同位素及微量元素在環境樣品的紀錄---追溯人類活動對全球變遷的衝擊-鍶-釹-鉛-鋰-硼同位素在地球物質循環與水岩反應之應用---以隱沒帶作用為研究重點(I)

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行政院國家科學委員會專題研究計畫 期中進度報告

同位素及微量元素在環境樣品的紀錄:追溯人類活動對全球

變遷的衝擊--總計畫(2/4)

期中進度報告(精簡版)

計 畫 類 別 : 整合型 計 畫 編 號 : NSC 98-2628-M-006-003- 執 行 期 間 : 98 年 08 月 01 日至 99 年 09 月 30 日 執 行 單 位 : 國立成功大學地球科學系(所) 計 畫 主 持 人 : 游鎮烽 共 同 主 持 人 : 李德春、何東垣、楊懷仁 處 理 方 式 : 本計畫可公開查詢

中 華 民 國 99 年 08 月 12 日

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I.

C

OVER

Program for Science Vanguard Research Program (SVRP)

Mid-Term Report

Title of Proposal (Chinese):

同位素及微量元素在環境樣品的紀錄:追溯人類活動對全球變遷的衝擊

Title of Proposal (English):

The Isotopic and Elemental Records in Environmental Samples: Tracing the

Impacts of Anthropogenic Activities on Global Changes

Principal Investigator (Chinese):

游鎮烽

Principal Investigator (English):

Chen-Feng You

Participating Institutions:

Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University

Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica

Research Center for Environmental Changes, Academia Sinica

Overall Duration: Month 08 Year 2008 - Month 07 Year 2012 Report Duration: Month 08 Year 2008 - Month 07 Year 2010

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II. B

ASIC

I

NFORMATION OF THE

P

ROGRAM

Program Title: The isotopic and elemental records in environmental samples: tracing the impacts of anthropogenic activities on global changes 追溯人類活動對全球變遷的衝擊:環

境樣品中元素及同位素記錄 Pr in cip al In ve stigat or

Name

Chen-Feng You 游鎮烽

Tel: 06-2757575ext65438 Fax: 06-2740285 E-mail cfy20@mail.ncku.edu.tw Expenditures* (in NT$1,000) Projected Actual 97 12000 11480 98 12000 12000

Serial No. Project Title Principal

Investigator Title Affiliation

Sub-Project 1

Reconstruction of centennial to millennium environmental

variations surrounding Taiwan: B and Pb isotopes in coral skeletons and sediments 重建百年到千年來台 灣附近環境變遷:珊瑚骨骼和沉積 物硼及鉛同位素研究 Chen-Feng You 游鎮烽 Professor 教授 National Cheng-Kung University/ Dept Earth Sciences 國立 成功大學/地球 科學系 Sub-Project 2

Metal stable isotopes in environmental change 穩定金屬同位素在環境變遷之應用 Der-Chuen Lee 李德春 Associate Research Fellow 副研究員 Academia Sinica/Earth Sciences 中央 研究院/ 地球 科學研究所 Sub-Project 3

The element and isotopic

composition in aerosols, seawater, and marine phytoplankton: tracing the human impact through aeolian pathway 氣膠、海水暨海洋植物性 浮游生物必要重金屬元素及其同位 素組成:人類衝擊經由大氣傳輸途 徑溯源 Tung-Yuan Ho 何東垣 Assistant Research Fellow 助研究員 Academia Sinica/ RCEC, 中 央 研究院/環境 變遷研究中 Sub-Project 4 Applications of Sr-Nd-Hf-Li-B isotopes on cycling of Earth’s materials with emphasis on fluid-rock interactions within subduction zones 鍶-釹-鉿-鋰-硼同位素在地球物質循 環與水岩反應之應用:以隱沒帶作 用為研究重點 Huai-Jen Yang 楊懷仁 Aassociate Professor 副教授 Dept Earth Sciences/ NCKU 國立成 功大學地球科 學系

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III.

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ORM

3)

E

XECUTIVE

S

UMMARY ON

R

ESEARCH

O

UTCOMES OF THIS

P

ROGRAM

During the first stage of this program, we have dedicated significant efforts to develop proper analytical techniques for high precision trace element and isotopic measurements (main project and sub-projects 1-4), as well as various culture facilities in laboratory (particularly projects 1 and 3). Several technical breakthroughs for B, Zn, Cd and Pb isotopic measurements (projects 1 &2) and REE determinations (projects 1&4), as well as natural applications, are published (or in press) in high impact international journals. The project 3 has demonstrated that anthropogenic trace metals transported by aeolian pathway are the major trace metal source in the surface water of the South China Sea. The will appear in 2010 July issue of Limnology and Oceanography, the top ranking journal in oceanography. We have further demonstrated quantitatively that the anthropogenic metals have invaded to the deep water in the South China Sea (submitted to L&O and is being reviewed). In addition, financially supported by this project, we also revealed that Ni is an essential trace metal for nitrogen fixation by Trichodesmium. The paper has been well received by the reviewers of

L&O and is under revision now. A novel flow injection ion chromatography method for

seawater trace metal analysis by ICPMS has also been submitted to Talanta. However, the most exciting breakthrough in project 3 so far is that our laboratory has revealed the major controlling mechanisms of Cd isotope fractionation in marine diatom and coccolithophores with the technical support from Der-Chuen Lee (project 2) and our Ph.D. student. We have observed that both trace metal competition effects in seawater and metal transporters on cellular membrane play key roles on regulating Cd isotope composition in marine diatom and coccolithophores. We have proposed a model to explain the mechanism and are currently writing the paper. We plan to submit the finding to a highly ranking journal. New related phytoplankton culture experiments focusing on Ni, Zn, Mo are being carried out. Exciting results are expected.

Based on major and trace elements and Sr-Nd-Hf isotope data, the first batch of the Lutao samples (project 4) are classified into five groups. The observed geochemical variations cannot be reconciled by previously postulated models; specifically, fractional crystallization following partial melting from sources involving various proportions of common end-members. Our new data from the NLA lavas and South China Sea sediments (IODP Leg 184) allow us to argue that Lutao lavas from each group were derived from mantle sources that subjected to interactions with fluids and/or melts from subducted sediments and/or oceanic crust. The most significant feature is the Lutao

143

Nd/144Nd-176Hf/177Hf trend transecting the “terrestrial array”. Once the critical piece of information, the 176Hf/177Hf ratio of the low 143Nd/144Nd samples, is measured, a comprehensive scenario on fluid (melt) – rock interaction beneath the NLA can then be synthesized for publication. Additionally, we have also analyzed a batch of 15 Lanyu samples for trace element contents. The systematic variations between LREE contents and La/Ce, Nb/La, and Nb/Ta ratios are consistent with the chemical consequences from mentle – fluid (melt) interaction. Compared to that of the Lutao lavas, the source of the Lanyu lavas were subjected to high extents of interactions with fluid and/or melts derived from subducted

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sediemtns. Our new data and interpretation imply that the previous models built upon limited data and considered Lutao and Lanyu lavas as a whole require a large extent of revision. A more comprehensive understanding on the “chemical dynamics” dominated by fluid-rock interactions within the NLA mantle wedge (metasomatism) and the following petro-tectonic evolution will soon be achieved by our continuing efforts on this project. The compositional and isotopic differences from the outcropped Lanyu and Lutao lavas are also important parameters for evaluating the environmental and biological processes in this region. Finally, we mention our dedication to Hf isotope analysis. Although this procedure has been established for 10 years, it was recently postulated that the Hf isotope analysis might be subjected to interference from Ti. Our new data from this project are based on reliable Hf purification procedures, which also benefit our researches on the Sulu convergent zone at eastern China.

Keywords: trace elements; isotopic compositions, anthropogenic impacts

New Technical Breakthroughs:

Shen J. J-S., Lee D-C., Liang W-T. (2009) Absolute Ca isotopic measurement using improved double spike technique. TAO 20, 455-464.

Chen H-W., Lee T., Lee D-C., Iizuka Y. (2009) In situ Ti isotopic measurements by laser ablation MC-ICP-MS. TAO 20, 703-712.

Aggarwal J. (in alphabetic order), F. Bohm, G. Foster, S. Halas, B. Honisch, S.Y. Jiang, J. Kosler, A. Liba, I. Rodushkin, T. Sheehan, J. J.S. Shen, S. Tonarini, Q. Xie, C.-F. You, Z.-Q. Zhao and E. Zuleger (2009) How well do non-traditional stable isotope results compare between different laboratories: results from the interlaboratory comparison of boron isotope measurements, J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 2009, 24, 825–831 (SCI, 4.028, 4/70 in Chemistry:analytical)

Chung C.-H., I.J. Brenner, C.-F. You (2009) Comparison of microconcentric and membrane-desolvation sample introduction systems for determination of low rare earth element concentrations in surface and subsurface waters using magnetic sector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry Spectrochimica Acta, Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy 64, issue 9, 831-842. (SCI 2.853, 9/39 in Spectroscopy)

Aggarwal S. K., B.-S. Wang, C.-F. You* and C.-H. Chung (2009) Fractionation Correction Methodology for Precise and Accurate Isotopic Analysis of Boron by Negative Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry Based on BO2 - Ions and Using the 18O/16O Ratio from ReO4- for Internal Normalization, Anal. Chem. 2009, 81, 7420–7427 (SCI 5.712, 1/70 in Analytical Chemistry).

Wang B.-S., C.-F. You*, K.-F. Huang, S.-F. Wu, C.-H. Chung, S. K. Aggarwal, P.-Y. Lin (2010) Direct separation of boron from Na- and Ca-rich matrices by sublimation for high precision MC-ICP-MS isotopic measurements (in press, SCI, IF 3.29 Talanta)

Nohda S.,B.-S. Wang., C.-F. You, R. Shinjo (2010) Precise lead isotopic analysis in nanogram natural specimen by Faraday mode DS-TIMS using a modified activator (submitted to JAAS)

Applications:

Huang, K.-F, You*, C.-F., Lin, H.-L. and Shieh, Y.-T. (2008) In situ Calibration of Mg/Ca Ratio in Planktonic Foraminiferal Shell using Time-series Sediment Trap: A case study of intense dissolution artifact in the South China Sea Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst 9, Q04016, doi:10.1029/2007GC001660 (SCI 2.979, 10/64 in Geochem. and Geophys)

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Zimmerman B., Porcelli D., Frank M., Rickli J., Lee D-C., Halliday A. N. (2009) The hafnium isotope composition of Pacific Ocean water. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 73, 91-101. Zimmerman B., Porcelli D., Frank M., Anderson, P. S., Baskaran, M., Lee D-C., Halliday A. N.

(2009 ) Hafnium isotope in Arctic Ocean water. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 73, 3218-3223.

Godfrey L. V., Zimmermann B., Lee D-C., King R.L., Vervoort J. D., Sherrell R. M., Halliday A. N. (2009) Hafnium and neodymium isotope variations in NE Atlantic seawater. G3 10, Q08015.

Lee D-C., Halliday A. N., Singletary S. J., Grove T. L. (2009) 182Hf-182W chronometry and early differentiation of the ureilite parent body. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 288, 611-618.

Lee D-C. (2008) 182Hf-182W chronometry and the early evolution history in the acapulcoite-lodranite parent body. Meteor. Planet. Sci. 43, 675-684.

Zhou Houyun, Jianxin Zhao, Pingzhong Zhang, Chuan-Chou Shen, Baoquan Chi, Yuexing Feng, Yin Lin, Huazheng Guan, Chen-Feng You (2008) Decoupling of Stalagmite-Derived Asian Summer Monsoon Records from North Atlantic Temperature Change during Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage 5d, Quat. Res. 70, 315–321, doi:10.1016/j.yqres.2008.04.007. (SCI, 2.457, 23/143 in multidisciplinary geosciences) Li, H.-C., Xu, X.-M. Ku, T.-L. You, C.-F. Buchheim, H. P. and Peters R. (2008) Isotopic and

Geochemical Evidence of Paleoclimate Changes in Salton Basin, California During the Past 20 Kyrs: 1. 18O and 13C Records in Lake Tufa Deposits. Palaeogeography,

Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 259 (2008) 182-197. A special issue on “Lake systems:

sedimentary archives of climate change and tectonics”. (2.405, 4/40 in PALEONTOLOGY).

Li, H.-C., You, C.-F. Xu, X.-M. Ku, T.-L. Buchheim, H. P. Wan, N. J. Wang, R.-M. and Shen, M.-L. (2008) Isotopic and geochemical evidence of paleoclimate Changes in Salton Basin, Cal 87Sr/86Sr ratio in lake tufa deposits as a tracer of water sources. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 259 (2008) 198–212. A special issue on “Lake systems: sedimentary archives of climate change and tectonics”. (SCI, 2.405, 4/40 in PALEONTOLOGY)

Chung C.-H., Chen-Feng You and Tung-Yuan Fan (2008) A Feasibility Evaluation of Using Coral Chemical Compositions as Climate Proxies:A Tank Study, Journal of National Taiwan Museum 61(2):61-84.

Liu, J., Huh, C.-A. and You, C.-F. (2009) Fate of Terrestrial Substances in the Gaoping

(formerly spelled Kaoping) Submarine Canyon Journal Marine Systems, 76. 367-368, doi: 10.1016/j.jmarsys.2008.08.005 (SCI, 2.255, 16/87 in Marine and Freshwater Biology).

Chung, C.-H., You, C.-F.* and Chu, H.-Y. (2009) Rare Earth Element Distribution and Sr Isotope Geochemistry of the Kaoping River Catchments. Jour. Marine Systems 76, 433-443, doi: 10.1016/j.jmarsys. 2007.09.013 (SCI, 2.255, 16/87 in Marine and Freshwater Biology)

Wang, R.M., You, C.F.*, Chu, H.Y., and Hung, J.J. (2009) Seasonal variability of dissolved major and trace elements in the Kaoping River estuary, Southwestern Taiwan. Journal Marine Systems 76, 444-456, doi: 10.1016/j.jmarsys.2007.11.012 (SCI, 2.255, 16/87 in Marine and Freshwater Biology).

Reich M. Palacios, C., Vargas, G., Luo, S., Cameron E. M., Leybourne, M. I., Parada, M. A., Zúñiga, A. and You, C.-F. (2009) Supergene enrichment of copper deposits since the

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onset of modern hyperaridity in the Atacama Desert, Chile, Miner. Deposita (2009) 44:497–504, DOI 10.1007/s00126-009-0229-3 (SCI 2.037, 5/25 in Mineralogy)

Zhou Houyun, Bo-Shian Wang, Huazheng Guan, Yi-Jen Lai, Chen-Feng You, Jinlian Wang, Huai-Jen Yang (2009) Constraints from Strontium and Neodymium Isotopic Ratios and Trace Elements on the Sources of the Sediments in Lake Huguang Maar, Quaternary Research 72, 289-300. (SCI, 2.457, 23/143 in multidisciplinary geosciences)

Chang, M.Y., Tzeng, W.N. and You, C.F. (2009) Otolith elemental fingerprints as biological tracers for tracking larval dispersal of black porgy, Acanthopagrus schlegeli and yellofin seabream, A. latus among estuaries of western Taiwan. Advance in Fish Tagging & Marking Technology (American Fisheries Society)

Ho Tung-Yuan, Chen-Feng You, Wen-Chen Chou, Su-Cheng Pai, and Liang-Saw Wen (2009) Cadmium and phosphorus cycling in the water column of the South China Sea: the roles of biotic and abiotic particles, Marine Chemistry 115, 125-133 (SCI, 2.977, 5/50 in Oceanography).

Zhou Houyun, Yuexing Feng, Jianxin Zhao, Zhaoyu Zhu, Chuan-Chou Shen, Chen-Feng You, Lina Zheng, Yin Lin, Huazheng Guan (2009) Deglacial variations of Sr and 87Sr/86Sr ratio recorded by a stalagmite from Central China and their association with past climate and environment. Chemical Geology (2009), doi: 10.1016/j.chemgeo.2009.09. 003 (SCI, 3.531, 6/63 in Earth Science, Geochem & Geophysics)

Ho Kung-Suan, Ju-Chin Chen, Chen-Feng You, Shih-Chieh Hsu and Ming-Huei Huang (2009) The first occurrence of suolunite in Taiwan: its physical properties, chemical

compositions and genesis. Collection and Research 22, 1-13

You* C.-F., B.-S. Wang, C.-S. Chung and K.-F. Huang (2009) Determination of the strontium isotope ratio by ICP-MS ginseng as a tracer of regional origin, Food Chemistry 115, 387 (SCI, 2.696, 9/107 in food science and technology)

Jin Z D, Yu J M, Wang S M, Zhang F, Shi Y W, You C. F. (2009) Constraints on water chemistry by chemical weathering in the Lake Qinghai catchment, northeastern Tibetan Plateau (China): Clues from Sr and its isotopic geochemistry. Hydrogeology Journal, 2009, 17: 2037–2048. (SCI 1.10, 30/60 in water resources)

Jin Z D, You C F, Yu J. (2009) Toward a geochemical mass balance of major elements in Lake Qinghai, NE Tibetan Plateau: A significant role of atmospheric deposition. Applied Geochemistry, 24: 1901-1907. (SCI, 1.857, 24/64 in Geochemistry & Geophysics) Jin Z D, You C F, Zhang F, Shi Y W. Hydrological and chemical budgets of Lake Qinghai, the

largest saline lake at the Tibetan Plateau. Quaternary International 2010, DOI:10.1016/ j.quaint.2009.11.024.(in press; SCI 1.45)

Alagarsamy R., C.-F. You, B. N. Nath and A. V. Sijin Kumar (2010) Determination of rare earth, major and trace elements in authigenic fraction of Andaman Sea (Northeastern Indian Ocean) sediments by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry,

Microchemistry Journal 94, 90–97 doi: 10.1016/j.microc.2009.09.007 (SCI 2.505, 20/70, Chemistry Analytical)

Wang C. H., Y. T. Lin, J. C. Shiao, C. F. You and W. N. Tzeng (2009) Spatio-temporal variation in the elemental compositions of otoliths of southern bluefin tuna Thunnus maccoyii in

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the Indian Ocean and its ecological implication Journal of Fish Biology (2009) 75, 1173–1193

Wang C.-H., C.-C. Hsu, C.-W. Chang, C.-F. You and W.-N. Tzeng (2010) The migratory environmental history of freshwater resident flathead mullet Mugil cephalus L. in the Tanshui River of Taiwan. Zoological Studies (in press)

Chao H.-C., Chen-Feng You *, Chih-Hsien Sun (2010) Gases emission in Taiwan Mud

Volcanoes: Chemical Composition, Methane Carbon Isotopes, and Gas Fluxes, Applied Geochemistry, 25, 428–436 (SCI, 1.857, 24/64 in Geochemistry & Geophysics)

Wang Bo-Shian, Chen-Feng You*, Kuo-Fang Huang, Chuan-Hsiung Chung, Nai-Jung Wan, Ching-Hsing Chiu (2010) High Precision Boron Isotopic Measurement in Coral Skeleton: Implications for pCO2 Variation in Surface Seawater, Limnology and

Oceanography (revised)

Huang Kuo-Fang, Chen-Feng You, Yung-Hsin Liu, Ruo-Mei Wang, Pei-Ying Lin and Chuan-Hsiung Chung (2010) Low-memory, Small Sample Size, Accurate and High-Precision Determinations of Lithium Isotopic Ratios in Natural Materials by MC-ICP-MS J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 24 (SCI, 4.028, 4/70 in Chemistry:analytical) Huang Kuo-Fang, Chen-Feng Youand In-Tian Lin(2010) Non-homogeneous Seawater Sr

Isotopic Composition in the Coastal Oceans: A Novel Tool for Tracing Water Masses and Submarine Groundwater Discharge. JGR-Ocean (revised).

Chang Mia-Ching and Chen-Feng You* (2010) Sources of major ions and heavy metals in rainwater associated with typhoon events in southwestern Taiwan" Journal Geochemical Exploration 105, 106-116(SCI, IF 1.791, 27/75 in Geophysics and Geochemical).

Cheng Miao-Ching, Chen-Feng You*, Fei-Jan Lin, Chuan-Hsiung Chung, Kuo-Fang Huang (2010) Seasonal variations of long-range transported dusts to a subtropical islet

offshore northern Taiwan: Chemical composition and Sr isotopic evidence in rainwater (AE, in press)

Ho, T.-Y.,W.-C. Chou, C.-L. Wei, F.-J. Lin, G. T. F. Wong, and H.-L. Lin (2010) Trace metal cycling in the surface water of the South China Sea: Vertical fluxes, composition, and sources. Limnology and Oceanography (in press).

Ho, T.-Y., W.-C. Chou, B.-N. Wang, H.-L. Lin, and D. D. Sheu. (submitted) Trace metal cycling in the water column of the South China Sea: Vertical fluxes, composition, and sources.

Limnology and Oceanography

Carvalho de Carvalho, M., T.-Y. Ho, S.-J. Kao, C.-H. Wang, F.-K. Shiah (2010) Planktonic respiration in the light measured using a carbon stable isotope budget. Aquatic Microbial

Ecology. (in press)

Ho, T.-Y., C.-L Hu, and H.-J. Yang (submitted) Nickel limitation of nitrogen fixation by

Trichodesmium. Limnology and Oceanography (in revision)

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pretreatment system for multi-elemental analysis of trace metals by ICPMS. Talanta. Wen, D.-R., Chung, S.-L., Song, B., Iizuka, Y., Yang, H.-J., Ji, J., Liu, D. and Gallet, S. (2008)

Late Cretaceous Gangdese intrusions of adakitic geochemical characteristics, SE Tibet: petrogenesis and tectonic implications. Lithos 105, 1–11.

Zhang, J.-X., Mattinson, C.G., Meng, F.-C., Yang, H.-J. and Wan, Y.S. (2009) U–Pb geochronology of paragneisses and metabasite in the Xitieshan area, north Qaidam Mountains, western China: Constraints on the exhumation of HP/UHP metamorphic rocks. Journal of Asia Earth Sciences 35, 245–258.

Tseng, C.-Y., Yang, H.-J.*, Yang, H.-Y., Liu, D.-Y., Wu, C.-L., Cheng, C.-K., Chen, C.-H. and Ker, C.-M. (2009) Continuity of the North Qilian and North Qinling orogenic belts, central orogenic system of China: evidence from newly discovered Paleozoic adakitic rocks. Gondwana Research 16, 285–293.

Tseng, C.-Y., Zuo, G.-C., Yang, H.-J., Yang, H.-Y., Tung, K.-A., Liu, D.-Y. and Wu, H.-Q. (2009) Occurrence of Alaskan-type mafic-ultramafic intrusions in the North Qilian Mountains, northwest China: Evidence of Cambrian arc magmatism on the Qilian Block. Island arc18, 526–549.

Liu, Y.-H., Yang, H.-J.*, Zhang, J., Shau, Y.-H., Chu, M.-F., Iizuka, Y. and Yu, S.-C. (2010) Kyanite formation and element fractionation in the high-Al eclogite from the Sulu UHP metamorphic terrane. Terrestrial, Atmospheric, Oceanic Sciences 21, 277–298.

Nath, B., Jean, J-S., Lee, M.-K., Yang, H.-J. and Liu, C.-C. (2008) Geochemistry of high arsenic groundwater in Chia-Nan plain, southwestern Taiwan: Possible sources and reactive transport of arsenic. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 99, 85–96.

Reza, S., Jean, J.-S., Yang, H.-J., Lee, M.-K., Liu, C.-C., Lee, J.-F. and Luo, S.-D. (2010) Heterogeneous Distribution of Arsenic in Core Sediments and Groundwater in the Chapai-Nawabganj District, Northwestern Bangladesh. Water Research 44, 2021–2037.

Hsieh, P.-S., Chen, C.-H., Yang, H.-J. and Lee, C.-Y. (2008) Petrogenesis of the Nanling Mountains granites from South China: Constraints from systematic apatite geochemistry and whole-rock geochemical and Sr-Nd isotope compositions. Journal of Asia Earth Sciences 33, 428–451.

Ho, K.-S., Liu, Y., Chen, J.-C. and Yang, H.-J. (2008) Element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions of late Cenozoic Abaga basalts, Inner Mongolia: Implications for petrogenesis and mantle process. Geochemical Journal 42, 339–357.

Chen, C.-H., Hsieh, P.-S., Wang K.-L., Yang, H.-J., Lin W., Liang, Y.-H., Lee C.-Y., Yang, H,-C. (2010) Zircon LA-ICPMS U–Pb ages and Hf isotopes of Huayu volcanics in the Taiwan Strait and tectonic implication. Journal of Asia Earth Sciences 37, 17–30.

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行政院國家科學委員會補助專題研究計畫

□成果報告

■期中進度報告

同位素及微量元素在環境樣品的紀錄:追溯人類活動對全球變遷的衝

擊--總計畫(2/4)

計畫類別:□個別型計畫 ■整合型計畫

計畫編號:NSC 98-2628-M-006-003

執行期間: 98 年 08 月 01 日至 99 年 07 月 31 日

執行機構及系所:國立成功大學地球科學系

計畫主持人:游鎮烽

共同主持人:

計畫參與人員:崛真子

成果報告類型(依經費核定清單規定繳交):

精簡報告 □完整報告

本計畫除繳交成果報告外,另頇繳交以下出國心得報告:

□赴國外出差或研習心得報告

赴大陸地區出差或研習心得報告

出席國際學術會議心得報告

□國際合作研究計畫國外研究報告

處理方式:

除列管計畫及下列情形者外,得立即公開查詢

□涉及專利或其他智慧財產權,□一年□二年後可公開查詢

中 華 民 國 99 年 08 月 12 日

附件一

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國科會補助專題研究計畫成果報告自評表

請就研究內容與原計畫相符程度、達成預期目標情況、研究成果之學術或應用價

值(簡要敘述成果所代表之意義、價值、影響或進一步發展之可能性)

、是否適

合在學術期刊發表或申請專利、主要發現或其他有關價值等,作一綜合評估。

1. 請就研究內容與原計畫相符程度、達成預期目標情況作一綜合評估

■達成目標

□ 未達成目標(請說明,以 100 字為限)

□ 實驗失敗

□ 因故實驗中斷

□ 其他原因

說明:

2. 研究成果在學術期刊發表或申請專利等情形:

論文:■已發表 □未發表之文稿 □撰寫中 □無

專利:□已獲得 □申請中 □無

技轉:□已技轉 □洽談中 □無

其他:

(以 100 字為限)

3. 請依學術成就、技術創新、社會影響等方面,評估研究成果之學術或應用價

值(簡要敘述成果所代表之意義、價值、影響或進一步發展之可能性)(以

500 字為限)

在第一階段計畫中,我們投注很多努力去發展適當的高精度微量元素及

同位素分析方法,特別是一些實驗室養殖實驗所需設備。一些技術突破包括

B、Zn、Cd 和 Pb 同位素分析方法和 REE 測量皆已分別發表於高影響力國際期

刊。分項計畫更驗證人為造成微量元素污染已經由氣膠途徑傳輸到南海表

水,發表於 Limnology and Oceanography 高評價海洋期刊,我們更進一步

量化這些人為金屬如何入侵到南海深水。另外也評估 Ni 金屬對 N 固化的重要

性,一套新流體注入離子層析法應用於海水微量金屬分析的 ICP-MS 方法,此

分項計畫最重要的突破是對海洋矽藻和鈣板藻對 Cd 同位素的分化機制研

究,我們發現微量金屬的競爭效應和細胞薄膜金屬傳輸者皆扮演重要角色,

我們已提出一新模式解釋這些 Cd 同位素與生物分量機制,目前正在撰寫重要

文章,投稿國際最重要期刊。

附件二

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國科會補助專題研究計畫項下出席國際學術會議心得報告

日期: 年 月 日

[中英文摘要]

在為期五天(11/25-11/30)的會議議程中,筆者參與所有的演講及未來合作計畫的討論會,主要是 以沈積物從源到匯過程中所發生的物理化學過程與傳輸方式進行深入討論,同時筆者也進一步提出應 用非傳統穩定同位素地球化學的技術解決沈積物和溶解態間交互作用的新觀念,為探討地表侵蝕風化 作用的領域提供更為強而有力的新工具。同時為增進實驗室年輕研究人員與國外研究人員溝通的能 力,筆者也親自為他們介紹許多國內、外知名的科學家,希望藉由相互討論來提升知識背景及其對科 學研究的興趣與研究態度。本人也於 2009/11/27 受邀演講近期研究(Title:『Riverine Sr-Li isotope as a probe for chemical weathering intensity: A case study in the Kao-ping River』),之後並與各國研究人員進行 詳細的討論。而國內、外的專家學者也提供許多研究上的意見與建議,並分享其經驗,使本人獲益匪 淺。

International Workshop on the fluvial sediment supply to the South China Sea is the most important international workshop for the fields of fluvial sediment transport and source. Over 50 scientific researchers

計畫編號

NSC 98-2628-M-006-003

計畫名稱

同位素及微量元素在環境樣品的紀錄:追溯人類活動對全球變遷的衝擊--總計畫 (2/4)

出國人員

姓名

游鎮烽

服務機構

及職稱

國立成功大學地球科學系

會議時間

2009 年 11 月 25 日 至 2009 年 11 月 30 日

會議地點

中國上海

會議名稱

(中文)第二次南中國海河流沈積物傳輸國際研討會

(英文) Second International Workshop on the Fluvial Sediment Supply to the

South China Sea

發表論文

題目

(中文)以高屏溪 Sr 和 Li 同位素系統探討台灣地區矽酸鹽風化的強度與季節性變

化的關係

(英文)

Riverine Sr-Li isotope as a probe for chemical weathering intensity: A case study in the Kao-ping River

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from the countries around the South China Sea attended this 2nd International workshop in Tongji University, Shanghai, and more than 30 invited talks were given during the meeting. In the 5-days scientific schedule (11/25-11/30), I had attended all the oral and working group discussion, and I also proposed a new research direction to study the water-sediment interaction by applying the non-traditional isotope systems. In order to bring some new ideas and different views of scientific researches outside the Taiwan, I had introduced some scientists to the young scientist in my Lab, and this could improve their abilities of discussions and communications with scientists around the world. It’s really my honor to be invited to chair a session and to discuss our recent work on Li isotopes (Title: Riverine Sr-Li isotope as a probe for chemical weathering intensity: A case study in the Kao-ping River). After the session, I had discussed with all the scientists, and they also provided different viewpoints according to their experiences and expertise on my recent study. Many new idea and further collaborations came from these intensive discussions.

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一、目的

第二次南中國海河流沈積物傳輸國際研討會(Second International Workshop on the Fluvial Sediment

Supply to the South China Sea),為東亞地區沈積物傳輸及來源研究相關領域一年一度最大的聯合研討 會,主要由聯合國教育、科學及文化組織、西太帄洋聯合組織及中國上海同濟大學所共同舉辦。會中 包括 20 個以上的研究議題,涵蓋的範圍相當廣泛。藉由參與此類國際會議,除可以讓國內地球科學界 的專家學者增廣見聞並瞭解目前國際上科學研究的趨勢之外,也可提供許多與國外進行相關研究的研 究人員交流之機會,是一個可以獲得豐富的知識與熱烈討論的會議。

二、會議過程

筆者受邀所發表的論文題目為應用非傳統穩定同位素地球化學的技術探討沈積物和溶解態間交互 作用。此為發展新的Li和Li同位素質譜分析術,並應用於地表侵蝕風化的相關研究主題。此外,與會期 間也與許多參與國代表論跨國合作計畫,及未來可能合作方式。

會議期間與多位研究學者進行學術交流,以下僅就部分進行詳細的描述:Dr. Zhimin Jian (China)首 先以浮游有孔蟲 Mg/Ca 比與氧同位素比值重建西太帄洋暖池區的演化歷史,並進一步討論西太帄洋暖 池區對全球氣候變遷的影響,以及構造、軌道尺度下氣候變遷的主控因子,最後並提出熱帶海洋的海 水表面溫度變化可能是影響整個地球氣候系統的可能驅動因子;Dr. Christophe Colin(France)則討論冰 期-間冰期尺度下,利用碎屑沈積物 Sr 同位素,配合黏土礦物組成和風化指標(CIA),發現在冰期時, 強盛冰川作用所造成較強的物理風化使得 Irrawaddy River 上游產生大量未風化且富含 Rb 的礦物相,並 被傳輸至印度洋海域,造成海洋沈積物中 Sr 同位素在冰期時較間冰期高,此結果證實了劇烈氣候變遷 對地表物理及化學風化的影響甚劇;而 Dr. Zhifei Liu(China)以南海地區海洋表層沈積物中黏土礦物的 組成解釋沈積物的可能來源,並提出利用黏土礦物 Sr-Nd 同位素更進一步解開沈積物的來源,以及南 海古洋流的流徑與強度;與 Dr. Xixi Lu(Singapore)則討論亞洲地區大河流域在過去數十年來沈積物通 量的變化趨勢,以及自然環境變遷和人為活動對其的影響,並提出此劇變未來將會造成河道不穩定、 海岸邊坡變化以及海水入侵等問題;Dr. Jianguo Liu(China)則利用表層沈積物稀土元素的分佈探討南 中國海區沈積物來源及傳輸,並指出沈積物來源主要為台灣地區及中國東南部的沈積物;Dr. Stephan Steinke(German)則利用 Sunda Shelf 陸坡的黏土礦物組成重建過去一萬七千年以來海水面變化;Dr. Penjai Sompongchaiyakul(Thailand)則根據沈積物的礦物組成和地化指標追蹤泰國灣表層沈積物中 Cd, Zn, Cr, Fe and Mn 的污染源;Dr. Waraporn Sirnawin (Thailand)也近一步討論泰國灣外人工造礁所造成重 金屬污染(Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn)的來源及可能解決方法;Dr. Van Lap Nguyen (Vietnam)則認為湄公河三 角洲沖積扇的變遷與季風強度的變化有極大的關聯性;與 Dr. Wahyoe Soepri Hantoro(Indonesia)則討 論地質與氣候變遷對 印度尼西亞 Sunda Sea 黏土礦物組成及分布的影響;Dr. Shiming wang (China)則利

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用南海 ODP Site 1143 海洋沈積物的黏土礦物組成提出東亞夏季季風變遷深受進動(24 Ka)和 ENSO-like (30 Ka)的週期所影響;Dr. Chih-An Huh(Taiwan)則整合高屏溪外海表層沈積物和沈積物收集器的結果 討論台灣地區所輸出天然與人為沈積物對南海沈積物的貢獻與進出帄衡;Dr. Kuo-Fang Huang(Taiwan) 討論以高屏溪 Sr 和 Li 同位素系統探討台灣地區矽酸鹽風化的強度與季節性變化的關係,並發現河水 Li 同位素組成與矽酸鹽風化強度高度相關,但與世界上其他地區所發現的趨勢相反,可能由於7Li 在反應 限制區域(reaction-limited region)容易因風化作用而釋放至溶解態水體中,造成此一特殊的結果,然 而需要更多的地化數據,如:懸浮顆粒相及河底沈積物的 Li 同位素值,來加以證實。

三、與會心得

筆者於 2009/11/25-2009/11/30 期間參與此次於中國上海市所舉辦之年會,並於諸多場合參與討論, 並且於相關演講結束後(Title:『Riverine Sr-Li isotope as a probe for chemical weathering intensity: A case study in the Kao-ping River』)也與許多國內、外專家及學者進行討論,並提出了許多的問題,並於結束 後與許多國內、外專家及學者進行討論,他們提出了許多重要的問題與建議,如:(1)Li 同位素在河 流、河口及湖泊區域的地球化學行為,以及可能的控制因子;(2)高精度 Li 同位素分析發展上可能遭 遇的問題;(3)台灣地區河水 Li 同位素分化的主控因子,以及與抬升速率、物理風化或化學風化的關 係;(4)圍岩特性、土壤孔隙水化學、植被、氣候條件對台灣地區物理及化學風化速率或強度的影響; (5)次生礦物或黏土礦物的吸附對 Li 同位素分化的影響程度;(6)如何計算各成分端源的貢獻與流體 流動模式。除此之外,之中的多位國內外學者也給予許多科學上與未來可能發展方向的建議,使獲益 匪淺。藉由此次會議的學習與討論,不但使得本人的視野與相關知識增廣許多,也建立未來與東南亞 頂尖學者間進一步合作的機會。

綜合此次參與第二次南中國海河流沈積物傳輸國際研討會(Second International Workshop on the Fluvial Sediment Supply to the South China Sea),筆者認為台灣的地球科學相關研究並不落後於其他國 家,但缺乏的是與世界各國科學家更加緊密的合作關係,因此國內專家學者藉由出國開會的機會與國 際學者交流是十分重要且值得提倡與鼓勵的。期許未來有朝一日台灣的學術研究可躋身世界一流的水 準。

四、建議

感謝國科會提供此次出國開會的補助,使本人得以順利赴中國上海參與此一國際盛會。此次會議 除了開闊國際視野之外,筆者所發表的研究成果也進一步與國外專家學者討論,獲益良多。期望未來 政府相關單位與學校能繼續支持並鼓勵國內專家學者參與國際會議,以增進其研究能力、溝通能力與

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國際觀。

國科會補助專題研究計畫項下赴國外(或大陸地區)出差或研習心得報告

日期: 年 月 日

[中英文摘要]

搭配成功大學頂尖計畫(2006-2010)所延攬之中國籍研究教授金章東博士及英國籍

研究教授 Josh West 對中國青海湖流域侵蝕與風化作用研究及汶川大地震後對泯江侵蝕

與風化搬運作用影響,本人於 99/04/23 至 99/05/14 赴中國成都-汶川泯江流域及青海

湖布哈河流域崩塌泥沙採樣及架設沉積物收集器,並於野外行前及結束後與當地專家進

行數場相關學術研討會,並針對黃土剖面及可能源區沙漠樣品初步化學成果進行系統性

討論,由於金章東博士周全安排野外行程及事前準備,採樣考察計畫順利達成預定目

標,帶回重要灰塵、黃土、河水、湖水、魚耳石及碳酸岩標本供後續微量元素及同位素

研究。

To cooperate with Professors ZD Jin and AJ West from the Institute of Earth Environment,

計畫編號

NSC 98-2628-M-006-003

計畫名稱

同位素及微量元素在環境樣品的紀錄:追溯人類活動對全球變遷的衝擊--總計畫 (2/4)

出國人員

姓名

游鎮烽

服務機構

及職稱

國立成功大學地球科學系

出國時間

99 年 04 月 23 日

99 年 05 月 14 日

出國地點

中國泯江及青海湖流域

附件五

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Academy of Science in China and the Department of Earth Sciences, University of Southern

California, respectively, both are well known experts in erosion and chemical weathering, in

particular in the Ming River and in the Qinghai Lake catchment in the Northwestern China, I

have attended a field trip with Professors Jin and West for three weeks (99/04/23 至 99/05/14)

to do sampling work and to deploy a sediment trap in the lake Qinghai, as well as to obtain

critical dust, riverwater, lake water, carbonate and otolith specimens. Before and after the field

work, we have held several workshops in Xian and Xining on related topics including

applications of B and Sr isotopes in weathering and loess related environmental and source

issues. Due to a careful planning before the field work, we have successfully obtained all

important specimens for a systematic preliminary investigation of trace elements and isotopes

for studying source and sink problem in the Qinghai Lake catchment and the Ming River after

the Wentsan Earthquake.

(18)

目次

一、目的--- 4

二、野外過程--- 4

三、工作心得---6

(19)

一、目的

中國青海湖流域由於地質環境特殊並且無嚴重人為汙染及干擾,為研究侵蝕及風化

作用的最佳場地之一,加上青海湖面積遼闊,每年有數個月湖面為冰封鎖,對湖中進行

的生物地球化學作用,鮮為科學家所探討;又此封閉湖距離黃土高原沙塵暴源區距離甚

近,可具體研究終年沙塵量對流域化學及湖泊生地化的重要影響。金章東教授對青海湖

流域風化作用已有多年研究,到成功大學訪問期間更具體對青海湖的水文及化學循環提

出新的模型計算,已發表有 3 篇 SCI 文章,並首次量化沙塵對布哈河水化學的影響(審

查中),及二次碳酸鹽沉澱的重要化學及同位素證據;另一方面,汶川大地震對泯江流

域侵蝕、風化和搬運作用的影響,也是全球矚目的種要科研問題,尤其是災又後重建工

程對自然循環的衝擊及影響時程與本計畫規劃重點有重要關係。

二、野外過程

為深入驗證青海湖流域的生物地球化學模式,本人與金教授於 99 年貣即著手計劃

青海湖流域的採樣及設站事宜,99 年 4 月中旬金教授先行於西安中國科學院地球環境研

究所,具體籌組相關研究團隊人員與採樣路線,收集站選地、沙塵、河水、湖水採樣及

源區黃土剖面採樣等工作項目; 5 月初期,中、英和台灣等數專家合組野外採樣小組,

對青海湖進行第一次實地考察,並對地環所新建立完成的 AMS 加速器質譜儀設備進行數

度參訪及相關 Be-10 應用討論,又採取黃土剖面、討論新研究課題及高解析度資料等;

延續 99 年規劃,2010 年 4 月中旬 West 教授及本人於西安會合並前往成都-汶川針對泯

江流域進行系統河沙及崩坍址採樣,供 Be-10 曝露年齡及侵蝕搬運研究,將對汶川大地

震後泯江流域侵蝕、風化和搬運作用的改變,尤其是災又後重建工程對自然循環的衝擊

及影響時程了解有重要貢獻,泯江流域工作於 7 日告一段落,West 教授先行返回。5 月

8 日我們一行人員約 20 人分乘三部野外旅行車往青海湖進沉積物收集器部放工作,途中

並參訪中科院鹽湖所、青海大學及數個水文站;洽談具體設站及合作事宜,並進行仔細

檢測沉積物收集器各儀器細節工作 9-10 日在青海湖沿線進行各式水文及土壤剖面觀

察,並選定沉積物收集器設站點於七星山周圍湖域水深約 25 工尺處,並擬定可能收放

季節及其他工作細節,最後惟因收集器聲吶釋放器細部問題,決定暫時撤回西寧,擇期

重新佈放。11 日返回西安並在參與 WHOI 黃瑞新教授”海洋循環研討會”並於 13 日發

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表”海底中洋脊熱液系統演化”。14 日由西安搭機返台,圓滿完成此行野外任務。

大陸

西安-成都-汶川-西寧→青海湖

出差行程表

日期:99/04/23 至 99/05/14

日期

行程項目

參訪單位

99/04/23

台南→台北→抵達西安

去程

99/04/24

地球環境研究室野外工作準備

中科院地球環境研究所

99/04/25

地球環境研究室野外工作準備

中科院地球環境研究所

99/04/26 野外工作準備及與 West 教授討論

中科院地球環境研究所

99/04/27

野外工作計畫彙報及討論

中科院地球環境研究所

99/04/28

西安-成都-成都水文局-都江堰

成都水文局

99/04/29

汶川-溫江-泯江流域

阿霸州水文站

99/04/30

汶川-映秀-泯江流域-臥龍崗

汶川水文站

99/05/1

汶川-紫坪瀑-都江堰

都江堰

99/05/02

都江堰-邑縣-懷遠-成都

溫江水文站

99/05/03

成都-汶川-桑坪

汶川水文站

99/05/04

汶川-桑坪-沙壩

汶川水文站

99/05/05

汶川-桑坪-溫州-黑水河-鎮江關

汶川水文站

99/05/06

溫州-咸陽-漢中

漢中帄原

99/05/07

漢中-秦嶺-西安

中科院地球環境研究所

99/05/08

西安→西寧

中科院鹽湖所

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99/05/09

西寧-青海湖-耳石採取

青海湖鳥島管理處

99/05/10

布哈河口-西寧

中科院鹽湖所

99/05/11

西寧-西安→地球環境研究所

中科院地球環境研究所

99/05/12

海洋溫鹽循環研討會

中科院地球環境研究所

99/05/13

海洋溫鹽循環研討會

中科院地球環境研究所

99/05/14

西安→桃園-台北

返程

三、工作心得

此野外採樣及設站之旅,工作項目多元且內容豐富,筆者收穫良多,短短 3 周我們的野外旅程數 超過數千公里路,造訪地點包括西安、成都、溫江、汶川、映秀、西寧、原子城、青海湖、布哈河及 鳥島等地;並於中國科學院地球環境研究所及中國科學院鹽湖研究舉行學術演講及討論會,建立與中 科院地環所、鹽湖所、西北大學及南京大學等單位具體學術合作關係,並提出許多重要的問題為共同 努力以赴目標,對泯江在大地震過後的侵蝕風化狀態和搬運過程變化的研究也可提供保貴新資料。

四、建議

感謝成功大學『邁向頂尖大學經費』提供金教授與 West 教授在台灣的訪問工作,使本野外工作構 想得以順利赴中國西北各省及青海湖流域採樣及地質調查。此次野外旅行除開闊視野之外,筆者近年 來所發表的研究成果也進一步與中國及國外相關專家學者進行討論,獲益良多。期望未來政府相關單 位與學校能繼續支持並鼓勵國內專家學者參與多邊國際合作計劃,提昇成功大學國際知名度,感謝國 科會卓越領航計畫的支持。

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98 年度專題研究計畫研究成果彙整表

計畫主持人:游鎮烽 計畫編號:98-2628-M-006-003-計畫名稱:同位素及微量元素在環境樣品的紀錄:追溯人類活動對全球變遷的衝擊--總計畫(2/4) 量化 成果項目 實際已達成 數(被接受 或已發表) 預期總達成 數(含實際已 達成數) 本計畫實 際貢獻百 分比 單位 備 註(質 化 說 明:如 數 個 計 畫 共 同 成 果、成 果 列 為 該 期 刊 之 封 面 故 事 ... 等) 期刊論文 2 2 100% 研究報告/技術報告 0 0 100% 研討會論文 5 5 100% 篇 論文著作 專書 0 0 100% 申請中件數 0 0 100% 專利 已獲得件數 0 0 100% 件 件數 0 0 100% 件 技術移轉 權利金 0 0 100% 千元 碩士生 0 0 100% 博士生 2 2 100% 博士後研究員 0 0 100% 國內 參與計畫人力 (本國籍) 專任助理 1 1 100% 人次 期刊論文 4 4 100% Several papers were published in high journals like Analytical Chemistry, JASS and Talanta. 研究報告/技術報告 0 0 100% 研討會論文 4 4 100% 篇 論文著作 專書 0 0 100% 章/本 申請中件數 0 0 100% 專利 已獲得件數 0 0 100% 件 件數 0 0 100% 件 技術移轉 權利金 0 0 100% 千元 碩士生 0 0 100% 博士生 0 0 100% 博士後研究員 1 1 100% 國外 參與計畫人力 (外國籍) 專任助理 0 0 100% 人次

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其他成果

(無法以量化表達之成

果如辦理學術活動、獲 得獎項、重要國際合 作、研究成果國際影響 力及其他協助產業技 術發展之具體效益事 項等,請以文字敘述填 列。)

Have attract various international collaboration with Cambridge University, Oxford University and ETH.

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國科會補助專題研究計畫成果報告自評表

請就研究內容與原計畫相符程度、達成預期目標情況、研究成果之學術或應用價

值(簡要敘述成果所代表之意義、價值、影響或進一步發展之可能性)

、是否適

合在學術期刊發表或申請專利、主要發現或其他有關價值等,作一綜合評估。

1. 請就研究內容與原計畫相符程度、達成預期目標情況作一綜合評估

■達成目標

□未達成目標(請說明,以 100 字為限)

□實驗失敗

□因故實驗中斷

□其他原因

說明:

2. 研究成果在學術期刊發表或申請專利等情形:

論文:■已發表 □未發表之文稿 □撰寫中 □無

專利:□已獲得 □申請中 ■無

技轉:□已技轉 □洽談中 ■無

其他:

(以 100 字為限)

3. 請依學術成就、技術創新、社會影響等方面,評估研究成果之學術或應用價

值(簡要敘述成果所代表之意義、價值、影響或進一步發展之可能性)(以

500 字為限)

在第一階段計畫中,我們投注很多努力去發展適當的高精度微量元素及同位素分析方法, 特別是一些實驗室養殖實驗所需設備。一些技術突破包括 B、Zn、Cd 和 Pb 同位素分析方 法和 REE 測量皆已分別發表於高影響力國際期刊。分項計畫更驗證人為造成微量元素污染 已經由氣膠途徑傳輸到南海表水,發表於 Limnology and Oceanography 高評價海洋期刊, 我們更進一步量化這些人為金屬如何入侵到南海深水。另外也評估 Ni 金屬對 N 固化的重 要性,一套新流體注入離子層析法應用於海水微量金屬分析的 ICP-MS 方法,此分項計畫 最重要的突破是對海洋矽藻和鈣板藻對 Cd 同位素的分化機制研究,我們發現微量金屬的 競爭效應和細胞薄膜金屬傳輸者皆扮演重要角色,我們已提出一新模式解釋這些 Cd 同位 素與生物分量機制,目前正在撰寫重要文章,投稿國際最重要期刊。

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數據

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參考文獻

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