:

❖ cycles in the living world and their major processes

❖ the changing features of animals and plants in life processes

❖ simple classification of different varieties of living things

❖ interdependence and interaction between living things and the environment

❖ the adaptation of living things to the environment

❖ concern for endangered species

❖ interaction between human activities and natural environment

❖ adverse weather conditions and related safety measures

❖ the effect of natural changes of the environment and natural hazards on people and how people respond to these changes and hazards

❖ our responsibilities in environmental conservation

❖ the Earth as a source of resources

❖ renewable and non-renewable resources

❖ energy saving and good use of resources

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❖ some local and national environmental issues

❖ a lifestyle which promotes sustainable development Suggestions for Extension

Since the aims of this strand are to arouse students’ concern for the environment and its sustainable development, it is desirable to provide authentic learning situations to students. For example, students can learn about Nature through outings and camping. During these activities, students of Key Stage One can select the plants they are interested in for in-depth study.

They can carry out simple experiments to find out the functions of different parts of the plants. In Key Stage Two, students can choose an environmental issue of global concern that they are interested in and conduct project learning. They can act as different stakeholders and study the issues from various perspectives. They can also hold debates on some global environmental conservation issues to develop their critical thinking skills.

When studying the sources of our resources in Key Stage Two, students can understand the importance of renewable energy to people through project learning. They can also explore the use of solar energy by designing and making a device or toy that can be driven by solar energy. They can further compare the effect of different kinds of energy used in operating the same device or toy. Students’ creativity is nurtured through interesting enquiry activities and artifact making.

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Strand 3: Science and Technology in Everyday Life

This strand aims at arousing students’ curiosity and interest in science and technology through hands-on and minds-on activities. Students are expected to have an increased awareness of the natural and human world, keen interest in observing their surroundings, pose questions and to acquire a basic understanding of some simple natural phenomena. Under the guidance of teachers, students are expected to relate their experience of science and technology to everyday contexts. They are also expected to develop sensitivity to safety issues related to science and technology in everyday life, as well as treating the environment with care.

Learning Objectives

Key Stage One Key Stage Two

Knowledge and understanding

• to recognise sources of energy and know their uses in daily life

• to identify some common materials and know their uses in daily life

• to recognise and describe the basic patterns of objects in the sky

• to recognise some properties of heat

• to recognise some properties of movement

• to know some examples of contributions from scientists and inventors, in particular Chinese, in improving our living conditions

• to know how scientific ideas can be used to explain some phenomena and the importance of providing experimental evidence to support or disprove claims

• to recognise some patterns and phenomena related to light, sound, electricity, movement and energy

• to distinguish between reversible changes and those that cannot be easily reversed

• to illustrate the patterns of changes / phenomena observable on Earth caused by movements of the Earth and the Moon

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Key Stage One Key Stage Two Knowledge and

understanding (Con'd)

• to know some applications and

effects of scientific and technological advances in daily life

• to know the concepts and applications of the design cycle

• to understand the functional and aesthetic requirements in various processes in technology learning activities

• to recognise differences in the applications of technology in different cultures

Skills • to make careful observation, simple measurement and classification

• to observe natural phenomena to predict changes

• to identify the characteristics and changes of materials using senses

• to design and make artifacts with daily materials

• to work individually/

collaboratively with peers to identify problems and design feasible solutions

• to discuss observations and suggest simple interpretation

• to use focused exploration and investigation to acquire simple scientific investigation skills

• to explore the properties of materials in relation to their suitability for different purposes

• to work in accordance with safety rules while using tools/ technology

• to communicate scientific findings and solutions using different forms

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Key Stage One Key Stage Two Skills

(Con'd)

• to apply the design cycle when solving problems

• to design and build models by using different materials and to test selected functional characteristic of the model built with the chosen material(s) Values and

attitudes

• to show curiosity and interest about Nature

• to show interest and curiosity in knowing how things work

• to appreciate the

functional and aesthetic aspects in various processes in technology learning activities

• to be aware that science and technology are closely connected to activities in daily life

• to show concern about the safety issues in using science and technology

• to show curiosity and sustained interest in science

• to accept decisions and inferences based on sound evidence

• to show concern about the beneficial and

harmful effects of the use of science and technology to mankind and the environment

• to accept that it is a person’s responsibility to make sound judgements on the use of science and technology

• to be committed to practising safety precautions in daily life, taking special care in issues related to science and technology

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Key Stage One Key Stage Two Values and

attitudes (Con'd)

• to be aware of the latest advances in science and technology and appreciate the people who have made their efforts to contribute to the success

Core Elements Key Stage One:

❖ methods of observation (e.g. using sense organs and equipment)

❖ methods of recording observation results (e.g. photos and sketches)

❖ observing natural phenomena

❖ the wonder of Nature

❖ daily materials, their characteristics and uses

❖ designing and making artifacts with daily materials

❖ sources of energy and ways in which energy is used in daily life

❖ properties of heat

❖ properties of movement

❖ how technology contributes to daily life

❖ using science and technology to solve problems at home

❖ safety issues in relation to science and technology

❖ famous scientists and inventors and their contributions Key Stage Two:

❖ planning and conducting simple investigations

❖ investigating some simple patterns and phenomena related to light, sound, electricity, movement and energy

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❖ use of some materials and their related consequences on human and environment

❖ efficient transfer of energy and the interaction between energy and materials

❖ the patterns of changes / phenomena observable on Earth caused by movements of the Earth and the Moon around the Sun

❖ the wonder of the Universe

❖ contributions of space exploration to everyday life

❖ the design cycle and its application in making models

❖ the application and effects of scientific and technological advances in daily life

❖ technological advances leading to the detailed observation of distant big objects and very small objects

❖ the trends in scientific and technological advances

❖ safety and personal responsibility in using science and technology

❖ awareness that the usage of technology might be different in other cultures

Suggestions for Extension

❖ Schools may choose to provide more life-wide learning opportunities for students, e.g. taking part in science competitions, visiting resource-based learning centres such as laboratories in secondary schools or tertiary institutes, using data logging system to conduct outdoor and indoor exploration.

❖ Further exploration on “famous scientists and inventors and their contributions” can also be introduced in addition to information from textbooks on the subject, e.g. students may read leisure books to know some scientists/ inventors and study about their discoveries/inventions and their impact on our daily life.

❖ Schools may also consider extending the depth of study on all or part of the core elements. Schools can get students to undertake the sort of

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scientific investigation that requires them to make hypotheses, design and carry out experiments, collect and analyse data, make judgements and report results and conclusions.

❖ Schools can also choose to allow students to study and use the design cycle when engaged in technology learning activities, e.g. students choose different materials for building the same structure (e.g. tower) or to build different structures with the same material (e.g. straw).

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Strand 4: Community and Citizenship

This strand is designed to help students understand their local community and develop concern for community affairs, understand the rights and responsibilities of citizens and to arouse their sense of civic awareness.

Teachers can guide their students to know Hong Kong and investigate current community issues from different perspectives through enquiry learning. The emphasis in this strand is NOT on the amount of factual information students memorise, but rather on developing their capability to adapt to the changing needs of society, their willingness to participate actively in community affairs and their involvement as active and responsible citizens.

Learning Objectives

Key Stage One Key Stage Two

Knowledge and understanding

• to know the

characteristics of our community

• to identify one’s role, rights and responsibilities in different social groups

• to know the importance of respecting the rights of others in groups

• to recognise the

diversified background of Hong Kong residents

• to know that the local people meet their needs through trading activities

• to identify facilities and services in the community

• to have basic knowledge about the background and the importance of the Basic Law

• to recognise the history of Hong Kong

• to recognise the factors affecting the economic development of Hong Kong

• to understand there are different family structures in Hong Kong nowadays

• to understand the importance of harmony among members in different communities

• to understand the rights and responsibilities of an individual and how they are protected by the Basic Law and the local legal system

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Key Stage One Key Stage Two Knowledge and

understanding (Con'd)

• to know the importance of rules and regulations to the life of Hong Kong residents

• to recognise the regional flag and regional emblem of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR)

• to understand the functions of and major services provided by the government and local social institutions in response to the needs and interests of Hong Kong residents

Skills • to identify diverse customs, practices and traditions in society

• to identify ways in which one’s own needs and the needs of others are met, individually and co- operatively

• to acquire the skills necessary for participating in a group

• to exercise one’s rights appropriately and make good use of community services and facilities

• to identify behaviours that one should

practise in order to be a responsible citizen

• to identify the regional symbols of the HKSAR

• to grasp the skills in collecting information on history and current affairs

• to analyse some family, school and social issues, and attempt to suggest solutions to the problems

• to suggest ways to help members of family, school and society get along harmoniously with one another

• to reflect on the balance between one’s rights and responsibilities in various settings through different channels

Values and attitudes

• to appreciate the efforts and contributions of people who work to meet our needs and maintain a harmonious community

• to show concern for the development of the local community and conservation of cultural heritage

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Key Stage One Key Stage Two Values and

attitudes (Con'd)

• to respect people from different backgrounds and their rights

• to recognise the need for fair rules and be willing to observe rules and regulations

• to develop a sense of belonging to the local community

• to develop a concern for community issues

• to appreciate the ways the people of Hong Kong adapt to the changing society

• to have an awareness that economic decisions of the individual, family and society can affect our lives as well as the environment

• to be willing to get along harmoniously with other members in different communities.

• to appreciate the contributions made by different sectors in Hong Kong

• to appreciate and respect the multi-cultures of Hong Kong

• to respect and be willing to observe the Basic Law, rules and laws

• to be willing to contribute to the

collective interest of the community

• to recognise the importance of basic rights and observe duties in appropriate situations

• to develop a concern for and willing to participate in local affairs

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Core Elements Key Stage One:

❖ family members

❖ roles and responsibilities of individuals as a member in a group (family, school and community)

❖ characteristics of our community

❖ goods, facilities and services in the community

❖ diversified background of Hong Kong residents (e.g. occupation, ethnicity and religion)

❖ people who work to satisfy our needs and maintain a harmonious community

❖ conduct of goods and services exchange activities to meet our needs and the needs of others

❖ our rights and responsibilities as consumers of goods and services and in using community facilities

❖ the differences among people and the need to respect the rights of others

❖ communicating and getting along with others in the community

❖ the need for order and regulations

❖ origin of the Basic Law

❖ the importance of the Basic Law to the life of Hong Kong residents

❖ local symbols (e.g. flag, emblem) of the HKSAR and their meanings Key Stage Two:

❖ maintain harmony with members of different communities

❖ the history of Hong Kong

❖ major features of the Hong Kong economy

❖ factors affecting the economic development of Hong Kong

❖ the benefits for Hong Kong in trading with other parts of the world

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❖ the functions of and services provided by the government and local institutions in response to the needs of Hong Kong residents

❖ rights and responsibilities of Hong Kong residents according to the Basic Law

❖ the importance of observing rules and laws

❖ the importance of participation in local affairs, e.g. participating in fund- raising activities or voluntary work in the community

❖ channels and ways to express opinions to government, organisations or groups

Suggestions for Extension

Schools can deepen and/or extend the exploration of core learning elements by providing extended learning activities for their students. Here are examples of such learning activities:

❖ School can enhance students’ understanding on local history by organising field trips to local historical sites related to students’ interest, such as Ping Shan Heritage Trail, to discover relevant historical information. Afterwards, students suggest ways to conserve these monuments. Students can also join some guided tours of monuments in other districts, e.g. History field trip organised by the Hong Kong Museum of History in Lung Yeuk Tau, and then compare the characteristics of monuments in different districts.

❖ When students are learning topics on rights and responsibilities, they can search for information about “the rights of children” through project learning, thus enhancing their understanding of their rights, knowledge on the living situations of other children in the world, as well as nurturing an attitude of caring for others.

❖ Through the activity of visiting the Legislative Council Building, students understand how the “One Country, Two Systems” and the election system stipulated in the Basic Law are implemented in the HKSAR.

❖ When students are investigating the importance of maintaining law and order in society, they can understand the operation of relevant organisations through firsthand information. e.g. paying a visit to a police station or Independent Commission Against Corruption (ICAC). They can

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Strand 5: National Identity and Chinese Culture

Through stories and topics of interest relevant to our daily life, this strand aims at arousing students’ interest in Chinese history, nation, culture and national development. The overall expectation is that students will enhance their understanding of our country and national identity, as well as develop their knowledge of the country and sense of belonging through enquiry learning.

Students should be guided to make use of different sources of information and develop a concern for the development of China and for current Chinese affairs.

The emphasis of study for this strand is NOT on the number of topics taught or the amount of information students memorise. In contrast, schools should select appropriate stories or examples as teaching materials to meet their needs.

Learning Objectives

Key Stage One Key Stage Two

Knowledge and understanding

• to recognise the national symbols of one's home country and their meanings

• to understand the customs of people from different cultural backgrounds in the country

• to know the major features of national capital and some

important cities in China

• to know the

characteristics of Chinese people

• to know the important features of Chinese culture

• to recognise the geographical position, physical characteristics and territory of China

• to recognise the major historical periods in Chinese history

• to know the major characteristics of ancient Chinese civilisation through studying information collected from various sources

• to understand that significant historical figures, events and viewpoints have influenced China in different periods of time

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Key Stage One Key Stage Two Knowledge and

understanding (Con'd)

• to recognise some important people and events that have significant impact on the history of China and its nation

• to know the special natural landscapes and characteristics of people’s life in China

• to understand what is unique and significant in Chinese culture

• to understand the influences of Chinese culture on the life of people in Hong Kong

• to understand the ways adopted by individuals and groups to pass on and sustain their culture and heritage

• to recognise the development of China

• to have basic

understanding of the relationship between the Central government and the HKSAR

Skills • to observe and compare the differences between Chinese people and people of other countries

• to identify the national symbols of China

• to investigate major features in Chinese culture

• to read and use simple 2D and 3D diagrams showing features of China

• to identify the major features and characteristics of ancient Chinese culture

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Key Stage One Key Stage Two Skills

(Con'd)

• to identify significant events in Chinese history and match them with the stories of important historical figures

• to make use of

information from books and other sources and present it in different ways and styles

• to make use of timelines and different source materials in studying the history and life of the Chinese people

• to locate and select useful information for making comparisons of daily life today and in the past

• to examine different views used in presenting historical events and characters

• to develop study plans for finding out more about the customs, traditions and major features of Chinese culture

• to make use of different information for the understanding of events happened in the past and present

• to distinguish fact from opinion as well as source and evidence through analysing current affairs Values and

attitudes

• to develop a sense of time and an appreciation of the contributions made by people in the past

• to show interest in the understanding of Chinese history, the Chinese nation and Chinese culture

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Key Stage One Key Stage Two Values and

attitudes (Con'd)

• to develop an appreciation of the unique contributions of Chinese culture and an interest to find out more

• to recognise the importance of

conservation of cultural heritage

• to respect the long history of Chinese culture

• to appreciate the development of Chinese values through history

• to develop a concern for the people and events in China

• to appreciate that old and new as well as

different cultures co-exist in Hong Kong

• to be aware and proud of one’s national identity

• to develop a concern for the protection of culture and heritage in China

• to develop a pride for the long history of the Chinese nation and its culture

• to show concern for the development of China in the past, present and future

• to develop an attitude of respecting historical evidence in studying

• to develop an awareness of analysing events or people from different viewpoints

• to develop a sense of belonging and responsibility towards one’s country and nation

Core Elements Key Stage One:

❖ my home country - national flag and emblem, national capital, important cities and some important dates

❖ The Chinese nation - the characteristics of Chinese people and how they are similar to or different from people of other nations (e.g. in colour of skin, facial features, language, costume and daily life practices)

❖ characteristics of Chinese culture (e.g. concept of ‘family’, Chinese characters, customs, festivals)

Figure

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References

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