第七章 結論與反思

第三節 研究限制與未來研究建議

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第三節 研究限制與未來研究建議

一、研究限制

本研究在實驗設計與操弄上,已盡可能排除可能干擾實驗結果的不相關變 數,以保證研究之信效度,但仍存在若干研究限制可供後續研究參考並改進。

(一)負面口碑訊息類型的操弄

在設計負面口碑訊息時,為維持理由型和情感型兩類負面評論的內容基本一 致,本文僅以替換部分詞語的方式進行操弄。這一處理方式雖然能夠有效排除其 他因素的干擾,但同時也導致情感型負面評論中仍包含理由訊息,使得實驗結果 相對保守。因此建議未來研究可採取不同形式的操弄進行實驗,更加明確地區分 兩類負面口碑影響效果。

(二)實驗刺激物的產品或服務選擇

在選擇實驗刺激物的產品或服務品類時,考慮到經驗型產品在購買前的訊息 需求程度較高(Mitra et al., 1999),本文分別以旅館和餐廳作為刺激物進行實驗 施測。然而,有研究指出,在正面口碑的情境下(Jimenez & Mendoza, 2013),

對於搜尋型產品,評論內容的細節程度及評論一致性均對消費者的訊息可信度、

購買意願具有積極影響;而對於經驗型產品,評論一致性對消費者的購買意願仍 有積極影響,評論內容的細節程度則無顯著效果。因此,後續研究可將本文的理 論架構拓展至更多的產品類別進行討論。

(三)內容分析法的抽樣過程

在篩選各個城市的旅館時,為控制各旅館狀況相近,本研究以三星旅館、距 離市中心里程數為條件進行限縮。在此過程中,僅以研究者的主觀判斷決定限縮 範圍,未考慮到各個城市中所有旅館的星等或距離市中心里程數的整體分佈狀 況,因此內容分析部分的結果推論至全體旅館時存在一定限制。

二、未來研究建議

在現實的網路購物情境中,消費者需要處理網站本身所積累的大量評論,亦 可能通過主動搜尋的方式獲取資訊。未來研究可貼合實際情境,探討在面對更多 數量及類型的評論內容時,消費者如何利用有限的認知資源處理單則或多則負面 評論。同時,可考慮採實地實驗法,設計可供點擊下單的購物網頁,頁面中羅列 具有不同口碑情形的同類產品,以消費者的最終決策及後續問卷填答調查其態度

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與行為,進而探討負面口碑之影響效果,以提高實驗結果的外在效度。

此外,互聯網發展已逐步進入到以語義識別為基礎的 Web3.0 時代(Patel, 2013)。在行銷業界,大數據應用亦產生了以口碑監測為利基的新型服務模式。

本文在觀察實務場域時發現,評論內容所包含的面向千奇百怪,無法以簡單前測 確認所有旅館相關細節的重要程度。未來研究可考慮與業界合作,利用計算機程 式自動抓取網頁資料,其優勢如下:(1)可免去抽樣過程所造成的誤差;(2)可 通過算法和語義分析準確計算產品或服務所有相關因素的出現頻次,並以此作為 負面口碑重要程度的參考依據;(3)節省人力與時間成本,並可維持實時更新。

故此,未來研究可利用巨量數據,更加準確及多層次地分析與把握負面口碑的影 響機制及效果。

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13 Adagio Access Paris Tilsitt

Champs Elysees -ex-Citea 3 2.8 1417/1796 3 221 3889 23 Ramada Encore Istanbul

Bayrampasa 3 3.1 582/1039 3.5 44 1873 33 Bridal Tea House Hotel

(West District) 3 2.7 336/695 3 52 1821

附錄二:編碼須知(Coding Instruction)

注意事項:

1- London; 2- Bangkok;

3- Paris; 4- Dubai;

5- Istanbul; 6- Seoul;

7- Hong Kong; 8- New York

4- Very Good(好)

3- Average(一般)

11. Neutral 中立或是無法清楚辨識其屬性的觀點。

12. Feeling(+) 指由產品或服務引起的情感反應、情境之下的瞬間感覺 作為評論依據;為正面情緒。如感到安全等。

13. Feeling(-) 指由產品或服務引起的情感反應、情境之下的瞬間感覺

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附錄四:實驗一前測問卷(二)

親愛的受訪者:

您好!這是一份學術性問卷,目的在於瞭解人們對旅館評論的觀感。本次調查採不記名 方式,您的回答基於學術倫理絕對保密,請放心填答。感謝!:-)

政治大學傳播學院 陳靜

一、基本資料 1.性別:□男 □女 2.年齡:__________

二、關於旅館評論

在認真閱讀完下述評論內容後,按程度選擇最符合您實際情況的表述:

評論 A:這家旅館房間的隔音不好,房間的 WIFI 訊號不佳,浴室裡水龍頭的水 壓很小。不推薦這家旅館。

(1)我認為評論 A 的內容主要為:

描述具體事實 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 宣洩個人情感

評論 B:旅館房間的墻根本沒用!房間的 WIFI 訊號糟糕!浴室水龍頭的水壓難 以接受。不喜歡這家旅館!

評論 B:旅館房間的墻根本沒用!房間的 WIFI 訊號糟糕!浴室水龍頭的水壓難 以接受。不喜歡這家旅館!

在文檔中 負面口碑影響機制:自我構念之調節與歸因模式之中介效果 - 政大學術集成 (頁 56-75)