The Impact of Emotional Labor on Counterproductive Work Behavior: The Moderating Roles of Mindfulness and Perceived Organizational Support Among Frontline Employees in Belize

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(1)The Impact of Emotional Labor on Counterproductive Work Behavior: The Moderating Roles of Mindfulness and Perceived Organizational Support Among Frontline Employees in Belize. by Dulcie Celeste Palma. A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate Faculty in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Major: International Human Resource Development. Advisor: Yi-Chun Lin, Ph.D.. National Taiwan Normal University Taipei, Taiwan September 2020.

(2) ACKNOWLEDGEMENT First and foremost, I must give thanks and praises to God, for getting me through this entire journey of thesis writing. The years in Taiwan has definitely been a great learning and memorable experience that has created positive impact in my life, it is a journey in education I will never forget. Secondly, my warmest thanks and gratitude goes to Dr. Yi- Chun Lin, thesis advisor at National Taiwan Normal University, for her guidance and encouragement throughout my research. Professor Lin has taught me the methodology to conduct a research and provided supporting articles and suggestions related to the topic. Regardless of the obstacles that were encountered for the duration of this project, my advisor was always there to offer guidance and was very patient throughout each step. I am forever grateful for a kind and friendly thesis advisor like Dr. Lin. I would also like to express my gratitude towards my thesis committee, Dr. Allan Lu and Dr. YuShuan Chang for the revision of this research and helpful advice offered. My gratitude is also extended to the ICDF scholarship program for funding my Master degree at the Graduate Institute of International Human Resource Development, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan. Through this process, I was able to meet three of the kindest program managers: Tracy Lee, Victor Liu and Steven Yang. I was also able to meet four (4) diverse females from Vietnam, Malaysia, Guatemala (Mariana) and St. Vincent and the Grenadines (Cassica) that became more than friends during this journey. Finally, I am extremely grateful to the people I have in my life, my siblings for their love, prayers and support during this process. My parents, Mr. Moses Palma and Mrs. Joan Palma for always being there when I felt overwhelmed and offering whatever guidance they were able to give. My friends in Taiwan, The Kingdom of Eswatini, Haiti, Brazil, Korea and Belize who became family. Also to the person that stayed up with me during the night until all my tasks were completed. Last but not least, everyone that took time out of their busy schedules to complete my questionnaire..

(3) ABSTRACT The purpose of this study is to understand whether emotional labor, specifically surface acting and deep acting, impacts counterproductive work behavior (CWB) both on a personal and organizational level. In addition, this research uses the conservation of resources theory (COR) to examine both personal and organizational resources that could be utilized to replenish the resources that were loss because of emotional labor. The personal resource in this study being mindfulness and the organizational resource being perceived organizational support (POS) to examine whether or not they are able to moderate the effects of emotional labor on CWB, such that as perceived organizational support or mindfulness increases, the possible effect of emotional labor on counterproductive work behavior decreases. The samples of this study includes 200 frontline workers in Belize. This study adopts a quantitative research design and online-based questionnaires to collect data and test the research hypotheses. CFA is used to confirm the reliability and validity and the SPSS process is used to analyze the hypothesis results. The contributions of this research is towards the service industry in Belize by implementing the conservation of resources theory to ensure that frontline workers’ psychological well-being is addressed. The contributions towards the literature is also included in this study for academic advancement.. Keywords: emotional labor, perceived organizational support, mindfulness, counterproductive work behavior. I.

(4) TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT ..................................................................................................................................... I TABLE OF CONTENTS ................................................................................................................ II LIST OF FIGURES ...................................................................................................................... IV LIST OF TABLES ......................................................................................................................... V CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................. 1 Background of the Study ......................................................................................................... 1 Statement of the Problem ........................................................................................................ 3 Purposes of the Study .............................................................................................................. 4 Research Questions ................................................................................................................. 4 Significance of the Study......................................................................................................... 5 Definition of Terms ................................................................................................................. 6 Emotional Labor ...................................................................................................................... 6 Mindfulness ............................................................................................................................. 6 Perceived Organizational Support ........................................................................................... 6 Counterproductive Work Behavior ......................................................................................... 6 CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW ..................................................................................... 7 Conservation of Resources Theory.......................................................................................... 7 Emotional Labor ...................................................................................................................... 9 Counterproductive Work Behavior ........................................................................................ 10 The Impact of Emotional Labor on Counterproductive Work Behavior ............................... 12 Mindfulness ........................................................................................................................... 14 Perceived Organizational Support ......................................................................................... 16 The Moderating Effect of Mindfulness and Perceived Organizational Support ................... 16 CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ...................................................................... 19 Research Framework ............................................................................................................. 19 Research Procedure ............................................................................................................... 21 Pilot Study ............................................................................................................................. 22 Measurement ......................................................................................................................... 22 Research Sample and Data Collection .................................................................................. 22 Emotional Labor .................................................................................................................... 23 II.

(5) Counterproductive Work Behavior ....................................................................................... 24 Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale .......................................................................... 25 Perceived Organizational Support ......................................................................................... 25 Control Variables ................................................................................................................... 26 Data analysis .......................................................................................................................... 26 Descriptive Statistics Analysis .............................................................................................. 26 Construct Validity and Reliability ......................................................................................... 29 Common Method Variance ................................................................................................... 30 Correlation and Reliability Analysis ..................................................................................... 30 Confirmatory Factor Analysis ............................................................................................... 32 CHAPTER IV. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS .................................................................... 41. Result of Hypothesis Testing................................................................................................. 41 Emotional Labor and Counterproductive Work Behavior .................................................... 53 Mindfulness and Perceived Organizational Support as Moderators ..................................... 54 CHAPTER V. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS ............................................... 55. Conclusions ........................................................................................................................... 55 Study Implications ................................................................................................................. 59 Research Implication of the Study ........................................................................................ 59 Practical Implication of the Study for the Individual Level .................................................. 59 Practical Implication of the Study for the Organizational Level ........................................... 60 Recommendations and Future Research Suggestions ........................................................... 61 REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................ 62 APPENDIX ................................................................................................................................... 69. III.

(6) LIST OF FIGURES Figure 3.1. Research framework....................................................................................................20 Figure 3.2. Research procedure......................................................................................................21 Figure 3.3. One-factor model…....................................................................................................35 Figure 3.4. Two-factor model.......................................................................................................36 Figure 3.5. Three-factor model.....................................................................................................37 Figure 3.6. Four-factor model.......................................................................................................38 Figure 3.7. Five-factor model.......................................................................................................39 Figure 4.1. Interaction plot for the moderating effect of ma on surface acting……...................50 Figure 4.2. Interaction plot for the moderating effect of mpf on surface acting……..................50 Figure 4.3. Interaction plot for the moderating effect of mac on surface acting…….................51 Figure 4.4. Interaction plot for the moderating effect of maw on surface acting……................51 Figure 4.5. Interaction plot for the moderating effect of ma on deep acting………...................52. IV.

(7) LIST OF TABLES Table 3.1. Emotional Labor Measurement....................................................................................24 Table 3.2. Counterproductive Work Behavior Measurement........................................................24 Table 3.3. Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Measurement....................................................25 Table 3.4. Perceived Organizational Support Measurement …....................................................25 Table 3.5. Participants’ Demographic Statistics ……………………………………………...….27 Table 3.6. CR and AVE of ELDA, ELSA, Mindfulness, POS and CWB….…...……………...….29 Table 3.7. Construct Validity Threshold……… ……………………………………………...….30 Table 3.8. Means, Standard Deviations, Correlations and Reliability………………………........32 Table 3.9. Confirmatory Factor Analysis …………………………..………………………….....34 Table 4.1. Results of Hierarchical Regression Analyses of ELDA to CWB …………................42 Table 4.2. Results of Hierarchical Regression Analyses of ELSA to CWB …….……................42 Table 4.3. Results for Moderating Effects of MA on DA……………………….………………44 Table 4.4. Results for Moderating Effects of MPF on DA………………………………………45 Table 4.5. Results for Moderating Effects of MAC on DA……………………………………...45 Table 4.6. Results for Moderating Effects of MAW on DA……………………………………..46 Table 4.7. Results for Moderating Effects of MA on SA……………………….……………….46 Table 4.8. Results for Moderating Effects of MPF on SA……………………………………….47 Table 4.9. Results for Moderating Effects of MAC on SA……………………………………...47 Table 4.10. Results for Moderating Effects of MAW on SA………………..…………………..48 Table 4.11. Results for Moderating Effects of POS on SA……………………………………...49 Table 4.12. Results for Moderating Effects of POS on DA.………...…………………………...49 Table 4.13. Hypotheses Testing Results Summary ....................................................................52. V.

(8) CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION. Background of the Study The service industry has played a vital role in the recent economic advancement. According to the World Fact Book website, approximately 62.2% of the gross domestic product is derived from the service industry in Belize. For improved economic growth through competitive advantage, the service industries’ customer retention strategy should focus on providing excellent customer service to existing customers and maintaining those long term relationships (Bharadwaj, Varadarajan, & Fahy, 1993). A customer’s impression of the organization and service received is often dependent on the initial interaction they experienced with the frontline employees (Tsaur & Tang, 2013). The frontline employees are seen as the face of the company because they are the first people the customers interact directly with. Therefore, these employees are expected to display appropriate emotional expressions during this interaction to ensure that the customer leaves satisfied with the services offered. The service industry usually has its own set of rules or norms for what is considered appropriate emotional displays in the workplace. There is usually a standard of behavior that states what emotions can be expressed or what emotions should be suppressed when interacting with customers (Groth, Hennig-Thurau, & Walsh, 2009). Employees that have to adhere to these display rules are often said to be experiencing ‘emotional labor’. Even when the employee is experiencing negative emotions within the workplace, they are still expected to appear pleasant and smile with the customers. This research focuses on frontline employees and their experiences of emotional labor as the focal point because frontline workers are the determinant factor used to represent an organization. Emotional labor is referred to as the act of managing feelings or expressions during working hours for the purpose of improving the organization by satisfying the customers’ needs (Hochschild, 1983). An organization can be upheld to the highest standard of cleanliness, have good quality products, and the timing could be satisfactory but if the attitude that the employee displayed was unsatisfactory it could ruin the customers’ perception of the company (Solomon, Surprenant, Czepiel, & Gutman, 1985). Employees that are asked to perform emotional labor, may act by changing the way they feel internally to match the desired emotional expectations of the 1.

(9) organization (deep acting) or pretend and fake the way they display their feelings on the outside, regardless of how they genuinely feel on the inside (surface acting) (Geng, Liu, Liu, & Feng, 2014). When an employee if being asked to portray emotions that are not necessarily their own by suppressing actual feelings, this suppression of feelings can be linked to acting out through defiant behavior. These emotions usually lead to what is known as ‘counterproductive work behavior’ (Wang & Lian, 2015). Counterproductive work behavior (CWB) is an intentional act of defiance against the organization or the members associated with the organization (Spector & Fox, 2002). Researchers have identified counterproductive work behavior as a way of expressing or escaping emotional dissonance (Bechtoldt, Welk, Hartig, & Zapf, 2007). In other words, when the employees feel inauthentic, they are likely to experience mental fatigue, exhaustion and other negative psychological effects (Wang & Lian, 2015). In addition to an organizational level, the first moderating variable, perceived organizational support is one of the antecedents to influence how the employees behave during working hours. When the employees believe that the organization values the extra effort that it takes to perform emotional labor and also express their concerns in regard to their well-being while providing an environment that caters to their socioemotional needs, this seems to decrease or even eliminate the urge to act counterproductively towards the organization or its members. The second moderating variable in this study, mindfulness, is described as a state of being consciously aware of the present moment and their surroundings in a non-judgement and nonreactive way (Hülsheger, Alberts, Feinholdt, & Lang, 2012). A mindful employee is able to take control of their negative emotions associated with the expressions of emotional labor through various self-awareness techniques that decreases the need or urge to react counterproductively. Therefore, prioritizing the human capital within the organization through proper training and support will in return provide beneficial results for the organizations in the service industry.. 2.

(10) Statement of the Problem The expectations associated with meeting the organization’s display rules in the service industry can be perceived as stressful and often leave workers at risk of experiencing emotionrelated stress (Wharton, 1993). It was important to examine if the stress caused by emotional labor has an influence on the employees’ decision to partake in counterproductive work behavior. Thus it was vital to explore if emotional labor can be minimized by being mindful and through perceived organizational support. The human resource departments and work organizations can benefit by identifying intervention techniques to tackle the counterproductive behavior portrayed by frontline service employees before it decreases the GDP in the service industry, inevitably ruining the country’s customer service reputation. Based on the theoretical perspective of the Conservation of resources (COR) theory, this research focuses on the resource loss of employees during expression of emotional labor. In the absence of resource replenishment strategies, employees tend to engage in withdrawal behavior in order to preserve their available resources. Withdrawal behavior is a form of counter productivity. Considering that perceived organizational support (POS) and mindfulness are two types of resources, this research examines both resources as possible moderating variables. This study proposed a conceptual Model that fills the significant gaps in the literature. Firstly, identifying the relationship between emotional labor and counterproductive work behavior. Secondly, identifying ways to improve employees’ well-being through replenishment of personal resources has not been researched systematically as resultant outcome of employees’ emotional labor. This issue could be linked to the fact that: a) employees were not properly equipped with the necessary skills to cope with or overcome this issue b) employees not believing that the organization supports them during the difficult encounters with customers. Therefore, raising awareness of the effects of emotional labor as a contributing factor of counterproductive work behavior is the first step towards reducing its occurrence within the profession. Specifically, to address the lack of developed intervention strategies, and to improve the economic advancement of the service industry within Belize and other developing countries. Past articles have utilized the conservation of resources theory to explain the relationship between variables (Zhang et al., 2018), the research identified how surface acting depletes. 3.

(11) resources through excessive customer demands and the feeling of being inauthentic. Since there is a small body of literature that examined the direct effect of emotional labor on counterproductive work behavior among frontline employees, especially in Central America, this study focuses on the relationship between EL and CWB in the service industry in Belize. This research will expand this study by identifying how these resources can be replenished through mindfulness and perceived organizational support.. Purposes of the Study The purpose of this study was primarily to examine the relationships among emotional labor, mindfulness, perceived organizational support, and counterproductive work behavior. Specifically, this research had two main objectives. First, was to examine the impact of emotional labor on counterproductive work behavior. Second, to explore the moderating roles of mindfulness and POS in the relationship between emotional labor and counterproductive work behavior. The aim of the study is to find a solution to decrease the level of distress employees experience during emotional labor and create an increased level of positive outcomes such as employee commitment and organizational citizenship behavior. Organizations need to recognize that emotions and the perception of how an organization supports and values its employees should become an important element of the organizational work culture (Sharma & Sharma, 2014).. Research Questions This study was mainly to understand the relationships among emotional labor, mindfulness, perceived organizational support and counterproductive work behavior.. Four. research questions were formulated as follows 1. Will emotional labor surface acting be related to counterproductive work behavior? 2. Will emotional labor deep acting be related to counterproductive work behavior? 3. Will perceived organizational support moderate the relationship between emotional labor surface acting and counterproductive work behavior? 4. Will perceived organizational support moderate the relationship between emotional labor deep acting and counterproductive work behavior?. 4.

(12) 5. Will employees’ mindfulness moderate the relationship between emotional labor surface acting and counterproductive work behavior? 6. Will employees’ mindfulness moderate the relationship between emotional labor surface acting and counterproductive work behavior?. Significance of the Study The objective of this study was to combine two areas of study, management and psychology, and explore the application of the conservation of resources theory through implementing mindfulness and perceived organizational support as the moderating variables between emotional labor and counterproductive work behavior. Through the investigation of this interaction, a clearer picture of the current situation in Belize and performance of the service industry frontline workers on the topic should be revealed. The overall result of this study will assist with broadening the perspectives of researchers in the field of emotional labor, counterproductive work behavior, perceived organizational support and mindfulness. As the GDP in Belize increases through the service industry, it is critical that organizations recognize the importance of mental health among its human resource. The findings from this research will also be beneficial towards the development of the organization through the recruiting and selecting phase. For example, if mindfulness is found to be able to alleviate the positive relationship between emotional labor and counterproductive work behavior, employees that possess the ability to be mindful would be a better selection choice in the service industry, so preselection questions can be based around mindfulness skills and abilities. Mindfulness training can also be self-taught through online instructional videos, so it saves the organization finances on different varieties of training methods. An employee that has developed these skills is also able to share the experience related to this proactive coping technique to the new employees. In addition, by filling this gap in the literature, it provides a greater understanding of how these organizational factors affect the employees’ well-being. If the organization provides this type of support for socioemotional management methods, then they are likely to retain the existing employees. When the employee is in full control of their emotions and reactions in the moment towards customers, this in turn can also lead to an improved work experience and an increase in sales and productivity for the organization.. 5.

(13) Definition of Terms Emotional Labor The organization usually has a specific set of display rules as to determine the different forms of appropriate emotional expressions. Emotional labor is the requirement to follow these rules regardless of authentic personal feelings. The two forms of emotional labor include faking unfelt emotions or suppressing actual felt emotions (surface acting) and/or altering internal emotions to match external displays (deep acting) in the interest of achieving the organization’s goals (Diefendorff, Croyle, & Gosserand, 2005).. Mindfulness The concept of mindfulness involves being aware of what is happening in the present moment both internally and externally, through stimuli and being able to observe those stimuli without reacting or exhibiting any form of judgment and without assigning any meaning to them (Feldman, Hayes, Kumar, Greeson, & Laurenceau, 2007).. Perceived Organizational Support Perceived organizational support is known as the employees’ perception that the organization values and appreciates their contributions, encourages their inputs and acknowledges their outputs while also caring about their well-being (Eisenberger, Huntington, Hutchison, & Sowa, 1986).. Counterproductive Work Behavior Counterproductive Work Behavior (CWB) is defined as when an employee voluntarily commits destructive or detrimental acts that knowingly affect or hurt the organization or members of that organization (Spector, Bauer, & Fox, 2010).. 6.

(14) CHAPTER II. LITERATURE REVIEW. The objective of this chapter was to review the previous studies on emotional labor, mindfulness, perceived organizational support and counterproductive work behavior. The review of existent literature and the linkage between each variable is discussed and concluded with the hypotheses of the present study.. Conservation of Resources Theory The conservation of resources theory is based around the idea of obtaining, retaining, fostering and protecting the resources that are of value (Hobfoll, Halbesleben, Neveu, & Westman, 2018). With the recent outbreak of the COVID-19 worldwide pandemic, frontline employees were more exposed than ever to the risks involved with being employed in the service industry. Frontline employees deserve all the recognition available for dealing with this issue because without them, most of the basic transactions would not have been possible. These employees not only placed their own lives in danger but also the lives of their families, friends and even their country. A country like Belize that depends so heavily on the tourism and service industry definitely took a hit when the number of visitors allowed into the country plummeted. With the high probability of a tourist bringing COVID-19 into Belize it was necessary for the border entries to be momentarily discontinued. Inevitably with the increase in deaths and cases worldwide, cruise ships were refused entry into the country. The sudden changes in economic input left many tour guides without jobs and without a sustainable source of income. Although a portion of the unemployed citizens received unemployment relief funds, it is hard to determine if that would be enough to suffice those affected by the circumstances. Researchers have found that stressful conditions rarely occur in a single event, rather they appear in the form of sequential events that lead to the grand outcome of stress (Cohen, Murphy, & Prather, 2019). With this definition in mind, service employees that are unfortunately placed in these work environments, probably did not receive the proper training for an outbreak of this magnitude, and this is what causes the domino effect of stress. Employees are now still expected to appear friendly even though they may be fearing their lives, well-being, savings and even employment status. Under the third principle of the COR theory, there is a gain paradox principle, simply put: the more resources an employee is losing or when the circumstances under which the resources are loss is high then the need to gain resources becomes even more. 7.

(15) important. With this being said, the two moderating variables that are included in this study become vital for the long-term success of an organization. The service industry employees such as the nurses, doctors, medical personnel, police officers, airport staff and much more have been working overtime with this recent outbreak. At this point, it is not only the organization that is dependent on the successful operation but also the country and on an even larger scale, the world. Employees are currently losing resources on a physical, emotional and materialistic level so it is of utmost importance that the organization is there assisting by finding ways to show support and appreciation for the relentless hours of work that is being done. Frontline employees are faced with a higher level of emotionally charged customers who enter different stores or offices and are putting a lot of strain and pressure on the employees. Under the forth principle, it’s the desperation principle, because of all the stress that employees on the frontline are being placed under at the moment their resources tend to become outstretched or one might even say exhausted and this leads to them entering a defensive mode for the purpose of preserving one’s self to prevent the side of them that can become defensive, aggressive or may become and act irrationally. This principle can be linked to counterproductive work behavior, the employee tends to act out if they feel as if they are not being supported by the organization during times like these and also feel the need to find ways to intentionally harm the organization whether it be personal or organizational. Employees may choose to not show up to work during the COVID19 outbreak or they may choose to express their unhappiness with the way the organization is treating them, they may even resort to getting into altercations with customers because of the fast paced stressful situations that they are experiencing. This is where the second resource preservation method comes into the equation, mindfulness. Being mindful allows the employee the opportunity to actual control these irrational thoughts before they become physical acts that can escalate quickly. A mindful employee is aware of their emotions and has the ability to control them during stressful times by enforcing the different mindfulness techniques they have acquired. Based on the corollaries associated with this theory, if organizations have been supporting and training employees for inevitable emergency situations like these then the employees would have had more than enough resources to survive on during this time. An employee that has more resources is less vulnerable to resource loss and is more capable to receive resource gains.. 8.

(16) Emotional Labor The growth associated with the service industry has increased the academic interest by exploring how satisfied employees are with the work being done within their organizations (Kim & Wang, 2018). The quality of service offered by an organization then becomes the element that differentiates one organization from the other. Most often, service organizations will have certain emotional expectations from employees, such as being polite and enthusiastic, however, when an employee is unable to partake in these behaviors because of personal feelings or other pressures, this is likely to lead emotional labor (Wang et al., 2015). The service provider is expected to satisfy the clients’ demands in a polite manner while being friendly, these types of interactions with clients that are overly demanding, or dissatisfying may lead to or cause negative emotions (Bechtoldt et al., 2007). Through development of the service industry, more employees are being asked by organizations to hide their emotions and to display an emotion that would satisfy the customers’ needs (Choi & Kim, 2015). This is known as the display rule in an organization. Being able to abide by the display rules in an organization is an attribute that is highly regarded and preferred when working in jobs that involve direct interactions with customers (Hülsheger & Schewe, 2011). As customers, we may not recognize the impact that our service expectations have on employees. Although it was originally intended to increase profits, it does come with personal costs (Grandey, 2019). Through the expansion of the service industry, emotional labor is being classified as a new job stressor (Jeung, Kim, & Chang, 2018). The term ‘emotional labor’ was originally coined by Hochschild (1983), as a type of labor that requires one to suppress their genuine feelings in order to ensure that the person receiving the service is satisfied and feels a sense of safety within your presence during that interaction. Emotional labor is associated with the demands of working in the service sector through face to face or voice to voice interactions with customers (Castro, Curbow, Agnew, Haythornthwaite, & Fitzgerald, 2006). The customer then determines the level of quality of service received based on their expectations of how positive the employee was during the interaction (Jeong, Park, & Hyun, 2019). This form of labor acknowledges the need to utilize and coordinate both the mind and feelings (Hochschild, 1983). Recruiters now include these attributes in their job vacancy advertisements, for example, in Belize, the criteria listed under most vacancies for frontline service workers seeks out employees that are friendly and possess excellent interpersonal skills. 9.

(17) Researchers have placed emotional labor under two dimensions of display rules: namely surface acting and deep acting (Zhang, Zhou, Zhan, Liu, & Zhang, 2018). Surface acting is known as the practice of modifying only their external visible emotions in order to deceive customers by masking their actual or negative emotions (Jeong et al., 2019; Sohn et al., 2018). The constant monitoring, faking and altering of external expressions while also having to suppress their genuine feelings tend to cost the service industry frontline workers a large amount of cognitive resources that could have been used for further development of the company or personal self (Liu, Liu, & Geng, 2013). Whereas, deep acting indicates that the employee will modify their internal feelings and emotions to correspond to the required emotional expressions by the organization (Sohn et al., 2018). In other words, the employees feel happy by thinking about happy moments during working hours by reliving past happy moments they may have experienced. In accordance with the emotion regulation theory, in the work environment, a work situation may invoke an emotional response from the employee and the reaction that follows may be deemed as inappropriate. Emotional labor then regulates the response that is given. This regulation process includes having the employee “think good thoughts” or creating a happy scenario in their mind to change the emotional reaction (deep acting) or by enhancing the external expressions, using the bodily and facial signs to express appropriate emotions (surface acting) (Grandey, 2000). Past researchers have identified emotional labor as a job demand based on the JD-R Model (Job demands-resources), by the definition of the term, suppression of negative emotions and expression of positive emotions (Chi & Wang, 2016). Workers in service-oriented occupations are usually affected by their work experiences that lead to health and well-being effects (Castro et al., 2004). Therefore, if an organization wants their performance to be improved they must pay attention and address employees’ emotional labor needs. While these different aspects of emotional labor affect the employees directly through the service encounters, it also spreads to the customers and has the potential to spread throughout the organization as a whole (Lee et al., 2019).. Counterproductive Work Behavior The popularity of counterproductive work behavior (CWB) among organizational researchers has increased in the recent years (Penney & Spector, 2005). The personal and 10.

(18) organizational costs associated with CWB is one of the contributing factors for the increase in interest. CWB is defined as acts that are intentionally done by the employees to harm either the organization, the customers or other employees (Spector, Fox, & Domagalski, 2006). Most literatures identified two typologies of CWB, namely those that affect the organization and those that impact the people within the organization. CWB-Organization are the organizational acts that include: destruction of company property, purposefully doing daily duties and task incorrectly and even withdrawing from the workplace (Spector et al., 2002). CWB- Personal on the other hand, like the term suggests, targets people (i.e. stakeholders, customers, coworkers, superiors), through aggressive behavior, both physical and verbal (insults and threats), sexual harassment, sabotage and even theft (Bechtoldt et al., 2007). This creates a hostile environment for the people that fall under the organizational structure. Spector and Fox (2002) believe that these actions are driven by emotions. CWB is often seen as a response triggered by strong negative emotions in the workplace caused by stressors in the job. In accordance with Fox and Spector (2006), this study identifies CWB as a result of emotion-based response to different workplace stressors. Researchers have identified counter productivity as a result of behavior strains in relations to emotions (Fox, Spector, & Miles, 2001), such as surface acting because it requires the employees to portray an inauthentic display over a long period of time. The negative emotions associated with this inauthentic display can affect not only the employee but also the organization as a whole. Researchers have found the need to prevent employees from engaging in the harmful behaviors in the workplace because of its negative effects and financial costs (Costantini, Ceschi, & Sartori, 2019). The way in which an organization is able to manage, control and address these acts determines the level of sustainability and well-being of the organization and their employees (Ones, 2018; Yao, 2018). Studies have identified perceived organizational support as a factor that can either reduce or increase CWB based on the type of climate that is created for the employee (Kanten & Ülker, 2013). Kanten et al. (2013), reviewed that if the employee feels like their expectations are being met by the organization in relation to receiving support for their job performance, they are more likely to effectively perform these tasks. However, if the climate is perceived as strictly goal-oriented and neglecting the employees’ wellbeing, this will generate more negative behavior such as CWB.. 11.

(19) The Impact of Emotional Labor on Counterproductive Work Behavior Researchers have found that CWB isn’t only a result of people’s personalities or organizational justice but also the perception of demands within the workplace that transforms into a trigger to act counterproductively (Bechtoldt et al., 2007; Riaz, Arif, Nisar, Ali & Hussain, 2018; Wang et al., 2015; Zhang et al., 2018). The changing and suppression of feelings in the workplace is seen as a job demand and thus should be regarded as a problem that requires a solution to neutralize its effects. The organization’s work culture should consider job related emotional regulation practices among employees, because emotions play a vital role in shaping an individual’s thought process, actions and feelings (Sharma et al., 2014). This research focuses on frontline service employees that have direct interactions with customers because these employees act as the spokespeople of the company, they play a pivotal role in the present and future value of the company. This is done by either providing a service, providing information, assisting customers to get the most out of their experience, processing complaints and claims, issuing out apologies, finding solutions to problems, or providing feedback (Cambra-Fierro, Melero-Polo, & Varquez-Carrasco, 2014). Bechtoldt et al. (2007), finds that the human need to have a balance based on internal attributes and external environments could be affected by experiencing negative emotions caused by emotional labor or other job demands. Study shows that proactive coping decreases the occurrence of CWB, however interpersonal conflicts will likely increase the occurrence of CWB (Yao, 2019). Based on the idea behind emotional dissonance by Hoschild (1983), it states that the emotions that are expressed are just following the display rules of the organization and there is a conflict between what is actually being felt and what is being portrayed by the employee at work (Abraham, 1999). Emotional labor is closely related and associated with workplace violence, the employees working in the service sector are more likely to experience occupational violence in comparison with other industries that don’t have direct interactions with customers (Jeung et al., 2018). Frontline employees are at risk of experiencing mistreatment from customers and thus react counterproductively towards the organizations and its members as a form of compensation. CWB is an escape method from emotional dissonance, through the negative behavior, the employee would receive immediate gratification or satisfaction and the defiant behavior would compensate. 12.

(20) for the negative emotions that were felt from dealing with the customer during an interaction (Bechtoldt et al., 2007; Zhang et al., 2018). Counterproductive work behavior affects different people, first, we examine how emotional labor affects the customers. Due to the frequent interaction between front line service workers and customers or clients, when surface acting becomes too much to handle and is elevated through emotional exhaustion, customers are likely to become victim to this behavior (Zhang et al., 2018). This research therefore agreed with the findings of past researchers that surface acting has a positive relationship with CWB and that deep acting has a negative relationship with CWB (Riaz et al., 2018). Second this literature identifies the effect that it has on the co-workers. Literature recommends having regular social gatherings that allow employees to share their similar experiences and vent about the difficulties encountered on the job, it allows for mentoring, coaching and counselling (Sharma et al., 2014). If employees really understand that they all have something in common within the workforce, this could bring them together and make them feel like they are not going through this experience alone. Based on the results from other studies, it was interpreted that organizations, in particular the employers, need to find a compromise that satisfies both the customer and the employees’ needs. Customer satisfaction should not trump employees’ satisfaction in the workplace. Emotional exhaustion was a common variable used within research articles, this variable was identified as one of the issues that contributed to CWB, which leads to resource depletion (Banks, Whelpley & Oh, 2012; Raman et al., 2016). Considering the two types of emotional labor, surface and deep acting, it is important to identify how both of them impact CWB individually. Also, considering the consequences caused by emotional labor on both an organizational and personal level, there is a need to investigate the antecedents of the two different forms of emotional labor (Mishra, 2014). First, Surface acting requires the employee to alter their facial expressions and bodily reactions to meet the organizational requirements, while suppressing their negative feelings during customer interaction. Understanding whether or not surface acting impacts counterproductive behavior will have important practical implications on the literature. This research proposed that surface acting will positively impact CWB for the following reasons. First, surface acting doesn’t alter the internal feelings so all the negative emotions are just bottled up waiting to explode (Judge, Woolf, & Hurst, 13.

(21) 2009), if a situation goes wrong and the employee doesn’t know how to cope with their feelings, this would most likely result in CWB (Bernd & Schuler, 2004). Second, having to display a ‘fake’ emotion depletes the employees’ resources (Zhang et al., 2018), a depletion of resource leaves the employee looking for instant gratification to replenish these resources. Scholars have interpreted that while deep acting also depletes internal resources, it is not as depleting as surface acting (Deng et al., 2017). Deep acting requires the employee to actually experience happy feelings while dealing with the client so their internal resources are supporting their external portrayal (Ashforth & Humphrey, 1993). Whereas, surface acting is more likely to deplete those internal resources because the external display does not necessarily match the internal feelings. So, based on the previous literature and supported theory, the following hypothesis was developed:. Hypothesis 1a: Emotional Labor Surface Acting is positively related to CWB In relation to the second dimension, deep acting, this requires a full transition of internal emotions to match external emotional display. Hochschild (1983) identified both short and long term effects of deep acting. The author finds that short term deep acting would eliminate the feeling of being ‘fake’ during customer transactions because the draining effect doesn’t exist in that moment due to the realignment of internal feelings to create a more authentic reaction (Brotheridge & Lee, 2003). Thus, it is believed that employees who are altering those internal feelings are not necessarily being affected as much as those who are faking a happy display and expression of emotions. So, based on the previous literature and supported theory, the following hypothesis was developed:. Hypothesis 1b: Emotional Labor Deep Acting is negatively related to CWB. Mindfulness The concept of being mindful is commonly defined as purposefully paying attention, being present in the moment without passing judgment on the experiences that are occurring. The variable consists of four components which are: 1.) the ability to control and regulate attention when necessary (Mindfulness Attention) 2.) the ability to focus on the present moments 14.

(22) (Mindfulness Present Focus) 3.) being aware of the experiences that occurring (Mindfulness Awareness) 4.) being accepting and without judgement towards experiences (Mindfulness Acceptance) (Feldman et al., 2007). It assists people with experiencing a greater level of control over the events occurring around them (Grover, Teo, Pick, & Roche, 2016). Another element of mindfulness includes having a warm, friendly, accepting and non-judgmental attitude towards those elements of the mind. Mindfulness has been predicted as a method of lowering psychological distress (Walach, Buchheld, Buttenmuller, Kleinknecht, & Schmidt, 2006). Psychological distress in the workplace is often attributed to the different job stressors. The organizational concept of mindfulness is associated with reducing stress by separating environmental cues from the responses to those cues (Grover et al., 2016). With a considerable section of the workforce seemingly suffering from distress and mental health issues (Kersemaekers et al., 2018), it is more important now than ever to ensure that employees’ well-being is being made a priority and given attention by the organization. In addition to prioritizing self-care and mental health, the organizations can offer mindfulness training as an option for their employees. Mindfulness Training also enhances this cognitive skill, these trainings usually combine mindfulness practices such as meditation, psychoeducation and interactions with groups (Kersemaekers et al., 2018). Kersemaekers et al. (2018), identified mindfulness as a personal resource that assists with the ability to cope with workplace stressors. The high demands from customers during interactions can be a lot for an employee to handle. However, mindful people are more likely to ignore extraneous demands that are not to be concerned with immediately, that otherwise would be a contributing factor to stress (Grover et al., 2016). Employees that practice mindfulness are more likely to make better decisions when faced with high emotions because using this form of emotion regulation as a coping method removes the need to act and respond impulsively (Rodriguez-Ledo, Orejudo, Cardoso, Balaguer, & ZarzaAlzugaray, 2018). This study thereby identified mindfulness as a resource associated with proactive coping. Proactive coping strategies assists the individual with being in control of their emotions which in return is believed to result in a lower probability of counterproductive behavior (Yao, 2019).. 15.

(23) Perceived Organizational Support Knowing that your efforts are not going unnoticed makes the world of a difference to an employee. An employee’s perception of the extent to which their contributions are valued and their well-being is cared for is known as perceived organizational support (Eisenberger et al., 1986). Within the organization, the full understanding of what drives an employee to become dedicated to achieving organizational objectives, increasing performance and reducing absenteeism is yet to be determined. However, for the benefit of both the employees and the organization, it is vital that the employees is recognized and treated like a valuable source of human capital by the organization Research suggests that employees that encounter stressful conditions in their work lives or experience issues balancing life and work situations are increasing (Giorgi, Dubin, & Perez, 2016). Thus, it is crucial to identify factors that can promote personal well-being and also professional growth with the organization also benefiting by receiving higher productivity and loyalty from the employee. Employees may assume that the level of sincerity of an organization is dependent upon its tangible and intangible rewards offered (Duke, Goodman, Treadway, & Breland, 2009). POS is also associated with fulfilling the socioemotional demands, which in return, leads to a greater sense of identification and commitment to the organization, this gives the employee a greater desire to uplift the organization through striving for success and an increase in psychological well-being (Kurtessis et al., 2015).. The Moderating Effect of Mindfulness and Perceived Organizational Support The economic value of a company relies on the skills and motivation of the employee, often referred to as- ‘the human capital’ (Kersemaekers et al., 2018). Researchers have found that in order for employees to remain emotionally stable, the negative emotions that they experience should be regulated (Bechtoldt et al., 2007; Deng, Walter, Lam & Zhao, 2017; Zhang et al.,2018; Sharma et al.,2014). This study therefore examines mindfulness and POS as moderators on the effects of emotional labor and counterproductive work behavior. Bechtoldt et al. (2007), also calls for developing employees’ emotion regulation skills that would be beneficial for both the companies and the employees. Mindfulness as a moderator of emotional demands on nurses in relation to stress was examined and determined to be useful and did indeed reduced stress in relation to the different perceptions of job demands (Grover et al., 2016). This moderator allows for recognition of events within the environment without giving the 16.

(24) situation a reaction. Organizations that are looking for ways to improve employees’ well-being and methods of stress reduction should consider mindfulness as a way to tackle the distress and expenses associated with this issue (Kersemaekers et al., 2018). Moreover, under stressful emotional labor situations, employees may start to feel the need to express negative emotions. Therefore, the more suppression of felt emotions required by the organization, the more stress and frustration the employee will encounter, since this inauthentic feeling may outweigh cognitive resources that the employee possesses. An employee that is experiencing inconsistent feelings, is likely to be experiencing self-authenticity damage, which inevitably leads to mental fatigue, exhaustion and other negative psychological effects (Wang et al., 2015). The inconsistent feelings in this study includes surface and deep acting as the main predictors. Different organizational factors have been identified to alleviate the harmful effects of counterproductive behavior from emotional labor (i.e. surface and deep acting) such as social support from coworkers and leaders (Zhang et al., 2018), leaders’ emotional intelligence and psychological capital (Wang et al., 2015), high autonomy or control in the workplace (Yao, 2019). However, because articles examining the use of a combination of personal and organizational resources as the moderators for stress were not as readily available, this research examines both as the moderators for the impact of EL on CWB. Researchers found that mindfulness was able to promote thoughtful processing of work events without an automatic or rushed decision and reaction (Glomb et al., 2011). Thus, it is logical to assume that employees with high levels of mindfulness, when faced with negative emotions because of job demands, will experience lower levels of job stress and be less likely to act counterproductively. On the other hand, employees with low levels of mindfulness will experience more negative emotions and levels of stress under high emotional labor demands which will result in them being more likely to partake in counterproductive work behavior. Based on these discussions, the second hypothesis is proposed as follows:. Hypothesis 2a: Mindfulness attention moderates the effect of emotional labor surface acting on CWB. Hypothesis 2b: Mindfulness present focus moderates the effect of emotional labor surface acting on CWB. Hypothesis 2c: Mindfulness acceptance moderates the effect of emotional labor surface acting 17.

(25) on CWB. Hypothesis 2d: Mindfulness awareness moderates the effect of emotional labor surface acting on CWB. Hypothesis 2e: Mindfulness attention moderates the effect of emotional labor deep acting on CWB. Hypothesis 2f: Mindfulness present focus moderates the effect of emotional labor deep acting on CWB. Hypothesis 2g: Mindfulness awareness moderates the effect of emotional labor deep acting on CWB. Hypothesis 2h: Mindfulness acceptance moderates the effect of emotional labor deep acting on CWB. Ruiz et al. (2018) highlighted that employee support and proper emotion management will lead to positive performance that will assist the organization with achieving the objectives and keeping their competitive advantage. Building off the conservation of resources theory (COR), people will strive to obtain and preserve resources that are valued, whether tangible or intangible and any threat of losing these valued resources results in the employee experiencing strain (Park, 2014). Scholars found that when an employee is displaying surface acting, and their internal resources are depleted they are less likely to abide by the organizational rules which leads to rulebreaking behaviors such as customer sabotage (Zhang et al., 2018). However, with higher levels of perceived organizational support, the employees will believe that the organization values their contributions and supports them through emotional labor experiences, these employees are less likely to be counterproductive under higher levels of emotional labor displays (Duke et al., 2009). Therefore, it is reasonable to suggest the following hypothesis:. Hypothesis 3a: Perceived organizational support moderates the effect of emotional labor surface acting on CWB Hypothesis 3b: Perceived organizational support moderates the effect of emotional labor deep acting on CWB. 18.

(26) CHAPTER III. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY. This chapter introduces the research methodology implemented in this study to test the hypotheses and to achieve the research objectives. It outlines the different aspects of methodological discussions such as the research framework, research design, research sampling, the measurement instruments, pilot test, data collection, data analysis and the research procedures.. Research Framework This study’s research framework is developed from a combinations of previous literature reviews and other Models and theories to accomplish the objective of this research. This study examines the impact of emotional labor on counterproductive work behavior and how mindfulness and perceived organizational support can be utilized to moderate the effect that it has on that relationship.. Figure 3.1 illustrates Emotional Labor surface acting and deep acting as the. independent variables; Counterproductive Work Behavior as the dependent variable; Mindfulness and Perceived Organizational Support as the moderators, which is proposed to have a moderating effect on the relationship between emotional labor and counterproductive work behavior. The hypotheses proposed in this study are as follows: Hypothesis 1a: Emotional labor surface acting is positively related to CWB Hypothesis 1b: Emotional labor deep acting is negatively related to CWB Hypothesis 2a: Mindfulness attention weakens the positive effect of emotional labor surface acting on CWB Hypothesis 2b: Mindfulness present focus weakens the positive effect of emotional labor surface acting on CWB Hypothesis 2c: Mindfulness acceptance weakens the positive effect of emotional labor surface acting on CWB Hypothesis 2d: Mindfulness awareness weakens the positive effect of emotional labor surface acting on CWB Hypothesis 2e: Mindfulness attention weakens the effect of emotional labor deep acting on CWB 19.

(27) Hypothesis 2f: Mindfulness present focus weakens the effect of emotional labor deep acting on CWB Hypothesis 2g: Mindfulness awareness weakens the effect of emotional labor deep acting on CWB Hypothesis 2h: Mindfulness acceptance weakens the effect of emotional labor deep acting on CWB Hypothesis 3a: Perceived organizational support weakens the positive effect of emotional labor surface acting on CWB Hypothesis 3b: Perceived organizational support weakens the effect of emotional labor deep acting on CWB Mindfulness Attention H2a (-). Mindfulness Present Focus H2b(-). Mindfulness Acceptance. H2c (-) H2d (-) H1a (+). Mindfulness Awareness. H2e (-). Emotional Labor Surface Acting. H2f (-) H2g (-) H2h (-). Emotional Labor Deep Acting H3a (-). H3b (-). H1b (-). Perceived Organizational Support. Figure 3.1. Research framework 20. Counterproductive Work Behavior. Control variable: Education.

(28) Research Procedure This part provides a description of the process that this study went through. Figure 3.2 illustrates the research process for this research. First, the researcher reviewed literatures to identify a topic that would contribute to the existing literatures and also have a positive contribution towards the organizational structure in Belize. Then, the research problem and purpose of the research were identified. After the identification of a proper problem and purpose, the research measurements and items of each variable were established. The next step after the items are developed was a pilot test that was conducted to ensure the validity and reliably of the instrument. Finally, the data was collected through online questionnaires from the targeted sample. The valid data was analyzed by SPSS and AMOS, conclusions and suggestions were then discussed.. Literature Review Identification of Research Topic Identification of Research Problem and Purpose of the Study Development of Research Framework Development of Research Instruments and Measurments Pilot Test Sample and Data Collection Data Analysis Conclusion and Findings. Figure 3.2. Research procedure of this study 21.

(29) Pilot Study A pilot test was conducted prior to data collection. The researcher first conducted a pilot test to assess the reliability and face validity of the questionnaire (Akeem, 2015). A sample of thirty (34) employees working in the service industry. The designed survey included demographic questions and questions that measured the four variables of research interest. After the pilot test, the researcher made corrections to the screening and demographic items. In addition to minor grammatical errors within the survey instrument. The questionnaire was administered from the beginning of February to Mid-March via the Online mode using Google Forms. The acceptable Cronbach’s alpha for reliability analysis is > .7 (Nunnally, 1978). For the pilot test, Cronbach’s alpha for emotional labor deep acting was .93, emotional labor surface acting was .89, counterproductive work behavior (CWB) was .92, mindfulness was .92 and lastly perceived organizational support was .95. All variables had a Cronbach’s alpha of over .89, which is interpreted as being high acceptable values.. Measurement The online questionnaire hosted via Google Forms consisted of a total of fifty-four (54) questions, available in Appendix A: Three (3) Screening Questions; Thirteen (13) Demographic questions; eight (8) Emotional Labor questions; ten (10) Counterproductive work behavior questions; twelve (12) Mindfulness questions and eight (8) Perceived Organizational support questions. The survey questions were designed based on a well-developed instrument that had a high value of Cronbach’s alpha. The arrangement of these items in a sequential order was as follows, first the independent variable (EL- Deep Acting and Surface Acting), then the dependent variable (CWB), followed by the two moderating variables (Mindfulness and Perceived Organizational Support).. Research Sample and Data Collection The participants of this study consisted of the frontline employees from Belize that work in various service industries. Frontline employees are often seen as the spokesperson for the companies that they work and are expected to meet customers’ requests (Cambra-Fierro et al., 2014). The present research focuses on this position because of two reasons. First, the frontline 22.

(30) employee has direct contact with customers and would be more likely to experience emotional labor. Second, the repercussions of such an environment would impact the customers, the coworkers or upper management. To achieve the research purpose, the research methodology applied in this study has been developed from the previous research used in quantitative approach. The online self-administered survey instrument was developed to collect data for all the variables including emotional labor, mindfulness, perceived organizational support and counterproductive work behavior. The purpose of research and guarantee of confidential were clearly determined in the introduction part on the first page. To avoid confusion and to filter out respondents that met the criteria, three screening questions were put in place. The convenience sampling together with snowball sampling method were used to allow the author to reach a specific group of population (i.e. frontline employees) in certain numbers. By convenience sampling method, the link of the google form survey was sent to several frontline employees from different sectors in the service industry. Later, by way of snowball sampling, those respondents assisted with gathering more responses by forwarding the link to their network members in the same career. To guard against the multiple participation responses, the individual is allowed to access the questionnaire only once. The questionnaires contain some items which are to be reverse scored in order to cross-check answer validity.. Emotional Labor According to Diefendorff et al. (2005), the measure contained eight items, with responses on a 7 point Likert scale ranging from ‘Strongly Disagree’ to ‘Strongly Agree.’ A sample item is ‘I put on a show at work.’ (Coefficient alphas for the two dimensions of surface acting and deep acting are both .85), see Table 3.1.. 23.

(31) Table 3.1. Emotional Labor Measurement Code. Questionnaire Component. EL_DA1 I try to actually experience the emotions that I must show to customers EL_DA2 I make an effort to feel the emotions that I need to display towards others EL_DA3 I work hard to feel the emotions that I need to show to customers EL_DA4 I work at developing the feelings inside of me that I need to show to customers EL_SA1 I put on an act in order to deal with customers in an appropriate way EL_SA2 I fake a good mood when interacting with customers EL_SA3 I put on a “mask” in order to display the emotions I need for the job EL_SA4 I fake the emotions I show when dealing with customers Note. Adapted from “The dimensionality and antecedents of emotional labor strategies,” by Diefendorff, J. M., Croyle, M. H., and Gosserand, R. H. (2005), Journal of Vocational Behavior, 66, 339–357.. Counterproductive Work Behavior The ten items developed by Spector et al. (2010) was used to measure CWB. The response format is a 5-point Likert-type scale ranging from “1= Never” to “5=Every Day.” (Coefficient alphas for the two dimensions CWB- Organizational and CWB- Personal were both .86), see Table 3.2. Table 3.2. Counterproductive Work Behaviour Measurement Code. Questionnaire Component. CPWB1 I purposely waste my employer’s materials/supplies CPWB2 I complain about insignificant things at work CPWB3 I tell people outside the job what a lousy place I work for CPWB4 I come to work late without permission CPWB5 I stay at home from work and said I was sick when I wasn’t CPWB6 I insult someone about their job performance CPWB7 I make fun of someone’s personal life CPWB8 I ignore someone at work CPWB9 I start an argument with someone at work CPWB10 I insult or make fun of someone at work Note. Adapted from “Measurement artifacts in the assessment of counterproductive work behavior and organizational citizenship behavior: Do we know what we think we know?” by Spector, Bauer, & Fox, (2010), Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(4), 781-790.. 24.

(32) Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale The twelve items scale developed by Feldman et al. (2007) was used to measure mindfulness. The response format is a 6-Point-Likert type scale ranging from “1= Almost Never” to “6= Almost Always”. Coefficient alphas is .77, see Table 3.3. Table 3.3. Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Measurement Code. Questionnaire Component. MA1 It is easy for me to concentrate on what I am doing MPF1R I am preoccupied by the future MAC1 I can tolerate emotional pain MAC2 I can accept things I cannot change MAW1 I can usually describe how I feel at the moment in considerable detail MA2R I am easily distracted MPF2R I am preoccupied by the past MAW2 It’s easy for me to keep track of my thoughts and feelings MAW3 I try to notice my thoughts without judging them MAC3 I am able to accept the thoughts and feelings I have MPF3 I am able to focus on the present moment MA3 I am able to pay close attention to one thing for a long period of time Note. Adapted from “Mindfulness and emotion regulation: The development and initial validation of the Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale Revised (CAMS-R),” by Feldman, G., Hayes, A., Kumar, S., Greeson, J., & Laurenceau, J. P. (2007). Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 29(3), 177-190.. Perceived Organizational Support The eight (8) item scale developed by Eisenberger et al. (1986), was used to measure perceived organizational support. The response format is a 5 Point-Likert type scale ranging from 1= Strongly Disagree to 5= Strongly Agree. (Coefficient alpha is .90), see Table 3.4. Table 3.4. Perceived Organizational Support Measurement Code. Questionnaire Component. POS1 POS2R POS3R POS4 POS5R. The organization values my contribution to its well-being. The organization fails to appreciate any extra effort from me. The organization ignores any complaints from me. The organization really cares about my well-being. Even if I did the best job possible, the organization would fail to notice. (Continued) 25.

(33) Table 3.4 (Continued) Code Questionnaire Component POS6 The organization cares about my general satisfaction at work. POS7R The organization shows very little concern for me. POS8 The organization takes pride in my accomplishments at work. Note. Adapted from “Perceived organizational support,” by Eisenberger, R., Huntington, R., Hutchison, S., & Sowa, D. (1986). Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 500-507.. Control Variables Education was controlled in this research due to the positive correlations it had on the variables. Researchers have found that education plays a role on the employee’s decision to act counterproductively (An & Wang, 2016). Employees that possess a higher level of education are perceived as less likely to partake in counterproductive work behavior (NG & Feldman, 2009). Therefore, the impact of education was controlled in the analysis to examine the valid and comprehensive influence of emotional labor on counterproductive work behavior with mindfulness and perceived organizational support as moderators.. Data analysis The responses collected from the online questionnaire were analyzed by IBM SPSS Statistics 23. The following analysis techniques were adapted:. Descriptive Statistics Analysis Descriptive statistics assists readers to have a clearer image of the overall data that was collected from the participants. This study utilized frequency distribution that displayed the percentages and numerical representations of the demographic information, that includes the demographics of participants. The central tendency and standard deviation of all of the variables were identified, including emotional labor, mindfulness, perceived organizational support, and counterproductive work behavior. Descriptive statistics also helps the researchers identify the sample characteristics that may have influenced their conclusions (Thompson, 2009). The frequency and percentage of these demographics are shown in Table 3.5. The participants for this study are frontline workers from the various organizations in Belize, Central America. A total of 200 respondents were selected from a total of two hundred and 233 respondents who started the study. Also the thirty-three respondents that did not complete the 26.

(34) study were due to the three screeners set in place within the survey to verify that indeed the participant was a Belizean national, employed, and a frontline employee. Included are the screener questions in the questionnaire instrument completed by respondents, see Appendix 1. Most of the participants were females (61.5%) and approximately eighty-seven percent (87.1%) were employed full-time. As well most of the samples were between the age range of twenty to thirty (20-30) years old (53.5%). Thirty-three percent (33%) of participants had been working in their organization between 1-3 years. The Belize public sector employs 64.5% of them, while the private sector employs 35.5%. In addition, 64.5% of the population considered themselves as “staff” in the hierarchical structure of their organization. Table 3.5. Participants Demographic Statistics (n=200) Item Gender. Frequency Percentage. Item Working Hours. Frequency. Percentage. Female. 123. 61.5. < 8 hours. 43. 21.5. Male. 77. 38.3. 8-10 hours. 124. 62.0. 11-12 hours. 21. 10.5. > than 12 hours. 12. 6.0. Age Under 20. 5. 2.5. 20-25 26-30. 57 50. 28.5 25.0. Sector Public Sector. 129. 64.5. 31-35. 32. 16.0. Private Sector. 71. 35.5. 36-40 41-45 46-50. 26 13 4. 13.0 6.5 2.0. Industry Type Agriculture, For…. 15. 7.5. Above 50. 13. 6.5. Manufacturing. 3. 1.5. Electric & Gas. 3. 1.5. Water Supply…. 1. .5. Education Highschool or <. 36. 18.0. Construction. 2. 1.0. Associate’s. 79. 39.5. Wholesale & Re… 9. 4.5. Bachelor’s. 48. 24.0. Transportation…. 8. 4.0. Master’s. 30. 15.0. Accommodation… 4. 2.0 (Continue). 27.

(35) Table 3.5. (Continued) Item Doctoral or >. Frequency 7. Percentage 3.5. Employment. Item Information.... Frequency 7. Percentage 3.5. Financial…. 14. 7.0. Real Estate. 3. 1.5. Full-time. 175. 87.1. Professional,. 10. 5.0. Part-time. 26. 12.9. Support Service 19. 9.5. Public Ad…. 14. 7.0. Education. 55. 27.5. Job Position Staff. 129. 64.5. Human Heal … 15. 7.5. Supervisor. 26. 13.0. Art, Enter…. 9. 4.5. Mid-level Super…. 22. 11.0. Technology. 9. 4.5. Senior Executives. 23. 11.5. < 1 Year. 30. 15.0. Service Years Daily Customers < 20. 81. 40.5. 1-3 years. 66. 33.0. 20-25. 29. 14.5. 4-7 years. 41. 20.5. 26-30. 14. 7.0. 8-10 years. 24. 12.0. 36-40. 9. 4.5. 41-45. 2. 1.0. Job Tenure. 46-50. 3. 1.5. <1 Year. 45. 22.5. > 50. 53. 26.5. 1-3 Years. 75. 37.5. 4-7 Years. 38. 19.0. 8-10 Years. 14. 7.0. > 10 Years. 28. 14.0. 20. 19.8. Work Area Marketing. 21. 10.5. Finance. 36. 18.0. Operations Man…. 75. 37.5. Previous Years. Human Resource. 49. 24.5. <1 Year. (Continued) 28.

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