The Relationship between Acculturation and Psychological Well-being with Stress as the Moderator: A Study of Indian Women in Taiwan

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(1)The Relationship between Acculturation and Psychological Well-being with Stress as the Moderator: A Study of Indian Women in Taiwan. by Swapna Vedulla A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate Faculty in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION. Advisor: Wei- Wen Chang, Ph. D.. Graduate Institute of International Human Resource Development National Taiwan Normal University Taipei, Taiwan July, 2019.

(2) ABSTRACT An international women residing abroad is a difficult undertaking, wherein stress, wellbeing and acculturation are almost always an essential part of their experience. Particularly, the women of any Indian individuals have very challenging believes and values when come in contact with people of different countries. Besides adjusting to a new physical environment, individuals must also need to make psychological adjustments. In the present study, we seasoned theoretically and empirically, the connection between acculturation and psychological well-being (PWB) of an Indian women residing in Taiwan using the moderating effect of an acculturative stress (AS). Survey data from 163 valid Indian women sample were subjected to path analyses. The quantitative study was commenced by designing the questionnaire in order to cover certain aspects like safety, loneliness, stress, racial discriminations, psychological adjustments, well-being etc. And, the analysis for the obtained data was done by using SPSS, and SPSS AMOS statistics software. The obtained results revealed that, hypotheses 1 and 2 were fully supported to this study. In detail, CA and PWB were positive and significantly correlated towards each other. On the other hand, CA and AS had a significantly negative correlation towards each other However, Acculturative Stress doesn’t have any significant negative moderating effect on the relationship between acculturation and Psychological well-being. Thus, hypothesis 3 was not supported to the study. The study findings could be used as references for Taiwan government agencies to address and find better resolutions to the Indian women residing in Taiwan. On the other hand, for Indian women, it provides a better awareness and confidence to adopt any kind of circumstances. The Implications for the proposed theory, designed research, and the experienced practices are also discussed. Keywords: Indian women, acculturation, psychological well-being, acculturative stress.. I.

(3) TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT------------------------------------------------------------------------------- I TABLE OF CONTENTS--------------------------------------------------------------- II LIST OF TABLES---------------------------------------------------------------------- III LIST OF FIGURES--------------------------------------------------------------------- IV CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION------------------------------------------------------ 1 Research Background----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2 Statement of the Problem------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3 Research Purpose and Questions---------------------------------------------------------------------- 4 Significance of the Study------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5 Definitions of the Term--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5. CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW-----------------------------------------------------7 History of Indian Immigration to Taiwan------------------------------------------------------------ 8 Indian Women Immigration-------------------------------------------------------------------------- - 8 Acculturation-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 10 Psychological Well-Being----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 11 Acculturative Stress------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 12 Relationship between the Variables------------------------------------------------------------------ 13. CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY---------------------------------------- 17 Research Framework----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 17 Research Approach------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 17 Research Hypothesis----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 18 Research Procedure------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 18 Sample Population-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 19 Research Instrument------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 20 Data Collection------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 21 Data Analysis-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 22. II.

(4) Reliability Analysis------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 23. CHAPTER IV FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS--------------------------------- 25 Descriptive Analysis------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 25 Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA)---------------------------------------------------------------- 32 Pearson’s Correlation Analysis----------------------------------------------------------------------- 37 Hierarchical Regression Analyses-------------------------------------------------------------------- 38 Discussions---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 42. CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS-------------------------- 44 Conclusion----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 44 Implications---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 46 Research Limitations------------------------------------------------------------------------------------47 Suggestions for Future Research---------------------------------------------------------------------- 48. REFERENCES-------------------------------------------------------------------------- 49 APPENDIX QUESTIONNAIRE----------------------------------------------------- 57. III.

(5) LIST OF TABLES Table.3.1. Reliability Analysis of Each Variable---------------------------------------------------24 Table.4.1. Demographic Characteristics of the Sample-------------------------------------------Error! Bookmark not defined. Table 4.2. Descriptive Statistics for the Acculturation---------------------------------------------28 Table 4.3. Descriptive Statistics for the Psychological Well-Being------------------------------30 Table 4.4. Descriptive Statistics for the Acculturative Stress-------------------------------------30 Table.4.5. Reliability Analysis of Each Variable--------------------------------------------------Error! Bookmark not defined. Table 4.6. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Acculturation----------------------------------------34 Table 4.7. Model Fit Summary- Acculuration------------------------------------------------------Error! Bookmark not defined. Table 4.8 Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Psychological Well-Being--------------------------36 Table 4.9. Model Fit Summary -Psychological Well-Being--------------------------------------Error! Bookmark not defined. Table.4.10. Pearson Correlation Matrix among the Variables-----------------------------------Error! Bookmark not defined. Table 4.11.Summary of Hierarchical Regression Analyses for Moderating Effect of Acculturative Stress on the Acculturation and Psychological Well-Being---------------------Error! Bookmark not defined. Table.4.12. Independent T-test Analysis-------------------------------------------------------------39 Table.4.13. One-way ANOVA ------------------------------------------------------------------------40 Table.4.14. Statistic Results of Research Hypotheses----------------------------------------------41. IV.

(6) LIST OF FIGURES Figure 3.1. Research framework .................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined. Figure 3.2. Research procedure ................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. Figure 4.1. Confirmatory factor analysis model of acculturation . Error! Bookmark not defined. Figure 4.2. Confirmatory factor analysis model of psychological well-beingError! not defined.. V. Bookmark.

(7) CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION In this introduction section the researcher tries to discuss with the research background, the study purpose, sampling questions and the study significance. And also, it deals with the definitions of key terms to enhance the value of the study. The tremendous growth of the world wide immigrants to Taiwan, has led to increased interest to study the situations and circumstances faced after immigrating to the new country Taiwan. But here, the researchers wanted to examine the Indian immigrant women opinion rather than men, because, the belief and value of any Indian individuals particularly for women are very challenging when come in contact with people of different countries. Although, the social relations and social support are quiet essential for male and female migrants as well. It had found in recent research that the impact of social relations and societal support may be mainly critical for the adjusting capability of female migrants than men. For example, a study of emigrant women in Japan revealed the fact that women who build an optimistic attitudes and who are supportive to their boss from Japanese origin, their coworkers, underlings and customers were ominously better attuned to the host country (Nobel, Taylor, & Napier, 1996). From the perspective of non-work individuals, there is mere evidence that any single women report lesser cross-cultural adjustment compared to committed women and lacks a supportive family unit (Caligiuri, Joshi, & Lazarova, 1999) and also faces some difficulties in making friends on international projects (Westwood & Leung, 1994). Thus, it is obvious that societal interaction and the support from the society are quiet important for female emigrants in both work and non-work contexts (Caligiuri et al., 1999). The participants in this study were mostly female students, working women and house wives. The situations will also be being faced by students who move in a new institute for their additional studies in a foreign country. They need to adjust not only to the new atmosphere in that specific country, but also, to the traditions, religion, society and food, that result as an array. The new life environments can carry numerous tasks to the students predominantly, when they are living far for the first time from their home. Being far away from their family they need to live on without any supportive arrangement that they had in their own surroundings, which can be the reason to pose to danger in the form of stress. They also experience new stresses especially with the high expectations of performance and doing well in their academic activities from their family members and sponsors as well in the fresh education structure. As per Sandhu and Asrabadi (1994), moving 1.

(8) from their native place to a new place may result in internal stress and feels like homesickness, missing their family, and friends. These are the common indications usually convey by the foreign students. All though, it takes lot of time to get adapt and to get adjust to the new environments, success for these kind of students comes in through their ability to adjust well to the institution and the ability to adapt and cope with the psychological stress. Thus, when moving to a new country, the first and foremost the students need to be become habituated with the new atmospheres, people and to be familiar with the new culture and social life in the new place (Azizah Rajab et al., 2014). Research Background As the island country of Taiwan having a population of 23 million is keen on firming up the relations with India in the fields of trade, education, tourism, business and culture. The long term Indian residents in Taiwan are being increasing year by year. According to small community which is called “Indians in Taiwan” and official immigration figures, it was figured that as of April 2013, there are about 1, 900 Indian residents in Taiwan were joined that community which includes around 200 families. According to official immigration figures. National. Immigration. Agency,. Taiwan. (2017). (https://www.immigration.. gov.tw/mp.asp? mp=2), as of August 2017, there were around 2,725 Indian residents in Taiwan out of which 1960 were men and 765 were women. This number may increase further year by year as the relations between these two countries are becoming strong ahead. Among them, the women who became resident of Taiwan were in different ways like depending upon spouse, education purpose and business or job purpose. The belief and value of any Indian individuals particularly for women are very challenging when come in contact with people of different countries. For instance, Taiwanese would often ask Indians why they eat with hand, why Indian women had spots [bindis] on their forehead and about the hot and spicy food etc. These kinds of questions from Taiwanese provide the scope for cultural exchange aspects between both Taiwanese and Indians. To understand the difficulties for this process of cultural exchanging aspects and to see the sights of the rich diversity of know-hows within the immigrant residents of Taiwan in a healthy manner and for better understanding, three interrelating variables which may show us the clear picture about the life-style of Indian women in Taiwan were chosen, analyzed and examined in this study. The first one is ‘Acculturation’ 2.

(9) which mainly focusing on the capability of the Indian women life-style, to adopt and adjust in Taiwan. The second thing is the ‘stress’ in which, the managing ability of the stress (due to loneliness, work pressure, cultural disputes etc.) was covered. And the third thing is ‘Psychological well-being’ which is also focusing on the psychological adjustments and societal relations of Indian women with Taiwanese. From the literature review, it was evident that there was a vast research had been progressed involving these three variables particularly when we talk about a process of change between the new country and the native country. The change may deal with the aspects like women issues, student issues, issues of business men etc. between host and home countries. For instance, Samuel (2009) made an investigation on the effect of relocation and immigration on women belonging to Hindu residing in Atlantic Canada. In this investigation, the beliefs, culture and values of the participants were tested as probes to undergo stress in the immigration and relocation process. (Jibeen, 2011) made a longitudinal study which is useful to establish underlying relationship between acculturative stress and psychological distress by taking 308 Pakistani immigrants sample who are residing in the area of greater Toronto, Canada. (Pahr-Hosbach, 2014) made a research on dietary acculturation of first generation Indian migrants in Singapore. Thus, this research study targets to examine the factors that influence the life of Indian women in Taiwan.. Statement of the Problem Day by day, the inflow rate of foreigners to Taiwan for different purposes like education, business, and employment have been raising. The efforts to build careers in the overseas for a woman was highly influenced by her life. The women expatriates either working or non-working and who are married or unmarried, must receive some social support to cope up their ability towards acculturation and psychological wellbeing. For this, certain measurements need to be taken by them to suppress their acculturative stress. From the existing literature, some relative studies had been done. But, it mainly narrows its study focusing on the women who are intended to work in overseas (Tzeng, 2006). Herein, in this study, we tried to address the issues for all categories of women like students, house wives etc., who should face insight experiences when residing in the host countries by examining their lifestyle. However, the researcher focused this study only referring to Indian women. Because, the literature survey revealed the facts that there are many research studies were 3.

(10) focused on Indian immigrants in different host countries like Canada, U.S., Singapore etc. with different issues. But, the research dealing between the native country India and the hosted country Taiwan were very few. One example is Ambre (2010) which discussed the issues of Indian doctoral students in Taiwan. Moreover, the studies discussed Indian women in Taiwan were also limited. Through the literature review, very fewer studies have done the research on the issues of Indian women residing in Taiwan. Hence, the possibility to get the information about Taiwan to the Indian women is also limited. With the lack of information, it is hard to understand the culture and situations in Taiwan which would affect the communication and life improvement for the Indian women to reside in Taiwan. This is the reason which paved the way for this research study to focus on the issues of Indian women in Taiwan. Thus, this study was mainly focused on how the Indian women expatriates reconcile their conflicts against acculturative stress which leads a path to build an acculturating ability for their psychological wellbeing.. Research Purpose and Questions The purpose of this research is to know the circumstances facing by the Indian women based on their internal feelings and experiences of their life in Taiwan, mainly on certain aspects like safety, loneliness, stress, racial discriminations, psychological adjustments, wellbeing etc. Apart from these, this study also wants to examine the demographical issues like, language barriers, children health and education, acculturative issues like climate adjustments, food, and also researcher wants to examine the stress level of the International women according to their recent feelings and thoughts during their stay in Taiwan. According to the study purposes the following questions were formulated: 1.. Is the Acculturation positively correlated to the psychological well-being?. 2.. Is the Acculturation negatively correlated to the acculturative stress?. 3.. Does the acculturative stress moderate the relationship between the acculturation and psychological well-being?. 4.

(11) Significance of the Study Cultures and traditions are varying from country to country. After arriving to the foreign country, one may face so many challenges like cultural issues, food, climate, language, etc. Hence this study is made to understand the ambiguity situations and circumstances facing by the Indian women in Taiwan. Also, this research can afford an information to cultivate the design to enable the amalgamation of Indian women in Taiwan. Additionally, this research can find the roots to explore these ambiguities of Indian women and might be able to be treat in according way as per their Indian cultural attitude. This study also sheds a light to examine and value the moderators of stress which provides a path to identify and better understand the extent of other relating variables like acculturation and well-being towards its positive and negative effects. Therefore, objective of this study is to provide more information, and to know more in depth about the actual situations of Indian women residing in Taiwan. According to the results, suggestions will be made regarding how to assist them to make required variations to increase their well-being and to reduce stress.. Definitions of the Terms Acculturation “Acculturation is defined as an adaptive process of cultural adjustment from direct contact with and interaction between distinct cultural groups” (Mena, Padilla, Maldonado, 1987; Berry, 1997 as cited in Kankipati, 2012, p.10).. Psychological Well-Being According to Ryff (1989) “the psychological well-being is composed by six constituents, which included self-acceptance, positive relationships with others, autonomy, a sense of purpose in life, personal growth, and environmental mastery”.. Acculturative Stress Acculturative Stress is often defined as an outcome which arises due internal or external pressures and results physical and psychological deformities. Research has linked stress to more diseases than any other bio psychological factor. In particular, stress has been related to the. 5.

(12) spreading out of general diseases relating to the heart, physical and psychological diseases (Moksnes & Espnes, 2016). 6.

(13) CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW The major goal of this section is to review, evaluate and summarize the literature and theories that are relevant to firstly, History of Indian Immigration to Taiwan and Indian women immigration literature. Secondly, a clear understanding on the variables chosen for our study, the literature relevant to acculturation, psychological well-being, and acculturative stress was reviewed. Also, through this literature review, the relationship among the variables chosen for the study had been emphasized. Internationals face different challenges when arrived to new countries to adjust and adopt the new environment. The conditions to adopt the problems vary from country to country of depending on their origin, ethnicity and race, proficiency in language, and climate conditions. And no matter an international arrived from either an individualist cultures or a collectivist cultures cultures (Constantine, Anderson, Berkel, Caldwell, & Utsey, 2005; Surdam & Collins, 1984). The adjustment challenges to be faced by the internationals may include 1) living accommodations, food and other daily life essential items, and getting authentic and perfect documentation works for their residence purpose; 2) adaptation to the academic culture by learning how to interact with faculty and other co-students, and diverse modes of teaching; and 3) showing interest in making new friends and developing a new social network system to support each other. All these challenges happened during their transition in the beginning and may even continue for long period. Moreover, some internationals may come across some hurdles like language proficiency, discrimination experiences, group heterogeneity which are to be overcome. The psychological well-being of an internationals may be impacted by the adjustments of these kind of experiences (Sam, 2006). The major goal of this section is to review and evaluate the literature on history of Indians and Indian women in Taiwan and to emphasize the theories that are relevant to Acculturation, Psychological well-being, and stress. The first part of this study focuses on history of Indians. The second part of this study focuses on Indian women. Third part of this study focuses on Acculturation process and its influence on Indian women in Taiwan. Fourth part of this study focuses on Psychological well-being. In last part, the content focuses on stress and its moderating effect with acculturation and psychological well-being. It will help to find the factor related to Indian women cultural experiences in Taiwan.. 7.

(14) History of Indian Immigration to Taiwan Since 1980s Indians have been coming to Taiwan mainly for as businessmen, as jewelers, and as scientists. The Indian community called “Sindhi traders” is the first to arrive to Taiwan. This community includes about 200 families. But now, it has only 40 to 50 families because of migration of the main stream of them to China, primarily to Guangzhou. Another Indian group which is of similar sized early is from the families of precious stones and diamond traders who vend their goods to Taiwanese jewelers. With the help of a foreign policy called "Look East", India has provided an access to build and cultivate extensive tie-ups with Taiwan relating to trade and investments and in as developing cooperation in science & technology, the issues of environment and exchanging people policies. These people- people exchanging policies provide an opened gate for an Indians into Taiwan, in the form of small groups of Indian nationals by grabbing the opportunities in numerous areas near the Taiwan country’s superior universities, mostly in Hsinchu and Taipei. Currently, at the Academia Sinica itself which is a research organization at Nangang, there are almost about 100 Indian scientists. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indians_in_Taiwan). Leonard-Spark & Saran, (1980) stated that India is composed of unusual combination of individualistic and collectivistic traits which are due to the influence of British. The individualistic traits are said to be self-preserving as these Indian immigrants were described as an achievementoriented, materialistic, ambitious, and bringing up a great importance on formal education and priority to the success of an individual. Indian society is also said to be collectivistic which is evident from the Indian immigrants’ combinational nature to maintain traditional family values. with the sustenance of the family extension, arranged marriages, obedience to elders, and traditional sex roles.. Indian Women Immigration India is a diversified country. So as to familiarize the acculturation capabilities of Indian women residing in Taiwan, it is necessary to make aware of the rich diversified experiences within the Indian inhabitants residing in Taiwan. It is also required to get a mere wakefulness of the diversification pertaining to religion, generational status, family practices and the several cultural differences that occur within this immigrant residents (Seth, 1995). The roles of Women are. 8.

(15) ingrained in the curtain of Indian culture and are marked in its customs, religious practices and principles contained by their families. Having coming from the society of collectivistic and patriarchal zones, Indian women endure the sole concern to hold, teach, and transmit traditions of their culture, beliefs, and values to their own families (Bhattacharya, 2002). The base for the identity of an Indian woman was their family and the empathy provided by their family facilitates the continuousness of their culture and religion. The women’s role varies on different societal aspects like socioeconomic status, generation, the education level, and the caste system. For instance, family members of Indian women play a vital role in influencing and preserving the cultural traditions and also responsible for the major life choice decisions surrounding them such as marriage, education, friendships etc. (Saran, 1985). There are more expectations on Indian women to be like obedient daughter-in-law, dutiful and well-behaved wives, loving and caring mothers. Mainly, they are the sole responsible for household duties and doesn’t seek anybody’s help. However, in recent times, there are numerous changes in the roles of Indian women. They have been cheered by their own families to carry on their education and reach to altitudes of their desire. Further, in order to get better standard of living, and to achieve economic necessities as of their desire, women are also encouraged to seek employment. Thus, women use to play both the roles of housewife and as an employed as well (Gupta, 1999). Always, Indian women plays crucial roles to bring the values, education, beliefs, the ideologies of the family, etc. from the society of India. The situations within an Indian society like the system in the family, homeland, and the roles of caste and religion were impacting seriously in the development of women. This is not exceptional even to the Indian women from the families of more liberal, urbanized, forwarded, accomplished, literate and westernized families still carry with them ‘cultural stuff’, as part of their weakness that required to be renegotiated and reassessed. When compared with the Indian women residing in India, in transition the Indian immigrant women were subjected to change forcefully (Naidoo, 2003). On the path at some critical point they find themselves a way to choose an effective strategies and mental ability to acculturate to the unique Taiwanese culture (Kankipati, 2012). This study explored the various approaches to be accepted by Indian women to gain coping capability of acculturation towards the Taiwanese cultural society.. 9.

(16) Acculturation “Acculturation is defined as a process of culture learning and behavioral adaptation that takes place when individuals are exposed to a new culture” (Martin et al., 2007). “Acculturation is the process of socio-cultural and psychological adaptation of an individual following intercultural contact” (Berry, 2003). “Socio-cultural changes include modification of an individual’s customs and their economic and political life. Psychological changes include modification of an individual’s attitudes towards acculturation” (Kankipati, 2012; Phinney, 2003). To understand acculturation, the concept of culture had been reviewed as a basis. To conceptualize acculturation, some important implications were derived from the definition of culture. “Culture is the base from which acculturation derives its meaning and context” (Sam, 2006). The process of acculturation can be shown up as two cases. The first case is as long as the culturally diverse groups are interacted. Second case is when term for adaptation to live in culture takes longer time to the contact, resulting long-term accommodation among the groups which are in contact. This repeatedly demands some characteristics like, learning the languages of each other, food sharing, and adopting different kinds of dressing habits and societal interactions. Sometimes it is rather easy for these mutual adaptations which take place through some processes like culture shedding, sharing and learning. But, sometimes there may be chances to create culture disputes which results acculturative stress during the intercultural interactions (Kankipati, 2012). Many researchers discussed about the Acculturation in different ways and also proposed some theories. For instance, the first and foremost proponent of a theory that dealt acculturation in the form bi-directional procedure is Berry (Adhikari, 2008; Kankipati, 2012). But, in those findings it was not clearly stated the Acculturation and its influence on Psychological well-being of a women. The literature studies revealed many important links and relations between an individual’s behavioral aspects in context to their culture of new origin. For example, the cultural adaptation of strangers to a new culture was examined and found that to get an outcome for an acculturation process, the prior process underlying is Communication (Lakey, 2003). The effect of general appearance, weight/shape, and ethnic have been studied in context of socio culture. For this, the researcher has chosen 74 women from South Asian America. The normal appearance, weight or shape, and ethnicity are the three forms of teasing methods. The internalization of thin-individuals, cultural disputes, acculturation, dissatisfaction towards the own body, and eating attitudes in 10.

(17) maladaptive manner are considered in this study. Results disclosed that all three types of teasing and cultural disputes were considerably related to ‘dissatisfaction towards the own body’ and ‘eating attitudes in maladaptive manner’. Cultural conflict or cultural disputes was he key elements found to mediate the relationship between ethnic teasing and body dissatisfaction. Both the thinideal internalization and acculturation was not significantly linked with both body dissatisfaction and maladaptive eating habits. But, the ‘body dissatisfaction’ plays as a mediating relationship between ‘weight or shape teasing’ and ‘eating habits maladaptive manner’ (Reddy & Crowther, 2007). The impact of acculturation versus culture clash on the development of eating behavior in women belonging to Chinese residing in Australia have been examined. The findings put forward that there are both resemblances and variances between the risk aspects that relates with eating behaviors between the women with acculturating ability and normal traditional women (Humphry and Ricciardelli, 2004). From all the above examples it is evident that the different acculturation patterns pertaining to different cultural atmosphere were need to be aware and to aquire the ability to be strong psychologically.. Psychological Well-being From a psycho-social perspective, relocation is a stressful act. The life style is not normal. A migrated individual should be pre-adaptive in both the levels of personal and collective as well. This had been demonstrated in the research on the “acculturation of ethnic minorities in plural societies” (Berry, 1997). To achieve psychological well-being, a little life altering facilities, psychologically adjusting ability and satisfactory societal support is mere essential. Research by Ward and colleagues discovered that psychological adjustment was defined in terms of depression or more disturbance towards international frame of mind and is affected by changes in life, social support and personality factors (Ward& Kennedy, 1993). Psychological well-being is a broad concept replicating to both positive aspects (optimistic affect or optimistic well-being) as well as negative components (mental health issues, mental upsets or mental disturbances) (Parkinson, 2004). In other words, an individual with high psychological well-being not only bares greater levels of optimistic feelings and outlooks, but also, copes the tensions, harmful thoughts, notions and feelings more capably (Bhogle & Prakash,1995). Here mentioned some examples pertaining to different kinds of situations. Two batches of immigrants, taking 50 participants from Morocco and 55 participants from Peruvia were compared with another batch of Spanish women (n = 55) studied for the impacts of support from the society and controlling ability to attain psychological 11.

(18) well-being. From the result it was concluded that married morocco women were identified to attain less well-being than single, where as in the other two batches it is quite opposite (Garcia et al., 2002). In 1997, Nesdale et al. made an attempt to know the impact of migrant ethnic identity on the process of adjustment which disclosed that although the ethnic identity was significant it is not a solid interpreter of migrant suffering, via self-confidence. In all the above studies and even from the other studies from the literature, the researchers discussed about the psychological wellbeing as only psychological adjustment and mental health. Whereas, in this study, it was described as an interlinking aspect to the cultural adjustment and societal relations.. Acculturative Stress The term stress has been using widely in the earlier literature drawn from psychological and medical zones (e.g. Dohrenwend & Dohrenwend, 1974; Lazarus, 1966, 1980; Selye,1976), and it has flashed substantial disputes as well (e.g., Antonovsky, 1979; Lumsden, 1984; Selye, 1975). For the purposes of this article, stress is considered to be a general concept. It is a psychological state of the entity which was introduced by the experiences of stressors in the surroundings. The functions of this stress can be reduced and normalized via process of achieving managing ability and satisfactory adaptation to the fresh situation (Berry, 1987). Secondary problems, such as the virtual prominence of the real stressor to perceived stressor, constructive to destructive nature of stress, and various adaptations, were also considered later in the discussion section. Acculturative stress results when any one try to adjust and cope up with a new and unaware culture of the host country as of their own convenience. It happens when the procedure offending an appropriate work is elongated and still continuing. The whole process is painful and it was clear shown on the study about the South Asian women who have transferred to Canada (Samuel 2009). Certainly, the acculturative stress can even be a calamity for any one’s life. This study investigated the features of acculturative stress such as discrimination, depression, and intergenerational conflict in a sample of women from India. This inquest also discussed the coping strategies that participants utilized and concluded with inferences for welfare of mental wellbeing (Samue, 2009). The term ‘Acculturative stress’ is used in substitute to an earlier concept, ‘culture shock’ which is a worrying results from well-known indications of societal interaction (Berry, 1970). It is connected with the psychosomatic replicas of pressure and nervousness in reaction to the process of mingling and attachment. Berry and Anis (1974) claimed that normally immigrants are prone 12.

(19) to difficulties and pressures originating from the process of acculturation and have called this occurrence as acculturative stress. This study investigates characteristics of acculturative stress such as intergenerational global conflict, depression and discrimination by using a sample of immigrant women from different countries. This study explored the roles of ‘leisure participation’ to help international graduate students from China to cope with acculturative stress. The findings exposed that owing to the distinctive cultural influence and the eminence of worldwide students, the contributors faced distinct acculturative stressors. Although ‘leisure participation’ was an effective gadget in fighting acculturative stress, in some circumstances, it leads to a plethora of negative out comes (Zhou et al., 2017). On the concept of the Acculturative Stress mostly it was defined both positive and negative terms in general. But, in this research, stress is tested for its moderating effect with acculturation and psychological well-being.. Relationship between the Variables Acculturation and Psychological Well-being From the literature survey, it was known that certain coping behaviors are necessary for any migrant individual who must deal with difficulties of psychological wellbeing during acculturation which paves the way to lead a subsequent adaptation to the different culture (Kuo, 2014). To execute these coping behaviors certain theories were proposed. For instance, in Berry’s (1997) theory of acculturation and coping activities are defined in terms of specific aspects which mainly focus on problems, emotions and coping avoidance. In Castro and Murray’s (2010) ‘stress– appraisal–coping model’, resilience coping behavior was conceptualized more pertaining to immigrant’s personal ability or talents which can allow them to reach their desired objectives. This includes immigrants’ capability to efficiently participate in decision-making, will power and selfregulation. From these theories it was evident that adopting capability (coping ability) and positive behavior patterns of any immigrant individuals towards the surrounding culture are necessary to lead a life of wellbeing. Also, Schwartz et al (2013), designed a study to determine the relations between acculturation and wellbeing in initial and next generations of migrant American college students. This study was guided by certain research questions which provide a clear picture of the relation between acculturation and wellbeing aspects. These research questions include the aspects of whether the acculturation related variables associated with wellbeing were consistent with the 13.

(20) domains of acculturation practices, values, identifications, cross gender, ethnicity, immigrant generation, and equivalence between college towns and urban/suburban or commuter settings. The literature pertaining to the above mentioned research questions reveals the availability of the advanced hypothesis that there is a positive association with ethnic distinctiveness with selfassurance (syed & Azmitia 2009; Umana-Taylor & Shin, 2007) and psychological well-being (Kenyon & Carter, 2011). As per hypothesis given by Schwartz et al. (2013), the tradition practices, morals, and empathies would be surely associated with wellbeing. H1- Acculturation is positively correlated to the psychological well-being.. Acculturation and Acculturative Stress There are several reports indicating that the acculturation was negatively related to Stress (Caetano, Ramisetty-Mikler, Caetano Vaeth, & Harris,2007; Vega, Gil, & Wagner, 1998) and the experiential studies of the acculturation have generally evaluated by fluency on language, knowledge on culture, social bonding and day-to-day living inclinations (Lara et al., 2005). Acculturative stress was evaluated using an altered, ten-item concept of the Societal, Attitudinal, Familial, and Environmental (SAFE)—Revised Short Form (Mena et al., 1987). Participants responded to items evaluating their crucial experience of negative stressors relating to acculturation (e.g., “It bothers me that family members whom I am close do not understand my new American values”) using a five-point Likert scale which is ranging from 0 (not at all stressful) to 4 (very stressful). As per Berry’s theory (1997, 2006), three types of cultural adaptation patterns were explained which involves ‘behavioral shift’, ‘psychopathology’ and ‘acculturative stress’. These patterns show the way for an acculturating individual, to reduce stress or intergroup conflict by making able to take on the ways of the leading culture and to overcome the unsuccessful coping which leads to high stress. The sources of this stress are commonly challenged by migrants, migrants and native people, when come in interaction with associates of the outside, dominating and leading batch of culture (Berry, Kim, Minde, & Mok,1987). “Acculturative stress is characterized by negative behavioral and emotional reactions attributable to the process and experience of amending to a new cultural environment” (Berry et al.,1987). Berry (2006) found that to retort acculturative stress, an extensive variety of coping approaches were being used by individuals pertaining to tactics which can adapt and which cannot able to adapt. These coping. 14.

(21) variability can show a way to variable stages of acculturative stress which are proficient by immigrants. H2- Acculturation is negatively correlated to the Acculturative stress.. Acculturative Stress as a Moderator of Acculturation and Psychological Well-Being Referring to unique stressors of immigration, the term called acculturative stress have been found to be commonly used in the literature because the acculturation is major stressful experience for any immigrant individual for a variety of reasons (Berry 2006). Revallo et al (2010) made a clear study and examined the relationship between the crucial chosen variables of our study acculturative stress (AS), acculturation, and psychosocial well-being (PSW) by examining the hospitalized immigrant patients between the ages of 18 and 65 years. In their study, they carried out the evaluation of some relative terms like Acculturative stress, societal adaptation, acculturation, anxiety which undertake to depression and socio demographic and attitudinal stuffs for each of their sample. The study found a negative association with acculturative stress and psychosocial well-being, as well as with the marginalized acculturation strategy and psych societal well-being. Likewise, a variety of studies have been demonstrated that the acculturation stressors on the wellbeing and mental health among the children of immigrants are showing a clear negative impact (Fine & Sirin, 2007; LaFromboise, Coleman, & Gerton, 1993).. H3-Acculturative Stress has a negative moderating effect on the relationship between Acculturation and Psychological well-being.. 15.

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(23) CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This chapter is comprised of several sections, those sections outlined as research framework, states the research hypotheses, describes the research procedure and the research design. In addition, it will explain the methods which are analyzed statistically and used to evaluate the data.. Research Framework Based on the review of the literature, the research purpose and the research questions, the following research framework for this study was developed examined. (Figure 3.1), The primary purpose of this study was to explore the relationship among acculturation, psychological wellbeing, and Acculturative stress and its moderating effect of the Indian women in Taiwan.. H1 Acculturation H2. Psychological well-being. H3. Acculturative stress Figure 3.1. Research framework. Research Approach The researcher selected quantitative method to conduct for this study. The primary perseverance of this study was to see the sights of the relationship among acculturation, Psychological well-being, and Stress and its moderating effect on Indian women in Taiwan. The researcher chosen this method to collect quantitative data in a larger sample and the data was analyzed by using statistical methods to exam and validate the connection between the variables. The quantitative study tries to verify or falsify a relationship or hypothesis. Also, it point-outs the outcomes or effects between variables. The survey questionnaires were used because they act as. 17.

(24) tools to the researcher to assemble the information on the credentials, beliefs, or attitudes of a large number of individuals (Neumon, 2014).. Research Hypothesis Based on the research questions and the research purpose, the following hypotheses were developed and examined:. H1- Acculturation is positively correlated to the psychological well-being. H2- Acculturation is negatively correlated to the acculturative stress. H3- Acculturative stress as a negative moderating effect on the relationship between acculturation and psychological well-being.. Research Procedure For the purpose of this study, the research process was carried out in several major steps. The procedure is shown in Figure 3.2. The very first step in this procedure was identifying and defining the research scope and objectives. Second, collection and reviewing the relevant literature for better understanding the relationships among acculturation, psychological well-being and stress of Indian women who are residing in Taiwan. Then, the research framework was created and the adequate questionnaires were selected after literature review. Questionnaire survey had been carried out by Indian women who are residing in Taiwan. After data collection and analysis, the results were discussed and conclusions as well as suggestions were given according to the research findings.. 18.

(25) Research scope and purpose Data collection. identification. Literature collection and review. Data analysis. Theoretical frame work. Discussion of results. Questionnaire design and. Conclusion and. review. suggestions. Figure 3.2. Research procedure. Sample Population The research samples of this study were Indian women who are residing in Taiwan and also resided in Taiwan in the past. It was known that as of August 2017, there were around 2,725 Indian residents in Taiwan out of which 1960 were men and 765 were women (National Immigration Agency, Taiwan (2017) https://www.immigration.gov.tw/mp.asp?mp=2). This number may increase further year by year as the relations between these two countries are becoming strong ahead. Among which, the samples of women students, housewives, working women, married and unmarried Indian women residing in all over the Taiwan were the selected sample in this study. Apart from this, to test the designed questionnaire, the researcher had taken an expert reviewer’s opinion from an Indian woman who has been residing in Taiwan for the past 20 years and also has mere knowledge on the cultural aspects of both host country Taiwan and home country India. As per her opinion, the questionnaire designed was satisfactory.. 19.

(26) The online survey questionnaire was used for this study. The participants received a link that took them to a web site that describe the survey and asked for their participation. If they chose to participate, they were given a direct link to the survey distributed by social media (Facebook, WhatsApp, Line) and also by email. The online survey composed primarily of check boxes and comment fields and submits.. Research Instrument The survey questionnaire was composed of four parts, which include demographic information, acculturating ability, psychological well-being levels and stress management that will provide the required information of the respondents. The instrument had a total of 60 questions, which were divided into 4 parts. The details are as follows:. Demographic Information The demographic information includes age, marital status, working status, length of residence in Taiwan, awareness of Taiwan before coming and language skills of Indian women, etc. were asked.. Acculturation The Vancouver Index of Acculturation (VIA) is conducted in this study which contains 20 items to explore the acculturation heritage and dimensions (Kim, 2002; Ryder, Alden & Paulhus, 2000). The VIA demonstrates that the bi-dimensional model can be reliably measured in several different ethnic groups with 10 pairs of straight forward items tapping core aspects of cultural identity (Ryder, Alden & Paulhus, 2000). This study did a slightly modification of the items to explore the Indian women rather than U.S. and Korean international students in the previous study. The purpose of the VIA in this study is to measure the heritage and main stream dimensions of acculturation of Indian women in Taiwan with 20 items instruments. Each item rated on a 5-point scale ranging from (1) “Strongly disagree”, (2) “Disagree”, (3) Neutral/depends, (4) “Agree”, (5) “Strongly Agree”. Examples of items included “I enjoy social activities with people from the same heritage culture as myself” and “I enjoy social activities with typical Taiwanese people”. Reliability of the VIA will assess by means of the Cronbach alpha coefficient. The heritage dimension was medium internal consistent in the subjects ( = .6321).. 20.

(27) Psychological Well-being Psychological well-being was measured and assessed by using Employee Well-being (EWB) scale, which consists of three core components: Subjective Well-being (SWB), Work place Well-being (WWB) and Psychological Well-being (PWB). In which, researcher used PWB scale ( = 0.88) which consists of six dimensions: self-acceptance, positive relations with others, environmental mastery, autonomy, personal growth, and purpose in life (Page & Vella-Brodrick, 2009). composed of six items related to people’s psychological needs, including “I generally feel good about myself and I’m confident” and “I handle daily affairs well.” The participants used a Likert 7-point scale (1 = strongly disagree, 7 = strongly agree) to respond to each item.. Acculturative Stress Acculturative Stress was measured and assessed by using 36-item Acculturative Stress Scale for International Students (ASSIS) developed by Sandhu and Asrabadi. This scale was designed to assess the acculturative stress of international students, includes perceived discrimination, homesickness, fear, guilt, perceived hatred, and stress due to change (cultural shock), identified as major contributing factors. The psychometric properties of this instrument and implications for use by mental health practitioners. Each item in this study was rated on a 5point scale ranging from (1) “Strongly disagree”, (2) “Disagree”, (3) Neutral/depends, (4) “Agree”, (5) “Strongly Agree”.. Data Collection Gathering relevant information from Indian women in Taiwan was the purpose of the sample. The only current sources that partake contribution to gather data which gives information on Indian women are small community which is called “Indians in Taiwan” and official immigration figures. As there were no readily existing data for the study, an acculturation survey was established to collect the data. With improvements in information technology, the Internet is more and more reachable and the chosen means of communication, henceforth data were gathered through an Internet survey. The data were taken from Indian women residing in Taiwan. The sample was gathered from Indian women of all categories including students, working women, housewives etc. All data was collected by an online survey hosted where the participants were allowed to fill out the survey through the Internet, with the survey period of 2 months. Contribution was completely voluntary and respondents could opt out of the survey at any time. The survey was 21.

(28) made obtainable on all major networking websites 1) Facebook 2) WhatsApp 3) Gmail 4) Skype. The participants were requested to go through and agree to the terms of the consent form before starting the survey. The participants of the survey remain anonymous and the researcher collected a total of 163 valid sample data.. Data Analysis The researcher used the SPSS 23.0 and AMOS statistics soft wares for statistical analysis. The following statistics were used to analyze the data:. Descriptive Statistics This analysis is used to summarize the numerical results and show them in a clear and concise manner (Healey, 2008). The researcher conducted the descriptive analysis between demographics and other variables. The results will be shown in forms of tables to provide the reader a better picture of the data (Neuman, 2014). The descriptive statistics include the mean and the standard deviation of the data.. Correlation This analysis was used to measure the strength of the association between two continuous variables (Gray & Kinnear, 2012). In this case the strength of relationship between independent variable (Acculturation) with the moderator (Stress) and the dependent variable (Psychological well-being) will be analyze.. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) is a multivariate statistical procedure that is used to test how well the measured variables represent the number of constructs. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) is a tool that is used to confirm or reject the measurement theory. In CFA, several statistical tests are used to determine how well the model fits to the data. Chi-squared test, the Root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA), the comparative fit index (CFI), and the standardized root mean square residual (SRMR). (https://www.statisticssolutions.com/confirmatory-factoranalysis). 22.

(29) Hierarchical Regression This analysis was used when there are two or more independent variables and the purpose of this regression analysis is to examine the moderating effect among variables (Gray & Kinnear, 2012). In this model, at the first level the independent and dependent variables (Acculturation and Acculturative stress) were added to test the relationship between them. Then in the second level, the interaction terms of moderator (stress) and independent variable were added to examine the moderating effect of Acculturative stress.. Reliability Analysis This study was conducted with 47 questions of the variables, acculturation, psychological well-being, acculturative stress of Indian women living in Taiwan. To assess reliability of the questionnaire the researcher had taken an expert reviewer’s opinion from an Indian woman who has been residing in Taiwan for the past 20 years and also has mere knowledge on the cultural aspects of both host country Taiwan and home country India. As per her opinion, the questionnaire designed was satisfactory. Reliability item analysis was performed on the SPSS. The Cronbach’s alpha was used to check the internal consistency of the instruments in this study. All the variables exceed the 0.70 criterion, meaning that the questionnaires were acceptable to use. The overall reliability coefficients for the instruments was α = 0.893. To measure the acculturation of Indian women in Taiwan the Vancouver Index of Acculturation (VIA) instrument were used. The reliability of the acculturation was α = 0.839. To measure psychological well-being, 6 item PWB dimension from, Employee Well-Being (EWB) instrument were used. The reliability of the psychological wellbeing was α=0.830. Finally, to measure the acculturative stress, Acculturative Stress Scale for International Students (ASSIS) instrument were used. The reliability of the acculturative stress was α=0.830. The details illustrated in table 4.5 below.. 23.

(30) Table.3.1. Reliability Analysis of Each Variable (N=163) Items Valid Excluded Acculturation Psychological wellbeing Acculturative Stress. Total. Cronbach’s Alpha. 11 6. 9 0. 20 6. 0.839 0.830. 30. 5. 30. 0.953. 24.

(31) CHAPTER IV FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS A total of 163 qualified questionnaires were validated and analyzed in this study. The researchers utilized the SPSS 23.0 to demonstrate descriptive and correlation statistics to analyze and interpret the compiled data, which enabled the researcher to illustrate the significance and importance of this study.. Descriptive Analysis Sample Characteristics Table 4.1. shows the summary of the profile of International women in Taiwan. From this table, it was observed that 163 females (100%) were participated in this survey. Of the respondents, 64% were between the age group 21-30, 25% were between 31-40, 6% were 4150 and remaining were between the age group of 60 and above. Of which, 66.7% women were married, 24.4% women were singles, 5.4% women were in a relationship, and the remaining chose other options. To know the child care of the Indian children in Taiwan, the researcher added to the married women additional two more questions (satisfaction measure 5 licker scale, very dissatisfied to very satisfied) which were schooling (education system, fee structure...etc.) 38.7% were very satisfied, 36.3% were satisfied, 17.3% were said as neutral and remaining were very dissatisfied and dissatisfied. Health care (weather conditions, hospitals etc.) 42.9% were very satisfied, 37.5% were satisfied, 8.3% were said as neutral and remaining were very dissatisfied and dissatisfied. Regarding working status, most of the women were students and house wives with highest percentage of 33.9% and 32.7%, full time employees with 21.4%, Student and part time employees with 4.8% and others with 0.6%. According to the living conditions of International women in Taiwan, more than 57% international women can communicate with less than 20% of mandarin with Taiwanese and only 1.8% can communicate with 80-100% of mandarin, and in these international participants 33.3% were comfortable to communicate with English, 17.3% were comfortable, while 28% felt neutral, 16% felt discomfort and very less respondents with 2.4% felt very uncomfortable while using English to communicate. Adopting new food habits also helps to this study, to know the well-being of international women in Taiwan, in that more than 22.1% were preferred to have Taiwanese food often and only 3.1% were preferred to have always and 42.9% were sometimes, 26.4% were said rarely and very less people were preferred never 25.

(32) with 5.5% to have Taiwanese food. With cost of living in Taiwan more than 5.4% were very satisfied and 38.70% were satisfied, whereas 39.3% said it was in neutral but there was also 11.3% were dissatisfied and 2.4% were very dissatisfied with the cost of living in Taiwan. Table.4.1 Demographic Characteristics of the Sample (N=163) Characteristics. Category. Frequency (N=163). Percentage% (100%). Gender. Female. 163. 100. Age. 21-30 31-40 41-50 51-60 61-70 71 and above. 108 41 10 4 2 1. 64.0 24.6 6.0 2.4 1.2 0.6. Marital status. married single divorced widowed in a relationship missing very dissatisfied dissatisfied neutral satisfied very satisfied missing very dissatisfied dissatisfied neutral satisfied very satisfied missing Student and part time employee house wife student full time employee part time employee. 112 41 2 1 9 2 5 5 29 61 65 3 12 3 14 63 72 4 8. 66.7 24.4 1.2 0.6 5.4 1.2 3.0 3.0 17.3 36.3 38.7 1.8 7.1 1.8 8.3 37.5 42.9 2.4 4.8. 55 57 36 4. 32.7 33.9 21.4 2.4. Children Schooling (if have). Children Healthcare (if have). Working status. 26. (continued).

(33) unemployed entrepreneur, full time working& mother completed masters missing Relatives or family in Taiwan Using English. Talked to the people about Living experiences before coming. Living time in Taiwan. Mandarin proficiency. Preferring Taiwanese food. Yes No missing very dis comfortable dis comfortable neutral comfortable very comfortable missing never 1-2 3-4 5-6 more than 6 missing below 1year 1 year- 3 year 3 year- 5 year 5 year- 7 year 7year- 10 year Above 10 years missing Less than 20% 20-40% 41-60% 61-80% 81-100% missing Never Rarely Sometimes Often Always missing. 1 1. .6 .6. 1 5 75 88 5 4 27 47 56 29 5 50 59 22 4 28 5 23 59 39 14 10 18 5 96 42 15 7 3 5 9 43 70 36 5 5. .6 3.0 44.6 52.4 3.0 2.4 16.1 28.0 33.3 17.3 3.0 29.8 35.1 13.1 2.4 16.7 3.0 13.7 35.1 23.2 8.3 6.0 10.7 3.0 57.1 25.0 8.9 4.2 1.8 3.0 5.5 26.4 42.9 22.1 3.1 3.0 (Continued). 27.

(34) Cost of living. Very dissatisfied Dissatisfied Neutral Satisfied Very satisfied missing. 4 19 66 65 9 5. 2.4 11.3 39.3 38.7 5.4 3.0. Descriptive Statistics for the Acculturation. To test the Acculturation of the Indian women who are residing in Taiwan, they were asked by using Vancouver Index of Acculturation (VIA). The VIA was a 20 item acculturation on a five point Likert scale (Ryder, Alden & Paulhus, 2000). Table 4.2 shows the descriptive statistics including mean and standard deviation of each item of the acculturation. Participants were asked to respond by using the five-point scale strongly disagree to strongly agree. The highest mean from the Acculturation was 4.39 for the question “I enjoy entertainment (e.g.: movies, music…) from my heritage culture”. For this question they chose the option agree or strongly agree. However, the lower mean for the acculturation was 1.87 for the question “I would be willing to marry a Taiwanese person.” For this question they chose strongly disagree or disagree. Table 4.2. Descriptive Statistics for the Acculturation. Code. items. VIA1 VIA2. I often participate in my heritage culture traditions. I often participate in mainstream Taiwan cultural tradition. I would be willing to marry a person from my heritage culture. I would be willing to marry a Taiwanese person. I enjoy social activities with people from the same heritage culture as myself. I enjoy social activities with typical Taiwanese people. I am comfortable with people of the same heritage culture as myself. I am comfortable with typical Taiwanese people.. VIA3 VIA4 VIA5 VIA6 VIA7 VIA8. Mean Std.Dv. 28. 3.85 1.06 2.93 0.98 3.98. 1.31. 1.87 1.00 3.95 1.10 3.60 4.06. 0.98 0.96. 3.63. 0.92. (Continued ).

(35) VIA9 VIA10 VIA11 VIA12 VIA13 VIA14 VIA15 VIA16 VIA17 VIA18 VIA19. VIA20. I enjoy entertainment (e.g.: movies, music…) from my heritage culture I enjoy Taiwanese entertainment (e.g.: movies, music…) I often behave in ways that are typical to my heritage culture. I often behave in ways that are “Typically Taiwanese.” It is important for me to maintain or develop the practices of my heritage culture It is important for me to maintain or develop Taiwanese cultural practices I am interested in having friends from my heritage culture I am interested in having Taiwanese friends I believe in the value of my heritage culture I believe in the value of mainstream Taiwanese culture I often enjoy other jokes and humor of my heritage culture I enjoy Taiwanese jokes and humor.. 4.39 0.76 3.07. 1.11. 3.78. 1.05. 2.70 1.02 3.94 1.07 3.17. 1.05. 4.05. 0.95. 4.02 4.36 3.63 3.94. 0.82 0.84 1.02 1.06. 3.36. 1.07. Descriptive Statistics for the Psychological well-being The six item PWB component scale, from 18 item EWB (Employ well-being) scale was used to measure the psychological well-being of the Indian women who are residing in Taiwan. Table 4.3 shows the descriptive statistics including mean and standard deviation of each item of the psychological well-being. Participants were asked to respond by using the seven-point scale strongly disagree to strongly agree. The highest mean from the psychological well-being was 6.42 for the question “I love having deep conversations with family and friends so that we can better understand each other”. For this question they chose the option agree or strongly agree. However, the lower mean for the psychological well-being was 5.82 for the question “People think I am willing to give and to share my time with others.” For this question they chose strongly disagree or disagree.. 29.

(36) Table 4.3. Descriptive Statistics for the Psychological Well-Being. Code. items. Mean. Std.Dev. PWB1. I feel I have grown as a person.. 6.11. 1.08. PWB2. I handle daily affairs well.. 6.07. 0.95. PWB3. I generally feel good about myself, and I’m confident.. 6.26. 0.80. PWB4. People think I am willing to give and to share my time with others. I am good at making flexible timetables for my work.. 5.82. 1.18. 5.98. 1.16. 6.42. 0.95. PWB5 PWB6. I love having deep conversations with family and friends so that we can better understand each other.. Descriptive Statistics for the Acculturative Stress Acculturative Stress Scale for International Students (ASSIS) developed by ‘Sandhu and Asrabadi’ was used to measure the stress level of Indian women who are residing in Taiwan. Table 4.3 shows the descriptive statistics including mean and standard deviation of each item of the Acculturative stress. Participants were asked to respond by using the fivepoint scale strongly disagree to strongly agree. The highest mean from the Acculturative stress was 3.31 for the question “I miss the people and country of my origin.”. For this question they chose the option agree or strongly agree. However, the lower mean was 1.32 for the question Acculturative stress was “I feel insecure here” For this question they chose strongly disagree or disagree. Table 4.4. Descriptive statistics for the Acculturative Stress Code ASSIS1 ASSIS2 ASSIS3 ASSIS4 ASSIS5. items. Mean. I feel that my people are discriminated against. I am treated differently because of my race. I am treated differently because of my color. Many opportunities are denied to me. I am treated differently in social situations. 30. 2.27 2.05 1.90 2.26 2.20. Std.Dev 1.19 1.15 1.09 1.27 1.28. (Continued).

(37) ASSIS6 ASSIS7 ASSIS8 ASSIS9 ASSIS10 ASSIS11 ASSIS12. ASSIS13 ASSIS14 ASSIS15 ASSIS16 ASSIS17 ASSIS18 ASSIS19 ASSIS20 AASIS21 ASSIS22 ASSIS23 ASSIS24 ASSIS25 ASSIS26 ASSIS27 ASSIS28 ASSIS29 ASSIS30. Others are biased toward me. I feel that my status in this society is low due to my cultural background I don’t feel a sense of belonging here. I feel that I receive unequal treatment. I am denied what I deserve. I feel angry that my people are considered inferior here. 2.09 1.69. 1.12 1.00. 1.93 1.94 1.93 1.89. 1.17 1.14 1.31 1.09. I feel some people don’t associate with me because of my ethnicity.. 1.95. 1.11. 2.70 2.02 3.31 2.94 1.67 1.53 1.62 1.93 1.75. 1.35 1.14 1.25 1.33 1.00 0.85 0.97 1.07 0.98 0.82. Homesickness bothers me. I feel sad living in unfamiliar surroundings. I miss the people and country of my origin. I feel sad leaving my relatives behind. People show hatred toward me non verbally. People show hatred toward me verbally. People show hatred me through actions. Others are sarcastic toward my cultural values. Others don’t appreciate my cultural values. I fear for my personal safety because of my different cultural background. I feel insecure here. I frequently relocate for fear of others. I generally keep a low profile due to fear. I feel uncomfortable to adjust to new foods. Multiple pressures are placed on me after migration. I feel uncomfortable to adjust to new cultural values. I feel guilty to leave my family and friends behind. I feel guilty that I am living a different lifestyle here.. 1.45 1.32 1.33 1.50 2.40 2.08 2.06 1.57. 0.66 0.66 0.89 1.28 1.86 1.08 1.11 0.90. Reliability Analysis This study was conducted with 47 questions of the variables, acculturation, psychological well-being, acculturative stress of Indian women living in Taiwan. To assess reliability of the questionnaire the researcher had taken an expert reviewer’s opinion from an Indian woman who has been residing in Taiwan for the past 20 years and also has mere knowledge on the cultural aspects of both host country Taiwan and home country India. As per her opinion, the questionnaire designed was satisfactory.. 31.

(38) Reliability item analysis was performed on the SPSS. The Cronbach’s alpha was used to check the internal consistency of the instruments in this study. All the variables exceed the 0.70 criterion, meaning that the questionnaires were acceptable to use. The overall reliability coefficients for the instruments was α = 0.893. To measure the acculturation of Indian women in Taiwan the Vancouver Index of Acculturation (VIA) instrument were used. The reliability of the acculturation was α = 0.839. To measure psychological well-being, 6 item PWB dimension from, Employee Well-Being (EWB) instrument were used. The reliability of the psychological wellbeing was α=0.830. Finally, to measure the acculturative stress, Acculturative Stress Scale for International Students (ASSIS) instrument were used. The reliability of the acculturative stress was α=0.830. The details illustrated in table 4.5 below. Table.4.5 Reliability Analysis of Each Variable (N=163) Items Valid Excluded Acculturation Psychological wellbeing Acculturative Stress. Total. Cronbach’s Alpha. 11 6. 9 0. 20 6. 0.839 0.830. 30. 5. 30. 0.953. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) is a multivariate statistical procedure that is used to test how well the measured variables represent the number of constructs. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) is a tool that is used to confirm or reject the measurement theory. In CFA, several statistical tests are used to determine how well the model fits to the data. Chi-squared test, the Root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA), the comparative fit index (CFI), and the standardized root mean square residual (SRMR).. 2/df: The chi-squared Values closer to zero indicate a better fit. RMSEA: The RMSEA ranges from 0 to 1, with smaller values indicating better model fit. A value of .06 or less is indicative of acceptable model fit SRMR: The standardized root mean square residual removes this difficulty in interpretation, and ranges from 0 to 1, with a value of .08 or less being indicative of an acceptable model. 32.

(39) CFI: a CFI value of .95 or higher is presently accepted as an indicator of good fit (Hu & Bentler, 1999). TLI: Value the Tucker-Lewis index should range between 0 and 1, with a cutoff of .95 or greater indicating a good model fit. IFI: has a very large chi-square indicating poor fit. Relative fit indices include the normed fit index and comparative fit index. (https://www.statisticssolutions.com/confirmatory-factor-analysis). Convergent Validity In this study, the composite reliability (CR) and average variance extracted (AVE) were implemented to evaluate the criteria convergence validity. CR: Fornell and Larcker (1981) and Bagozzi and Yi (1988) suggested that composite reliability value of 0.60 higher was acceptable. AVE: Fornell and Larcker (1981) suggested that average variance extracted is better to higher than 0.50. the acceptable range is from 0.36 to 0.50.. The CFA Result of Acculuration The confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed in AMOS to examine the indipendant variable, acculturation which contains 11 items. The result showed in Table 4.6. and CFA model showed in Figure 4.1.. 33.

(40) Table 4.6. Confirmatory factor analysis of Acculturation (N = 163) Acculturation Item Code No. 1 VIA1. Item I often participate in my heritage culture traditions.. Factor Loading 0.64***. 2. VIA3. I would be willing to marry a person from my heritage culture.. 0.54***. 3. VIA5. I enjoy social activities with people from the same heritage culture as myself.. 0.73***. 4. VIA7. I am comfortable with people of the same heritage culture as myself.. 0.80***. 5. VIA9. I enjoy entertainment (e.g.: movies, music…) from my heritage culture. 0.78***. 6. VIA11. I often behave in ways that are typical to my heritage culture.. 0.83***. 7. *VIA13. 0.41***. 8. VIA15. 9. VIA16. 10. VIA17. 11. VIA19. It is important for me to maintain or develop the practices of my heritage culture I am interested in having friends from my heritage culture I am interested in having Taiwanese friends I believe in the value of my heritage culture I often enjoy other jokes and humor of my heritage culture. CR. AVE. 0.90. 0.48. 0.78***. 0.60*** 0.72*** 0.72***. Note.***p < 0.001. * The VIA13 value was lessthan the required number, however, this item was still reminded in the questionnaire due it’s importance.. 34.

(41) Table 4.7 Model Fit Summary- Acculuration (N=163) 2. Df. 144.805. 44. 2/df. RMSEA. SRMR. CFI. TLI. IFI. 3.30. 0.12. 0.05. 0.89. 0.86. 0.89. Figure 4.1. Confirmatory factor analysis model of Acculturation. The CFA Result of Psychological Well-being The confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed in AMOS to examine the dependent variable, psychological well-being which contains 6 items. The result showed in Table 4.8. and CFA model showed in Figure 4.2.. 35.

(42) Table 4.8. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Psychological Well-Being (N = 163) Psychological wellbeing Item Code No. 1 PWB1. Item I feel I have grown as a person.. Factor Loading 0.69***. 2. PWB2. I handle daily affairs well.. 0.75***. 3. PWB3. I generally feel good about myself, and I’m confident.. 0.62***. 4. PWB4. People think I am willing to give and to share my time with others.. 0.68***. 5. PWB5. I am good at making flexible timetables for my work.. 0.73***. 6. PWB6. I love having deep conversations with family and friends so that we can better understand each other.. CR. AVE. 0.66. 0.46. 0.57***. Note. p***<.001. Table 4.9 Model Fit Summary -psychological well-being (N=163) 2 44.007. Df 9. 2/df. RMSEA. SRMR. CFI. TLI. IFI. 4.89. 0.16. 0.06. 0.90. 0.83. 0.90. 36.

(43) Figure 4.2. Confirmatory factor analysis model of psychological well-being. Pearson’s Correlation Analysis The Pearson correlation analysis was used to examine the preliminary correlation on acculturation and psychological well-being; Acculturation and Acculturative stress. This analysis was used to measure the strength and the direction of a liner relationship between two variables. If the correlation is high, it shows that there is a strong relationship between them. The coefficient value ranges from -1.0 to +1.0 and a values greater than 0 indicates that there is a positive relationship and vice versa. According to the Table.4.10, the dependent variable (Psychological well-being) was significantly correlated with the independent variable Acculturation (r=0.503, p<.01). Therefore, hypothesis 1 was accepted. There was a significantly negative correlation between independent variable Acculturation, and the moderating variable Acculturative stress (r= -.427, p<.01). Hence, hypothesis 2 was also accepted. 37.

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