The Influence of Leadership and Training Delivery Methods on Job Satisfaction in Hospitality Industry

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(1)The Influence of Leadership and Training Delivery Methods on Job Satisfaction in Hospitality Industry. by Ting-Yu Shen. A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate Faculty in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Degree of MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Major: International Human Resources Development. Advisor: Chih-Chien Steven Lai, Ph.D.. National Taiwan Normal University Taipei, Taiwan August 2017.

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(3) ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to deliver my appreciation to many people who assist and help me to finish my thesis. Without them, I might not able to finish it. First, I appreciate my dear advisor, Dr. Lai. He always encourages and supports me for everything when I study in IHRD. Even when I studied abroad as an exchange student, he was also put a lot of concerns on me. In addition, he also helps me a lot for my thesis. He spent many time on revising my thesis and provided me with many suggestions to improving the quality of thesis. Second, I appreciate my classmates who provide huge assistance to me, Cathy, Lydia, Aiko, Wiseman and Alan. I will never forget the days we fight for writing thesis together in school. Next, I would like to express my appreciation to my thesis committees, Dr. Lee and Dr. Tsai, for providing helpful and constructed suggestions on my thesis. Last, I would like to express my thanks to my family for supporting me to complete my master degree. I am enthusiastic for human resource job before entering IHRD, and now, I am a HR specialist in a Japanese consulting company. I will never forget what I learned and what I experienced during these three years in school. I am positive to my different life after graduate from NTNU. Thanks to everyone who ever help me when I study in NTNU..

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(5) ABSTRACT This research aims to explore hospitality industry front-line employees and supervisors/ managers’ job satisfaction toward leadership and training delivery methods. In addition, the factors affecting hospitality industry employee’s job satisfaction were also explored. In order to fulfill research purpose, in-depth interview was conducted as qualitative method in this study. There were totally 17 participants including 8 front-line employees and 9 supervisors/ managers from 9 different hospitality industry organizations. This study found that employees hoped to have good relationship with their supervisors at the workplace. For training delivery methods, on-the-job training made hospitality industry employees felt most satisfied because of the advantages of effectiveness and impressiveness. In addition, interpersonal relationship, work itself and learning and growth opportunities were top three factors affecting hospitality industry employees according to the results in this study. Keywords: job satisfaction, leadership, training delivery methods, hospitality industry. I.

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(7) TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT................................................................................................ I TABLE OF CONTENTS ........................................................................... II LIST OF TABLES .....................................................................................V LIST OF FIGURES ................................................................................. VI CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION..............................................................1 Background of the Study ....................................................................................... 1 Statement of the Research Motivation ................................................................... 3 Statement of the Research Problem ....................................................................... 4 Significance of the Research .................................................................................. 5 Research Purposes and Questions.......................................................................... 6 Delimitations of the Research ................................................................................ 7 The Definition of Key Terms ................................................................................. 8. CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW................................................ 11 The Concept of Hospitality Industry ................................................................... 11 Job Satisfaction of Employee in Hospitality Industry ......................................... 12 Factors of Job Satisfaction in Hospitality Industry in Previous Studies .............. 15 Leadership in Hospitality Industry ...................................................................... 16 Training Delivery Methods in Hospitality Industry............................................. 22 Summary .............................................................................................................. 25. CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY ....................................................... 27 Conceptual Framework of the Study ................................................................... 27 Research Procedure.............................................................................................. 27 II.

(8) Research Method ................................................................................................. 31 Research Instruments ........................................................................................... 32 Research Participants ........................................................................................... 33 Data Collection .................................................................................................... 35 Data Analysis ....................................................................................................... 37 Procedure of Data Analysis .................................................................................. 38 Validity and Reliability ........................................................................................ 40. CHAPTER IV FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS ............................... 43 The Leadership Used in Hospitality Industry ...................................................... 46 The Leadership Behaviors that can Enhance Hospitality Industry Satisfaction .. 51 Training Delivery Methods Affecting Hospitality Industry Employee’s Job Satisfaction........................................................................................................... 54 Factors Affecting Hospitality Industry Employee’s Job Satisfaction .................. 58 Extra Findings ...................................................................................................... 65 Discussions .......................................................................................................... 66. CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS….. 67 Conclusions .......................................................................................................... 67 Recommendations ................................................................................................ 69 Limitations of the Research ................................................................................. 70. REFERENCES ........................................................................................ 73 APPENDIX A: COVER LETTER (CHINESE VERSION) ................... 81 APPENDIX B: INVITATION LETTER (ENGLISH VERSION) .......... 82 APPENDIX C: CONSENT LETTER (CHINESE VERSION)... ........... 83 III.

(9) APPENDIX D: CONSENT LETTER (ENGLISH VERSION) ........... 84 APPENDIX E: INTERVIEW QUESTIONS (BASIC INFORMATION, ENGLISH VERSION)................................................... 85. IV.

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(11) LIST OF TABLES Table 2.1. Previous Researches Related to Job Satisfaction in Hospitality ................. 15 Table 2.2. The Description of each Transactional Leadership Style ............................ 19 Table 2.3. The Description of each Transformational Leadership Style ...................... 20 Table 2.4. Traditional Training Methods and Technology-based Training Methods ... 24 Table 3.1. The Description of Interviewees: Front-line Employees ............................ 34 Table 3.2. The Description of Interviewees: Supervisors/ Managers .......................... 35 Table 4.1. The List of Research Findings: Front-line Employees ............................... 43 Table 4.2. The List of Research Finding: Supervisors/ Managers ............................... 45 Table 4.3. The Factors Affecting Front-line Employees’ Job Satisfaction .................. 59 Table 4.4. The Factors Affecting Supervisors/ Managers’ Job Satisfaction ................ 62. V.

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(13) LIST OF FIGURES Figure 2.1. The model of full range of leadership ....................................................... 19 Figure 3.1. Research conceptual framework................................................................ 27 Figure 3.2. Research procedures .................................................................................. 30 Figure 3.3. The coding category .................................................................................. 37 Figure 3.4. The example of the categorizing process .................................................. 38 Figure 3.5. Procedures of data analysis ....................................................................... 40. VI.

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(15) CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The contents of this chapter include seven sections to introduce this study. Section one introduced the background of hospitality industry in Taiwan. Section two indicated the human resource problem of hospitality industry. Then, significance, purposes, questions and delimitation of this study were also introduced. At last, some key terms of this study were defined.. Background of the Study The statistics of 2015 showed on the website of ministry of labor (https://www. taiwanjobs.gov.tw/Internet/2015/Survey/Q3_2/page01.html) that monthly salary for freshman in hospitality industry was from 20,008 to 24,999 within 78.18 percent of companies. The salary for freshman was lower than many other industries. It may be a key reason why there was more and more people unwilling to work in hospitality industry in recent years. The problem of high turnover is not only happened in Taiwan, but also a common issue in many countries. Bonn and Forbringer (1992) did a research to explore how to reduce turnover in the hospitality industry. Some ways to reduced turnover rate, such as monetary and education incentives were raised in the research. There are some negative impressions exist in hospitality industry in Taiwan, such as long working hours and low salary. Those are vital factors for lacking of labor in hospitality industry in Taiwan. Many people are unwilling to work in hospitality industry because of bad working conditions. Therefore, the turnover rate in hospitality industry is higher than other industries in Taiwan. Hospitality industry occupied a huge percentage of GDP at those of whole service. 1.

(16) industry. It meant that hospitality industry had already become more and more important economic activity in Taiwan. Therefore, manpower demands of hospitality employee had become more and more emergency in Taiwan in the recent years. For hospitality organization, it becomes important to promote themselves and attract job seeker to join them. W Group, one of food chain groups in Taiwan, is also considered as a happy business for many young people because this group concerns every internal employee. This group believes that a satisfied employee will provide with better customer service and get better performance. Mullins (2001) stated that good customer care with goods staff care is important to customer satisfaction. W Group considers it as a priority to provide training with their employees and also emphasize on employees’ career development. Therefore, improving employees’ job satisfaction becomes a tendency for enhancing their business performance. Not only W Group, there are more and more organizations start to emphasize on improving their employee’s job satisfaction for better performance. Ugboro and Obeng (2000) confirmed that there is a positive relationship between employees’ job satisfaction and customer satisfaction. It could be referred that customer satisfaction would be enhanced if the employee’s job satisfaction became higher. According to previous studies, it was also proved that job satisfaction had a significant impact on employee’s performance (Chandra & Priyono, 2015; Hui, Chiu, Yu, Cheng, & Tse, 2007). Based on the research mentioned above, it can infer that enhancing employee’s job satisfaction can not only improve customer satisfaction but also can improve employee’s job performance. For hospitality industry, customer service is an important index for organizations to evaluate its business performance. Therefore, enhancing employees’ job satisfaction becomes more and more crucial for hospitality industry organizations. 2.

(17) Statement of the Research Motivation When the researcher worked in hospitality industry organization, some employees of the researcher were satisfied with their supervisors; however, some of them were not. Those employees had low job satisfaction because they were not satisfied with their supervisors. Was supervisor’s leadership influences those employees’ job satisfaction? What kind of leadership behaviors could enhance employees’ job satisfaction? The researcher attempted to explore solutions to these questions based on the above statement. Therefore, this was the first reason made the researcher to do this research. When the researcher worked hospitality industry organizations, some of them provided their internal employees with complete and useful training courses. However, many colleagues of the researcher were not satisfied with the training provided by their own organization. For organizations, training is an opportunity for employees to develop their capabilities and to career growth. Why did not they prefer to accept training courses provided by their current organization? Did organizations provide with inappropriate training delivery methods to their employees? What kinds of training delivery methods could meet those employees’ needs and enhance their job satisfaction? Therefore, the researcher attempted to explore this phenomenon in hospitality industry through this study. This was the second reason made the researcher to do this research. Tan and Waheed (2011) recommended that further researchers could use some factor, such as leadership style to verify whether it could affect job satisfaction or not. Therefore, this study aims to explore deeper understanding of employee’s job satisfaction toward leadership and training delivery methods.. 3.

(18) Statement of the Research Problem Mullins (2001) discussed the issue of best leadership in the hospitality industry. An important thinking was that the style of leadership should be able to satisfy and motivate employees. It seemed reasonable; however, it was still need more research to verify it. It was worthwhile to explore that what kinds of leadership could effectively satisfy employee’s job satisfaction in hospitality industry organizations. Less job satisfaction might lead to the intention to leave (Yang, 2008; Yang, 2013; Karatepe, Uludag, Menevis, Hadzimehmedagic, & Baddar, 2006). Based on the background of this study, high turnover rate happens in hospitality industry. Therefore, it can be inferred that enhancing employee’s job satisfaction could effectively improve employee’s intention to stay at current job. Therefore, how to improve employee’s job satisfaction and keep employees stays in organization become an important issue for hospitality industry practitioners. In the past, researchers found that there were several main causes of turnover; one of those was poor management that reducing employee’s morale. Both managers and employees implied that quality of supervision was the major reason of turnover in hospitality industry (Woods, 2006). It could be implied that managers and employees intend to leave because of their dissatisfaction of supervision. The leadership might be one of critical reasons to affect employee’s intention to leave. Choi and Sneed (2006) used quantitative method to explore the factors related to job satisfaction in hospitality industry in their research. They revealed that supervision quality and training were significantly related to job satisfaction. In their conclusion, there was a significant relationship among supervision, training and job satisfaction. However, it was difficult to understand employee’s deeper perceptions of job 4.

(19) satisfaction toward leadership and training. Therefore, this study attempts to explore the phenomenon among job satisfaction, leadership and training delivery methods.. Significance of the Research Based on the background and statement of research motivation mentioned above, the researcher sincerely hoped this study could evoke hospitality industry organizations put more emphasis on employees’ job satisfaction. Besides, the researcher also hoped those organizations could reflect on their current leadership and training delivery methods in order to enhance internal employee’s job satisfaction. This study also aimed to provide hospitality industry supervisors/ managers with some suggestions to revise their leadership behavior for enhancing subordinate’s job satisfaction. Pittaway, Carmouche and Chell (1998) mentioned that there were only a few studies of leadership in the hospitality and suggested that further researchers could help to improve the understanding of leadership in hospitality industry. The results of this study helped to build deeper concepts of leadership of hospitality industry. And it could also contribute to hospitality industry organizations to reflect on supervisors’ leadership behaviors. In the past, there were many researchers explore the factors to job satisfaction. That provided us with an understanding of the relationships among these factors. Tan and Waheed (2011) suggested that further researcher could use qualitative research to create an understanding of the psyche behind motivating employees. Therefore, qualitative method was used for acquiring deep and real thought of employee’s attitude of job satisfaction toward their work in hospitality industry. This study could also accumulate more qualitative research data about exploring employee’s job satisfaction for further researchers’ reference.. 5.

(20) Research Purposes and Questions The study aims to explore the deeper relationship among leadership, training delivery methods and job satisfaction. In order to assist hospitality industry organizations to find better solutions to enhance employees’ job satisfaction, this study attempted to explore hospitality industry employee’s job satisfaction toward leadership and training delivery methods. In addition, this study also tried to explore which factors affecting employee’s job satisfaction. The results of this study expected to contribute to hospitality industry organizations for developing human resource strategies to maintain and enhance employee’s job satisfaction. According to the above statement, the specific purposes of this study were indicated in the following: 1. To explore how leadership applied in hospitality industry. 2. To explore the effect of delivery methods toward hospitality industry employee’s job satisfaction. 3. To explore factors affect hospitality industry employees. In order to explore the research purposes in this study, the research questions were developed as follows: 1. What kinds of leaderships used in hospitality industry? 2. What kinds of leadership behaviors can enhance hospitality industry employee’s job satisfaction? 3. What kinds of training delivery methods affecting hospitality industry employee’s job satisfaction? 4. Which factors affect hospitality industry employee’s job satisfaction? In accordance with the research questions, interview questions were developed for 6.

(21) understanding hospitality industry employee’s perception of job satisfaction toward leadership and training delivery methods.. Delimitations of the Research This study focused on full-time hospitality industry employees. Some previous relevant researches have already been done in different countries in the past. Therefore, all participants were Taiwanese and organizations of these participants located in Taiwan in this study. According to Hayes and Ninemeier (2015), hospitality industry organizations provided accommodation and food service for the customer away from home. In this study, hospitality industry consists of the industry of accommodation or food and beverage operations. There are many sub-industries in hospitality industry; however, only accommodation and food and beverage operations were discussed in this study. Hospitality service was labor intensive industry and there was a high level of contact between the service providers and customers (Kandampully, Mok, & Sparks, 2001). It was clear to know that interaction between the front-line staffs and customers was important process for hospitality industry. Although there are many employees in different positions in hospitality industry organizations, according to the statement mentioned above, this study only discussed front-line employees’ and supervisor/managers’ job satisfaction. This study only focused on explore how employee’s job satisfaction toward leadership and training delivery methods in different position of an organization. The job satisfaction in different position was not being compared in this study.. 7.

(22) The Definition of Key Terms Hospitality Industry According to Dittmer (2001), “hospitality refers to the act of providing food, beverages, and lodging to travelers” (p.5). The clear definitions of hospitality industry were listed as follows (Dittmer, 2001, p.5: 1. The hospitality industry provides food, beverages, lodging, or some combination of the three. 2. The hospitality industry provides services primarily to travelers, in a broad sense of the term. In addition, according to Hassanien, Dale and Clarke (2010), Hospitality industry consist of accommodation and food and beverage operations. Based on the statement above, hospitality industry was defined as an organization that providing accommodation or food and beverage operations.. Job Satisfaction There were many researchers make different definition for job satisfaction. For developing the research dimension, this study defined job satisfaction as “how much happy an individual is with his/ her job” (p.16). (Susanty, Miradipta, & Jie, 2013). Job satisfaction covered the level of happiness for an employee at his or her current job in this study.. Leadership According to Daft (2008), leadership was that influencing people to have the same vision to achieve. Leadership was defined as how a leader leads and influences employees to achieve organizational goals. In addition, transactional/ transformational leadership and leadership behavior was discussed in the dimension of leadership in this study. 8.

(23) Training Delivery Methods Training meant an activity that conducted by organization to enhance employees’ learning related the competencies including knowledge, skills and attitudes for a needing (Avolio, Sosik, & Berson, 2003). It was also an instruction to transfer job-related Information to learner. Therefore, in this study, training delivery methods was defined as methods that used by organization to convey job-related information to employees.. 9.

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(25) CHAPTER II. LITERATURE REVIEW. This chapter reviewed the relevant literatures on job satisfaction, leadership and training delivery methods in hospitality industry.. The Concept of Hospitality Industry In this part, hospitality industry consists of categories of hospitality industry and characteristics of service industry. At the beginning, the specific industries of hospitality industry were indicated and introduced. Furthermore, five important characteristics of service industry were also explained.. Categories in Hospitality There are many industries including in service industry. Hospitality industry is a wide and important industry in service industry. Hospitality industry was divided into two categories: accommodation and food and beverage operations (Hassanien et al., 2010). Therefore, this study focused on these two industries. Hospitality industry is a board category in service industry. As service industry, there are several characteristics of hospitality industry explained as following sections:. Characteristics of Service Industry Hospitality Industry is usually considered as part of service industry. The service and product of hospitality industry have huge difference from other industries, such as manufacturing or information industry. According to Hassanien et al. (2010), there were several characteristics in hospitality industry indicated as follows: Intangibility. The hospitality product is intangible, unlike tangible products such as clothes or shoes.. 11.

(26) Quality of service and customer satisfaction is quite important for hospitality industry. These two dimensions are the keys to business performance in hospitality industry. Inseparability. Goods and services of hospitality industry are inseparable. Customers can only consume the good or services at the same time. This is another different aspect to the other industries. Perishability. The hospitality product is perishability and cannot to be stored for using in the future. Take hotel as example, the hotelier will lose revenue if there is any customer cancel the booking. Because perishability of the product for accommodation. Lack of ownership. The customers do not own the hospitality product or service and take them away. They can only experience the services provided by hospitality service personnel there. Hospitality businesses therefore have to make sure that every customer is provided with the best quality of service and experience during their consumption. Heterogeneity. Hospitality services are heterogeneous vary from staff to staff. Quality of service provided by personnel may probably different because of the difference of these personnel’s skills, attitudes and experiences. Besides, different customers will have different feeling by delivery of hospitality. It is a challenge for hospitality businesses to ensure their customers can receive similar service experiences.. Job Satisfaction of Employee in Hospitality Industry In this part, the definition of job satisfaction has already defined at the beginning. Because that employee’s job satisfaction influencing employee’s performance was proved by 12.

(27) many researchers, next section explained the importance of job satisfaction. Then, internal and external job satisfaction and the causes of job satisfaction were explained. Finally, some relevant researches of job satisfaction were also introduced and explained the relationship between leadership and training.. Definition of Job Satisfaction DuBrin (1992) defined job satisfaction as “the amount of pleasure or contentment associated with a job” (p. 84). Job satisfaction was a content how an employee’s behavior at his or her work (Maurya & Kaushik, 2013). Locke (1976) defined job satisfaction as "a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job or job experiences" (p. 1304). Susanty, Miradipta and Jie (2013) described Job satisfaction as “how much happy an individual is with his/ her job” (p.16).. The Importance of Job Satisfaction Many researches indicated that job satisfaction had a strong positive effect on organizational commitment in the past. And it aided employees to improve their creativity, problem solving, and decision making (Colquitt, LePine, & Wesson, 2008). The employees with higher job satisfaction felt positive attitude toward their work (Imran, Arif, Cheema, & Azeem, 2014). In addition, job satisfaction had a strong positive effect on job performance (Long, 2005; Pugno & Depedri, 2010). According to the previous literatures mentioned above, job satisfaction affects employee’s working attitude and performance. The organizations could earn more benefit for their business if employees were satisfied. Therefore, job satisfaction can be viewed as an invisible investment for all hospitality industry organizations.. Causes of Job Satisfaction 13.

(28) DuBrin (1992, pp.91-95) raised several causes of job satisfaction, including external causes of job satisfaction and internal causes of job satisfaction as following statement. External causes of job satisfaction include mentally challenging work, reasonable physical demands, contact with end user, personal accountability, scheduling of own work, meaningful rewards, helpful co-workers and superiors and more power and authority. Based on the causes mentioned above, an enriched job was a common way to improve employees’ job satisfaction. By enriching job, it could make employees with more motivation on their work, then enhancing their job satisfaction. Internal causes of job satisfaction including interest in the work itself, a feeling of self-esteem, optimism and flexible, positive self-image, positive expectations about the job and good personal adjustment. On this part, the internal causes of job satisfaction were affected by personality characteristics and personal values. Furthermore, Maurya and Kaushik (2013) also raised some factors of job satisfaction as following (p.12): 1. Job satisfaction is closely related to the aptitude of the employees. 2. Democratic leadership style enhances the job satisfaction. 3. Workers with high moral will be loyal to the organization. 4. Job perspective affects job satisfaction considerably. 5. Interpersonal relationship affects job satisfaction proportionately. 6. Facilities provided by the organization enhance the job satisfaction proportionately. 7. Job satisfaction relates to good working condition also. 8. Economic rewards play a significant role in influencing job satisfaction. 9. Job satisfaction is directly and indirectly related to the organizational culture & climate. 14.

(29) Factors of Job Satisfaction in Hospitality Industry in Previous Studies According previous researches, there were many researches exploring the factors of job satisfaction in service industry. Among these factors, leadership and training delivery methods were two factors that were most often discussed in the past. Previous researches related to job satisfaction in hospitality as table 2.1. Table 2.1. Study. Industry. Results. Hinkin & Tracey (1994). Hospitality industry. Transformational leadership impacts subordinate satisfaction.. Lam & Zhang (2003). Fast food industry. Training is related to job satisfaction.. Emery & Barker (2007). Banking industry and. Transformational leadership can. food chain industry. increase employees’ job satisfaction.. Kim & Jogaratnam (2010). Tsai, Cheng, & Chang (2010). Hotel and restaurant. Supervisory leadership may not be. industry. a predictor of job satisfaction.. Hospitality industry. Employees’ positive perception of leadership strengthens their job satisfaction.. It could clearly know that leadership style and training had positive influence on employees’ job satisfaction in service industry. Based on the previous researches listed above, this study focused on exploring the relationships among leadership style, training delivery. 15.

(30) methods and job satisfaction. This study only focused on the factors affecting employee’s job satisfaction in hospitality industry organizations.. Leadership in Hospitality Industry In this section, the definition of leadership was defined based on previous researchers. Besides, the importance of leadership was introduced. Next, the influence of leadership on job satisfaction was explained according to previous literatures. Finally, transactional/ transformational leadership and leadership behaviors were introduced in the following sections.. Definition of Leadership In the past, there were many researchers make different definition for leadership. Allio (2003) defined leadership as “the process or act of leading” (p.2). Locke (1991) defined leadership as “the process of inducing others to take action toward a common goal” (p.2). According to Locke (1991), leadership encompassed three elements: a relational concept, a process and also requires inducing others to take action. Van Vugt, Hogan and Kaiser (2008) also defined the term that influencing individuals to achieve and coordinate group's goals. Besides, Voon, Lo, Ngui and Ayob (2011) asserted that leaders should motivate the employees to achieve organizational goals. Daft (2008) considered that leadership was influencing people to have the same vision to achieve. According to different definitions and viewpoints mentioned above: leadership was a process to lead people to achieve the goals or visions of an organization.. The Importance of Leadership According to previous studies, leadership impacts on employee’s job satisfaction and organizational commitment. The employees managed by transformational leadership had 16.

(31) higher job satisfaction than other employees whom were managed by other leadership (Colquitt et al., 2008). An appropriate leadership could inspire employee’s motivation and attitude toward their work. Then, employee’s job performance may be also improved because of leading employees with appropriate leadership. For operating an organization, it is important to lead the employees with effective leadership for better performance. In order to achieve better performance, leadership plays an important role for most of organizations. Therefore, how to utilize leadership to manage the employees and make those employees contribute more outcome and performance becomes a crucial issue for many organizations.. The Influence of Leadership on Job Satisfaction In the past, few researchers conducted researches on how leadership affects employee’s job satisfaction. According to previous researches, leadership could be one of factors affecting employee’s job satisfaction. Choi and Sneed (2006) found that supervision quality has a significant relationship with job satisfaction from service industry employees. Furkan, Emin, Erdal and Huseyin (2012) found that leadership behavior affects employee’s job satisfaction. According to the literature mentioned above, leadership might cause different level of job satisfaction. In this study, the researcher focused on exploring how leadership influences hospitality industry employee’s job satisfaction.. Transactional and Transformational Leadership In this section, the full range of leadership model was showed as Figure 1. The full model includes laissez-faire leadership, transactional leadership and transformational leadership. In the past, any studies related to transactional and transformational leadership were discussed instead of laissez-faire. Laissez-faire leadership is a destructive leadership and 17.

(32) has low influence on boosting employee’s motivation (Chaudhry & Javed, 2012; Skogstad, Einarsen, Torsheim, Aasland, & Hetland, 2007). Therefore, laissez-faire was not discussed, but only transactional and transformational leadership were compared and discussed in this study. Transactional leadership includes contingent reward, active management-by-exception and passive management-by-exception were listed as table 2.2. Comparing to active/passive management-by-exception, the leadership style of contingent reward has been found that it is effectively motivate employees to achieve higher development and performance (Bass & Riggio, 2006). “Transactional leaders motivate workers by appealing to their self-interest (Miller, Walker, & Drummond, 2002, p43).” Instead of using rewards or incentives to motivate the employees, transformations leaders do the following according to Miller, Walker and Drummond (2002, p.43): 1. Communicate with and inspire workers about the mission and objectives of the company. 2. Provide workers with meaningful, interesting, and challenging jobs. 3. Act as a coach and mentor to support, develop, and empower workers. 4. Lead by example. For transformational leadership, there are for components are included as follows: (1) idealized influence (II), inspirational motivation (IM), intellectual stimulation (IS) and individualized consideration (IC). Each of leadership style is briefly explained as table 2.3. Many researchers did studies to examine the relationship between transformational leadership, transactional leadership and employee’s satisfaction. The results showed that transformational leadership had significant impact and effectiveness on employee’s job satisfaction in hospitality industry (Emery & Barker, 2007; Erkutlu, 2008; Hinkin & Tracey, 18.

(33) 1994). As figure 2.1 showed, transformational leadership was viewed as the most effective and active leadership style than the other leadership styles.. Figure 2.1. The model of full range of leadership. Adapt from “Transformational leadership,” by B. M. Bass, & R. E. Riggio, 2006. Copyright 2006 by Psychology Press.. Table 2.2. The Description of each Transactional Leadership Style Transactional Leadership Style. Description. Contingent Reward. “The leader makes clear when one can expect to receive when performance goals are achieved.”. Active Management-by-Exception. “The leader directs attention toward failures to meet standards.”. Passive Management-by-Exception. “The leader takes no action until complaints are (continued). 19.

(34) Table 2.2. (continued) Transactional Leadership Style. Description received.”. Laissez-Faire Leadership. “The leader avoids getting involved when important issues arise.”. Note: Adopted from “Transformational leadership,” by B. M. Bass, & R. E. Riggio, 2006. Copyright 2006 by Psychology Press.. Table 2.3. The Description of Each Transformational Leadership Style Transformational Leadership Style. Characteristics. Idealized Influence. The leaders are admired, respected and trusted.. Inspirational Motivation. The leaders have extraordinary capabilities, persistence and determination.. Intellectual Stimulation. The leaders stimulate their followers’ effort to be innovative and creative.. Individualized Consideration. The leaders pay special attention to each individual follower’s needs for achievement and growth.. Note: Adopted from “Transformational leadership,” by B. M. Bass, & R. E. Riggio, 2006. Copyright 2006 by Psychology Press.. Leadership Behavior There is a contingency approach to leadership which is called the path-goal theory. According to this theory, the leader’s responsibility is to enhance subordinate’s motivation to achieve the organizational goals. There are four leader behaviors mentioned in path-goal 20.

(35) theory, which is including supportive, directive, participative and achievement-oriented styles (Daft, 2008; Rowe, 2011). Supportive leadership. The leaders show concern for subordinates’ needs and well-being; the leaders also create an atmosphere of respect and quality for their subordinates in the workplace. Directive leadership. The leaders give direction to subordinates and tell what they are supposed to do. Leader behavior includes planning, making schedules, and setting performance goals for the members. Participative leadership. The leaders consult with subordinates for decision-making process. Leader behavior includes asking for opinions and suggestions for achieve organizational goals. Achievement-oriented leadership. The leaders set clear and challenging goals for subordinates. The leaders also express high concerns on talented employees to achieve organizational goals. Every leader has different leadership styles or behaviors to lead subordinates. It becomes more and more difficult to lead members and utilize only one style to motivate them to achieve organizational goals. A leader should attempt to satisfy members’ needs at work and assist them to achieve organizational goal. An employee might have more job satisfaction if his or her supervisor possessed several leadership styles instead of only one (Belonio, 2012). For a leader, how to enrich their leadership and skills becomes an important issue for every leader in organization nowadays. Therefore, this study attempts to explore which leaderships were commonly utilized by hospitality industry supervisors/ managers. Besides, this study 21.

(36) also attempts to explore which leadership behaviors can enhance hospitality industry employee’s job satisfaction.. Training Delivery Methods in Hospitality Industry This section defined training and also discussed the importance of training. Then, the influence of training on employee’s job satisfaction was explained according to previous literatures. Several training delivery methods were introduced in the end of this section.. Definition of Training Training refers to an activity that conducted by company to enhance employees’ learning related the competencies including knowledge, skills and attitudes for a needing. It was also an instruction to transfer job-related information to learner (Avolio et al., 2003; Noe, 2016). Training also meant to an activity for making employees to do their current job more effectively (Moskowitz, 2008).. The Importance of Training The owners attempt to pursue better knowledge or skills in their industry because every organization faces a high level of competition nowadays. The effective way to improve employee’s knowledge, skills or attitudes is that providing training to employee. The organizations providing to employees with training for rapidly grow to compete with their competitors in the market (Jehanzeb & Bashir, 2013). Besides, Schmidt (2007) evidenced that the employees regard training as an important part of their job. How to select effective and appropriate training for employees becomes an important issue for organizations. Many researches indicated that training is one of factors to improve employees’ organizational commitment (Bartlett, 2001; Dessler, 1999; Natarajan & Nagar, 2011). Latif, Jan and Shaheen (2011) concluded that training opportunity could increase job satisfaction and 22.

(37) commitment. Besides, it had positive impact to motivate employees and reduce turnover intention. Therefore, the importance of training is not only helpful for organizations to improve their employees’ job competencies, but also enhance their employees’ organizational commitment and reduce the employees’ turnover rate. Training is one of ways for organizations to enhance their employees’ knowledge, skills and attitudes. Through conducting training, employees can meet organizational requirement for the job and achieve organizational goals.. The Influence of Training on Job Satisfaction Training is commonly used in organizations for enhancing employee’s different competencies for their current job. Many researches explored that relationship between training and job satisfaction in the past. According to previous researches, employee had more job satisfaction when they received training (Butt, Rehman, & Safwan, 2007; Gazioglu & Tansel, 2006; Hosie, Jayashree, Tchantchane, & Lee, 2013; Jones, Jones, Latreille, & Sloane, 2009; Latif, Jan, & Shaheen, 2011; Natarajan & Nagar, 2011; Schmidt, 2007). Many researches explored job satisfaction in different industry; however, there were not many researches focused on hospitality industry. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the relationship between training and job satisfaction in hospitality industry.. Different Training Methods There are many training delivery methods used by organizations to enhance employee’s job competencies in different industries. Every organization is tries to choose the most appropriate training delivery methods to enhance employee’s knowledge, skills and attitudes. According to Noe (2016), there were several traditional training methods and technology-based training methods listed as table 2.4. 23.

(38) Table 2.4. Traditional Training Methods and Technology-Based Training Methods Presentation methods. Lecture Audiovisual Techniques. Hands-on Methods. On-the-Job Training Self-Directed Learning Apprenticeship Simulations Case Studies Business Games Role Plays Behavior Modeling. Group Building Methods. Adventure Learning Team Training Action Learning. Computer-Based Training. CD-ROM, DVD, Laser Disk Interactive Video Online Learning (The Internet, Web-Based Training, E-Learning and Learning Portals). Note: Adopt from “Employee Training and Development (7th ed.),” by R, A. Noe, 2016. Copyright 2016 by McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Training delivery methods and training content had positive relationship with job training satisfaction. Employees feel more satisfied with the training delivery methods that they preferred. In addition, instructor-led training was the most used and most preferred by 24.

(39) the participants in the research. The second and third methods were one on one training and job shadowing (Schmidt, 2007). There were many training delivery methods listed in Table 2.4. In this study, the researcher attempted to analyze different training delivery methods that participants received from their current organizations and explore which training delivery methods were favorable and could effectively improve employee’s job satisfaction.. Summary It is common situation for hospitality industry employees to do fact to fact service; therefore, how to enhance front-line employee’s job satisfaction becomes important issue for every hospitality industry organization. Therefore, staff recruitment, selection, orientation, training, supervision and motivation were very important work for hospitality industry organizations (Morrison, 2002). In this study, the researcher aimed to explore how hospitality industry employee’s job satisfaction toward training and leadership. Relevant literatures of hospitality industry, job satisfaction, leadership and training were discussed in this chapter. According to previous studies, there were many studies do quantitative research to verify the relationship among job satisfaction and training in hospitality industry. However, it was difficult to realize deeper understanding of how leadership and training affect employee’s job satisfaction by quantitative approach. Therefore, this study conducted qualitative approach to explore the deeper understanding of hospitality industry employee’s perception toward job satisfaction. In order to analyzed and acquired employee’s deeper understanding of job satisfaction toward leadership and training, the conceptual framework and the design of this study were designed and introduced in the next chapter. 25.

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(41) CHAPTER III. METHODOLOGY. This chapter introduced research design of the study. This chapter also stated as following sections: research conceptual framework, research procedure, research method, research instruments, research participants, data collection, data analysis and validity and reliability.. Conceptual Framework of the Study On the basis of the research purpose and literatures mentioned in the last two chapters, leadership and training was analyzed to explore the further understanding among leadership, training and job satisfaction. Besides, in-depth interview were used in this study for acquiring plentiful data for analysis. According to the contents mentioned above, the conceptual framework of the study is developed as Figure 3.1 in the following:. Figure 3.1. Research conceptual framework. Research Procedure The research procedure included eleven phases in this study. This study was conducted 27.

(42) step by step by the following research procedures. To be explicit, eleven phases of research procedures were explained in the followings paragraph.. 1. Identifying research topic In this section, the research tried to decide some general terms for developing further framework of study.. 2. Reviewing the literature The researcher read some relevant literatures to accumulate concepts of this study. By this phase, several important dimensions of this study were explained and defined.. 3. Deciding research method For acquiring rich and enough data for further analysis, in-depth interview was adopted in this study. By using this method, well-organized and well-suited conversation contents could acquire rich and useful data for this study. 4. Developing interview questionnaire Interview questionnaire was developed because in-depth interview was adopted in this study. Therefore, interview questions were created in this phase for collecting the data to each research questions.. 5. Conducting pilot interview After creating interview questions, two participants were invited to conduct pilot interview. After the pilot interviews, the researcher revised part of contents for further participants to understand interview questions easily and clearly.. 6. Modifying interview questions The interview questions were modified after conducting pilot interviews. One academic and one practical assisted to check and revise the interview questions for higher validity of 28.

(43) the study.. 7. Conducting interview & collect data Formal interviews were conduct after the interview questions were revised. The data for this study were collected after completing interviews.. 8. Verifying data with participants After conducting interview, the recording conversations were transcribed into transcripts. The transcripts sent to participants for contents check.. 9. Analyzing data All data were analyzed after receiving participant’s reply to contents confirmation. Data analysis was conducted in compliance with procedures of data analysis as Figure 3.3 showed.. 10.Writing & discussing findings After data analysis, findings of collected data were discussed and listed.. 11.Making conclusions & suggestions Summary, conclusions and suggestions for this study were also indicated in this phase. According to the statement of each phase of this study, research procedures were showed as figure 3.2.. 29.

(44) Identifying research topic. Reviewing the literature. Deciding research method. Developing interview questionnaire. Conducting pilot interview. Modifying interview questions. Conducting interview & collect data. Verifying data with participants. Analyzing data. Writing & discussing findings. Making conclusions & suggestions Figure 3.2. Research procedures 30.

(45) Research Method Reasons for Choosing Qualitative Method As mentioned above, many researches were commonly use quantitative method to collect and analyze data to explore employee’s job satisfaction. Comparing to numbers, this study prefers to pursue deep implications through analyzing conversations. Research becomes to use inductive strategies, and sensitizing concepts are also become an approaching to analyze contexts (Flick, 2009). This study aimed to obtain adequate data for analyzing how leadership and training delivery methods affect job satisfaction. Besides, it was also important to get depth of the understanding of data. Therefore, qualitative method was used in this study.. Qualitative Approach In contrast to quantitative method, qualitative method aims to collect plenty contents for further analysis. In-depth interview is easy for acquire necessary to explore the research questions. Besides, according to Boyce and Neale (2006), interviewee may feel more comfortable and relax during the conversation by in-depth interview. Therefore, an in-depth interview was chosen for collecting data in this study. According to Lincoln and Guba (1985), there were three types of research interviews including structured interview, semi-structured interview and unstructured interview. Among these three ways, semi-structured interview was mostly used than the others (Bryman, 2006). Flick (2009) mentioned that it was easier to get interviewee’s subjective viewpoints by adopting semi-structured interview than structured interview or unstructured interview. A structured interview seems like a formal interview; an interviewee might feel stressed when they receive this type of interview. According to the reasons mentioned above, a 31.

(46) semi-structured interview was chosen for better effectiveness in this study.. Research Instruments In order to enhanced the reliability and validity of the study, expert evaluation form was also used in this study. As mentioned above, an in-depth interview was used in this study. Therefore, some instruments were prepared before conducting an in-depth interview. Those were including consent form, interview questions and recorder. 1. Consent form: Interviewees were requested to sign a consent form before explaining research purposes to interview and interviewing them. 2. Interview questions: In accordance with the research purposes and participants of this study, interview questions were developed for in-depth interview. The interview questions refer to appendix V. 3. Recorder: After conducting an interview, transcript was finished for data analysis. To avoid forgetting the conversations and important information during the interview, recorder could effectively help the researcher to remind of the whole contents of the interview.. Pilot Interview The rigor and trustworthiness could be improved and the interview questions could be modified through conducting a pilot study (Kim, 2011). For acquiring data to the purposes and questions in this study, a pilot interview was conducted before collecting formal data. 2 participants were invited to take pilot interview. During the pilot interview, two pilot participant confused on the meaning of one option in questionnaire. Both of them could not clearly distinguish the meaning from simulation to on-the-job training during the interview. Then, the researcher tried to ask these two pilot participants in order to get more thinking of their confusion. According to the feedback from these two participants, the option in the 32.

(47) training methods part was revised from simulation to on-the-job training. There was no other question for the following interviewees after revising the terms.. Research Participants Criteria for Participants Hancer and George (2003) examined job satisfaction of restaurant employees working in nonsupervisory positions and suggested further researcher to identify and compare the job satisfaction of supervisors/ managers with the job satisfaction of nonsupervisory personnel. Based on the statement mentioned above, the participants were the front-line employee and supervisors/ managers in this study. This study aimed to explore the deeper understanding of front-line employee and supervisors/ managers’ job satisfaction toward leadership and training delivery methods in hospitality industry. Therefore, there were two criteria for participants listed as follows: 1. The participants must be work more than 1 year at current organization. 2. The age of participants must be more than 20 years old. The participation criteria listed above were helpful to find appropriate interviewees who can provide detailed and useful information to discuss the purposes of this study.. Sampling Participants of this research were chosen based on the criteria listed in the last section. In order to contact the participants for acquiring data, two sampling methods were adopted in this research. First, convenient sampling is the easiest approach to contact potential participants. The researcher contacted friends and former co-workers who work in hospitality industry to conduct an in-depth interview. Purposeful sampling means that the researcher needs to provide sufficient details of the participant and confirm what those participants’ 33.

(48) experience and awareness of specific topic are contributing and useful to the researcher in this study (Mertens, 1997). There were eight front-line employees and nine supervisors/ managers participated in this research. For front-line employee, all participants were female except one. The tenure of participants was from one year to five years and two months. For supervisors/ mangers, there were three male participants and six female participants. The tenure of participants was from one year and one month to eight years. The description of interviewees shows as Table 3.1 and 3.2 as following. Table 3.1. The Description of Interviewees: Front-line Employees Case Company. Interviewee. Position. Gender. Role. Year(s) of Work Experience. A. a. Floor Waitress. Female. 3 years 9 months. B. a. Desk Clerk. Female. 2 years 9 months. C. a. Floor Waitress. Female. 5 years 2 months. D. a. Floor Waitress. Female. 1 year 1 month. E. a. Floor Waitress. Female. 1 year 1 month. F. a. Trainer. Female. 4 years 6 months. H. a. Floor Waitress. Female. 3 years 11 months. I. a. Floor Waitress. Male. 1 year. 34.

(49) Table 3.2. The Description of Interviewees: Supervisors/ Managers Case. Interviewee. Position. Gender. Year(s) of Work. Company. Role. Experience. A. b. Manager. Female. 5 years. B. b. Assistant Manager. Female. 3 years 1 month. C. b. Deputy Account Manager Male. 8 years. D. b. Deputy Store Manager. Female. 1 year 1 month. E. b. Store Manager. Female. 2 year 3 months. F. b. Team Leader. Male. 3 years. G. b. Deputy Store Manager. Female. 6 years. G. bb. Account Manager. Female. 5 years. H. b. Assistant Vice President. Male. 5 years 4 months. There were one front-line employee and one supervisor/ manager from the same organization to do the interview. Because original front-line employee of organization G felt sick when the researcher arrived at the restaurant, another manager was volunteer to participant this study. Therefore, two managers involved in this study.. Data Collection As mentioned in the section of sampling of this chapter, in-depth interview and semi-structured interview was used for data collection. For collecting data, interview process and implementation of research ethics was conducted as following paragraphs.. Interview Processes 1. Decide the interviewees 35.

(50) According to the purposes of research, appropriate participants were chosen to conduct the interview and collected necessary and important data for analysis. 2. Appointment for interview The researcher made a reservation with participants before conducting interview. The site for interviewing was keep away from participant’s workplace in order to acquire participant’s real opinions and notions. However, some participants were interviewed in their workplace because of some reasons. 3. Preparation for equipment All instruments mentioned in section of instrument were prepared before the interview. 4. Before conducting the interview The researcher introduced the purposes of research and request for participants’ willing again to make sure that all participants joined the interview voluntarily. Then all participants were asked to sign consent letter for the research. 5. During the interview The researcher tried to make participant feel comfortable and relax to express his or her opinions freely. The conversations were recorded during the interview. In addition, the researcher also took notes to record participants’ body language during the interviewee. The interview was last approximately between 30 to 60 minutes. 6. After the interview The researcher transcribed the interview conversations into transcripts and sent those transcripts to each participant to confirm the accuracy of contents.. Ethics in Qualitative Research 1. Invitation letter 36.

(51) Before the interview, the researcher sent invitation letter to every participant. Invitation letter includes important information, such as purpose of study, interview process and ethics matters of the study. 2. Consent letter Before the interview starts, participant was requested to sign a consent form based on ethics in qualitative research. 3. Privacy, confidentiality and anonymous issue Based on ethics in qualitative research, all data collected from participants were kept secret for respecting every participant’s privacy.. Data Analysis Coding Figure 3.3 showed how to categorize the coding. Each participant’s organizations were categorized as capital letter from A to I. The interviewees were separated into two categories; for example, interviewee as front-line employees were categorized as “a” and interviewee as supervisors/ managers were categorized as “b”. Then, the first number was the number of interview question, for example, the first number “01” was the series of interview questions. And the second “01” was the series of answers from participants. Figure 3.4. represented one of example how to analyze and classify the coding to them and dimension.. Figure 3.3. The coding category 37.

(52) Codes. Category. Theme. Dimension. My supervisor allowed you to exert your expertise. I thought it could enhance. employee’s. belonging. toward. the. sense. of. company.. [Cb0202] He let us exert our ideas to every aspect. ...... He did his best to support. Intellectual. us to conduct every activity. [Eb0202]. Stimulation. When I asked my supervisor, he answered me with a question in return. He tried to require me to explain the. The leadership Style. reasons and thinking before telling me. Used by Current. an appropriate answer or solution.. Supervisors/. [Fb0202]. Leadership. Managers. We felt that he always accompanied us at any time, he was pleased to talk to you no matter when you called him. [Eb0202]. Individualized. We would report to my supervisor if. Consideration. there. was. any. problem. with. employees. My supervisor would keep it in mind. When he met that employee next time, he would show his concern to the employee without hesitation. [Gb0202] Figure 3.4. The example of the categorizing process. Procedures of Data Analysis The research used the procedures of data analysis refer to Creswell (2003) to conduct data analysis in this study. The procedures of data analysis showed as Figure 3.5.. 1. Organizing the data for analysis 38.

(53) The researcher organized the collected data from interview. All contents that collected from interviewees were sorted by title. In addition, the information related to the interview was also recorded, such as the date, time and location of the interview.. 2. Transcribing data into transcripts The audio data collected from interviewees were difficult for data analysis. Therefore, the audio data was transcribed into transcripts immediately after interview. The transcripts could provide with an overview for the researcher to do data analysis.. 3. Reading through all the data The researcher reviewed all the data to build a whole idea for the topic. And then wrote some notes or general thoughts at this stage.. 4. Describing The researcher built detailed description for the data collected from interviewees.. 5. Classifying The researcher generated a small number of themes or categories from the collected data. At this stage, grounded theory analysis was used to do further data analysis. According to Strauss and Corbin (1990), there were three principles for coding data, which are include open coding, axial coding and selective coding. However, nly open coding and axial coding were used for data analysis in this study.. 6. Verifying coding scheme and coding consistency After finish coding, the identified categories or themes should be check again for consistent reliability. The coding was conducted twice for coding consistency. The coding of second time did was one week late than first time did. 7. Interpreting data and generating conclusion. 39.

(54) The researcher categorized the data and generated conclusions to correspond to the research questions of this study.. Organizing and prepare the data for analysis. Transcribing data into transcripts. Reading through all the data. Describing. Classifying. Verifying coding scheme and coding consistency. Interpreting data into conclusion Figure 3.5. Procedures of data analysis. Validity and Reliability According to Mertens (1997), “in qualitative research, the credibility test asks if there is a correspondence between the way the respondents actually perceive social constructs and the way the researcher portrays their viewpoints” (p.181). Mertens (1997) also stated that a researcher should try to use strategies to provide and show the evidence of credibility of the research. Therefore, this section explained the validity and reliability of this study as below.. Validity 40.

(55) 1. Committee review The researcher should engage in an extended discussion and seek for a disinterested peer whom is not involved in the study (Flick, 2009; Mertens, 1997). Therefore, two professors from the Graduate Institute of International Human Resource Development examined this study and provided with valuable suggestions to enhance the quality of this study. 2. Expert review One academic expert and one practical expert assisted to inspect the interview questions for high validity of the research. The researcher provided with research purposes and outline of this research to two experts for expert review. Two experts responded to the researcher after reviewing the interview questions. Then, the researcher deleted and revised the questions again for better validity. At the beginning, the interview questions were developed for two versions, one for front-line employee and the other for supervisor/ manager. After receiving the feedback from two experts, the interview questions were revised again and were combined into the same interview questions for front-line employees and supervisors/ managers. In addition, one English teacher assisted to review the English contents and revise inappropriate contents. The expert has master degree with English major. She is also an experienced English teacher and serves in one of junior high school in Taipei city. Therefore, the content validity of translation should be high in this study. 3. Participant checks Participant checks were the most important criteria in establishing credibility. The researcher should verify the results of collected and analyzed data with the participants (Mertens, 1997). Therefore, the researcher provided transcripts to all the participants for checking the 41.

(56) correction of conversation contents. After sending interview contents to each participant, none any of participants ask for revising the contents. Therefore, there was high validity of conversation contents.. Reliability 1. Coding consistency Mertens (1997) stated that the test-retest was the most used method for determining reliability. The data analysis was conducted twice in this research for higher reliability. The researcher conducted first administration of data analysis after collecting conversation data from interviewees. And the second administration of data analysis was conduct after one week. In addition, all the interviews were conducted with the same interview procedure, and provided with the same interview questions for ensuring coding consistency in this study. 2. Peer review With regard to data coding, peer review was conducted to ensure the coding consistency by one peer who are proficient in English and study in the same master degree. The researcher provided two transcripts to the peer and the results of the review had 87% and 90% key word matched. After peer review was conducted, the researcher found out compare different results and analyzed all conversation contents again avoid missing any important hidden meaning.. 42.

(57) CHAPTER IV FINDINGS & DISCUSSIONS This Chapter presented the identified findings of the research. The research aimed to explain four questions: (1) What kinds of leaderships used in hospitality industry? (2) What kinds of leadership behaviors can enhance hospitality industry employee’s job satisfaction? (3) What kinds of training delivery methods affecting hospitality industry employee’s job satisfaction? (4) Which factors affect hospitality industry employee’s job satisfaction? In order to answer researcher questions, there are four parts in this chapter: (1) the leadership used in hospitality industry (2) the leadership behaviors that can enhance hospitality industry employee’s job satisfaction (3) training delivery methods affecting hospitality industry employee’s job satisfaction and (4) factors affecting hospitality industry employee’s job satisfaction. In this section, the findings were written according to two participant’s different job positions in their current organizations; one from the front-line employees’ perspectives and the other one from the supervisors/ managers’. At the beginning of this chapter, the list of research findings for front-line employees and supervisors/ managers were listed as table 4.1 and 4.2 as following. Table 4.1. The List of Research Findings: Front-line Employees Research Questions (1) What kinds of leadership are. Theme. Findings. Leadership. Individualized consideration. used in hospitality industry?. Participative leadership Supportive leadership (continued). 43.

(58) Table 4.1. (continued) Research Questions. Theme. Findings Directive leadership. (2) What kinds of leadership. Leadership. Keeping good working. behaviors can enhance. relationship with supervisor. hospitality industry employee’s. Providing work autonomy. job satisfaction?. Expressing concerns on employees. (3) What kinds of training Delivery methods affecting hospitality. Training delivery. On-the-job training. methods. Lecture. Job satisfaction. Interpersonal relationship. industry employee’ job satisfaction? (4) Which factors affecting hospitality industry employee’s. Work itself. job satisfaction?. Learning and growth Opportunities Working conditions Personal accomplishment Financial rewards and welfare. 44.

(59) Table 4.2. The List of Research Finding: Supervisors/ managers Research Questions (1) What kinds of leadership are. Theme Leadership. used in hospitality industry?. Findings Intellectual stimulation Individualized consideration Supportive leadership. (2) What kinds of leadership. Leadership. Providing specific goals and. behaviors can enhance. work autonomy. hospitality industry employee’s. Keeping good relationship with. job satisfaction?. supervisor Taking the lead and demonstration. (3) What kinds of training delivery methods affecting hospitality. Training delivery. On-the-job training. methods. Lecture. industry employee’s job. Role Playing. satisfaction? (4) Which factors affecting. Job satisfaction. Learning and Growth. hospitality industry employee’s. Opportunities. job satisfaction?. Interpersonal relationship Work Itself Satisfaction with supervisor’ leadership (continued) 45.

(60) Table 4.2. (continued) Research Questions. Theme. Findings Personal accomplishment Job challenging Financial rewards and welfare. The Leadership Used in Hospitality Industry According to the results of interviews, there were several kinds of leadership styles applied in hospitality industry and stated from the perspectives of front-line employees and supervisors/ managers as following.. Front-line Employee According to the results of interviews, there were four kinds of leadership styles applied in hospitality industry, which are individualized consideration, participative leadership, intellectual stimulation and directive leadership. The front-line employees describe their supervisors’/ managers’ leadership as following. Individualized consideration. “My supervisor treated me like her children.” “She was always listening to the employees attentively.” [Ba0202] “My supervisor was sometimes asking me about my learning progress and checking my learning situation. His leadership was much like consideration style.” [Ia0202] One participant stated that her supervisor assisted her enthusiastically when she encountered any questions in the workplace. 46.

(61) “If we had any questions, my supervisor would help us to figure out. If I felt bewildered about the job, she would try to seek most appropriate methods to solve problems for me.” [Ea0202] Participative leadership. “Sometime we provided an idea to my supervisor for a problem. If she accepted that idea, she would be a policy maker and made conclusion to our idea. If she was confused with the idea we come up with, she would express her thinking toward the idea and discussed with us. After discussing, we would choose the best solution to the problem.” [Ba0202] “I liked my supervisor’s leadership style. Because I didn’t feel pressure and many topics were discussible when I worked with her.” [Fa0202] “Sometimes my store manager discussed with me depending on the variable situation. If there were something really important, he would discuss with me to seek a solution which is benefit for everyone.” [Ia0203] Directive leadership. “My supervisor was a decision maker and taught us from the beginning.” [Aa0202] “In the beginning, my store manager led us in a strict way. If you didn’t understand the work at the beginning, he would teach you in detail in a short time, then, you would become familiar with each work situation in the workplace.” [Ia0202] One participant mentioned that her supervisor always give her explicit tasks and asked her to complete the tasks. She was always receives instruction from her supervisor directly. “My supervisor’s leadership was…. For example, if he had something need me to complete, he would tell me what he wanted me to do. He would not give me any 47.

(62) opportunity to express my idea to what he wanted me to do. He always told me directly.” [Ha0202] Intellectual stimulation. “My supervisor dared to let us learn somethings without limitation. He would also respect our opinions if we had any of them. In addition, he always adopt our opinions and supported us.” [Fa0202]. Supervisor/ manager Intellectual stimulation. Some participant’s supervisor provided employees with huge space to exert their ideas and thinking. Employees could exert their talent and enhance their work capacity through their supervisors’ leadership. “My supervisor allowed you to exert your expertise. I thought it could enhance employee’s sense of belonging toward the company. Besides, he also let employee think solutions to different problems. It might contribute to develop an employee to think and work on his or her own.” [Cb0202] “He let us exert our ideas to every aspect. For example, he encouraged us to conduct some promotions or activities which are beneficial to the restaurant. We always got his permission to plan the project for the restaurant. He did his best to support us to conduct every activity.” [Eb0202] One participant mentioned that his supervisor encourages him to think instead of waiting for the answers from other people. The participant thought this kind of leadership motive him to think more. “When I asked my supervisor, he answered me with a question in return. He tried to 48.

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