Building the World’s Largest Optical Telescope at ESO

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ASIAA, Taiwan, 5 May 2015 1

Building the World’s Largest

Optical Telescope at ESO

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ASIAA, Taiwan, 5 May 2015

Astronomy

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Study of everything beyond the Earth

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Objects far away, hence appear small and faint

! Need for large instruments: resolution and sensitivity

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Combining different types of observations crucial

! Images/spectra/time-series

! Visible/IR and radio regimes accessible from ground

! Other wavelengths: space observatories

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Technology now available to

! Study objects over 95% of the age of the Universe

! Detect and study planets around other stars

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European Southern Observatory

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1962

! ESO created by five Member States with the goal to build a large telescope in the southern hemisphere

•  Belgium, France, Germany, Sweden and The Netherlands

! This became the 3.6m telescope on La Silla (1976)

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2015

! 14+2 Member States (~30% of the world’s astronomers)

! Paranal is the world-leading ground-based observatory

! ALMA (in partnership) on Chajnantor in early operations

! Construction of 39m E-ELT on Armazones has started

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La Silla, Paranal & Chajnantor

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La Silla

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3.6m with HARPS

3.5m NTT

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Paranal

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Paranal

Paranal

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Transparent Skies

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Control building

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Integrated System

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Paranal Residence

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MUSE

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Integral field spectrograph

! 60″x60″ FOV sampled at 0.2″x0.2″

! 7″x7″ FOV sampled at 0.025″x0.025″

! 90000 spectra covering 4650-9300 A, with R ~ 2000-4000

! Most efficient spectrograph on VLT

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Built for deep fields

! Applications across ~all astrophysics

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SPHERE

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Adaptive optics assisted imager

! Near-infrared wavelengths

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Early results:

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VLT Interferometer

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Unique facility

! Can use all 4 UT’s and/or 4 movable AT’s (mapping)

•  130 m max baseline ⇒ angular resolution ~2 mas at H and K

! Imaging and spectroscopy

! Routine operations, integrated in VLT data-flow model

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Science

! Proto-planetary disks

! Shapes of stars

! Characterization of AGN dust tori

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HD98922+6+ImgRec2+

Fs0+=+30%+

dind+=+1.57+

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+0.00e+00 +6.87e−05 +1.37e−04 +2.06e−04 +2.75e−04 +3.44e−04 +4.12e−04 +4.81e−04 +5.50e−04 +6.18e−04 +6.87e−04

relative α (milliarcseconds)

relative δ (milliarcseconds)

Chi2+=+0.47+

SCI_HD98922

2012−12−19_SCI_HD98922_oiDataCalib.fits 2012−12−21_SCI_HD98922_oiDataCalib.fits 2013−01−25_SCI_HD98922_oiDataCalib.fits 2013−01−26_SCI_HD98922_oiDataCalib.fits 2013−01−27_SCI_HD98922_oiDataCalib.fits 2013−01−29_SCI_HD98922_oiDataCalib.fits 2013−01−30_SCI_HD98922_oiDataCalib.fits 2013−01−31_SCI_HD98922_oiDataCalib.fits 2013−02−16_SCI_HD98922_oiDataCalib.fits 2013−02−17_SCI_HD98922_oiDataCalib.fits 2013−02−18_SCI_HD98922_oiDataCalib.fits 2013−02−19_SCI_HD98922_oiDataCalib.fits

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0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

v2

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t3phi

Eta Carina Dust sublimation in

proto-planetary disk

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Survey Telescopes

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VISTA 4.1m for infrared

! VIRCAM, 8k x 8k, FOV 1.6

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VST 2.6m for optical

! OmegaCAM, 16k x 16k, FOV 1

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Dedicated to large public surveys

! Carried out by community teams after open competition for time

! Several 100 nights per programme

! Data reduction done outside ESO

! Reduced data to ESO archive

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VST VISTA

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Instrumentation Programme

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Long-range plan

! Upgrades and new instruments in budget through 2030+

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In-house development programme

! Detectors, controllers, edge-sensors

! Adaptive optics systems

! Innovative fiber lasers (patented)

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Infrastructure upgrades

! Adaptive Optics Facility on UT4 in 2015/16

•  Four powerful lasers plus deformable secondary

! Key components for VLTI

•  Adaptive Optics units for ATs

! Commissioning incoherent combined focus

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Partnership with Community

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Future Paranal instruments

! VLT: ESPRESSO, CRIRES+, CUBES, ERIS, MOONS, …

! VLTI: GRAVITY, MATISSE, …

! VISTA: 4MOST

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Most instruments built by consortia of institutes

! ESO pays hardware (~1/3rd of total cost)

! Consortia provide fte’s; compensated in Guaranteed Time

! This corresponds to up to ~250 nights per instrument

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Consortia constitute very powerful support network

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End-to-end Operations Model

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Observing proposals

! ~900+ proposals per semester (plus ~50 DDT)

•  Oversubscription ~3+, depending on requested mode

! Time allocated on scientific merit

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Operations

! ~70/30 in Service/Visitor mode (Paranal)

•  Travel support by ESO

! Data transfer by fiber: in HQ archive in few minutes

! User portal: 9000+ registered users

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Archive

! Open to the world, includes pipeline reduction software

! Also contains advanced data products

•  Specific instruments, Large Programmes, Surveys

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APEX (1)

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Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (since 2006)

! 12m sub-millimeter antenna on Chajnantor at 5100m

! Partnership of MPIfR (50%), OSO (23%) and ESO (27%)

! Operated by ESO since 2007

•  From base in Sequitor near San Pedro de Atacama since 2007

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APEX (2)

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Strong scientific use and impact

! Facility, PI- and visiting bolometers and spectrometers

! Star formation, high-redshift galaxies, ISM physics

! Kilo-pixel cameras A-MKIDS and ArTeMiS to come

! Wide-field complement to, and pathfinder for, ALMA

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ALMA

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Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array

! 54 x 12m + 12 x 7m antenna’s on Chajnantor at 5050m

! 7 – 0.35 mm (30-900 GHz) in 10+ atmospheric windows

! World’s most powerful radio interferometer

! Cold Universe: formation of planets, stars and galaxies

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Global partnership

! North America (37.5%), East Asia (25%) & ESO (37.5%)

! In cooperation with Chile

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Array Operations Site

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Long Baselines

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CARMA ALMA

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Transformational facility

! Superb Chajnantor site (5000m), state-of-the art receivers

! 66 antennas, baselines larger than 15 km

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E-ELT

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Largest optical/infrared telescope in the world

! 39m segmented primary mirror: transformational step

! Science: exo-earths, deep universe, resolved populations

! On Armazones, as integral part of the Paranal system

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Construction has started

! Cost-to-completion 1122 MEUR (2015 prices)

! Includes contingency and contribution to first instruments

! Roadmap for seven instruments being implemented

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Funding

! Regular ESO income

! ~30% increase of contributions by 14 Member States

! Accession of Brazil and Poland

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E-ELT

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E-ELT, is there life outside Earth?

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Armazones and Paranal

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The Organization

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Mission

! Develop and operate world-class observing facilities for astronomical research

! Organize collaborations in astronomy

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This is achieved by

! Highly-skilled staff carrying out a multi-project programme

•  ~390 staff in Garching at Headquarters

•  ~300 staff in Chile at Observatory sites and Vitacura Office

! In-house science, engineering and support activities

•  Without these ESO becomes a management agency, the quality of the programme will suffer and support by the MS will decline

! Matched by additional effort in the Member States

•  In industry and in technical and scientific institutions

•  In good coordination with ESO

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The ESO Model

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Partnership with community is key to support

! Joint instrumentation development

! Public surveys, advanced data products, ALMA support

! Student and Fellowship programme

! Small telescope and experiments hosted on La Silla

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Multi-project programme is cost-effective

! Re-use engineering skills, apply lessons learned

! Experience in working effectively with industry

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Intergovernmental structure provides

! Support at highest government levels

•  Ministerial level and above in Member States and in Chile

! Budget stability and long-term planning ability

•  Contributions proportional to Net National Income

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Long-term strategy for ESO

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Moderate further growth in membership

! Countries with high-quality scientific communities that are keen to join, bring added value, and government support

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Continue to operate and build world-class facilities

! Optical, radio and other ‘messengers’

•  CTA interested in siting Southern array in Paranal area

! Balance multi-purpose telescopes and experiments

! Can be ‘all-ESO’ or in partnership

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