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英文 113 句型精簡版

老師的話:1. 精簡版適合:(1) 任何程度有零碎時間的學生培養實力、 (2) 程度好考前衝刺的學生複習、 (3) 程度不好考前填鴨的學生抱佛腳。 2. 公式若看不清楚,可直接背例句。 3. 每個句型,至少要會寫一句。 4. 真正培養實力還是得靠原來完整版。 1. 直接問句: 疑問詞 + 助 V + S ... ? 問句動詞要移到主詞前 間接問句:S + V + 疑問詞 + S + ( 助 V) + V... 「間接問句」不是問句 * 他什麼時候要走? 我不知道他什麼時候要走。

When will he go ? I don’t know when he will go.

2. 直接問句: 助 V + S + ... ? 也就是要用 Yes 或 No 回答的問句 間接問句:S + V + whether + S + (if 助 V) + V...

*你能不能來呢? 你能不能來沒關係。

Can you come (or not)? It makes no difference whether you can come (or not). 3. Do + S + V + [ 疑問字 + S + V ] ? 詢問重點為”Do + S + V”

疑問字+ do + S + V + [ 疑問字 + S + V] ? 詢問重點為” 疑問字” * A: Did you tell me who she was? B: Yes, I did.

A: 你有沒有告訴過我她是誰? B: 有啊,我告訴過你了。 * A: Who did you tell me she was? B: She is my sister.

A: 你告訴過我她是誰來著? B:她是我妹妹。

4. 你認為...如何? ...如何? ...好不好? (建議去做某事) How about + O ?

What about + O ?

What do you say to + O ? O 要用名詞或 Ving. What do you think of + O ?

Let’s + V , shall we? * 去散散步好不好?

How about (taking) a walk? = What about (taking) a walk?

= What do you say to (taking) a walk? = What do you think of (taking) a walk? = Let’s take a walk , shall we?

5. 一...就...;如果...就... [ 命令句 ] and [ S + V]. = If [ S + V ] , [ S + V].

* 一動你就沒命。 Stir and you will be a dead man.

= If you stir , you will be a dead man. 6. ...否則...;如果不...就...

[ 命令句 ] or [ S + V]. = If [ S ... not + V ] , [ S + V]. = Unless [ S + V ] , [ S + V]. * 穿上外衣,否則你會著涼的。

Put on a coat, or you’ll take cold.

= If you don’t put on a coat, you’ll catch cold. = Unless you put on a coat, you’ll get a cold.

7. 多麼...啊! (感嘆句)

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What + (a) + (形) + n.

* 多麼美的夜色啊! * 這些男孩好醜啊!

How beautiful a night (it is)! How ugly the boys are!

= What a beautiful night (this is)! = What ugly boys (they are)! 8. 與現在事實相反的假設 與現在事實相反用過去式 If S + were ... , S + would could + V 過去式 V might should * 要是我現在有翅膀,我要飛到美國。

If I had wings, I would fly to America.

9. 與過去事實相反的假設 與過去事實相反用過去完成式 If S + had + pp ... , S + would could + have + pp. might should * 要是那時這鞋子我合穿的話,我就買了。

If these shoes had fitted me, I would have bought them. 10. 與未來事實相反的假設 If S + were to + V ... , S + would could + V.  0/100 的機會 might should * 即使明天太陽從西邊升上來,我也不會做這樣的事。

Even if the sun were to rise in the west tomorrow, I would not do such a thing.

11. 未來表「萬一」 If S + should + V ... , S + would should + V. 1/10000 的機會 will shall *萬一這次失敗了,我會再試一次。

If I should fail this time, I will(would) try again. 12. 不確定的未來 If S + V 現在式 ... , S + shall will + V 1/2 的機會 can may *如果明天天氣好,我們就去野餐。

If it is fine tomorrow, we will go on a picnic.

13. 不能實現的願望

+ S + 過去式 V 現在不可能的希望 I wish + S + had + pp 過去已不可能的希望 Would that should

If only + S + would + V 未來不可能的希望 could

* 我要是一隻鳥該多好。 I wish I were a bird.

我真希望你那時告訴我真相就好了。 If only you had told me the truth.

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但願明天我能跟你一起去就好了。 Would that I could go with you tomorrow.

* I hope you can help me. 我希望你能幫我。 可能實現 I wish you could help me. 要是你能幫我就好了。 不可能實現 14. 「祝福...」的用法 I wish + [ S + may + V ] May + S + V I wish + 人 + 事物 (I wish) + 事物 + to + 人 * 祝你成功。

I wish you may succeed. = May you succeed. = I wish you success. = (I wish) success to you. 15. 假設法 if 的省略  if 省略後,子句改成問句形式 were Were If S + had + ... = Had + S + ... should Should * 我們不會失敗的,要是失敗,後果將如何呢?

Were we to fail, what would happen? (= If we were to fail, ...) 要不是我早知道她的名字,當時我就糗了。

Had I not known her name, I would have been embarrassed. (If I had not known ...) 萬一下雨,我們就不去了。

Should it rain, we would not go. (If it should rain, ...) 16. 要不是...,...

But for + O

Without + O , S + V 假設法. If S + not + V 假設法

* 要不是有太陽,我們根本就無法生存。 But for the sun, we couldn’t live at all. = Without the sun, we couldn’t live at all.

= If it were not for the sun, we couldn’t live at all. = Were it not for the sun, we couldn’t live at all.

17. 該是...的時候了。 其實並未發生,所以用假設法 It  iswas  (high) time + S + 過去式 Vshould + V

* 該是我們上床睡覺的時候了。 事實上還沒睡 It is (high) time we went to bed.

= It is time we should go to bed. = It is time for us to go to bed.

18. ...好像是...(其實不是) 其實並不是,所以用假設法 S + V as as if S + V 假設法

though * 你看起來好像死了。

You look as if you were dead. 19. n.

命令、建議、要求、堅持 的 adj. + that [ S + (should) + 原形 V] v.

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* 她父親堅持她要跟那人結婚。

Her father insisted that she (should) marry that man.

*此類 V.如:suggest, order, demand, command, insist, propose, ...

*其實只要有「命令」、「建議」、「要求」、「堅持」意味的字,不論是名詞、動詞、形 容詞,其所接子句中的動詞都該用原形、或 ”should + 原形 V”。

It is necessary that he take the exam. 他必須參加考試不可。 20. cannot ….. too… 越…越好;再…也不為過

* 交友要越小心越好。  We cannot be too careful in choosing friends. = You can never be over careful in choosing friends. = One can hardly be careful enough in choosing friends. 21. all all

both …… not … = not both …… 並不是…都…(只有部分否定哦) every every

* 人不都誠實。 比較:* 人都不誠實。 All men are not honest.   No man is honest.

= Not all men are honest.  = All men are dishonest. 22. that ….not + V

否定字 +… but …..+ V 沒有…不… without + O.

* 沒有人不愛自己的孩子。

There is no one but loves his own child . but 為「準關係代名詞」用法=that... not

= There is no one that does not love his own child .

= There is no one without loving his own child. = Everyone loves his own child. 23. to + V

not + Ving 不….. 不定詞、分詞、動名詞的否定都是在前面加 not pp.

* 他試著不再想她。 * 沒辦法幫他忙,我就離開了。

He tried not to think of her. Not being able to help him, I just left. 24. No + n. 禁止…;反對…;不准… Vin g * 非公莫入。 *禁止停車。        No admittance except on business.     No parking.

25. There is no + Ving 不可能…;沒有人能… = It is impossible + to V.

* 簡直不知道會發生什麼事。

There is no telling what may happen.

= There is no way of telling what may happen.

= It is impossible to tell what may happen. = No one can tell what may happen. 26. not only A but (also) B

不但 A 而且 B B 才是重點,所以動詞與 B 一致

= B as well as A

* 不但怪你,也怪你的朋友。 Not only you but also your friend is to blame. = Your friend as well as you is to blame. 27. not A but B 不是 A 而是 B

= B not A

* 我感興趣的不是化學,而是物理。

What I am interested in is not chemistry, but physics. = What I am interested in is physics, not chemistry.

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人 + be above + n.

* 她不屑發問。 She is above asking questions. 29. the last + n. 最不可能的…;再怎麼說也不會的… *他是最不可能出賣你的人。(他再怎麼說也不會出賣你) He will be the last person to betray you.

30. fail to + V 未能… never fail to + V 一定…;務必… = be unable to + V = V + without fail

* 他未能即時到達。 *我一定會守信。

He failed to arrive in time. I never fail to keep my word. = He was unable to arrive in time. = I keep my word without fail.

31. 一點也不……;絕不…

… not …at all = … in no way = … by no means = … not in the least = far from …= anything but …

* 那男孩一點也不用功。 The boy is not diligent at all. = The boy is far from diligent.

32. 很多…. much

+ 不可數名詞

many

+ 可數名詞

not a little not a few

no little no few

quite a little quite a few

a great deal of a great number of * 他有很多錢,但我有很多書。

He has much money, but I have many books.

= He has not a little money, but I have not a few books. = He has no little money, but I have no few books.

= He has quite a little money, but I have quite a few books.

= He has a great deal of money, but I have a great number of books. 33. It goes without saying that ….. 不用說都知道….

Needless to say, ……

* 不用說都知道誠實是最上策。

It goes without saying that honesty is the best policy. = Needless to say, honesty is the best policy.

34. 否定字詞放句首的倒裝句。 應按問句形式,倒裝助動詞或 be 動詞。 Never, No, Seldom, Little, Not, Nothing…

+ 助 V + S + V …..be + S …. Hardly, Rarely, Scarcely, …

By no means, Under no circumstances, …

* 他很少遲到。 * 我以前上學從不遲到。 * 我絕不會原諒他。

He is hardly late. I never went to school late. I will forgive him by no means. = Hardly is he late. = Never did I go to school late. = By no means will I forgive him.

35. So(也) 的倒裝句 注意以下兩句型意義不同。 So + 助 V + S …也是。 So + S + 助 V …的確…。 Be Be = S + Be助 V , too = Yes, S + 助 V Be * 你年輕,我也是。 比較:*A:聽說你做得很好。 B:的確是。 You are young, and so am I. A: I hear you did a good job. B: So we did. = You are young, and I am, too. = A: I hear you did a good job. B: Yes, we did. * 否定「也不」倒裝要用 neither。

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= You did not feed the fish, and neither did I. 用 neither 後面不要再有 not 36. as(像), than(比) 的倒裝句 …… as 助 V + S …… than 助 V + S be be = …… as + S Be助 V = …… than + S 助 Vbe * 他買的衣服和他太太的一樣多。

He has bought as many clothes as has his wife. = He has bought as many clothes as his wife (has). * 我們的教務主任比校長高。

Our director of studies is taller than is our principal. = Our director of studies is taller than our principal is. = Our director of studies is taller than our principal.

37. such (a. 如此的), so (adv. 如此地) 的倒裝句 如此…以致於…… S is such + that 子句as to V S is so adj. + that 子句as to V = Such is S + that 子句as to V = So adj. is S + that 子句as to V * 我的英文進步很大所以父母很高興。

My progress in English was such that it pleased my parents . = My progress in English was such as to please my parents. = Such was my progress in English that it pleased my parents . = Such was my progress in English as to please my parents. = My progress in English was so great that it pleased my parents . = My progress in English was so great as to please my parents. = So great was my progress in English that it pleased my parents . = So great was my progress in English as to please my parents.

38. Only 片語放句首的倒裝句。 應按問句形式,倒裝助動詞或 be 動詞。

Only ….. + 助 V + S + V …..be + S ….

* 我們只有靠著努力工作才能成功。 *只有當我們還活著,我們才能看到. We can succeed only by working hard.  We saw it only when we were early. = Only by working hard can we succeed. = Only when we are alive did we see it.

* 以下兩種倒裝,只要把 S 與 Vi 對調即可,不必用到助動詞 do(does, did)。 *

39. 地方副詞放句首的倒裝句。 只要把 S 與 Vi 對調即可,不必用到助動詞

do(does, did)。

地方副詞 + Vi + S(名詞) S(代名詞) + Vi V 需為不及物動詞 * 乞丐在大門口等。 * 她坐在櫃檯後面。

The beggar waited at the gate. She sat behind the counter. = At the gate waited the beggar. = Behind the counter she sat.

40. 主詞補詞放句首的倒裝句。 只要把 S 與 be 對調即可,不必用到助動詞

do(does, did)。

S + Vi +主詞補詞

= 主詞補詞 + be + S V 需為 be 動詞 (所以後面才有主詞補語) * 我的生活很空虛。 My life is empty.= Empty is my life.

* 我的狗躺在地上。My dog is lying on the ground. = Lying on the ground is my dog.

41. “It”做「虛受詞」

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S + Vt + it + 受詞補語 + that 子句 真受詞是後面這些。 wh 子句

* 我認為整天待在家對健康不好。

I think it bad for health to keep indoors all day.

= I think it bad for health that one keeps indoors all day.

= I think (that) it is bad for health to keep indoors all day. think 後亦可接 that 子句

= I think (that) it is bad for health that one keeps indoors all day. *此類動詞有 think, make, believe, find, consider, …等

42. …據說…;…聽說… People(They) say that S +V = I(We) hear = I’m(We’re) told = It is said = S + is said + to V

* 據說他從前很有錢。 People say that she was rich. = It is said that she was rich. = She is said to have been rich. 43. S 1 + V 連接詞 S 1+ V

= …..先行詞 + ( 關係代名詞 ) ….. 用關代連接兩句有一相同名詞的句子

* 我有一個做老師的叔叔。 * 我有一個我從未見過的叔叔。

I have an uncle, and he is a teacher. I have an uncle, and I have never seen him. = I have an uncle who is a teacher . = I have an uncle (whom) I have never seen . * 我有一個全家都在美國的叔叔。

I have an uncle, and his family are all in America = I have an uncle whose family are all in America.

44. 凡是…的人(們)……..。 Those (people) who 子句

+ 複數 V

He who 子句

+ 單數 V

They who 子句 One who 子句

People who 子句 Anyone who 子句

Such (people) as 子句 Whoever 子句 * 凡是有錢的人都不會缺乏朋友。

Those who have money do not want for friends. =Such as have money do not want for friends. =He who has money does not want for friends. =Whoever has money does not want for friends.

45. as 或 which 當關代,代替前面的片語或整個句子。 …片語 , as(which) …

…子句

As ..., …………. as 子句還可移到句首,which 子句不行 * 他是外國人,這是我從他的口音知道的。

He was a foreigner, as I knew from his accent. = He was a foreigner, which I knew from his accent. = As I knew from his accent, he was a foreigner, (= He was a foreigner, and I knew it from his accent.) 46. 準關係代名詞 but, as, than

1. 否定字 … + but 不完整子句 沒有…不…  but 有否定的意思 2. such

the same …+ as 不完整子句 …像…. as

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3. 比較級…+ than 不完整子句 …比… * 我們班沒有人不希望進大學。

In our class there is no one that does not hope to go to college. = In our class there is no one but hopes to go to college .

讓孩子們讀點使他們更好、更聰明的書。

Let children read those books which will make them better and wise. = Let children read such books as will make them better and wise. 結果產品供過於求。

As a result, there are more products than are required.

47. …像…一樣 …不像…一樣

as adj. as S + Vadv. not as[so] adj. as S + V adv. * 今天不像昨天一樣熱。

It is not as hot today as it was yesterday. 否定句中,第一個 as 可用 so 代 = It is not so hot today as it was yesterday.

(=It is not so[as] hot today as yesterday.) 48. …是最….

S + …比較級…+ than any other ….

No so … as

比較級…than

= never … + + S

can’t

* 生命是一切東西中最寶貴的 此句在英文中用原級、比較級、最高級都可造句哦!

Life is more precious than any other thing.(= Life is the most precious of all.) = Nothing is so precious as life.

= No other thing is more precious than life. 49. The 比較級 …, the 比較級….. 越…就越… * 他等得越久就越生氣。

The longer he waited, the angrier he became.

我們遭遇的挫折越多,我們的國家就越強大。

The more frustrations we encounter, the stronger our country becomes. 50. As …, so …. 正如…,…也一樣。

*怎樣播種,就會怎樣收成。(正如你播種,你也一樣地收成) As you sow, so you shall reap.

= As you sow, so shall you reap.

(= You must reap what you have sown.) 51. A 之於 B 猶如 C 之於 D。

A is to B aswhat C is to D

* 閱讀之於心靈,猶如食物之於身體。

Reading is to the mind as food is to the body. = Reading is to the mind what food is to the body. (= As food is to the body so is reading to the mind.) 52. … no more … than … 和…一樣不…(兩者皆非…)

… no less … than … 和…一樣…(兩者皆一樣…) * 她跟你一樣不用功。 * 你跟你母親一樣漂亮。

She is no more diligent than you. You are no less beautiful than your mother. = She is not diligent, nor are you. = You are as beautiful as your mother. = Neither she nor you are diligent. = Both you and your mother are beautiful. 53. 寧願...也不願...

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would rather

had sooner + V + than + V = prefer + n. Ving to n. Ving = prefer + to V + rather than + V * 我寧願站也不願坐。

I would rather stand than sit. = I would sooner stand than sit = I had sooner stand than sit.

= I had rather stand than sit = I prefer standing to sitting. = I prefer to stand rather than sit.

54. not so much A as B 與其說是 A 不如說是 B

* 人生的成功與其說是在於天才,不如說是在於勤奮。 Success in life depends not so much on talent as on diligence. 55. (是...的) 幾倍...

as + adj. ( + as B ) 看動詞決定用 adj.或 adv. A + V + 倍數 + adj.比較級 ( + than B )

the 名詞 ( + of B )

* 這條河是那條河的兩倍長。 This river is twice as long as that.

= This river is twice longer than that. = This river is twice the length of that. 56. know better + than to V 不會那麼傻到去做...

* 我不會蠢到去做那樣的事。

I know better than to do such a thing. (= I am not so foolish as to do such a thing.) 57. (Al)though S + V , S + V. 雖然...但是...

* 雖然他窮,但是很快樂。

Although(Though) he is poor, (yet) he is very happy.

= Although poor, he is very happy. 有 although 就不要有 but = He is poor, but he is very happy. 有 but 就不要有 although

58. 雖然...;儘管... Although + S + V , ~~.  For all  With all = In spite of   Despite  Notwithstanding + n. Ving., S + V . * 儘管她有錢,但是並不快樂。

Although she is wealthy, she is unhappy. = In spite of her wealth, she is unhappy.

59. A + 名詞  名詞單數時,冠詞要去掉。 形容詞 副詞 + as[though] S + V , ... 雖然...;儘管... 分詞 as, though 都是「雖然」的意思。 動詞原形 (1) 她雖是女流之輩,卻很有信心。

Although she is a woman, she has much confidence.

= Woman as she is, she has much confidence. 冠詞要去掉 (2) 看來難以置信,但卻是真的。

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Although it seems impossible, it is true. = Impossible though it seems, it is true.

(3) 即使他去試,他也不可能成功。

Although he may try, he can not succeed.

= Try as he may, he can not succeed. 甚至連動詞也可以移前

60. Wh-ever ..., S + V. 無論...(何時、何地、誰、什麼...),S +V。 =No matter wh- ..., S + V.

(1) 無論什麼時候去看他,都會發現他埋首書桌。

Whenever[=No matter when] we call on him, we will find him at his desk. (2) 不管做什麼,都要把它做好。

Whatever[=No matter what] you may do, do it well. (3) 不管你是誰的兒子,我一視同仁。

Whosever[=No matter whose] son you are, I can’t make an exception of you. 61. Whether ... A or B , ... 無論是 A 還是 B,...

(1) 無論晴雨,我都會在那裡。

Whether it may rain or shine, I will be there. (2) 無論他來不來,結果都會是一樣。

Whether he comes or not, the result will be the same.

62. 「雖然...;無論」還有以下兩種特殊句型 Although + S + V ... , ...  原形 V + S ... , ... Wh-ever + S + V ..., ...  原形 V + wh-ever + S ... , ... (1) 雖然家很簡陋,但還是沒有地方比家好。 (其實,此句型只看過此句) Although it is ever so humble, there is no place like home.

= Be it ever so humble, there is no place like home. (2) 不管你怎麼說,我都不相信。

Whatever you may say, I don’t believe it.

= Say what(ever) you may, I don’t believe it. 63. 直到...才...

S ... not V + until ...

= Not until ... + 助 V + S + V 倒裝句 = It is not until ... + that + S + V

* 直到十一點,我才睡著。

I didn’t fall asleep until (it was) eleven. = Not until (it was) eleven did I fall asleep.

= It was not until (it was) eleven that I fell asleep . 64. 一...就...

As soon as S + V , S + V

= The moment S + V , S + V 此處 moment 亦可用 minute, instant 代替 = Once S + V , S + V 此處 once 亦可用 directly, immediately, instantly 代替

= On + Ving, S + V 前後主詞相同時 = At + n. , S + V 前後主詞相同時 * 一聽到這消息,他就高興得發了狂。

As soon as he heard the news, he was beside himself with joy. = The moment he heard the news, he was beside himself with joy. = The instant he heard the news, he was beside himself with joy. = Once he heard the news, he was beside himself with joy. = Directly he heard the news, he was beside himself with joy. = On hearing the news, he was beside himself with joy.

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= At the news, he was beside himself with joy. 65. 一...就... 注意此句型只用在過去式中

As soon as S + V , S + V

= S + had scarcelyhardly pp beforewhen S + V

= S + had no sooner pp than S + V 比較級 sooner 後面連接詞用 than

= No sooner + had + S + pp than S + V 倒裝句 * 陣雨一過,天空就出現美麗的彩虹了。

As soon as the shower passed, a beautiful rainbow appeared in the sky.

= The shower had hardly passed before a beautiful rainbow appeared in the sky. = The shower had no sooner passed than a beautiful rainbow appeared in the sky. = No sooner had the shower passed than a beautiful rainbow appeared in the sky. 66. 自從...已有(一段時間)

It is has been 一段時間 since S + Ved. = 一段時間 have passed since S + Ved. * 我畢業已經有三年了。

It is[has been] three years since I graduated from school. = Three years have passed since I graduated from school. 67. ...目的是為了...

so that

S + V in order that S may V 表目的的「連接詞」 that

so as to

= S + V in order to + V 表目的的「不定詞」 to

with a view to

= S + V for the sake of + n.[Ving] 表目的的「介係詞」 with the aim of

* 我們努力用功目的是為了要有所成就。 We study hard so that we may succeed. = We study hard that we may succeed. = We study hard so as to succeed. = We study hard to succeed.

= We study hard for the sake of success.

68. ...目的是為了不要...;以免...;唯恐... lest

S + V for fear that S (should) + 原型 V in case that

= S + V for fear of + Ving. * 不要常去那兒,以免招來閒話。

Don’t go there often lest you (should) get yourself talked about.

= Don’t go there often for fear that you (should) get yourself talked about. = Don’t go there often for fear of getting yourself talked about.

(= Don’t go there often in order not to get yourself talked about.)

69. 如此...以至於...

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as to V such + ( a ) + ( adj ) + n.

* 他很誠實所以大家都相信他。

He is so honest a man that he is trusted by all. = He is so honest a man as to be trusted by all. = He is so honest that he is trusted by all. = He is so honest as to be trusted by all.

= He is such an honest man that he is trusted by all. = He is such an honest man as to be trusted by all. 70. 一則因為 A,再則因為 B,...

What with A and (what with) B

* 一方面因為餓,再一方面因為累,他因而倒在路上。

What with hunger and (what with) fatigue, he fell down on the road. 71. 當「介係詞」的 to: 以下的 to 都是介係詞 (後面要接 n.或 Ving)

反對: object to + Ving = be opposed to + Ving 習慣於:be used to + Ving = be accustomed to + Ving 考慮:give thought to + Ving

喜歡:take to + Ving

盼望;期待:look forward to + Ving

專心;致力於:be devoted to + Ving = devote oneself to + Ving = be dedicated to + Ving = dedicate oneself to + Ving = apply oneself to + Ving

要不要...?:What do you say to + Ving ? ....目的為了:.... with a view to + Ving 因為:owing to + Ving = due to + Ving 72. used to + V 過去經常...

= would + V

be used to + n.Ving 習慣於... = be accustomed to + n. Ving

be used to + V 被用來... = be used for + Ving

(1) 他過去經常熬夜。

He used to sit up late. = He would sit up late. (2) 他已習慣於過這種生活。

He is used to living such a life. = He is used to such a life.

= He is accustomed to living such a life. = He is accustomed to such a life.

(3) 碎石常用來築路。

Gravel is much used to make roads. = Gravel is much used for making roads. 73. 以下為後面常接 Ving 當受詞的動詞:

喜愛:enjoy + Ving 練習:practice + Ving 完成:finish + Ving 介意:mind + Ving 放棄:give up + Ving 保持:keep + Ving 期待:anticipate + Ving ( = expect + to V) 避免:avoid + Ving 建議:suggest + Ving 冒險:risk + Ving

忍住;抵抗:resist + Ving 承認:admit + Ving

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忍受:stand + Ving 原諒:excuse + Ving 否認:deny + Ving 考慮:consider + Ving 記得:recall + Ving 延擱:delay + Ving 錯過:miss + Ving 感激:appreciate + Ving 想要:feel like + Ving

74. need, want, deserve 後面接 Ving 表示被動

需要被.... S + need + Ving = S + need + to be pp. = S + need + n. 需要被.... S + want + Ving = S + want + to be pp. = S + want + n. 值得被.... S + deserve + Ving = S + deserve + to be pp. = S + deserve + n. * 我們的學校需要改善。 Our school needs improving. = Our school needs to be improved. = Our school needs improvement.

75. 值得...

S + be + worth Ving n.

= S + be + worthy of being pp. to be pp. = It is worth while Ving to V

= It pays + to V * 這本書值得買。

This book is worth buying.

= This book is worthy of being bought. = This book is worthy to be bought. = It is worth while to buy this book. = It pays to read this book.

* worth 和 busy 是罕見的兩個後面要加 Ving 的形容詞。如:He is busy reading. 76. difficulty

trouble

have fun + (in) + Ving pleasure

a good(hard) time * 我好不容易才找到你的家。

I had a hard time (in) finding your home. 77. go Ving 去從事某活動 some do the Ving 做某件工作 a lot of much * 我們去游泳吧。

Let’s go swimming. (= Let’s go for a swim.) * 我自己做飯。

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7

8. 以下為後面常接 to V 當受詞的動詞: 要:want + to V 需要:need + to V 希望:hope + to V 但願:wish + to V 幫忙:help + to V 學習:learn + to V 決定 decide + to V 想要:would like + to V

害怕:fear + to V 提議:offer + to V 同意:agree + to V 意欲:mean + to V 拒絕:refuse + to V 設法:manage + to V

假裝:pretend + to V 承諾:promise + to V 下決心:determine + to V 嘗試:attempt + to V 努力:endeavor + to V 期待:expect + to V 7

9.

以下為後面接 to V 或 Ving 當受詞皆可的動詞:

開始:begin + to V, begin + Ving 開始:start + to V, start + Ving , 喜歡:like + to V, like + Ving, 喜愛:love + to V, love + Ving, 討厭:hate + to V, hate + Ving, 計劃:plan + to V, plan + Ving, 比較喜歡:prefer + to V, prefer + Ving, 害怕:dread + to V, dread + Ving,

打算:intend + to V, intend + Ving 停止:cease + to V, cease + Ving, 80. 以下為後面接 to V 或 Ving 當受詞意義不同的動詞:

stop + to V 停下來,去做...

stop + Ving 停止(做...) remember + to V 記得要去做.... remember + Ving 記得曾做過.... forget + to V 忘記要去做....

forget + Ving 忘記曾做過.... try + to V (努力)試著去做好.... try + Ving 做...試看看有沒有效 go on + to V 接著去做(不同的事) go on + Ving 繼續做(同一件事) regret + to V 抱歉將要去... regret + Ving 後悔曾... 人 mean + to V 某人打算... 事物 mean + Ving 某物的意義是.... 人 need + to V 某人需要去... 物 need + Ving 某物需要被... 81. 突然...起來

burst out + Ving = burst into + n.

* 她突然哭了起來。 * 她突然笑了起來。 She burst out crying. She burst out laughing.

= She burst into tears. = She burst into laughter. 82. ...沒有用;...有什麼用呢?

It is (of) no use + to V Ving = It is no good + Ving = It is useless + to V use

= There is no good in + Ving point

use

= What is the good of + Ving? point

* 說也沒用。

It is (of) no use talking. = It is (of) no use to talk. = It is no good talking. = It is useless to talk.

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83. 動詞做句子的主詞 動詞要改成 To V 或 Ving To V ... + V(單數) ...

Ving ...

* 早睡早起有益健康。

To keep early hours is good for health. = Keeping early hours is good for health. 84. too adj.

adv. to Vfor + O. 太...而不... adj.adv. enough ...(to V) 夠...所以會... * 他太年輕無法承擔這工作。

He is too young to do the task.

= He is too young for the task. (= He is so young that he can not do the task.) * 他很聰明所以會知道那件事。

He is wise enough to know that. 85. to V 的動作發生的時間

S + V ... + to V. 兩個動作同時發生 S + V ... + to have pp. 不定詞動作發生在先 * 他似乎現在很有錢。

He seems to be rich. (= It seems that he is rich.) * 他似乎過去很有錢。

He seems to have been rich. (= It seems that he was rich.) 86. 更不要說...;何況... S + V ..., to say nothing of ... not to mention ... not to speak of ... let alone ... * 他連英語都會講,更不要說中文了。

He can speak English, to say nothing of Mandarin. = He can speak English, not to mention Mandarin. = He can speak English, not to speak of Mandarin. = He can speak English, let alone Mandarin.

87. do nothing but + 原形 V 只...(動作)  but 可換成 except * 他只是笑。

He does nothing but laugh. (= He does not do anything but laugh.)

*假如前面的動詞不是 do,nothing but 要看成等於 only,由該動詞決定後面形式。

如:He enjoys nothing but eating. 他只喜歡吃。 Enjoy + Ving

88. 不得不...;忍不住... can’t help + Ving

but

= can’t help but + V choose but

= have no choice but + to V = have no alternative but + to V * 我不得不做。

I can’t help doing it.

= I can’t help but do it. = I can’t but do it. = I have no choice but to do it.

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89. 即將...;正要... be going to + V = be about to + V = be to + V

= be on the point of Ving n.  point 可換成 verge, edge, brink, eve * 人之將死,其言也善。

When a man is going to die, his words are good.

= When a man is about to breathe his last, his words are nice. = When a man is on the point of death, his words are gracious. 90. 你只要...就可以了。

All (that) you have to do is + V all 後面可以有關代 that = What you have to do is + V what 後面不可以再有 that = The only thing (that) you have to do is + V

= You have only to V. * 你只要盡力而為就行了。

All you have to do is do your best. = What you have to do is do your best.

= The only thing you have to do is do your best. = You have only to do your best. 91. 當形容詞用的現在分詞 Ving 有主動、正在、令人…...的意思。

當形容詞用的過去分詞 pp. 有被動、已經、感到……的意思。

*我不會照顧正在哭的嬰兒。 I can’t take care of a crying baby.  主動正在哭的 我父親是一位退休的將軍。My father is a retired general.  已經退休的 這是一項令人振奮的消息。This is a piece of exciting news.  令人振奮的 激動的暴民縱火燒大樓。 The excited mob set fire to the building.  感到激動的 口語英文比較難。 Spoken English is more difficult 被說的

92. 1. n. + 形容詞子句 子句中動詞為主動時 可改成 n. + Ving 片語

2. n. + 形容詞子句 子句中動詞為被動時 可改成 n. + pp.片語

* 那本屬於他的書不見了。 * 藏在書裡的郵票不見了。

The book which belongs to him is lost. The stamp which is hidden in the book is gone.

= The book belonging to him is lost. = The stamp hidden in the book is gone. 93. S + 來往站坐 V + 分詞  分詞當主詞補語用

* 他跑著來。 他們鎩羽而歸。

He came running. They returned defeated. *來往動詞包含 come, go, start, return, …等

站坐動詞包含 stand, sit, stay, remain, rest, …等 94. S + 感官 V+ O. + 原形 V  一般主動 Ving  強調正在進行的主動 pp.  被動 * 我看見他走進了醫院。 * 他走進醫院的時候被我看到。 I saw him enter the hospital. I saw him entering the hospital. * 我看見他被送進了醫院。

I saw him sent to hospital. 95. 使役動詞:

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強迫…

命令… S + makehave + O. + pp.  被動 原形 V  主動 要求… S + get + O. + pp.  被動 to V  主動 允許… S + let + O. + be pp.  被動 原形 V  主動 * 我強迫他做。 I make him do it.

* 我無法使別人懂我的意思。I can’t make myself understood. * 我會叫他去做。 I will have him do it.

* 我把我的作文拿去給老師改。 I had my composition corrected by our teacher. * 我找 ( 叫 ) 他來做。 I get him to do it.

* 我會叫人做這件事。 I will get the job done. * 我讓(同意)他去做。 I let him do it.

* 請別讓這本書出版。 Please don’t let the book be published. 96. find leave + O. + keep Ving 主動 pp. 被動 adj.

* 他發現狗被殺了。 He found his dog killed.

* 很抱歉讓你久等了。 I’m sorry I have kept you waiting so long. * 我把雨傘留在公車上。 I left my umbrella on the bus.

97. S + V, with + O. + Ving 主動 pp. 被動 adj. prep 片語 with 表示「同時;因為…等」 * 他站在那裡,口水直流。 He stood there, with his mouth watering.

* 翹著腳,John 開始唸書。 With his legs crossed, John started to read. * 眼裡充滿著淚,他笑了。 He laughed, with his eyes full of tears.

* 兒子在學校,我才能去看電影。With the boys in school, I could go to the movies. 98. 分詞構句:

副詞子句, S + V.

= 分詞構句, S + V. 主動用 Ving, 被動用 pp. * 看到電動玩具時,他高興得叫了起來。

When he saw the video machine, he exclaimed with joy.

= (When) Seeing the video machine, he exclaimed with joy. 意思清楚時,連接詞可 省。

* 被噪音吵醒,他就睡不著了。

After he was awakened by the noise, he couldn't fall asleep again.

= (After) awakened by the noise, he couldn't fall asleep again.意思清楚時,連接詞可 省。

注意以下特殊情況: (因為分詞構句中, being 常被省略) * 雖然很餓,我們還是往前走。

Though we were hungry, we still walked on.

= (Though) (being) hungry, we still walked on. being 若省略,就只剩下形容詞 哦。.

* 雖然只是小孩子,他並不害怕。

Though he was a little boy, he wasn't afraid

= (Though) (being) a little boy, he wasn't afraid being 若也省略,就只剩下名詞 哦。.

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99. 分詞構句表「接續動作」的變化句型 S1 + V and S1 + V.

= S1 + V, 分詞構句 主動用 Ving, 被動用 pp. * 她嚇呆了,都不知道該怎麼辦。

She stood amazed, and (she) did not know what to do. = She stood amazed, not knowing what to do.

100. 分詞構句表「附帶狀況」的變化句型 亦即所謂「獨立分詞構句」 S1 + V and S2 + V.

= S1 + V , S2 分詞構句 分詞構句主動用 Ving, 被動用 pp. = S1 + V , with S2 分詞構句 分詞構句主動用 Ving, 被動用 pp. * 老師站在黑板前,雙臂交叉。

The teacher stood in front of the blackboard, and his arms were folded. = The teacher stood in front of the blackboard, his arms folded.

= The teacher stood in front of the blackboard, with his arms folded. = The teacher stood in front of the blackboard, and (he) folded his arms. = The teacher stood in front of the blackboard, folding his arms.

101. 獨立分詞構句:

Conj S1 + V, S2 + V.

= S1 + 分詞, S2 + V. 前後 S 不同,仍都留下。分詞主動用 Ving, 被動用 pp. * 雖然旅館客滿,我們還是設法弄到一個房間。

Though the hotel was crowded, we managed to find a room.

= The hotel crowded, we managed to find a room. 兩句主詞不同時,主詞還是留下。

102. 1. S + may[might] well + V 有理由...;難怪... 2. S + may[might] as well + V 最好...;不如...較好

3. S + may as well A as B 與其 B 不如 A S + might as well A as B 做 B 等於做 A * 難怪你這麼說。

You may well say so. = You might well say so.

(= You have good reasons to say so. = No wonder you say so.) * 你最好不要鬼混了。

You may as well not fool around. = You might as well not fool around. (= You had better not fool around.)

* 凡事知之不盡不如不知。

One may as well not know a thing at all as know it imperfectly. * 你借錢給他等於丟到海裡。

You might as well throw your money into the sea as lend it to him. 103. 下列助動詞後接原形 V 或 have pp.意思不同:

should V 現在應該 (should = ought to)

should have pp. 過去應該做而未做的事 He should do that.He should have done that. can(not) V 現在疑問或否定推測

can(not) have pp.過去疑問或否定推測 could have pp. 過去能做而未做的事

Can he do that?

He can’t have done that.

He could have done that.(but he didn’t) must V 現在極肯定推測

must have pp. 過去肯定推測 He must be tired.He must have done that. may V 現在可能

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might V 現在可能

might have pp. 過去本來可能....(但並未 發生)

He might do that.

He might have done that.(but he didn’t) didn’t need to V 過去不必做....(但不知

做了沒)

needn’t have pp. 過去可以不必做....(但 卻做了)

He didn’t need to do that.

He needn’t have done that.(but he did.)

104. 「穿衣服」的用法

1.(動作)穿上... 人 put on 衣服 2.(狀態)穿著... 人 wear 衣服

= 人 dress oneself + in 衣服 (dress vt. = clothe vt.) = 人 be dressed + in 衣服

= 人 be + in 衣服 = 人 have 衣服 on

* 衣服穿上跟我走。 Put on your clothes and come with me. * 她總是穿著綠色衣服。 She always wears green.

= She always dresses herself in green. = She is always dressed in green. = She is always in green.

= She always has green on. 105. 「花時間」的用法

人 spend 時間 + (in) Ving. spend 一定是人當主詞,後面用 Ving = 人 take 時間 + to V.

= It take (人) 時間 + to V. take 後面一定用 to V = 事 take (人) 時間

* 我花了三天寫了這封信。

I spent three days (in) writing this letter. = I took three days to write this letter. = It took me three days to write this letter. = This letter took me three days.

106. 「花金錢」的用法

人 spend 金錢 + on 物(in) Ving. = It cost (人) 金錢 + to V

= 事 cost (人) 金錢 cost 一定指花錢 * 我花了一百元買了這本書。

I spent one hundred dollars on this book.

= It cost me one hundred dollars to buy this book. = This book cost me one hundred dollars.

107. very + adj. 非常...的 = all + 抽象 n. = 抽象 n. + itself * 我們非常快樂。 We are very happy.

= We are all happiness. = We are happiness itself.

108. 表「天氣」、「時間」、「距離」,主詞要用 It * 夜裡下大雨。 It rained heavily during the night. = There was a heavy rain during the night. = We had a heavy rain during the night.

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* 距離車站有兩里路。 It is two miles to the station. 109. It is + 非指人 adj. + for 人 + to V. adj.描寫事

It is + 褒貶人 adj. + of 人 + to V. adj.描寫人 * 你必須幫他的忙。 是事情必要,不是人必要

It is necessary for you to help him. (= It is necessary that you should help him.) * 你真是不智接受的他的提議。 笨的是人,不是事情

It is unwise of you to accept his offer. ( = You are unwise to accept his offer.) 「非指人 adj.」指 necessary, important, possible, difficult, hard, easy, convenient,

dangerous 等

「褒貶人 adj.」指 kind, cruel, generous, careful, careless, polite, rude, wise, foolish 等

110. It 的強調句型 主詞

It is 受詞 + that 子句 副詞

* 昨天打他的是我。 It was I that hit him yesterday. * 我昨天打的是他。 It was he that I hit yesterday. *

我打他是在昨天。 It was yesterday that I hit him.

111. 前者...後者... The former ... the latter ... That ... this ... * 他有一貓一狗,貓很怕狗。

He has a cat and a dog; the former is afraid of the latter. = He has a cat and a dog; that is afraid of this.

112. 一個...,另一個... 1. 只有兩個時:

one ...., and the other .... (一個…,剩下另一個…) 2. 有三個以上,與第一個不同的另一個時:

one ...., and another .... (一個…,另一個…) 3. 有三個時:

one ...., and another ..., and the other .... (一個…,另一個…,剩下另一個) 4. 有三個以上時:

one ...., and the others .... (一個…,剩下所有的…)

(1) 他有兩隻狗,一黑一白。 He has two dogs; one is black and the other white. (2) 知是一回事,行是另一回事。 To know is one thing, and to do is another. (3) 一個是美國人,另一個是日本人,剩下最後一個是台灣人。

One is American, and another Japanese, and the other Taiwanese. (4) 一個很胖,其餘的都很瘦。

One is fat, and the others are thin.

113. that, those 代替該句前面提到的名詞,避免重複 (1) 台北的氣候比高雄多變。

The climate of Taipei is more changeable than that of Kaohsiung. (2) 台灣中部的學生比北部用功。

數據

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參考文獻

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